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Sample records for adult diet affects

  1. Perinatal protein malnutrition affects mitochondrial function in adult and results in a resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Jousse, Céline; Muranishi, Yuki; Parry, Laurent; Montaurier, Christophe; Even, Patrick; Launay, Jean-Marie; Carraro, Valérie; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Averous, Julien; Chaveroux, Cédric; Bruhat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques; Morio, Béatrice; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that transient environmental influences during perinatal life, especially nutrition, may have deleterious heritable health effects lasting for the entire life. Indeed, the fetal organism develops specific adaptations that permanently change its physiology/metabolism and that persist even in the absence of the stimulus that initiated them. This process is termed "nutritional programming". We previously demonstrated that mothers fed a Low-Protein-Diet (LPD) during gestation and lactation give birth to F1-LPD animals presenting metabolic consequences that are different from those observed when the nutritional stress is applied during gestation only. Compared to control mice, adult F1-LPD animals have a lower body weight and exhibit a higher food intake suggesting that maternal protein under-nutrition during gestation and lactation affects the energy metabolism of F1-LPD offspring. In this study, we investigated the origin of this apparent energy wasting process in F1-LPD and demonstrated that minimal energy expenditure is increased, due to both an increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and an increased mitochondrial density in White Adipose Tissue. Importantly, F1-LPD mice are protected against high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Clearly, different paradigms of exposure to malnutrition may be associated with differences in energy expenditure, food intake, weight and different susceptibilities to various symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome. Taken together these results demonstrate that intra-uterine environment is a major contributor to the future of individuals and disturbance at a critical period of development may compromise their health. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms may give access to useful knowledge regarding the onset of metabolic diseases.

  2. Perinatal protein malnutrition affects mitochondrial function in adult and results in a resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Céline Jousse

    Full Text Available Epidemiological findings indicate that transient environmental influences during perinatal life, especially nutrition, may have deleterious heritable health effects lasting for the entire life. Indeed, the fetal organism develops specific adaptations that permanently change its physiology/metabolism and that persist even in the absence of the stimulus that initiated them. This process is termed "nutritional programming". We previously demonstrated that mothers fed a Low-Protein-Diet (LPD during gestation and lactation give birth to F1-LPD animals presenting metabolic consequences that are different from those observed when the nutritional stress is applied during gestation only. Compared to control mice, adult F1-LPD animals have a lower body weight and exhibit a higher food intake suggesting that maternal protein under-nutrition during gestation and lactation affects the energy metabolism of F1-LPD offspring. In this study, we investigated the origin of this apparent energy wasting process in F1-LPD and demonstrated that minimal energy expenditure is increased, due to both an increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and an increased mitochondrial density in White Adipose Tissue. Importantly, F1-LPD mice are protected against high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Clearly, different paradigms of exposure to malnutrition may be associated with differences in energy expenditure, food intake, weight and different susceptibilities to various symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome. Taken together these results demonstrate that intra-uterine environment is a major contributor to the future of individuals and disturbance at a critical period of development may compromise their health. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms may give access to useful knowledge regarding the onset of metabolic diseases.

  3. Hot summers, long life: egg laying strategies of Maniola butterflies are affected by geographic provenance rather than adult diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grill, A.; Cerny, A.; Fiedler, K.

    2013-01-01

    Maniola butterflies undergo summer dormancy in dry and hot habitats and deposit their eggs only in early autumn when conditions become more favourable for their offspring. Female individuals of this genus are therefore relatively long-lived. For long-lived butterflies adult diet is of particular

  4. Assessment of Lactose-Free Diet on the Phalangeal Bone Mineral Status in Italian Adolescents Affected by Adult-Type Hypolactasia

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    Tagliati, Sylvie; Saccomandi, Daniela; Brusaferro, Andrea; Busoli, Laura; Scala, Andrea; Malaventura, Cristina; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina

    2018-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) is a clinical syndrome of primary lactase deficiency. A lactose-free diet is advisable to avoid the symptoms linked to the condition, but this potentially creates problems for optimal bone mineralization due to reduced calcium intake. To evaluate the effect of the lactose-free diet on the bone mineral status (BMS), we compared the phalangeal BMS of adolescents with ATH to that of peers on a normal diet. Also, we analyzed the correlations between BMS and dietary behavior, physical exercise, and calcium and vitamin D intake. A total of 102 cases and 102 healthy controls filled out a diet record and underwent phalangeal Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). No difference in BMS was observed. The time spent on lactose-free diet (4.8 ± 3.1 years) was inversely correlated to the BMS. More than 98% of cases consumed lactose-free milk, but calcium and vitamin D intake were significantly lower. Calcium intake was correlated to physical exercise but not to BMS. Our results suggest that a lactose-free diet does not affect the phalangeal BMS of adolescents with primary lactase deficiency when their diet includes lactose-free cow’s milk. However, there is still a significantly lower calcium intake than in the population reference. The inverse correlation observed between the BMS and the time spent on a lactose-free diet suggests that a long-term follow-up is advisable. PMID:29723971

  5. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals.

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    Tycholis, Tanya J; Cant, John P; Osborne, Vern R; Shoveller, Anna K

    2014-08-12

    Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats.

  6. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

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    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  7. Maternal exposure to Western diet affects adult body composition and voluntary wheel running in a genotype-specific manner in mice.

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    Hiramatsu, Layla; Kay, Jarren C; Thompson, Zoe; Singleton, Jennifer M; Claghorn, Gerald C; Albuquerque, Ralph L; Ho, Brittany; Ho, Brett; Sanchez, Gabriela; Garland, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates. To examine some of the genetic and environmental factors that influence adult activity levels, we used an ongoing selection experiment with 4 replicate lines of mice bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and 4 replicate, non-selected control lines (C). Dams (half HR and half C) were fed a "Western" diet (WD, high in fat and sucrose) or a standard diet (SD) from 2weeks prior to mating until their pups could feed on solid food (14days of age). We analyzed dam and litter characteristics from birth to weaning, and offspring mass and physical activity into adulthood. One male offspring from each litter received additional metabolic and behavioral tests. Maternal WD caused pups to eat solid food significantly earlier for C litters, but not for HR litters (interaction of maternal environment and genotype). With dam mass as a covariate, mean pup mass was increased by maternal WD but litter size was unaffected. HR dams had larger litters and tended to have smaller pups than C dams. Home-cage activity of juvenile focal males was increased by maternal WD. Juvenile lean mass, fat mass, and fat percent were also increased by maternal WD, but food consumption (with body mass as a covariate) was unaffected (measured only for focal males). Behavior in an elevated plus maze, often used to indicate anxiety, was unaffected by maternal WD. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max) was also unaffected by maternal WD, but HR had

  8. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring.

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    María Teresa Ramírez-López

    Full Text Available Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS. In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and c tissue and sex-specific changes in the expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptors and in that of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL, being the adipose tissue the most affected organ analyzed. Since the effects were observed in adult animals that were weaned while consuming a normal diet, the present results indicate that the ECS is one of the targets of maternal programming of the offspring energy expenditure. These results clearly indicate that the maternal diet has long-term effects on the development of pups through multiple alterations of signaling homeostatic pathways that include the ECS. The potential relevance of these alterations for the current obesity epidemic is discussed.

  9. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

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    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

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    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  11. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms with consumption of high fruit-juice and vegetable diet affect antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

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    Yuan, Linhong; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Jian; Li, Nan; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no data have yet shown the combined effects of GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with high consumption of a fruit and vegetable diet on the body's antioxidant capacity. A 2-wk dietary intervention in healthy participants was conducted to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant biomarkers in individuals with different glutathione-S-transferases (GST) genotypes will be different in response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet. In our study, 24 healthy volunteers with different GST genotypes (12 GSTM1+/GSTT1+ and 12 GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants) consumed a controlled diet high in fruit-juice and vegetables for 2 wk. Blood and first-void urine specimens were obtained at baseline, 1-wk, and 2-wk intervals. The antioxidant capacity-related biomarkers in blood and urine were observed and recorded at the scheduled times. Erythrocyte GST and glutathione reductase (GR) activities response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet are GST genotype-dependent. Two weeks on the high fruit-juice and vegetable diet increased GST and GR activities in the GSTM1+/GSTT1+ group (P juice and vegetable diet than GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants. The diet intervention was effective in enhancing glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in all participants (P 0.05). The effects of a diet rich in fruit-juice and vegetables on antioxidant capacity were dependent on GSTM1/GSTT1 genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

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    Gendrin, MEM; Christophides; Linenberg, Inbar

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii . We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clar...

  13. Early-Life Diet Affects Host Microbiota and Later-Life Defenses Against Parasites in Frogs.

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    Knutie, Sarah A; Shea, Lauren A; Kupselaitis, Marinna; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    Food resources can affect the health of organisms by altering their symbiotic microbiota and affecting energy reserves for host defenses against parasites. Different diets can vary in their macronutrient content and therefore they might favor certain bacterial communities of the host and affect the development and maintenance of the immune system, such as the inflammatory or antibody responses. Thus, testing the effect of diet, especially for animals with wide diet breadths, on host-associated microbiota and defenses against parasites might be important in determining infection and disease risk. Here, we test whether the early-life diet of Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) affects early- and later-life microbiota as well as later-life defenses against skin-penetrating, gut worms (Aplectana hamatospicula). We fed tadpoles two ecologically common diets: a diet of conspecifics or a diet of algae (Arthrospira sp.). We then: (1) characterized the gut microbiota of tadpoles and adults; and (2) challenged adult frogs with parasitic worms and measured host resistance (including the antibody-mediated immune response) and tolerance of infections. Tadpole diet affected bacterial communities in the guts of tadpoles but did not have enduring effects on the bacterial communities of adults. In contrast, tadpole diet had enduring effects on host resistance and tolerance of infections in adult frogs. Frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more resistant to worm penetration compared with frogs that were fed an alga-based diet as tadpoles, but less resistant to worm establishment, which may be related to their suppressed antibody response during worm establishment. Furthermore, frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more tolerant to the effect of parasite abundance on host mass during worm establishment. Overall, our study demonstrates that the diet of Cuban tree frog tadpoles affects the gut microbiota and defenses against

  14. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

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    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

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    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  16. Ketogenic Diets for Adults With Highly Refractory Epilepsy

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    McDonald, Tanya J. W.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.

    2017-01-01

    The current review highlights the evidence supporting the use of ketogenic diets in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy and status epilepticus in adults. Ketogenic diet variants are compared and advantages and potential side effects of diet therapy are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of diet quality indicators in adults

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    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Several indices evaluate the quality of diet. The indices are based on nutrient requirements and dietary guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases (to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Diet Quality Index consist of components, which represent different aspects of a healthy diet. The indicators of diet quality are based on dietary intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls.  The aim of the research was to evaluate the nutrition of adults according to the selected criteria of three diet quality indicators: Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, Diet Quality Index. 234 nutrition daily records were evaluated (from 78 probands per 3 days. Nutritional intake and blood biochemical parameters were defined in 56 females and 22 men (72% and 28% respectively aged from 24 to 62 years. The nutritional software Alimenta 4.3e (Food Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2004 was used to calculate the nutrient intake. The evaluation of nutrition intake was focused on four parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Eating Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, on five parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Diet Indicator (saturated fatty acids 0-10% of energy intake, polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7% of energy intake, protein 10-15% of energy intake, dietary fiber 27-40 g, cholesterol 0-300 mg, on five parameters/recommendations of the Diet Quality Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, to maintain adequate calcium intake – approximately

  18. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

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    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  19. Relative importance of temperature and diet to larval development and adult size of the winter stonefly, Soyedina carolinensis (Plecoptera: Nemouridae)

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    Sweeney, B.W.; Vannote, R.L.; Dodds, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    Soyedina carolinensis Claassen, a leaf shredding stonefly, was reared in a series of three laboratory experiments from early instar to adult on different species of deciduous leaves and at various constant and fluctuating temperature regimes. Experiment 1, which involved rearing larvae on fourteen different leaf diets at ambient stream temperatures, showed that diet significantly affected larval growth and adult size but did not affect overall developmental time. Experiment 2, which involved rearing larvae on five different leaf diets at each of three fluctuating temperature regimes, showed that: adding 6/sup 0/C to the normal temperature regime of WCC was lethal to 99% of the larvae regardless of diet; and warming WCC by 3/sup 0/C did not affect developmental time but did significantly reduce adult size relative to adults reared at WCC temperatures on certain diets. Experiment 3, which involved rearing larvae on five different leaf diets at each of five constant temperatures showed that: temperature significantly affected the mortality, growth, and development time of larvae whereas diet only affected larval growth and mortality; temperatures at or near 10/sup 0/C yielded maximum larval growth and survival for most diets; at 5/sup 0/C, larval mortality was high and growth was low resulting in a few small adults for most diets; larval mortality was at or near 100% at 15/sup 0/C regardless of diet; and no larvae survived at 20 and 25/sup 0/C.

  20. Predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches among adults living in Australia

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    Stuart Leske

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study. Methods We conducted a prospective study, with two waves of data collection occurring 4 weeks apart. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing constructs drawn from the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy, past behaviour, non-planning, attributions for dieting failure, weight control beliefs, and dieting and non-dieting intentions. We used path modelling to analyse responses. Results At baseline, 719 adults (52.2% male aged between 18 and 76 completed the questionnaire. Four weeks later, 64% of participants (n = 461 reported on their dieting and non-dieting behaviour in the past month. Past behaviour, attitude, subjective norm, and self-identity significantly predicted dieting intentions. Dieting intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted dieting behaviour, while non-planning and self-efficacy did not. The model explained 74.8% of the variance in intention and 52.9% of the variance in behaviour. While most findings were similar for the non-dieting model, subjective norms and self-identity did not predict intention, while self-efficacy and self-identity both predicted non-dieting behaviour directly. The non-dieting model explained 58.2% of the variance in intention and 37.5% of the variance in behaviour. Conclusions The findings from this study provide support for the application of TPB and identity theory constructs in the context of both dieting and non-dieting behaviour

  1. Ketogenic diet in adolescents and adults with epilepsy.

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    Nei, Maromi; Ngo, Ly; Sirven, Joseph I; Sperling, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    The ketogenic diet is an alternative treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. Most studies to date report dietary response in children. There are limited data evaluating the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in adults. This is a report of the long-term outcome in a largely adult population of patients treated with the ketogenic diet for epilepsy. Twenty-nine adult and adolescent patients (mean age 32 years, range 11-51) were initiated on the ketogenic diet and followed until diet discontinuation. Clinical response and adverse effects were noted during the duration of the diet. Fifty-two percent of patients had a significant reduction in seizure frequency on the ketogenic diet, including 45% with ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency. Thirty-one percent had no improvement, seven percent were unable to successfully initiate the diet, and 10% had a >50% increase in seizure frequency. The diet was continued for a mean of 9 months (range 0.13-35 months), with five patients completing ≥23 months. There was a trend toward better response and better tolerability/longer duration in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsy. The diet was generally well-tolerated, but undesired weight loss and constipation were the most frequent adverse effects. The ketogenic diet can be used safely in the adult and adolescent population, with a response rate similar to those seen in children. Patient with symptomatic generalized epilepsy may be particularly good candidates for this type of dietary treatment. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

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    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  3. Factors associated with diet quality of older adults

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    Tatiana Império de FREITAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Evaluate the factors associated with diet quality of older adults from the city of São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 295 older adults receiving care in health care units in São Caetano do Sul. Diet quality was assessed using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index. The associations between the diet quality mean score and the socio-demographic, economic, and anthropometric characteristics and lifestyle and health conditions were verified using multiple linear regression. Results Lower diet quality mean score were associated with the variables: marital status (widowed or separated (β=-2.02; p=0.047, retired (β=-4.24; p=0.034, and smoking (β=-8.06; p=0.001; whereas higher diet quality mean score were associated with higher education level (9 years or more (β=3.49; p=0.013. Conclusion Individuals with higher education level had better diet quality, and those who were widowed or separated, retired, and smokers had worse diet quality indicating that socio-demographic, economic, and lifestyle are factors that can influence food choice of older adults.

  4. Yeast derivatives and wheat germ in the adult diet modulates fecundity in a tephritid pest.

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    Goane, L; Pereyra, P M; Castro, F; Ruiz, M J; Juárez, M L; Segura, D F; Vera, M T

    2018-05-22

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), a pest of great economic importance in South America, needs urgently to be controlled by environmentally friendly methods such as the sterile insect technique for which mass rearing of insects is required. Because oogenesis takes place during the adult stage, mass-rearing facilities should provide the females a diet that maximizes egg production at the lowest cost. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of artificial protein sources in the adult diet (yeast derivatives of different cost but with similar amino acids profiles, and the addition of wheat germ) on fecundity. Additionally, we evaluated different ratios of yeast derivatives or wheat germ on ovary maturation, fecundity, and fertility as well as their association with the nutrient content of females. Females fed hydrolyzed yeast and yeast extract attained the highest fecundity level, and those fed brewer's yeast the lowest. Reducing the amount of hydrolyzed yeast, an expensive protein source, in the diet negatively affected fecundity and ovary maturation. Increasing the amount of brewer's yeast, a low-cost protein source, did not favor fecundity. The addition of wheat germ in the adult diet improved fecundity regardless of the yeast derivate considered. Percentage of egg hatch was not affected by the diet. Nutrient content of A. fraterculus females varied according to the adult diet provided and mating status. Our findings provide novel baseline information to understand the role of nutrition on reproductive performance of A. fraterculus females and are discussed in the context of resource allocation. They also provide valuable advances in the search for cost-effective adult diets at fruit fly mass rearing facilities.

  5. Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among LA County Adults

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    This podcast features Nelly Mejia, winner of the journal’s 2015 Student Research Paper Contest and PhD Candidate at the Pardee RAND Graduate School in Santa Monica, California. Nelly discusses her winning paper, which examined the relationship between neighborhood food outlet locations and the diet and body mass index of adults living in Los Angeles County, California.

  6. Rearing room affects the non-dominant chicken caecum microbiota, while diet affects the dominant microbiota

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    Jane eLudvigsen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of environment and diet in shaping the gut microbiota remain largely unknown. This knowledge, however, is important for animal welfare and safe food production. For these reasons we determined the effect of experimental units on the chicken caecum microbiota for a full factorial experiment where we tested the combined effect of room, diet and antimicrobial treatment. By Illumina Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that diet mainly affected the dominant microbiota, while the room as a proxy for environment had major effects on the non-dominant microbiota (p=0.006, Kruskal Wallis test. We therefore propose that the dominant and non-dominant microbiotas are shaped by different experimental units. These findings have implications both for our general understanding of the host-associated microbiota, and for setting up experiments related to specific targeting of pathogens.

  7. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  8. Host Diet Affects the Morphology of Monarch Butterfly Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Kevin; Tao, Leiling; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-06-01

    Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation, and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication. As such, understanding factors that affect parasite morphology is important in predicting the consequences of host-parasite interactions. Here, we studied how host diet affected the spore morphology of a protozoan parasite ( Ophryocystis elektroscirrha ), a specialist parasite of the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ). We found that different host plant species (milkweeds; Asclepias spp.) significantly affected parasite spore size. Previous studies have found that cardenolides, secondary chemicals in host plants of monarchs, can reduce parasite loads and increase the lifespan of infected butterflies. Adding to this benefit of high cardenolide milkweeds, we found that infected monarchs reared on milkweeds of higher cardenolide concentrations yielded smaller parasites, a potentially hidden characteristic of cardenolides that may have important implications for monarch-parasite interactions.

  9. Diet quality affects chemical tolerance in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidder, Bridgette N; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Salice, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Organisms generally select high-quality diets to obtain maximal energy while devoting the least amount of time and energy. Diets, however, can vary in natural systems. In ecotoxicological testing, the effect of diet type on organismal responses to toxicants has not been explored despite the potential for dietary effects to influence toxicological endpoints. We first evaluated diet quality using growth rate and sensitivity to the fungicide pyraclostrobin of Lymnaea stagnalis fed lettuce (common laboratory diet), turtle pellets (high nutrient composition), and a combination diet of both food items. We also measured the macronutrient content of snails raised on the multiple diets to determine how diet may have impacted energy allocation patterns. Finally, we evaluated whether snails discernibly preferred a particular diet. Snails fed high-nutrient and combination diets grew larger overall than snails fed a lettuce-only diet. Snails fed the high-nutrient and combination diets, both juvenile and adult, were significantly more tolerant to pyraclostrobin than snails fed lettuce. When measured for macronutrient content, snails raised on high-nutrient and combination diets had significantly higher carbohydrate content than snails fed lettuce. Despite the strong effects of diet type, snails did not exhibit a clear diet choice in preference trials. Dietary composition clearly influences growth rate, sensitivity, and macronutrient content of Lymnaea stagnalis. These results suggest that the nutritional environment has potentially strong impacts on toxicant sensitivity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1158-1167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Flexible responses to visual and olfactory stimuli by foraging Manduca sexta: larval nutrition affects adult behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-08-07

    Here, we show that the consequences of deficient micronutrient (beta-carotene) intake during larval stages of Manduca sexta are carried across metamorphosis, affecting adult behaviour. Our manipulation of larval diet allowed us to examine how developmental plasticity impacts the interplay between visual and olfactory inputs on adult foraging behaviour. Larvae of M. sexta were reared on natural (Nicotiana tabacum) and artificial laboratory diets containing different concentrations of beta-carotene (standard diet, low beta-carotene, high beta-carotene and cornmeal). This vitamin-A precursor has been shown to be crucial for photoreception sensitivity in the retina of M. sexta. After completing development, post-metamorphosis, starved adults were presented with artificial feeders that could be either scented or unscented. Regardless of their larval diet, adult moths fed with relatively high probabilities on scented feeders. When feeders were unscented, moths reared on tobacco were more responsive than moths reared on beta-carotene-deficient artificial diets. Strikingly, moths reared on artificial diets supplemented with increasing amounts of beta-carotene (low beta and high beta) showed increasing probabilities of response to scentless feeders. We discuss these results in relationship to the use of complex, multi-modal sensory information by foraging animals.

  11. Congenital muscle dystrophy and diet consistency affect mouse skull shape differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassov, Alexander; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Krautwald, Mirjam; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Kupczik, Kornelius

    2017-11-01

    The bones of the mammalian skull respond plastically to changes in masticatory function. However, the extent to which muscle function affects the growth and development of the skull, whose regions have different maturity patterns, remains unclear. Using muscle dissection and 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics we investigated the effect of changes in muscle function established either before or after weaning, on skull shape and muscle mass in adult mice. We compared temporalis and masseter mass and skull shape in mice with a congenital muscle dystrophy (mdx) and wild type (wt) mice fed on either a hard or a soft diet. We found that dystrophy and diet have distinct effects on the morphology of the skull and the masticatory muscles. Mdx mice show a flattened neurocranium with a more dorsally displaced foramen magnum and an anteriorly placed mandibular condyle compared with wt mice. Compared with hard diet mice, soft diet mice had lower masseter mass and a face with more gracile features as well as labially inclined incisors, suggesting reduced bite strength. Thus, while the early-maturing neurocranium and the posterior portion of the mandible are affected by the congenital dystrophy, the late-maturing face including the anterior part of the mandible responds to dietary differences irrespective of the mdx mutation. Our study confirms a hierarchical, tripartite organisation of the skull (comprising neurocranium, face and mandible) with a modular division based on development and function. Moreover, we provide further experimental evidence that masticatory loading is one of the main environmental stimuli that generate craniofacial variation. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  12. Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among LA County Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-31

    This podcast features Nelly Mejia, winner of the journal’s 2015 Student Research Paper Contest and PhD Candidate at the Pardee RAND Graduate School in Santa Monica, California. Nelly discusses her winning paper, which examined the relationship between neighborhood food outlet locations and the diet and body mass index of adults living in Los Angeles County, California.  Created: 8/31/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/31/2015.

  13. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet | Iputo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Diet is an area of major interest to those investigating the causes of cancer of the oesophagus in the Transkei. This study looked at the associations between intragastric epidermal growth factor level, diet and intragastric pH. Setting and subjects. A dietary survey was co-ordinated with studies of gastric luminal ...

  14. The diet of adult psittacids: veterinarian and ethological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, F; Grosset, C

    2014-06-01

    Parrots species are kept as pets because of their colours, their vocal abilities, their longevity and also their behaviours. Nevertheless, many owners do not know how to feed their bird in a healthy way and sometimes veterinarians and ethologists are confronted to dramatic situations. Diet is a key factor to prevent and reduce health and psychogenic disorders. Imbalance can lead to physical, physiological and behavioural modifications that can weaken the owner-bird relationship, cause bird discomfort and sometimes threaten its survival. Psittacids are known for their complex cognitive and communicative abilities. They are social animals and need many interactions. Kept in captivity, they could suffer from boredom because of lack of stimulations and also because of lack of possibility to explore and to forage, which could represent up to 70% of their day time in the wild. Indeed, humans control every parameter in the environment of pet psittacids. They provide a highly digestible diet. In captivity, foraging is not mandatory, and the bird can get bored. Here, we present a review of the literature regarding the quality of the diet and health disorders on one hand and the interaction between foraging opportunities and psychogenic disorders in adult psittacids on the other hand. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. What Motivates Older Adults to Improve Diet and Exercise Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Shoshana H; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake and physical activity are lifestyle behaviors that are learned, developed, and practiced throughout an individual's lifetime. These lifestyle behaviors have a profound role on health and quality of life--with late-life changes still resulting in notable improvements. Despite well documented benefits of behavior change, such changes are extremely challenging. The purpose of this study is to better understand from the perspective of older adults themselves, the factors that may influence their likelihood of making lifestyle changes. Participants were recruited two primary care clinics. 104 older adults ranging in age from 65 to 95 were included. Participants were interviewed about their motivations and plans to change diet and physical activity behaviors following a routine primary care visit. All interviews were transcribed and transcripts were analyzed using a line-by-line coding approach. Older adults reported that their likelihood of making a lifestyle change related to perceptions of old age, personal motivation, and perceived confidence in the ability to make effective changes. These findings suggest the importance of creating more positive images of old age and tailoring health promotion efforts to older adults' motivations and confidence in their ability to make behavior changes.

  16. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  17. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y Claire

    2014-03-01

    We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P < .001). Among overweight and obese adults, calories from solid-food consumption were higher among adults consuming diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P < .001). The net increase in daily solid-food consumption associated with diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.

  18. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  20. Effects of multimodal feedback on the usability of mobile diet diary for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojic, M.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Neerincx, M.A.; Mast, C.A.P.G. van der; Lindenberg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Globally, overweight is an increasing problem and this especially the case for older adults, facing physical challenges and who need to maintain a healthy diet. eHealth services, such as a digital diet diary could support them. Consequently, we designed a multimodal mobile diet diary supporting

  1. Postprandial Glucose Surges after Extremely Low Carbohydrate Diet in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Koji; Ihana-Sugiyama, Noriko; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Nakamura, Tomoka; Sobe, Chie; Kamiya, Shigemi; Kishimoto, Miyako; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kawano, Kimiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m 2 , and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet. The daily energy intake was 2,200 kcal for males and 1,700 kcal for females. On D2 and D4, we calculated the mean 24-hr blood glucose level (MEAN/24h) and its standard deviation (SD/24h), the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose over 140 mg/dL within 4 hours after each meal (AUC/4h/140), the mean amplitude of the glycemic excursions (MAGE), the incremental AUC of 24-hr blood glucose level above the mean plus one standard deviation (iAUC/MEAN+SD). Indexes for glucose fluctuation on D4 were significantly greater than those on D2 (SD/24h; p = 0.009, MAGE; p = 0.013, AUC/4h/140 after breakfast and dinner; p = 0.006 and 0.005, and iAUC/MEAN+SD; p = 0.007). The value of MEAN/24h and AUC/4h/140 after lunch on D4 were greater than those on D2, but those differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, consumption of low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet appears to cause higher postprandial blood glucose on subsequent normal-carbohydrate diet particularly after breakfast and dinner in healthy adults.

  2. Maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy, but not during suckling, induced altered expression of an increasing number of hepatic genes in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-04-01

    Indirect effects of a high-protein maternal diet are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed short-term and sustainable effects of a prenatal versus early postnatal maternal high-protein diet on growth and hepatic gene expression in mouse offspring. Dams were exposed to an isoenergetic high-protein (HP, 40 % w/w) diet during pregnancy or lactation. Growth and hepatic expression profiles of male offspring were evaluated directly after weaning and 150 days after birth. Offspring from two dietary groups, high-protein diet during pregnancy and control diet during lactation (HPC), and control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation (CHP), were compared with offspring (CC) from control-fed dams. Maternal CHP treatment was associated with sustained offspring growth retardation, but decreased numbers of affected hepatic genes in adults compared to weanlings. In contrast, offspring of the HPC group did not show persistent effects on growth parameters, but the number of affected hepatic genes was even increased at adult age. In both dietary groups, however, only a small subset of genes was affected in weanlings as well as in adults. We conclude that (1) prenatal and early postnatal maternal HP diet caused persistent, but (2) different effects and partially complementary trends on growth characteristics and on the hepatic transcriptome and associated pathways and that (3) only a small number of genes and associated upstream regulators might be involved in passing early diet-induced imprints to adulthood.

  3. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Lilli B.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be ≥80% raw ve...

  4. Cocoa-enriched diets modulate intestinal and systemic humoral immune response in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Franch, Angels; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Castellote, Cristina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a highly enriched cocoa diet affects both intestinal and systemic immune function in young rats. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether diets containing lower amounts of cocoa could also influence the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response. Fecal and serum samples were collected during the study and, at the end, intestinal washes were obtained and mesenteric lymph nodes and small-intestine walls were excised for gene expression assessment. IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG2c concentrations were quantified in serum whereas S-IgA and S-IgM were determined in feces and intestinal washes. Animals receiving 5 and 10% cocoa for 3 wk showed no age-related increase in serum IgG1 and IgG2a concentrations, and IgG2a values were significantly lower than those in reference animals. Serum IgM was also decreased by the 10% cocoa diet. The 5 and 10% cocoa diets dramatically reduced intestinal S-IgA concentration and modified the expression of several genes involved in IgA synthesis. A diet containing 2% cocoa had no effect on most of the studied variables. The results demonstrate the downregulatory effect of a 5% or higher cocoa diet on the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response in adult rats. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical permission was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health ... Gastric juice was obtained from each volunteer, after an overnight fast, using a .... aspect of the adoption of a more westernised diet or way of life. The lack of ...

  6. In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Alexander, Lucille G; Gray, Kerry; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; Du Laing, Gijs; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Goethals, Klara; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-06-28

    Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for absorption after in vitro digestion. Sixty-two diets (dog, n 52; cat, n 10) were in vitro enzymatically digested: fifty-four of them were commercially available (kibble, n 20; pellet, n 8; canned, n 17; raw meat, n 6; steamed meat, n 3) and eight were unprocessed (kibble, n 4; canned, n 4) from the same batch as the corresponding processed diets. The present investigation examined if Se Aiv was affected by diet type, dietary protein, methionine, cysteine, lysine and Se content, DM, organic matter and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Se Aiv differed significantly among diet types (Pmeat diets had a lower Se Aiv than pelleted and raw meat diets. Se Aiv correlated positively with CP digestibility in extruded diets (kibbles, n 19; r 0·540, P =0·017) and negatively in canned diets (n 16; r - 0·611, P =0·012). Moreover, the canning process (n 4) decreased Se Aiv (P =0·001), whereas extrusion (n 4) revealed no effect on Se Aiv (P =0·297). These differences in Se Aiv between diet types warrant quantification of diet type effects on in vivo Se bioavailability.

  7. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  8. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  9. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be ≥80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (β=0.95), severity of disease (β=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (β=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence. PMID:18243943

  10. Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Anne; Maillot, Matthieu; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Vaudaine, Sarah; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-02-20

    Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p -values diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes.

  11. [Intrapair comparisons of diet and food preference in adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kenji; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Onoi, Miyuki; Shimizu, Tadahiko; Yura, Akiko; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Kanamori, Masao

    2002-12-01

    An investigation was conducted on the influence of genetic and lifestyle factors related to the determination of eating behavior of human beings. The objective was to obtain information about lifestyle factors that may help health professionals intervene in terms of the prevention of diet-related diseases. The subjects were 180 pairs of adult twins aged over thirty, comprising of 134 monozygotic (MZ) and 46 dizygotic (DZ) pairs. Every subject was given an interview concerning dietary habits, food preference, food intake, as a part of medical examination. The intake of food containing salt and fat, the intake of food meals, the frequency of daily meals, and the frequency of eating 18 sorts of food were assessed on an individual basis, with a questionnaire on nutrition. The expected and observed values of intrapair concordance rates were calculated, and compared within each zygosity, using the chi-square test. Significant differences between the expected and observed for intrapair concordance rates were shown with monozygotic twins, regarding every category of question. Comparing MZ pairs who had lived apart before their twenties with the other MZ pairs, the latter had a tendency to show significant differences between the expected and observed values of intrapair concordance rate, regarding every category of question. In each case, the observed values were higher than the expected values. The study implied that both genetic and lifestyle factors influence the determinants of eating behavior of human beings. This finding shows the importance of understanding individual characteristics of food preference and eating behavior for intervention regarding lifestyle factors for prevention of diet-related diseases.

  12. Simulated reductions in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improves diet quality in Lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs with water on energy intake and body weight have been reported, little is known about how these replacements affect diet quality.To simulate the effects of replacing SSBs with tap water on diet quality and total energy intake of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD adults.Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional dietary intake data using a representative sample of LMD adults (n=1,689. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 scores that were computed using the population ratio method. The effects of substituting SSBs with water on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with tap water's profile.Simulating the replacement of SSBs with tap water at 25, 50, and 100% levels resulted in 1-, 2.3-, and 3.8-point increases, respectively, in the HEI-2005 total score. Based on a mean daily intake of 2,011 kcal, 100% substitution of SSBs with tap water would result in 11% reduction in energy intake.Replacing SSBs with water could substantially improve the diet quality of the LMD adult population and potentially lead to significant weight loss overtime. Prioritizing intervention efforts to focus on the replacement of SSBs with energy-free drinks may be the most efficacious approach for conveying potentially substantial health benefits in this and similar disadvantaged populations.

  13. Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Aharon, Yael; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2010-05-22

    Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity--an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew.

  14. Unattractive infant faces elicit negative affect from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stevie S; Langlois, Judith H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N=87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microvascular Blood Flow Improvement in Hyperglycemic Obese Adult Patients by Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastantuono, T; Di Maro, M; Chiurazzi, M; Battiloro, L; Starita, N; Nasti, G; Lapi, D; Iuppariello, L; Cesarelli, M; D'Addio, G; Colantuoni, A

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the changes in skin microvascular blood flow (SBF) in newly diagnosed hyperglycemic obese subjects, administered with hypocaloric diet. Adult patients were recruited and divided in three groups: NW group (n=54), NG (n=54) and HG (n=54) groups were constituted by normal weight, normoglycemic and hyperglycemic obese subjects, respectively. SBF was measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring technique and oscillations in blood flow were analyzed by spectral methods under baseline conditions, at 3 and 6 months of dietary treatment. Under resting conditions, SBF was lower in HG group than in NG and NW ones. Moreover, all subjects showed blood flow oscillations with several frequency components. In particular, hyperglycemic obese patients revealed lower spectral density in myogenic-related component than normoglycemic obese and normal weight ones. Moreover, post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) was impaired in hyperglycemic obese compared to normoglycemic and normal weigh subjects. After hypocaloric diet, in hyperglycemic obese patients there was an improvement in SBF accompanied by recovery in myogenic-related oscillations and arteriolar responses during PORH. In conclusion, hyperglycemia markedly affected peripheral microvascular function; hypocaloric diet ameliorated tissue blood flow.

  16. The Intrauterine and Nursing Period Is a Window of Susceptibility for Development of Obesity and Intestinal Tumorigenesis by a High Fat Diet in Min/+ Mice as Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thi Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied how obesogenic conditions during various life periods affected obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis in adult C57BL/6J-Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia/+ mice. The mice were given a 10% fat diet throughout life (negative control or a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, during adult life, or during their whole life-span, and terminated at 11 weeks for tumorigenesis (Min/+ or 23 weeks for obesogenic effect (wild-type. Body weight at 11 weeks was increased after a 45% fat diet during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, and throughout life, but had normalized at 23 weeks. In the glucose tolerance test, the early exposure to a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, or during both in utero and nursing, did not affect blood glucose, whereas a 45% fat diet given to adults or throughout life did. However, a 45% fat diet during nursing or during in utero and nursing increased the number of small intestinal tumors. So did exposures to a 45% fat diet in adult life or throughout life, but without increasing the tumor numbers further. The intrauterine and nursing period is a window of susceptibility for dietary fat-induced obesity and intestinal tumor development.

  17. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F 1 sterility technique. (author)

  18. Teaching Community Skills to Formerly Institutionalized Adults: Eating Nutritionally Balanced Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Andrew L.

    1984-01-01

    Three formerly institutionalized adults increased their rate of appropriate food serving when cash reinforcement was made contingent on their meeting specified daily criteria. Instructions and self-monitoring and praise had little or no effect on the men's diets. (CL)

  19. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001 and diet (p < 0.001 were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05. Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01, age × diet (p < 0.01, teeth × diet (p < 0.001, and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001. The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food.

  20. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Williams, Rebecca L.; Byles, Julie; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted. PMID:27399671

  1. Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Schumacher, Tracy; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-15

    Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: 'needs work' (Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45-75 years compared to 16-44 years ( p Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults.

  2. Changes in Energy Intake and Diet Quality during an 18-Month Weight-Management Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Goetz, Jeannine R; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Gibson, Cheryl A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2018-06-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at risk for poor diet quality. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine whether two different weight-loss diets affect energy intake, macronutrient intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) during a 6-month weight-loss period and 12-month weight-management period, and to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 between groups. Overweight/obese adults with IDDs took part in an 18-month randomized controlled trial and were assigned to either an enhanced Stop Light Diet utilizing portion-controlled meals or a conventional diet consisting of reducing energy intake and following the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Proxy-assisted 3-day food records were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months, and were analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software. HEI-2010 was calculated using the data from Nutrition Data System for Research. The study took place from June 2011 through May 2014 in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. This was a secondary analysis of a weight-management intervention for adults with IDDs randomized to an enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet, to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 across time and between groups. Independent- and paired-samples t tests and general mixed modeling for repeated measures were performed to examine group differences and changes at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months between the enhanced Stop Light Diet and conventional diet groups. One hundred and forty six participants (57% female, mean±standard deviation age=36.2±12.0 years) were randomized to either the enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet group (77 enhanced Stop Light Diet, 69 conventional diet) and provided data for analysis at baseline, 124 completed the 6-month weight-loss period, and 101 completed

  3. A modified Mediterranean diet score is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2018-03-21

    Findings from studies in Western countries showed that Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, but little is known about this association in Asian countries. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome in Korean population, this study was conducted. A total of 8387 adults 19-64 years of age from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015 were assessed. A 112-item dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. Mediterranean diet was assessed by a modified Mediterranean diet score, which was based on the alternate Mediterranean diet score of Fung et al. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other dietary and lifestyle variables. Participants with 5-6 and 7 or higher modified Mediterranean diet scores had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) and 36% (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89; P-trend = 0.0031), compared with those with 2 or lower modified Mediterranean diet scores, respectively. Higher modified Mediterranean diet scores were associated with a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, peanuts and fish is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

  4. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  5. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet, and metabolic health in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Steck, Susan E; Fung, Teresa T; Zhang, Jiajia; Hazlett, Linda J; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Merchant, Anwar T

    2017-10-01

    There is sparse evidence on the relationship between the Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet, and metabolic health, especially comparing cardiometabolic phenotypes among in normal weight and obese populations. We aimed to investigate the association of the Mediterranean diet scores (MDS) and DASH index with metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) phenotypes in a representative U.S. MDS and DASH index were calculated using dietary data from 2767 adults aged 20-90 years without any prior diagnosis of cancer or cardiovascular disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. MHO and MONW individuals were identified using fasting glucose, insulin resistance, blood pressure, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Higher MDS was associated with higher odds of MHO phenotype (odds ratio (OR) T3 vs T1 , 2.57 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-6.35]; P trend = 0.04), and higher DASH index was associated with lower odds of MONW phenotype (OR T3 vs T1, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.38-0.93]; P trend = 0.03) only in the younger age group (Mediterranean diet or DASH style diet was favorably associated with MHO and MONW phenotypes only in the younger age group, suggesting that potential dietary intervention to prevent cardiometabolic disease differ by age group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin; Sun, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Methods Electronic searc...

  8. Road transport and diet affect metabolic response to exercise in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connysson, M; Muhonen, S; Jansson, A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of transport and diet on metabolic response during a subsequent race-like test in Standardbred horses in training fed a forage-only diet and a 50:50 forage:oats diet. Six trained and raced Standardbred trotter mares were used. Two diets, 1 forage-only diet (FONLY) and 1 diet with 50% of DM intake from forage and 50% from oats (FOATS), were fed for two 29-d periods in a crossover design. At Day 21, the horses were subjected to transport for 100 km before and after they performed an exercise test (transport test [TT]). At Day 26, the horses performed a control test (CT), in which they were kept in their stall before and after the exercise test. Blood samples were collected throughout the study, and heart rate and water intake were recorded. Heart rate and plasma cortisol, glucose, and NEFA concentrations were greater for the TT than for the CT ( = 0.008, = 0.020, = 0.010, and = 0.0002, respectively) but were not affected by diet. Plasma acetate concentration was lower during the TT than during the CT ( = 0.034) and greater for the FONLY than for the FOATS ( = 0.003). There were no overall effects of the TT compared with the CT on total plasma protein concentration (TPP), but TPP was lower with the FONLY than with the FOATS ( = 0.016). There was no overall effect of the TT compared with the CT on water intake, but water intake was greater with the FONLY than the FOATS ( = 0.011). There were no overall effects of transport or diet on BW, plasma lactate, or plasma urea concentration. It was concluded that both transport and diet affect metabolic response during exercise in horses. Aerobic energy supply was most likely elevated by transportation and by the FONLY. The FONLY also decreased exercise-induced effects on extracellular fluid regulation. These results highlight the importance of experimental design in nutrition studies. If the aim is to examine how a diet affects exercise response in competition horses, transport should

  9. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, i.e. low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body-mass-index (BMI, binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g. substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.. Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task. In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted.

  10. Associations among physical activity, diet quality, and weight status in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Liese, Angela D; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-04-01

    Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in US adults. Participants included 2587 men and 2412 women age 20 to ≥70 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were assessed using standard National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey protocols. Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women, whereas diet quality was higher (P men and women in nearly every age group (P men age 30-39, 40-49 (BMI only), and 50-59 yr and women age 50-59 yr (P physical activity, and diet quality in US men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relation between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans.

  11. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  12. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartrell, M.J.; Craun, J.C.; Podrebarac, D.S.; Gunderson, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated into a number of food groups, each of which is analyzed as a composite. This report summarizes the results for adult Total Diet samples collected in 20 cities between October 1979 and September 1980. The average concentration, range of concentrations, and calculated average daily intake of each chemical found are presented by food group. The average daily intakes of the chemicals are similar to those found in the several preceding years and are within acceptable limits. The results for samples collected during the same period that represent the diets of infants and toddlers are reported separately

  13. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  14. A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan N; Wallace, Marita A; Tomilov, Alexey A; Zhou, Zeyu; Marcotte, George R; Tran, Dianna; Perez, Gabriella; Gutierrez-Casado, Elena; Koike, Shinichiro; Knotts, Trina A; Imai, Denise M; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Hagopian, Kevork; McMackin, Marissa Z; Haj, Fawaz G; Baar, Keith; Cortopassi, Gino A; Ramsey, Jon J; Lopez-Dominguez, Jose Alberto

    2017-09-05

    Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention. The ketogenic diet (KD) significantly increased median lifespan and survival compared to controls. In aged mice, only those consuming a KD displayed preservation of physiological function. The KD increased protein acetylation levels and regulated mTORC1 signaling in a tissue-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that a KD extends longevity and healthspan in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D.; Al Houayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. Methods We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16?weeks) a group of ...

  16. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M C; Guest, J F

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost of managing adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) for one year before any dietary restrictions and for the first year after a phenylalanine- (PHE-) restricted diet was introduced. The resource use and corresponding costs were estimated from medical records and interviews with health care professionals experienced in caring for adults with previously untreated PKU. The mean annual cost of caring for a client being fed an unrestricted diet was estimated to be 83 996 pound silver. In the first year after introducing a PHE-restricted diet, the mean annual cost was reduced by 20 647 pound silver to 63 348 pound silver as a result of a reduction in nursing time, hospitalizations, outpatient clinic visits and medications. However, the economic benefit of the diet depended on whether the clients were previously high or low users of nursing care. Nursing time was the key cost-driver, accounting for 79% of the cost of managing high users and 31% of the management cost for low users. In contrast, the acquisition cost of a PHE-restricted diet accounted for up to 6% of the cost for managing high users and 15% of the management cost for low users. Sensitivity analyses showed that introducing a PHE-restricted diet reduces the annual cost of care, provided that annual nursing time was reduced by more than 8% or more than 5% of clients respond to the diet. The clients showed fewer negative behaviours when being fed a PHE-restricted diet, which may account for the observed reduction in nursing time needed to care for these clients. In conclusion, feeding a PHE-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated PKU leads to economic benefits to the UK's National Health Service and society in general.

  17. Efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin; Sun, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet.

  18. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  19. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  20. Keystones affecting sub-Saharan Africa's prospects for achieving food security through balanced diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Julian

    2018-02-01

    Socio-economic dynamics determine the transition from diets characterized by the risk of famine, to those characterized by the risk of diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD). This transition is of particular concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in which key socio-economic interactions that influence diet include economic growth and rapid urbanization; inequality and a growing middle class; and obesogenic food environments and an increasing prevalence of DR-NCD. In each case, countries in SSA are among those experiencing the most rapid change in the world. These interactions, styled as 'keystones', affect the functioning of other components of the food system and the diets that result. Data from the wealthiest quartile of countries in SSA suggest that these keystones may be increasing the risk of DR-NCD, widening inequalities in health outcomes due to unbalanced diets. To address this, new consumer and government capabilities that address these keystones are required. Food sensitive urban planning, supporting food literacy and fiscal management of consumption are examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Leidig, Michael M; Feldman, Henry A; Lovesky, Margaret M; Ludwig, David S

    2007-05-16

    The results of clinical trials involving diet in the treatment of obesity have been inconsistent, possibly due to inherent physiological differences among study participants. To determine whether insulin secretion affects weight loss with 2 popular diets. Randomized trial of obese young adults (aged 18-35 years; n = 73) conducted from September 2004 to December 2006 in Boston, Mass, and consisting of a 6-month intensive intervention period and a 12-month follow-up period. Serum insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a 75-g dose of oral glucose was determined at baseline as a measure of insulin secretion. Outcomes were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Missing data were imputed conservatively. A low-glycemic load (40% carbohydrate and 35% fat) vs low-fat (55% carbohydrate and 20% fat) diet. Body weight, body fat percentage determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Change in body weight and body fat percentage did not differ between the diet groups overall. However, insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was an effect modifier (group x time x insulin concentration at 30 minutes: P = .02 for body weight and P = .01 for body fat percentage). For those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes above the median (57.5 microIU/mL; n = 28), the low-glycemic load diet produced a greater decrease in weight (-5.8 vs -1.2 kg; P = .004) and body fat percentage (-2.6% vs -0.9%; P = .03) than the low-fat diet at 18 months. There were no significant differences in these end points between diet groups for those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes below the median level (n = 28). Insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was not a significant effect modifier for cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the full cohort, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations improved more on the low-glycemic load diet, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  2. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  3. Caregiving and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Affected by Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…

  4. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of a Diet and Exercise Program for Older Adults With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hua; Chu, Li-Ling; Kao, Chia-Chan; Chen, Tai-Been; Lee, I; Li, Hui-Chi

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among older adults in Taiwan. However, few studies have studied the effect of a combined diet and exercise program on managing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals 65 years and older and living in Taiwan's rural areas. This study tests the effectiveness of a diet and exercise program on the MetS biomarkers in older community residents with MetS. This study used a quasiexperimental study design. All participants were 65 years and older and were diagnosed with MetS. The outcome variables included biomarkers (blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglycerides) and demographic characteristics. The participants were distributed into a diet-and-exercise group (n = 163) and a nondiet-and-nonexercise group (n = 138). The outcome variables were examined 3 months after the start of the intervention program. The participants in the diet-and-exercise group had lower values than the nondiet-and-nonexercise group for blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglyceride (all ps diet and exercise program is an effective intervention for treating older individuals with MetS. Clear and concise information concerning the effects of diet and exercise in promoting the health of older residents with MetS is helpful to improve the health of the older adults inTaiwan.

  6. A palatable hyperlipidic diet causes obesity and affects brain glucose metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that either the continuous intake of a palatable hyperlipidic diet (H or the alternation of chow (C and an H diet (CH regimen induced obesity in rats. Here, we investigated whether the time of the start and duration of these feeding regimens are relevant and whether they affect brain glucose metabolism. Methods Male Wistar rats received C, H, or CH diets during various periods of their life spans: days 30-60, days 30-90, or days 60-90. Experiments were performed the 60th or the 90th day of life. Rats were killed by decapitation. The glucose, insulin, leptin plasma concentration, and lipid content of the carcasses were determined. The brain was sliced and incubated with or without insulin for the analysis of glucose uptake, oxidation, and the conversion of [1-14C]-glucose to lipids. Results The relative carcass lipid content increased in all of the H and CH groups, and the H30-60 and H30-90 groups had the highest levels. Groups H30-60, H30-90, CH30-60, and CH30-90 exhibited a higher serum glucose level. Serum leptin increased in all H groups and in the CH60-90 and CH30-90 groups. Serum insulin was elevated in the H30-60, H60-90, CH60-90, CH30-90 groups. Basal brain glucose consumption and hypothalamic insulin receptor density were lower only in the CH30-60 group. The rate of brain lipogenesis was increased in the H30-90 and CH30-90 groups. Conclusion These findings indicate that both H and CH diet regimens increased body adiposity independent treatment and the age at which treatment was started, whereas these diets caused hyperglycemia and affected brain metabolism when started at an early age.

  7. Influence of various carbohydrates on the utilization of low protein diet by the adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Akmal.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different dietary carbohydrates on food intake, body weight and nitrogen balance of adult rats fed 5 per cent protein diet ad-libitum for 14, 24, and 45 days or restricted to 70 per cent of their normal food intake for 10 and 31 days was studied. No significant difference in food intake and body weight on either of treatments was observed. Nitrogen balance studies indicated that rats fed ad-libitum or restricted diet having starch as a source of dietary carbohydrate utilized nitrogen more efficiently than sucrose fed animals. Possible explanations have been discussed. Regression equations were calculated and it was found from the regression lines that minimum calories and nitrogen intake to maintain nitrogen equilibrium under experimental conditions were 123 kcal and 270 mg N per kg 3/4/day on starch based diet compared with 136 kcal and 295 mg N per kg 3/4/day on sucrose diet respectively

  8. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; Pcost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  9. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  10. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin......Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...

  11. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Jay; Holway, Nicholas; Parkinson, Scott J

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets) correlating with formula (vs breast) feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  12. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Siddharth

    Full Text Available The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets correlating with formula (vs breast feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  13. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winfried; Huser; Karl-Heinz; Janke; Bodo; Klump; Michael; Gregor; Andreas; Hinz

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls.METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age-and sex-matched patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in remission or with slight disease activity, and in 441 adult persons of a representa...

  14. Sex-specific effect of juvenile diet on adult disease resistance in a field cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint D Kelly

    Full Text Available Food limitation is expected to reduce an individual's body condition (body mass scaled to body size and cause a trade-off between growth and other fitness-related traits, such as immunity. We tested the condition-dependence of growth and disease resistance in male and female Gryllus texensis field crickets by manipulating diet quality via nutrient content for their entire life and then subjecting individuals to a host resistance test using the live bacterium Serratia marcescens. As predicted, crickets on a high-quality diet eclosed more quickly, and at a larger body size and mass. Crickets on a high-quality diet were not in better condition at the time of eclosion, but they were in better condition 7-11 days after eclosion, with females also being in better condition than males. Despite being in better condition, however, females provided with a high-quality diet had significantly poorer disease resistance than females on a low-quality diet and in poor condition. Similarly, males on low- and high-quality diets did not differ in their disease resistance, despite differing in their body condition. A sex difference in disease resistance under diet-restriction suggests that females might allocate resources toward immunity during development if they expect harsh environmental conditions as an adult or it might suggest that females allocate resources toward other life history activities (i.e. reproduction when food availability increases. We do not know what immune effectors were altered under diet-restriction to increase disease resistance, but our findings suggest that increased immune function might provide an explanation for the sexually-dimorphic increase in longevity generally observed in diet-restricted animals.

  15. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 phealthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a healthy diet remained

  16. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  17. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  19. Early Postnatal Diets Affect the Bioregional Small Intestine Microbiome and Ileal Metabolome in Neonatal Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Brian D; Mercer, Kelly E; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bowlin, Anne K; Saraf, Manish K; Pack, Lindsay; Chintapalli, Sree V; Shankar, Kartik; Adams, Sean H; Badger, Thomas M; Yeruva, Laxmi

    2017-08-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome. Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs. Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21. Bacterial ecology was assessed in the contents of the small intestine through the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. α-Diversity, β-diversity, and differential abundances of operational taxonomic units were assessed by ANOVA, permutational ANOVA, and negative binomial regression, respectively. Ileum tissue metabolomics were measured by LC-mass spectrometry and assessed by weighted correlation network analysis. Results: Greater α-diversity was observed in the duodena of sow-fed compared with formula-fed neonatal pigs ( P 60% relative abundance in all of the groups. In the duodenum, 77 genera were altered by diet, followed by 48 in the jejunum and 19 in the ileum. Metabolomics analyses revealed associations between ileum tissue metabolites (e.g., acylcarnitines, 3-aminoisobutyric acid) and diet-responsive microbial genera. Conclusions: These results indicate that the neonatal diet has regional effects on the small intestine microbiome in pigs, with the most pronounced effects occurring in the duodena. Regional effects may be important factors when considering gut tissue metabolism and development in the postnatal period. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Cytokine Response to Diet and Exercise Affects Atheromatous Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 Activity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Soo-Min; Jang, Hee Jeong; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Jiwon; Park, Jin-Yong; Oh, Ji Hye; Kang, Jeong Wook; Je, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jung E; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Lee, Juneyoung; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Park, Jong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Eog

    2017-09-25

    The aim of this study is to identify the principal circulating factors that modulate atheromatous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in response to diet and exercise.Methods and Results:Apolipoprotein-E knock-out (ApoE -/- ) mice (n=56) with pre-existing plaque, fed either a Western diet (WD) or normal diet (ND), underwent either 10 weeks of treadmill exercise or had no treatment. Atheromatous MMP activity was visualized using molecular imaging with a MMP-2/9 activatable near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probe. Exercise did not significantly reduce body weight, visceral fat, and plaque size in either WD-fed animals or ND-fed animals. However, atheromatous MMP-activity was different; ND animals that did or did not exercise had similarly low MMP activities, WD animals that did not exercise had high MMP activity, and WD animals that did exercise had reduced levels of MMP activity, close to the levels of ND animals. Factor analysis and path analysis showed that soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was directly positively correlated to atheromatous MMP activity. Adiponectin was indirectly negatively related to atheromatous MMP activity by way of sVCAM-1. Resistin was indirectly positively related to atheromatous MMP activity by way of sVCAM-1. Visceral fat amount was indirectly positively associated with atheromatous MMP activity, by way of adiponectin reduction and resistin elevation. MMP-2/9 imaging of additional mice (n=18) supported the diet/exercise-related anti-atherosclerotic roles for sVCAM-1. Diet and exercise affect atheromatous MMP activity by modulating the systemic inflammatory milieu, with sVCAM-1, resistin, and adiponectin closely interacting with each other and with visceral fat.

  1. Adherence to diet and fluid restriction of individuals on hemodialysis treatment and affecting factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Dilek; Kocaöz, Semra

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine adherence to diet and fluid restriction in hemodialysis-treated individuals and the affecting factors in Turkey. This descriptive study was conducted between 15 October 2010 and 15 January 2011 in subjects who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study from three dialysis centers in a city located in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. One hundred and twenty-one individuals treated with hemodialysis made up the study sample. The data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions and the Dialysis Diet and Fluid Non-adherence Questionnaire. The data were evaluated with percentage, median, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t-test in independent samples and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The authors found that 98.3% of the individuals experienced non-adherence to diet and 95.0% with fluid restriction. The authors found a weak and negative relationship between calcium levels and non-adherence to fluid restriction, a weak relationship between phosphorus levels and diet non-adherence frequency and degree and the fluid non-adherence frequency scores, and a moderate positive relationship between phosphorus levels and fluid restriction non-adherence degree scores (P < 0.05). Based on these results, regular training and information regarding diet and fluid restriction must be provided to individuals aged 21-35 years with no one in the family to help with their care, those who consumed salted food, or had interdialytic weight gain of 4.5 kg or more. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. Smoking and diet in healthy adults: a cross-sectional study in tehran, iran, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Heidari, Farrokh; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-04-01

    Smoking and unhealthy diet are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between these two risk factors amongst healthy adults 30-60 years old in Tehran, Iran. Overall, 2602 healthy adults 30 to 60 years old in Tehran were studied. The demographic characteristics, anthropometric and smoking status of the participants were questioned. The frequency of consumption of red meat, white meat, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, bread and cereals and fast food were questioned to be daily, weekly, monthly, once every 6 months or yearly and categorized as "healthy" or "unhealthy". Of the 2602 participants, 974 (37.4%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their life time and continued daily or smoked occasionally. Smokers significantly consumed more fast food and white meat but less fruit and vegetables and dairy product (Pdiet. A positive association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.40-2.03) were found. After adjusting the analysis for the effect of age, education and gender, the odds ratio of consuming unhealthy diet for the smoker increased to 1.83 (1.50, 2.25) compared with non-smoker. Our study found a noticeable association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet. Smoking cessation and changing diet program for smokers is recommended.

  4. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  5. Motivation for diet and exercise management among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate diet and exercise management and how indicators of intrinsic motivation such as ability expectations and values are associated with diet and exercise management among adults with type 2 diabetes. Motivational problems are probably one of the main reasons for poor diabetes management. However, the mechanisms involved in the motivation for adequate self-management are still unclear. A cross-sectional design including a postal questionnaire that investigated diet and exercise management as well as intrinsic motivational factors such as ability expectations and values related to these behaviours was used to collect the data. A sample comprising 425 adults with type 2 diabetes aged between 30 and 70 completed the questionnaire. Reported diet management was more in accordance with recommendations than reported exercise management. Yet results indicated equally high ability expectations and positive values for exercise and diet management. Moreover, results demonstrated that ability expectations and values explained more variance in exercise (21.6%) than in diet management (7.6%). The modest association between intrinsic motivational factors and diet management may imply that there are important extrinsic factors that play a significant role in determining dietary behaviour. The combination of lower exercise activity than recommended and high ability expectations and values for such activity may reflect that subjective exercise norms are formed individually in accordance with what most people recognise as the appropriate level of physical activity. Finally, results may indicate that there is potential for improving exercise management by stimulating intrinsic motivation as well as by more clearly communicating recommendations for such management. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Rehm, C D; Maillot, M; Monsivais, P

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommended that Americans increase potassium and decrease sodium intakes to reduce the burden of hypertension. One reason why so few Americans meet the recommended potassium or sodium goals may be perceived or actual food costs. This study explored the monetary costs associated with potassium and sodium intakes using national food prices and a representative sample of US adults. Dietary intake data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with a national food prices database. In a population of 4744 adults, the association between the energy-adjusted sodium and potassium intakes, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and energy-adjusted diet cost was evaluated. Diets that were more potassium-rich or had lower Na:K ratios were associated with higher diet costs, while sodium intakes were not related to cost. The difference in diet cost between extreme quintiles of potassium intakes was $1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.69). A food-level analysis showed that beans, potatoes, coffee, milk, bananas, citrus juices and carrots are frequently consumed and low-cost sources of potassium. Based on existing dietary data and current American eating habits, a potassium-dense diet was associated with higher diet costs, while sodium was not. Price interventions may be an effective approach to improve potassium intakes and reduce the Na:K ratio of the diet. The present methods helped identify some alternative low-cost foods that were effective in increasing potassium intakes. The identification and promotion of lower-cost foods to help individuals meet targeted dietary recommendations could accompany future dietary guidelines.

  7. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Di Somma, Carolina; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-02-17

    The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA) is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern). In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively ( p Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity.

  8. Diet Quality Is Linked to Insulin Resistance among Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Adair, Linda S; Cai, Jianwen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Zhang, Bing; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-11-01

    Background: Little is known about the impact of Chinese diet quality changes on diabetes-related markers. Objective: The present study examined the association of changes in overall diet quality with various biomarkers of diabetes among adults in China. Methods: The current analysis used longitudinal diet data from 1991 to 2006 and fasting blood samples from 2009 for 4734 adults aged 18-65 y from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 consecutive 24-h recalls and household food weighing. The tailored Alternative Healthy Eating Index (tAHEI) was adapted from the 2010 Harvard Alternative Healthy Eating Index to measure overall diet quality. We categorized baseline tAHEI scores into tertiles and annual changes in the scores into 5 levels (high decrease, low decrease, maintain, low increase, and high increase). We performed mixed-effects regressions to assess the associations between baseline scores and changes in the tAHEI scores and diabetes or insulin markers. Results: Adults with high baseline tAHEI scores tended to be male, older, of lower socioeconomic status, and with higher physical activity levels. After adjustment for all of the covariates, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were 5.1% (95% CI: -0.100, -0.002) and 5.7% (95% CI: -0.113, -0.001) lower, respectively, for adults with high compared with low baseline tAHEI scores and 8.6% (95% CI: -0.155, -0.017) and 9.8% (95% CI: -0.177, -0.018) lower, respectively, for adults with a high increase in score compared with the "maintain" category. Null associations were observed between baseline scores and changes in the scores and fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetes prevalence. Conclusions: Baseline and changes in diet quality were independently associated with lower HOMA-IR and plasma insulin but not with fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in Chinese adults. Prospective studies on overall diet quality in

  9. Oocyte quality in mice is affected by a mycotoxin-contaminated diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Xiong, Bo; Zheng, Wei-Jiang; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Yin-Xue; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and aflatoxin (AF), are commonly found in many food commodities and may impair the growth and reproductive efficiency of animals and humans. We investigated the effects of a mycotoxin-contaminated diet on mouse oocyte quality. Maize contaminated with DON (3.875 mg/kg), ZEN (1,897 μg/kg), and AF (806 μg/kg) was incorporated into a mouse diet at three different levels (0, 15, and 30% w/w). After 4 weeks, ovarian and germinal vesicle oocyte indices decreased in mycotoxin-fed mice. Oocytes from these mice exhibited low developmental competence with reduced germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body extrusion rates. Embryo developmental competence also showed a similar pattern, and the majority of embryos could not develop to the morula stage. Actin expression was also reduced in both the oocyte cortex and cytoplasm, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the actin nucleation factors profilin-1 and mDia1. Moreover, a large percentage of oocytes derived from mice that were fed a mycotoxin-contaminated diet exhibited aberrant spindle morphology, a loss of the cortical granule-free domain, and abnormal mitochondrial distributions, which further supported the decreased oocyte quality. Thus, our results demonstrate that mycotoxins are toxic to the mouse reproductive system by affecting oocyte quality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High-salt diets during pregnancy affected fetal and offspring renal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Caiping; Liu, Rong; Bo, Le; Chen, Ningjing; Li, Shigang; Xia, Shuixiu; Chen, Jie; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine environments are related to fetal renal development and postnatal health. Influence of salty diets during pregnancy on renal functions and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was determined in the ovine fetuses and offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed high-salt diet (HSD) or normal-salt diet (NSD) for 2 months during middle-to-late gestation. Fetal renal functions, plasma hormones, and mRNA and protein expressions of the key elements of renal RAS were measured in the fetuses and offspring. Fetal renal excretion of sodium was increased while urine volume decreased in the HSD group. Fetal blood urea nitrogen was increased, while kidney weight:body weight ratio decreased in the HSD group. The altered ratio was also observed in the offspring aged 15 and 90 days. Maternal and fetal plasma antidiuretic hormone was elevated without changes in plasma renin activity and Ang I levels, while plasma Ang II was decreased. The key elements of local renal RAS, including angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and AT2 receptor expression in both mRNA and protein, except renin, were altered following maternal high salt intake. The results suggest that high intake of salt during pregnancy affected fetal renal development associated with an altered expression of the renal key elements of RAS, some alterations of fetal origins remained after birth as possible risks in developing renal or cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Evaluation of factors affecting the diet quality of patients with orthodontic malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Canıgür Bavbek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess factors which may contribute to the diet quality of adolescents with orthodontic malocclusion. MATERIALS and METHOD: Demographic and dietary data of 46 girls and 30 boys (mean age 11.4 ± 1.4 years, with good oral and systemic health were obtained. Data were evaluated in relation to skeletal growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, overbite, number of posterior functional tooth units (PFTU and parental education level. Dietary intake was measured by using 24-hour dietary recall method, and diet quality was assessed by using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010. Energy and nutrient intake was calculated by using the Nutrition Information System (BeBiS program. Intergroup comparisons were performed by using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: Maternal education level affected the total HEI (p = 0.002, total fruit (p = 0.007, whole fruit (p = 0.018 and refined grains (p = 0.044 scores. Skeletal growth patterns, malocclusions, overjet and overbite did not alter the diet quality. Overbite was positively correlated with energy (r = 0.297, p = 0.009, carbohydrate (r = 0.238, p = 0.039 and protein (r = 0.305, p = 0.007 intake. Overjet was positively correlated with greens and beans scores (r = 0.238, p = 0.038. PFTU was positively correlated with the body mass index (r = 0.327, p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: From a clinical perspective, malocclusion may not have a significant impact on the nutritional habits of adolescents. Maternal educational level, however, was found to be the main determinant for the diet quality during adolescence.

  12. Health Literacy and Education Predict Nutrient Quality of Diet of Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Marie F; Adams, Erica L; Cotugna, Nancy; Pohlig, Ryan T; Beydoun, May A; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that health literacy may be a stronger predictor of health than age, employment status, education level, race, and income. Evidence supports a strong link between low health literacy and poor dietary management of chronic diseases. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of micronutrient quality of diet, health numeracy and health literacy in White and African American adults randomly selected from 13 Baltimore neighborhoods. Cross-sectional analysis of Wave 3 (2009-2013) of the longitudinal Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study initiated in 2004. Health literacy was measured using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). Health numeracy was measured using the numeracy subscale of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Nutrient-based diet quality was measured using Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR-S) scores calculated from 17 micronutrients from diet plus dietary supplement intake. The relationship of MAR-S scores to the health literacy measures were explored with multiple ordinary least square regression models, adjusting for a number of potential confounders. REALM but not numeracy was associated with MAR-S; significant covariates included age, current cigarette smoking status, and energy intake. The interactions of race and educational attainment, and REALM and educational attainment were significant, with the relationship between REALM and MAR-S becoming stronger as education level increased. There is a synergistic relationship between health literacy and educational attainment in predicting nutrient-based diet quality. Education was a stronger predictor for Whites compared to African Americans emphasizing the need for health professionals to focus on both education and literacy when creating and providing diet and health-related interventions and resources.

  13. Vagus nerve contributes to metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barella, Luiz F; Miranda, Rosiane A; Franco, Claudinéia C S; Alves, Vander S; Malta, Ananda; Ribeiro, Tatiane A S; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo C F; de Oliveira, Júlio C

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Different nerve contributes periods of life are known for their differential sensitivity to interventions, and increased parasympathetic activity affects the development and maintenance of obesity. Thus, we evaluated the involvement of the vagus nerve by performing a vagotomy in young or adult rats that were offered an obesogenic high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Although the accumulation of adipose tissue decreased in both younger and older groups, the younger rats showed a greater response to the effects of vagotomy in general. In addition to the important role of the parasympathetic activity, we suggest that the vagus nerve contributes to the condition of obesity. Obesity has become a global problem, and this condition develops primarily because of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The high complexity involved in the regulation of energy metabolism results from several factors besides endocrine factors. It has been suggested that obesity could be caused by an imbalance in the autonomous nervous system, which could lead to a condition of high parasympathetic activity in counterpart to low sympathetic tonus. High-fat (HF) diets have been used to induce obesity in experimental animals, and their use in animals leads to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and high parasympathetic activity, among other disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a vagotomy performed at the initiation of a HF diet at two different stages of life, weaning and adulthood. The vagotomy reduced parasympathetic activity (-32 and -51% in normal fat-fed rats and -43 and -55% in HF diet-fed rats; P fat depots (-17 and -33%, only in HF diet-fed rats; P fat diet-fed rats exhibited fasting hyperinsulinaemia (fivefold higher in young rats and threefold higher in older rats; P diet-fed groups was not altered in the vagotomized rats. We suggest that the vagus nerve, in addition to the

  14. Construction of Healthy and Palatable Diet for Low Socioeconomic Female Adults using Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Roslee Rajikan; Nurul Izza Ahmad Zaidi; Siti Masitah Elias; Suzana Shahar; Zahara Abd Manaf; Noor Aini Md Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    Differences in socioeconomic profile may influences healthy food choices, particularly among individuals with low socioeconomic status. Thus, high-energy dense foods become the preferences compared to high nutritional content foods due to their cheaper price. The present study aims to develop healthy and palatable diet at the minimum cost based on Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010 and Recommended Nutrient Intake 2005 via linear programming. A total of 96 female adults from low socioeconomic f...

  15. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  16. Longitudinal study of diet quality and change in asthma symptoms in adults, according to smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Orianne; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Pison, Christophe; Le Moual, Nicole; Romieu, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Camargo, Carlos A; Nadif, Rachel; Varraso, Raphaëlle

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet-asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator. Using data from the French prospective Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma study, we assessed diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) at baseline and change in asthma symptoms (stable (reference), worsening, improved; mean follow-up time: 7 years). Mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by BMI. The analyses included 969 adults (mean age 43 years; 49 % men; 42 % ever asthma). We observed a significant interaction between smoking and AHEI-2010 on change in asthma symptoms (P for interaction=0·04). Among never smokers (n 499), we observed a positive total effect (multivariable OR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·80) and a positive direct effect (OR 1·41; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·80) of the AHEI-2010 (per ten-point increment) on improved symptoms. No indirect effect mediated through BMI was observed (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·07). Among former and current smokers, all effects were statistically non-significant. Better diet quality was associated with improved asthma symptoms over time in never smokers, independently of BMI.

  17. Dental caries, tooth wear and diet in an adult medieval (12th-14th century) population from mediterranean France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, R; Grimoud, A M; Ruas, M P; Donat, R; Sevin, A; Astie, F; Lucas, S; Crubezy, E

    2009-03-01

    The aims of the present work were to determine the frequency and distribution of caries and tooth wear on paired maxillae of a mediaeval sample from southwest France in which the sex of the remains had been established, and to make a relation with the diet of this population. The sample analysed consisted of the dental remains of 58 adult individuals (29 men and 29 women) excavated from the mediaeval cemetery of the archaeological site of Vilarnau d'Amont (southwest France). A total of 1395 teeth were examined. The frequency of ante-mortem tooth loss for the sample was 8.7% and the frequency of caries was 17.5%. The frequencies of carious lesions in adult men and women's dentition were 21.9% and 14.0%. The most frequent were occlusal (49.7% and 34.3%) and approximal caries (26.5% and 37.4%). Concerning tooth wear, all 58 individuals were affected by attrition (100%) and more than 90% of the teeth were concerned. Most of them showed the presence of dentin clusters. There was no significant difference between men and women for caries and tooth wear. These findings are similar to those of other studies on European populations of the same socio-economic status and confirm the predominance of tooth wear over carious lesions during this period. Both caries and tooth wear may be related to the regional diet of this rural population.

  18. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion emphasises the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk ofASD in children. One of the dietician's tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient's nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that

  19. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were

  20. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  1. Does an onion-enriched diet beneficially affect the microbiotal composition in healthy human subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Borg, Birgitte; Marin, Eduvigis Roldán

    enriched diet and one non-enriched supplemented diet in a double-blinded crossover design with a 25 days wash-out period in between. Six of the subjects delivered fecal samples on the last two days before starting on the diet and on the two last days of the 14 day diet. Total DNA was isolated from...

  2. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D

    2004-03-01

    Although popular and effective for weight loss, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diets have been associated with adverse changes in blood and renal biomarkers. High-protein diets low in fat may represent an equally appealing diet plan but promote a more healthful weight loss. Healthy adults (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 low-fat (vs. the high-carbohydrate diet (3.9 +/- 1.4 and 0.7 +/- 1.7 g N/d, respectively, P low-fat, energy-restricted diets of varying protein content (15 or 30% energy) promoted healthful weight loss, but diet satisfaction was greater in those consuming the high-protein diet.

  3. Effect of low-carbohydrate diets high in either fat or protein on thyroid function, plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Peters, P J; Albrink, M J

    1985-01-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet, frequently used for treatment of reactive hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity may affect thyroid function. We studied the effects of replacing the deleted carbohydrate with either fat or protein in seven healthy young adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive seven days of each of two isocaloric liquid-formula, low-carbohydrate diets consecutively. One diet was high in polyunsaturated fat (HF), with 10%, 55%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively. The other was high in protein (HP) with 35%, 30%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and on day 8 of each diet. A meal tolerance test representative of each diet was given on day 7. The triiodothyronine (T3) declined more (P less than .05) following the HF diet than the HP diet (baseline 198 micrograms/dl, HP 138, HF 113). Thyroxine (T4) and reverse T3 (rT3) did not change significantly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) declined equally after both diets. The insulin level was significantly higher 30 minutes after the HP meal (148 microU/ml) than after the HF meal (90 microU/ml). The two-hour glucose level for the HP meal was less, 85 mg/dl, than after the HF meal (103 mg/dl). Serum triglycerides decreased more after the HF diet (HF 52 mg/dl, HP 67 mg/dl). Apparent benefits of replacing carbohydrate with polyunsaturated fat rather than protein are less insulin response and less postpeak decrease in blood glucose and lower triglycerides. The significance of the lower T3 level is unknown.

  4. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FIVE ADULT DIETS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND GAMMA IRRADIATED ADULT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-AKHDAR, E.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the sterile insect technique for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), experiments were carried out to test the effect of four new adult protein sources on the insect vitality. Different yeasts consisting of almost the same nutritive components but differ in the quantity of protein were mixed with sugar as carbohydrate sources (2:3) and compared to the standard adult diet (enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3). Adults reared on each diet were evaluated biologically for their response to gamma radiation (90 Gy). The weight and size of the produced pupae from parents fed on the tested diets, percent of adult emergence, sex ratio, adults survival, egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) for the following generations were taken as monitors for the insect vitality. The results showed that adult male and female survival for 5, 10 and 15 days from emergence, percent egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) showed no sharp differences between three tested diets D3(Af), D4(YE300) and D5(YE00) as compared to the standard diet D1(YH, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3) for parents and F1 progeny. However, when the second tested diet D2(Ay150) was used, the results showed a significant decreases in most of the tested biological aspects, especially in the male mating competitiveness value (C.V.), which is considered the most important monitor for male insect vitality

  5. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Livingstone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet, characterized by a low diet quality score, has been associated with greater prevelence of obesity and hypertension. However, the evidence is inconsistent across diet quality scores and by sex. The aim was to investigate the relationship between diet quality and obesity and hypertension. Methods Adults (n = 4908; age 45.2 ± 0.24 years were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011–2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls were used to derive the dietary guideline index (DGI and recommended food score (RFS. Logistic regression investigated relationships between diet quality score and odds ratio of obesity, hypertension and obesity-associated hypertension. Results In the highest tertile of DGI, but not RFS, individuals were less likely to be obese (men: OR 0.64, CI: 0.45, 0.92, P-trend = 0.014; women: 0.68, 0.48, 0.96, P-trend = 0.025 and to have central adiposity (men: 0.68, 0.48, 0.97, P-trend = 0.030; women: 0.53, 0.37, 0.77, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the lowest tertile. Men, but not women, in the highest tertile of DGI and RFS were less likely to be hypertensive (DGI: 0.56, 0.37, 0.85, P-trend = 0.006; RFS: 0.62, 0.41, 0.94, P-trend = 0.021 compared with the lowest tertile. In men with obesity, but not normal weight men or women, those in the highest tertile of DGI were less likely to be hypertensive (0.53, 0.36, 0.78, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the highest tertile. Conclusions Higher diet quality, as estimated using DGI, was associated with lower odds ratio of obesity in men and women. Odds ratio of hypertension was lower in men, but not women, with a high diet quality score compared with a low score, while obesity-associated hypertension was only associated with diet quality score in men with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether diet quality predicts risk of obesity and hypertension.

  6. Comparative morphophysiological evaluation of the testis of adult Wistar rats fed low protein-energy diet and dosed with aqueous extracts of Cuscuta australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozegbe, P C; Omirinde, J O

    2012-12-18

    Cuscuta australis (C. australis) seed and stem are historically used by the local population as dietary supplement for the management of infertility. This study, therefore, evaluated the effect of orally administered aqueous extracts of C. australis seed and stem, 300 mg/kg body weight/day for seven days, on the testis of the adult Wistar rat fed either low or normal protein-energy diets. The control group received water. The relative weight of the testis was non-significantly increased (p>0.05) in the Low Protein-energy diet-Water-treated (LPWA), Low Protein-energy diet-Seed-treated (LPSE) and Normal Protein-energy diet-Seed-treated (NPSE) groups relative to the Normal Protein-energy diet-Water-treated (NPWA). The weight of the testis was also non-significantly increased (p˃0.05) in the Low Protein-energy diet-Stem-treated (LPST), but decreased in the Normal Protein-energy diet-Stem-treated (NPST), relative to LPWA and NPWA. Heights of germinal epithelium were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the LPWA, LPSE and LPST relative to the NPWA, NPSE and NPST. Diet significantly influenced (p<0.001) the effect of stem extract on the height of germinal epithelium. The NPSE, LPSE, NPST, LPST and LPWA showed significantly decreased (p<0.001) plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) relative to NPWA. The LPWA, LPSE and NPST also showed significantly decreased (p<0.001) levels of testosterone relative to NPWA and LPST. Diet significantly influenced (p<0.001) the effect of seed on the level of LH. Seed-diet interactions significantly affected the levels of FSH (p<0.001) and LH (p<0.05), but not testosterone. Diet significantly influenced (p<0.001) the effects of stem extract on the levels of FSH, LH and testosterone. Stem-diet interactions significantly affected (p<0.001) the levels of FSH, LH and testosterone. Our data suggest that the aqueous extract of C. australis stem is more potent than the seed extract and that dietary protein

  7. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Barrea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern. In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively (p < 0.001. A novel association was reported between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity.

  8. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  9. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  10. Diet quality in young adults and its association with food-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Maree G; Kestin, Mark; Riddell, Lynn J; Keast, Russell Sj; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    To determine the diet quality of a group of young adults and explore its associations with two food-related behaviours (involvement in meal preparation and consumption of commercially prepared meals). Cross-sectional study of young adults. Sample characteristics, food-related behaviours and dietary intake were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire including an FFQ. Diet quality was measured using the fifteen-item Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) designed to assess adherence to Australian dietary guidelines. One-way ANOVA, t tests and multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between DGI scores, sample characteristics and food-related behaviours. University students enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition class, Melbourne, Australia. Students (n 309) aged 18-36 years. The DGI score was normally distributed, with a mean score of 93·4 (sd 17·1) points (range 51·9-127·4 points), out of a possible score of 150 points. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, nationality, BMI and maternal education, cooking meals for oneself was positively associated with DGI score (β = 0·15; 95 % CI 1·15, 10·03; P = 0·01); frequency of takeaway and frequency of convenience meal consumption were inversely associated with DGI score (β = -0·21; 95 % CI -9·96, -2·32; P = 0·002 and β = -0·16; 95 % CI -7·40, -0·97; P young adults, while consumption of commercially prepared meals was associated with poorer diet quality. Maintaining education programmes that promote cooking skills within young adults has the potential to improve DGI scores.

  11. Diet quality and osteosarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling adults 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Chon, Doukyoung; Lee, Kyung Eun

    2017-10-01

    To examine the association between diet quality and osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO), low bone and muscle mass with concurrent high fat mass, in middle-aged and older adults. Data were from a cross-sectional study of 2579 men and 3550 women aged 50 years and older who completed the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey from 2008 to 2010. Data were collected using 24-h dietary recall, and diet quality was determined by the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), on which higher scores denote better quality. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The association between dietary quality and the number of body composition abnormalities (including OSO) was analyzed by multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for covariates. In women, after controlling for covariates, higher scores on the DQI-I were associated with a significantly lower number of phenotypes associated with adverse body composition. Those in the highest tertile group of DQI-I were less likely to have OSO compared with those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio=0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.92). In men, DQI-I scores were not associated with the number of body composition abnormalities. Middle-aged and older women who eat a healthier diet, as determined by a high DQI-I score, are less likely to have multiple body composition abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stage of lactation and corresponding diets affect in situ protein degradation by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, I; Mertens, D R; Van Soest, P J; Azzaro, G; Licitra, G

    2014-12-01

    , in vitro residue CP at 6, 12, and 48h of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated (r=0.90) with in situ RUP of peak-TMR3, mid-TMR2, and dry-TMR1, respectively. Although confounded within treatments, stage of lactation, diet, and intake appeared to affect CP degradation parameters and RUP. Using kd from nonlactating cows, or the RUP calculated from them, may bias diet evaluation or ration formulation for lactating cows. In addition, enzymatic in vitro predictions of RUP should be measured using incubation times that are appropriate for lactating cows. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Guadalupe; McGee, Emma E; Urquiaga, Inés; Jiménez, Paulina; D'Acuña, Sonia; Villarroel, Luis; Velasco, Nicolás; Leighton, Federico; Rigotti, Attilio

    2017-08-11

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data ( n = 24,882). A subsample of 4348 users (17.5%) had valid MetS data. An inverse association was observed between adherence to Mediterranean diet and OW/O and MetS prevalence. As diet quality decreased from healthy, to moderately-healthy, to unhealthy, prevalence increased from 44.8, 51.1, to 60.9% for OW/O and from 13.4, 18.5, to 28.9% for MetS ( p -values diet groups in comparison to the healthy diet group. This study represents the first report on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic disease risk in Chile. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be applied to manage chronic disease risk beyond the Mediterranean basin.

  14. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  15. Deviation of Chinese Adults' Diet from the Chinese Food Pagoda 2016 and Its Association with Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui

    2017-09-08

    Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20-59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate the association between adiposity and deviation of real diet from CFP using an ordered logistic regression. Results showed that the consumption of fruits, eggs, meat, and poultry increased significantly during 2004-2011, while the consumption of cereal, potatoes, and beans dropped down significantly during the same period (all p associated with a higher risk of having high body mass index (BMI), while lower consumption of cereal, potatoes and beans, eggs, and higher consumption of vegetables contributed to low hazard of overweight/obesity (all p < 0.05). The huge disparity between real consumption and the CFP calls for specific health education campaigns.

  16. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    - high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some...... expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...

  17. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  18. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous and perirenal fatty acid (FA) profiles were compared in steers fed a control diet (70 : 30 red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS-15 and DDGS-30) substituted for RC and SS.

  19. Effects of Temperature and Adult Diet on Development of Hypertrophied Fat Body in Prediapausing Boll Weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temperature and adult diet on the development of hypertrophied fat bodies in prediapausing adult boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. Simulation models derived from this work are used to estimate the minimal ages at which male and female boll weevils exhibit diapause morphology, based on conditions...

  20. Perinatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate affects glucose metabolism in adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin T Wan

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0 were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21. To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders.

  1. Milk Technological Properties as Affected by Including Artichoke By-Products Silages in the Diet of Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Muelas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes. Panelists were not able to differentiate among yogurts obtained from those milks by discriminant triangular sensory tests. Silages of artichoke by-products can be included in isoproteic and isoenergetic diets for dairy goats, up to a 25% (feed dry matter, without negatively affecting milk technological and sensory properties whereas reducing feeding costs.

  2. Physical activity and hypocaloric diet recovers osteoblasts homeostasis in women affected by abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Viviana M; Fittipaldi, Simona; Marocco, Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Fornari, Rachele; Guidetti, Laura; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Nicolai, Emanuele; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Greco, Emanuela A; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease linked to metabolic chronic disorders such as diabetes, and hypertension. Also, it has recently been associated with skeletal alterations and low bone mineral density. We previously demonstrated that exposure of osteoblasts to sera of sedentary subjects affected by obesity alters cell homeostasis in vitro, leading to disruption of intracellular differentiation pathways and cellular activity. Thus, the purpose of the present study has been to evaluate whether sera of sedentary obese women, subjected to physical activity and hypocaloric diet, could recover osteoblast homeostasis in vitro as compared to the sera of same patients before intervention protocol. To this aim, obese women were evaluated at time 0 and after 4, 6, and 12 months of individualized prescribed physical activity and hypocaloric diet. Dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed at each time point, as well as blood was collected at the same points. Cells were incubated with sera of subjects before and after physical activity as described: obese at baseline and after for 4, 6, and 12 months of physical activity and nutritional protocol intervention. Osteoblasts exposed to sera of patients, who displayed increased lean and decreased fat mass (from 55.5 ± 6.5 to 57.1 ± 5.6% p ≤ 0.05; from 44.5 ± 1.1 to 40.9 ± 2.6% p ≤ 0.01 respectively), showed a time-dependent increase of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, versus cells exposed to sera of obese patients before intervention protocol, suggesting recovery of osteoblast homeostasis upon improvement of body composition. An increase in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and nuclear translocation was also observed, accompanied by an increase in Adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression, suggesting positive effect on cell differentiation program. Furthermore, a decrease in sclerostin amount and an increase of type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide were depicted as compared to

  3. The Effects of a Hypocaloric Diet on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Blood Hormone Response in Healthy Male Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shunsuke; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss and management. Consumption of food and nutrients stimulates diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), as well as pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone secretion that may regulate energy metabolism. Yet, little is known about the impact of hypocaloric diets on energy metabolism-related parameters. In this study, we assessed the effects of hypocaloric diets on hormonal variance in relation to DIT in healthy adults. Ten healthy male adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study comprising three meal trials. Each subject was given a meal of 200 (extremely hypocaloric), 400 (moderately hypocaloric), or 800 kcal (normocaloric). Postprandial blood variables and energy expenditure were measured for 4 h (after the 200- and 400-kcal meals) or 6 h (after the 800-kcal meal). DIT and postprandial changes in blood pancreatic peptide and ghrelin were significantly smaller after the extremely or moderately hypocaloric diet than after the normocaloric diet but were similar between the hypocaloric diets. Postprandial blood insulin, amylin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide type-1 (GLP-1) increased in a calorie-dependent manner. Thermogenic efficiency (DIT per energy intake) was negatively correlated with the maximum blood level (Cmax) (p=0.01) and incremental area under the curve (p=0.01) of the blood GIP response. Calorie restriction thus leads to hormonal responses and lower DIT in healthy adults. Extreme calorie restriction, however, led to greater thermogenic efficiency compared with moderate calorie restriction. The postprandial GIP response may be a good predictor of postprandial thermogenic efficiency.

  4. Low levels of food involvement and negative affect reduce the quality of diet in women of lower educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, M; Lawrence, W; Ntani, G; Tinati, T; Pease, A; Black, C; Baird, J; Barker, M

    2012-10-01

    Women of lower educational attainment tend to have poorer quality diets and lower food involvement (an indicator of the priority given to food) than women of higher educational attainment. The present study reports a study of the role of food involvement in the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in young women. The first phase uses six focus group discussions (n = 28) to explore the function of food involvement in shaping the food choices of women of lower and higher educational attainment with young children. The second phase is a survey that examines the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in women, and explores the role of mediating factors identified by the focus group discussions. The focus groups suggested that lower food involvement in women of lower educational attainment might be associated with negative affect (i.e. an observable expression of negative emotion), and that this might mean that they did not place a high priority on eating a good quality diet. In support of this hypothesis, the survey of 1010 UK women found that 14% of the effect of educational attainment on food involvement was mediated through the woman's affect (P ≤ 0.001), and that 9% of the effect of educational attainment on quality of diet was mediated through food involvement (P ≤ 0.001). Women who leave school with fewer qualifications may have poorer quality diets than women with more qualifications because they tend to have a lower level of food involvement, partly attributed to a more negative affect. Interventions to improve women's mood may benefit their quality of diet. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Perinatal low-protein diet alters brainstem antioxidant metabolism in adult offspring.

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    Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Liu, Yuri; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans and animal models have established a close relationship between early environment insult and subsequent risk of development of non-communicable diseases, including the cardiovascular. Whereas experimental evidences highlight the early undernutrition and the late cardiovascular disease relation, the central mechanisms linking the two remain unknown. Owing to the oxidative balance influence in several pathologies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal undernutrition (i.e. a low-protein (LP) diet) on oxidative balance in the brainstem. Male rats from mothers fed with an LP diet (8% casein) throughout the perinatal period (i.e. gestation and lactation) showed 10× higher lipid peroxidation levels than animals treated with normoprotein (17% casein) at 100 days of age. In addition, we observed the following reductions in enzymatic activities: superoxide dismutase, 16%; catalase, 30%; glutathione peroxidase, 34%; glutathione-S-transferase, 51%; glutathione reductase, 23%; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 31%; and in non-enzymatic glutathione system, 46%. This study is the first to focus on the role of maternal LP nutrition in oxidative balance in a central nervous system structure responsible for cardiovascular control in adult rats. Our data observed changes in oxidative balance in the offspring, therefore, bring a new concept related to early undernutrition and can help in the development of a new clinical strategy to combat the effects of nutritional insult. Wherein the central oxidative imbalance is a feasible mechanism underlying the hypertension risk in adulthood triggered by maternal LP diet.

  6. Beneficial effects of gluten free diet in potential coeliac disease in adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Capone, Pietro; Gerbino, Nicolò; Donetto, Sara; Testa, Anna; Caporaso, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    To date, potential coeliac disease (PCD) occurring in adults remains an almost unexplored condition. To explore the prognostic role of Marsh grade in adult PCD patients, and to evaluate the effects of gluten-containing diet (GCD) in asymptomatic PCD patients. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive adult PCD patients followed-up for at least 6 years. Patients were divided into: Group A (patients with Marsh 0 histology) and Group B (Marsh 1 patients). Symptomatic patients were started gluten-free diet (GFD), while asymptomatic subjects were kept on GCD and were followed-up. 56 PCD patients were enrolled (21 in Group A and 35 in Group B). Forty-three patients were symptomatic and started GFD. Of these, none of 15 patients in Group A and 8 of 28 patients in Group B developed immune-mediated disorders (IMD) during follow-up (P=0.03; OR=4.2). The 13 asymptomatic PCD patients were kept on GCD. During the follow-up, 9 patients developed CD-related symptoms, 6 villous atrophy and 8 IMD. At the end, patients kept on GCD were at higher risk of developing IMD than those following a GFD (61% vs 18%, P=0.03, OR=3.3). Although PCD with normal mucosa seems to be a milder disease, the continuation of GCD places patients at a high risk of developing villous atrophy and IMD compared to commencement of GFD. Adult PCD patients should start GFD even if not symptomatic. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Independent and combined effect of diet and exercise in adults with prediabetes

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    Sénéchal M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Sénéchal,1,2 Jana Slaght,3 Neha Bharti,3 Danielle R Bouchard3,4 1Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MN, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, 4Health, Leisure, and Human Performance Research Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN, Canada Abstract: Prediabetes is defined as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired fasting glucose is usually defined as fasting blood glucose between 5.6 mmol/L and 6.9 mmol/L (100.8–124.2 mg/dL, and impaired glucose tolerance is the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test of 7.8–11.0 mmol/L (140.4–198.0 mg/dL. Most individuals with prediabetes are overweight or obese and are at greater risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The first line of treatment for individuals with prediabetes is lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise. The aim of this review, through the revision of primarily randomized control trials, is to discuss the independent and combined effect of diet and exercise on the incidence of T2D, glycemic control, and weight loss in adults with prediabetes. Based on the available literature, lifestyle modification combining both diet and exercise is effective at reducing the incidence of T2D and improving glycemic control, even without a significant reduction in body weight. Thus, it is unclear whether weight loss, through lifestyle modification, is a cornerstone for improving glycemic control in individuals with prediabetes. The independent effect of diet or exercise alone on the improvement in glycemic control and/or reduction in body weight in individuals with prediabetes still requires more studies to draw a clear conclusion, considering the quality and quantity of available studies. As of now, the best diet and/or exercise program to improve glycemic control and body weight in adults with prediabetes is unknown. Keywords: diabetes, glycemic control, weight

  8. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  9. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats

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    Megan C. Hallam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP or control (C diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.05. Control animals, whether maintained throughout the study on AIN-93M, or continued on HFS rather than reverting back to AIN-93M, did not differ from each other in body weight or adiposity. Overall, the HF diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones. The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation.

  10. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2016-01-01

    The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones). The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation. PMID:26784224

  11. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  12. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the dietary guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. Objective To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Methods Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the Dietary Guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. Results There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Conclusions Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. PMID:25625693

  14. Factors Affecting Diet Variation in the Pyrenean Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica: Conservation Implications.

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    Ricardo García-González

    Full Text Available The Pyrenean rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica lives at one of the southernmost limits of the ptarmigan range. Their small population sizes and the impacts of global changes are limiting factors in the conservation of this threatened subspecies. An effective conservation policy requires precise basic knowledge of a species' food and habitat requirements, information that is practically non-existent for this Pyrenean population. Here, we describe the diet of a ptarmigan population in the Eastern Pyrenees, the environmental factors influencing its variability and the relationship between diet floristic composition and quality. Diet composition was determined by microhistological analysis of faeces and diet quality was estimated from free-urate faecal N content. Our results show that grouse diet is based mainly on arctic-alpine shrubs of the Ericaceae family, as well as dwarf willows (Salix spp. and Dryas octopetala. The most frequently consumed plant species was Rhododendron ferrugineum, but its abundance in the diet was negatively related to the diet nitrogen content. Conversely, the abundance of Salix spp., grass leaves and arthropods increased the nitrogen content of the diet. Seasonality associated with snow-melting contributed the most to variability in the Pyrenean ptarmigan diet, differentiating winter from spring/summer diets. The latter was characterised by a high consumption of dwarf willows, flowers, arthropods and tender forb leaves. Geographic area and sex-age class influenced diet variability to a lesser extent. Current temperature increases in the Pyrenees due to global warming may reduce the persistence and surface area of snow-packs where preferred plants for rock ptarmigan usually grow, thus reducing food availability. The high consumption of Rh. ferrugineum characterised the diet of the Pyrenean population. Given the toxicity of this plant for most herbivores, its potential negative effect on Pyrenean ptarmigan populations

  15. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  16. Predictors of Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Kirsten A Berk

    Full Text Available A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes.192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques.Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2-8.5; p<0.001 and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18, p = 0.001, anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11, p = 0.001, numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87, p = 0.002, insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02, p = 0.014 and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78, p = 0.003. This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5% weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67-0.82, with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97 and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.42. When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181 were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11, p = 0.008, whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not.Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  18. A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew K; Sullivan, Debra K; Swerdlow, Russell H; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Little is known about the relation between dietary intake and cerebral amyloid accumulation in aging. Objective: We assessed the association of dietary glycemic measures with cerebral amyloid burden and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses relating dietary glycemic measures [adherence to a high-glycemic-load diet (HGLDiet) pattern, intakes of sugar and carbohydrates, and glycemic load] with cerebral amyloid burden (measured by florbetapir F-18 positron emission tomography) and cognitive performance in 128 cognitively normal older adults who provided eligibility screening data for the University of Kansas's Alzheimer's Prevention through Exercise (APEX) Study. The study began in November 2013 and is currently ongoing. Results: Amyloid was elevated in 26% ( n = 33) of participants. HGLDiet pattern adherence ( P = 0.01), sugar intake ( P = 0.03), and carbohydrate intake ( P = 0.05) were significantly higher in participants with elevated amyloid burden. The HGLDiet pattern was positively associated with amyloid burden both globally and in all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and education (all P ≤ 0.001). Individual dietary glycemic measures (sugar intake, carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load) were also positively associated with global amyloid load and nearly all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and educational level ( P ≤ 0.05). Cognitive performance was associated only with daily sugar intake, with higher sugar consumption associated with poorer global cognitive performance (global composite measure and Mini-Mental State Examination) and performance on subtests of Digit Symbol, Trail Making Test B, and Block Design, controlling for age, sex, and education. Conclusion: A high-glycemic diet was associated with greater cerebral amyloid burden, which suggests diet as a potential modifiable behavior for cerebral amyloid accumulation and subsequent Alzheimer

  19. Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young adults: The CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts – neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods – by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. Methods We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of U.S. young adults (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from four examination periods (n=15,854 person-exam observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within 1 kilometer (km), 1–2.9km, 3–4.9km, and 5–8km of respondents’ homes. Models were sex-stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Results Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability in low-income respondents, particularly within 1–2.9km of homes among men [coefficient (95% CI) up to: 0.34 (0.16, 0.51)]. Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Conclusions Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3km of low-income residents, but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change. PMID:21747011

  20. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

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    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  1. THE FATTY ACIDS OF DIET AFFECT THE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY IN BOVINE FEMALE: A REVIEW

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    José Luis Espinoza Villavicencio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is the basis of bovine meat and milk production: As a direct result of reproduction, the cycles of calf and milk production are renewed. However, there are many limiting steps in this process as: low pregnancy rates and long open days that result in increasing parturition intervals. Reproductive efficiency in dairy and beef cattle is multifactorial. Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting this efficiency, and some results have shown that feeding diverse sources of lipids and specifically, fatty acids (FA can result in a better reproductive efficiency. As a nutrition strategy to improve reproductive efficiency, FA of the omega 3 (n-3 and omega 6 (n-6 families have been studied, and it has been shown that these FA can control follicular development, production of progesterone in the corpus luteum, and secretion of PGF2α from the endometrium, increasing embryonic survival and pregnancy rates. The purpose of this revision is to analyze the possible mechanisms by which FA in the diet improve reproductive efficiency of cows, with especial emphasis on FA n-3 and n-6.

  2. Body mass index predicts aldosterone production in normotensive adults on a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Adler, Gail K; Perlstein, Todd; Seely, Ellen W; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Garg, Rajesh

    2007-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying obesity-mediated cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. Aldosterone and insulin resistance both are associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to test the hypotheses that aldosterone production is elevated and associated with insulin resistance in overweight adults on a high-sodium diet. Healthy normotensive adults were categorized as lean body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m(2) (n = 63) or overweight BMI 25 kg/m(2) or greater (n = 57). After 7 d of a high-sodium diet, participants fasted overnight and remained supine throughout hemodynamic and laboratory assessments and angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. The overweight group, compared with the lean group, had higher 24-h urinary aldosterone (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.5 microg per 24 h; P = 0.003) and higher AngII-stimulated serum aldosterone (11.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 9.0 +/- 0.6 ng/dl; P = 0.04). There were no differences in 24-h urinary cortisol or sodium or supine measurements of plasma renin activity, serum aldosterone, or serum potassium. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was predicted by urinary aldosterone excretion (r = 0.32, P = 0.03) and serum aldosterone response to AngII stimulation (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) independent of age and BMI. Urinary aldosterone excretion and AngII-stimulated aldosterone are increased in overweight, compared with lean, normotensive adults. The correlation of these measures of aldosterone production with insulin resistance suggests a potential role for aldosterone in the pathophysiology of obesity-mediated insulin resistance.

  3. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maradonna, F.; Nozzi, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santangeli, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Traversi, I. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Gallo, P. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, 80055 Portici, Napoli (Italy); Fattore, E. [Dipartimento Ambiente e Salute, IRCCS–Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, 20156 Milano (Italy); Mita, D.G. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Mandich, A. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Carnevali, O., E-mail: o.carnevali@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Diets contaminated with NP, BPA, or t-OP affect lipid metabolism. • Xenobiotic-contaminated diets induce metabolic disorders. • Hepatic metabolic disorders may be related to environmental pollution. - Abstract: The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes

  4. [Does diet affect our mood? The significance of folic acid and homocysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła, Hanna; Opolska, Aneta; Kowal, Anna; Domański, Maciej; Płotka, Aniela; Perzyński, Janusz

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the association between national diet and the possibility of developing various mental disorders, as well as between deficiency of such vitamins as, e.g. folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, and others (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids), elevated serum homocysteine level and the functioning of human brain as well as the occurrence of such disorders as dementia, central nervous system vascular disorders and depression. was to present the current state of knowledge about the role of folic acid and homocysteine in the human organism as well as the significance of vitamin deficiency, mainly folic acid and hyperhomocysteinemy for the occurrence of mood disorders. The authors conducted the search of the Internet database Medline (www.pubmed.com) using as key words: depression, mood, homocysteine, vitamin deficiencies: folic acid, B6 and 812 and time descriptors: 1990-2007. In depression, folate, vitamins B12 and B6, as well as unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids deficiency affects the biochemical processes in the CNS, as folic acid and vitamin B12, participate in the metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a donator of methyl groups, which play a decisive role in the functioning of the nervous system; they are, among others, active in the formation of neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin), phospholipids that are a component of neuronal myelin sheaths, and cell receptors. The deficiency of the vitamins in question results in hyperhomocysteinemia (the research shows that approximately 45-55% of patients with depression develop significantly elevated serum homocysteine), which causes a decrease in SAM, followed by impaired methylation and, consequently, impaired metabolism of neurotransmitters, phospholipids, myelin, and receptors. Hyperhomocysteinemia also leads to activation of NMDA receptors, lesions in vascular endothelium, and oxidative stress. All this effects neurotoxicity and promotes the development of various disorders, including

  5. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradonna, F.; Nozzi, V.; Santangeli, S.; Traversi, I.; Gallo, P.; Fattore, E.; Mita, D.G.; Mandich, A.; Carnevali, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Diets contaminated with NP, BPA, or t-OP affect lipid metabolism. • Xenobiotic-contaminated diets induce metabolic disorders. • Hepatic metabolic disorders may be related to environmental pollution. - Abstract: The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes

  6. Consumption rate of some proteinic diets affecting hypopharyngeal glands development in honeybee workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad AlKazim; Al-Khaibari, Abeer M.; Omar, Mohamed O.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was carried out under laboratory condition to study the consumption of some proteinic diets and their effect on hypopharyngeal glands (HPG) development during nursing period. The results showed that the bee bread and the pollen loads mixture with sugar (1:1) were more consumed by honeybee workers followed by Nectapol® and Yeast-Gluten mixture. The lowest consumption amount was recorded with traditional substitute. Clear differences were found in HPG development under feeding with different diets. The maximum development degree was observed when fed with bee bread followed by pollen loads and mixture from Yeast, Gluten and sugar (1:1:2). The acinal surface of HPG showed clear difference under feeding with difference diets. The largest area was recorded when honeybee workers fed on bee bread followed by Yeast-Gluten-sugar mixture (diet,4) and pollen loads(diet,2). PMID:23961106

  7. Lipo-protein emulsion structure in the diet affects protein digestion kinetics, intestinal mucosa parameters and microbiota composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oberli, Marion; Douard, Véronique; Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Devime, Fabienne; Laurent, Sandy; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mat, Damien; Le Feunteun, Steven; Michon, Camille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Leclerc, Marion

    2017-01-01

    SCOPE: Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We tested the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. METHODS & RESULTS: Rats (n = 40) were fed for 3 weeks two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and micro-structure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingested a 15 N-labeled LFE or GCE te...

  8. Knowledge and perceptions about diet and physical activity among Sri Lankan adults with diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, P; Pigera, A S A D; Ishara, M H; Jayasekara, L M D T; Jayawardena, R; Katulanda, P

    2015-11-23

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly growing health concern in Sri Lanka. Diet and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors affecting the incidence, severity and management of DM. The present study aims to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions about dietary patterns and physical activity among a group of adults with DM in Sri Lanka using qualitative research methods. Fifty adults from a cohort of diabetic patients attending the medical clinics at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka were invited for the study. Data were collected via 10 Focus Group Discussions. Verbatim recording and documenting emotional responses were conducted by two independent observers. Directed content analysis of qualitative data was done with the help of NVIVO v10.0. Mean age was 61.2 ± 9.9 years and 46 % were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 10.4 ± 7.5 years. All were aware of the importance of diet in the management of DM. But most had difficulty in incorporating this knowledge into their lives mostly due to social circumstances. The majority described a list of 'good foods' and 'bad foods' for DM. They believed that 'good' foods can be consumed at all times, irrespective of quantity and 'bad' foods should be completely avoided. Many believed that fruits were bad for diabetes, while vegetables were considered as a healthy food choice. The majority thought that there were 'special' foods that help to control blood glucose, the most common being curry leaves and bitter-gourd. Most study participants were aware of the importance of being physical active. However, there was lack of consensus and clarity with regards to type, duration, timing and frequency of physical activity. Despite understanding the importance of dietary control and physical activity in the management of diabetes, adherence to practices were poor, mainly due to lack of clarity of information provided. There were many myths with regards to diet, some of which have originated from health care

  9. Examining the Impact of Adherence to a Vegan Diet on Acid-Base Balance in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly; Johnston, Carol S

    2017-09-01

    Acidogenic diets, commonly measured by the potential renal acid load (PRAL), have been linked with metabolic diseases including insulin resistance, hepatic dysfunction, and cardiometabolic risk. Vegan diets are linked to low dietary acid loads, but the degree of adherence to a vegan diet to demonstrate this benefit is unknown. This study compared the change in PRAL and urine pH of omnivores who followed a vegan diet for either 2, 3, or 7 days over one week. Healthy adults were recruited from a campus population and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: VEG7 (vegan diet followed for seven consecutive days); VEG3 (vegan diet followed for three evenly spaced days over one week); or VEG2 (vegan diet followed for two evenly spaced days over one week). Gender, age, and body mass index did not differ between groups (overall: 21.8 ± 2.4 y and 24.4 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 ). Following the one week intervention, outcome measures did not vary between the VEG2 and VEG3 groups, and these groups were collapsed for the final analyses. The 24-h urine pH was raised after seven consistent days of vegan diet adherence and was unchanged after 2-3 days of vegan diet adherence over the course of a week (+0.52 ± 0.69 and -0.02 ± 0.56 respectively, p = 0.048). However, dietary PRAL scores fell significantly in both dietary groups during the 7-day trial. Since low dietary PRAL scores have been related to improve metabolic parameters, adoption of a vegan diets for several days per week should be explored as a diet strategy to lower disease risk.

  10. A Lebanese dietary pattern promotes better diet quality among older adults: findings from a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Naja, Farah

    2016-04-19

    Proper nutrition is critical for healthy aging and maintaining functional independence. Limited research has been done on the assessment of dietary patterns of older adults and their association with diet quality indices. This study was conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the dietary patterns and diet quality of older adults in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged >50 years (n = 525). Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected through interviews, and dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Five commonly used diet quality indices (DQIs) were calculated, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMed), the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet score, and the Lebanese Mediterranean Diet index. Dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of identified DPs with energy, energy-adjusted nutrients, and DQIs were evaluated by Pearson's correlations. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine correlates of DPs. Three DPs were derived: Lebanese, Western, and High Protein/Alcohol patterns. The Lebanese pattern had highest correlations with fiber, folate, vitamin C, and all five DQIs. The Western was positively associated with energy and sodium and was inversely correlated with fiber, most vitamins, and a number of DQIs, namely AHEI, aMED, and DASH-style diet score. Highest correlations with intakes of proteins and fat were observed for the High Protein/Alcohol pattern. The Lebanese pattern was associated with female gender, education, nonsmoking and physical activity, whereas the Western pattern was associated with adverse health behaviors, including smoking, skipping breakfast, and physical inactivity

  11. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Chun

    Full Text Available A high phosphorus (HP diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα, a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054 in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty

  13. Prenatal stress increases the obesogenic effects of a high-fat-sucrose diet in adult rats in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternain, L; de la Garza, A L; Batlle, M A; Milagro, F I; Martínez, J A; Campión, J

    2013-03-01

    Stress during pregnancy can induce metabolic disorders in adult offspring. To analyze the possible differential response to a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet in offspring affected by prenatal stress (PNS) or not, pregnant Wistar rats (n = 11) were exposed to a chronic mild stress during the third week of gestation. The aim of this study was to model a chronic depressive-like state that develops over time in response to exposure of rats to a series of mild and unpredictable stressors. Control dams (n = 11) remained undisturbed. Adult offspring were fed chow or HFS diet (20% protein, 35% carbohydrate, 45% fat) for 10 weeks. Changes in adiposity, biochemical profile, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction were analyzed. An interaction was observed between HFS and PNS concerning visceral adiposity, with higher fat mass in HFS-fed stressed rats, statistically significant only in females. HFS modified lipid profile and increased insulin resistance biomarkers, while PNS reduced insulin concentrations and the homeostasis model assessment index. HFS diet increased gene (mRNA) expression for leptin and apelin and decreased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A and fatty acid synthase (Fasn), whereas PNS increased Fasn and stearoyl-CoA desaturase1. An interaction between diet and PNS was observed for adiponutrin (Adpn) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1-α (Ppargc1a) gene expression: Adpn was increased by the PNS only in HFS-fed rats, whereas Ppargc1a was increased by the PNS only in chow-fed rats. From these results, it can be concluded that experience of maternal stress during intrauterine development can enhance predisposition to obesity induced by a HFS diet intake.

  14. Chronic maternal low-protein diet in mice affects anxiety, night-time energy expenditure and sleep patterns, but not circadian rhythm in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decre...

  15. Bread type intake is associated with lifestyle and diet quality transition among Bedouin Arab adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shai, Iris; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; German, Larissa; Vardi, Hillel; Fraser, Drora

    2009-11-01

    The traditionally semi-nomadic Bedouin Arabs in Israel are undergoing urbanisation with concurrent lifestyle changes, including a shift to using unfortified white-flour bread instead of wholewheat bread as the main dietary staple. We explored associations between the transition from wholewheat to white-flour bread and (1) lifestyle factors, (2) overall diet quality, and (3) health status. We conducted a nutrition survey among 451 Bedouin adults, using a modified 24 h recall questionnaire. Bread intake accounted for 32.7 % of the total energy intake. Those consuming predominantly white bread (PWB) (n 327) were more likely to be urban (OR 2.79; 95 % CI 1.70, 4.58), eating store-bought rather than homemade bread (OR 8.18; 95 % CI 4.34, 15.41) and currently dieting (OR 4.67; 95 % CI 1.28, 17.11) than those consuming predominantly wholewheat bread (PWWB) (n 124). PWB consumption was associated with a lower intake of dietary fibre (23.3 (se 0.6) v. 41.8 (se 1.0) g/d; P consumption (P or = 40 years, PWB consumption was associated with a 9.85-fold risk (95 % CI 2.64, 36.71; P = 0.001) of having one or more chronic conditions, as compared with PWWB consumption, after controlling for other risk factors. White bread intake was associated with a less traditional lifestyle and poorer diet quality, and may constitute a useful marker for at-risk subgroups to target for nutritional interventions.

  16. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary

  17. Relationship between diet-related indicators and overweight and obesity in older adults in rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Moriya, S; Yokoyama, T

    2017-01-01

    To identify the relationship between diet-related indicators and overweight and obesity in older adults in rural Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Obira, Hokkaido, Japan. Local residents aged between 65 and 74 years, except for those with poor health, were included. A health- and diet-related questionnaire was applied to participants house-to-house by trained health professionals. The following indicators were examined: number of meals, number of balanced meals, food diversity, food group diversity, chewing ability, alcohol intake habit, smoking habit, instrumental activities of daily living scores, age, and residing alone or with family. Of 550 residents, 317 residents completely responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 41 were had low body mass index (BMI≤20) and were excluded. This resulted in a sample of 307 subjects comprising 117 men and 190 women; 37.6% and 46.8% of men and women were classified as obese (BMI≥25), respectively. Women with a normal BMI (20diet-related indicators compared with women with high BMI. The mean number of meals per day of normal men was significantly higher than of obese men. Using logistic regression analysis (stepwise), it was found that the number of meals per day was associated with obesity in men (OR=3.02; 95% CI 0.91-9.98; P=0.071), and food diversity was significantly associated with obesity in women (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.12-3.38; P=0.018). The associations between dietary indicators and obesity differed by sex. Food diversity may be a potential indicator to measure nutritional status in women.

  18. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  19. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p food access and health inequalities.

  20. Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns in UK Adults Are Associated with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, and Diet Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Janet; Dawson, Jeremy; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine empirical dietary patterns in UK adults and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, self-reported nutrient intake, nutrient biomarkers, and the Nutrient-based Diet Quality Score (NDQS) using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data 2008–2012 (n = 2083; mean age 49 years; 43.3% male). Four patterns explained 13.6% of the total variance: ‘Snacks, fast food, fizzy drinks’ (SFFFD), ‘Fruit, vegetables, oily fish’ (FVOF), ‘Meat, potatoes, beer’ (MPB), and ‘Sugary foods, dairy’ (SFD). ‘SFFFD’ was associated positively with: being male; smoking; body mass index (BMI); urinary sodium; intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), fat and starch; and negatively with: age; plasma carotenoids; and NDQS. ‘FVOF’ was associated positively with: being non-white; age; income; socioeconomic classification (National Statistics Socio-economic Classifications; NSSEC); plasma carotenoids; intake of non-starch polysaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It was negatively associated with: being male, smoking, BMI, urinary sodium, intake of saturated fat; and NMES and NDQS. Whilst the patterns explained only 13.6% of the total variance, they were associated with self-reported nutrient intake, biomarkers of nutrient intake, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and the NDQS. These findings provide support for dietary patterns analyses as a means of exploring dietary intake in the UK population to inform public health nutrition policy and guidance. PMID:29415478

  1. Rapid Partial Repigmentation of Vitiligo in a Young Female Adult with a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit N. Khandalavala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common pigmentary skin condition with a profound impact. Despite a number of therapeutic modalities, few have been demonstrated to result in significant repigmentation within a brief period of time. Reported dietary interventions are sparse. Following exclusion of gluten in the diet, early and extensive repigmentation of facial lesions were noted in a young female adult of Asian ethnicity with acrofacial vitiligo. The majority of the benefits occurred within the first month and stabilized at 4 months. Previous topical and phototherapy had not been found to be effective. The patient was maintained on the previously prescribed dapsone therapy. Dietary elimination can potentially be a disease-modifying intervention for vitiligo and should be considered even in patients without concomitant celiac disease.

  2. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2015-10-09

    , PO Box 3000, ... red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower ... et al., 2012; 2015) which have potential human health benefits ...... and waste to health and opportunity. Meat Sci. 92,. 210-220. Mapiye, C.

  3. Motives for adherence to a gluten-free diet: a qualitative investigation involving adults with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A J; Tamminen, K A; Jung, M E; Case, S; McEwan, D; Beauchamp, M R

    2014-12-01

    Currently , the only treatment for coeliac disease is life long adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is challenging, with recent reports suggesting that adherence rates range from 42% to 91%. The present study aimed to: (i) identify motives for adhering to a gluten-free diet and (ii) explore factors implicated in adherence and non-adherence behaviour in terms of accidental and purposeful gluten consumption among adults with coeliac disease. Two hundred and three adults with coeliac disease completed an online questionnaire. Using a qualitative design, relationships were examined between reported adherence and motivation to follow a gluten-free diet, as well as the onset, duration and severity of symptoms. Feelings of desperation (‘hitting rock bottom’) and needing to gain or lose weight were associated with the strictest adherence to a gluten-free diet. Participants who accidentally consumed gluten over the past week developed symptoms the most quickly and reported the most pain over the past 6 months. Participants who consumed gluten on purpose over the past week reported a shorter duration of symptoms and less pain over the past 6 months. Hitting rock bottom and needing to gain or lose weight were factors associated with the strictest adherence, when considered in the context of both accidental and purposeful gluten consumption. Future research is warranted to develop resources to help people with coeliac disease follow a strict gluten-free diet.

  4. Factors governing long-term adherence to a gluten-free diet in adult patients with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Galvez, J; Vanga, R R; Dennis, M; Hansen, J; Leffler, D A; Kelly, C P; Mukherjee, R

    2015-09-01

    A strict gluten-free diet is the cornerstone of treatment for coeliac disease. Studies of gluten-free diet adherence have rarely used validated instruments. There is a paucity of data on long-term adherence to the gluten-free diet in the adult population. To determine the long-term adherence to the gluten-free diet and potential associated factors in a large coeliac disease referral centre population. We performed a mailed survey of adults with clinically, serologically and histologically confirmed coeliac disease diagnosed ≥5 years prior to survey. The previously validated Celiac Disease Adherence Test was used to determine adherence. Demographic, socio-economic and potentially associated factors were analysed with adherence as the outcome. The response rate was 50.1% of 709 surveyed, the mean time on a gluten-free diet 9.9 ± 6.4 years. Adequate adherence (celiac disease adherence test score 75% of respondents. Perceived cost remains a barrier to adherence. Perceptions of effectiveness of gluten-free diet as well as its knowledge, are potential areas for intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. When touch matters: an affective tactile intervention for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that positive tactile experiences can lead to an improvement in cognitive, emotional skills and perceived quality of life in a group of healthy community-dwelling older adults. During a 10-week period, older adults completed a series of activities that required manipulating either a piece of velvet, a piece of canvas or velcro. Only older adults who worked with velvet showed an increase in cognitive and emotional skills, and the perceived quality of life. Our study is one of the first to show that positive tactile experiences might have a beneficial effect on the psychological well-being of healthy community-dwelling older adults across different domains. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. The use of commercial yeast as a protein source in the adult diet of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) for its control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoman, A.A. and others

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the using eight different artificial adult diets of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) on egg and larval production was studied. Adults fed on complete homogenate diet consisting of 75% raw sugar 25% yeast hydrolysate, showed a slightly insignificant decrease in the number of eggs and larvae produced/ female/ day. In absence of yeast hydrolysate, adults offered either only pure or raw sugar, showed a drastically significant decrease in both the number of eggs laid and larvae produced by one female/day. On the other hand, when the protein source was offered as a mixture of yeast hydrolysate and commercial yeast in the ratio 1:1 and offered pure or raw sugar as a carbohydrate source, the egg and larval production were almost not affected. Moreover, when the protein source was offered as totally commercial yeast and using pure or raw sugar as a carbohydrate source at the ratio 1:3, egg and larval production were highly significantly reduced. The results showed that, the 3 diets producing the highest number of eggs and larval/female/day were that consisting of raw sugar and yeast hydrolysate at the ratio 3:1 as well as those consisting of raw sugar and yeast hydrolysate and commercial yeast at the ratio 6:1:1. these 3 diets showed almost no effect on neither pupal or adult production nor sex ratio compared to control diet

  7. How partial reinforcement of food cues affects the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses. A new model for dieting success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco C; Bouton, Mark E; Jansen, Anita

    2014-10-01

    Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in responding that occurs during extinction is slow. After extinction, increases in responding with renewed reinforcement of food cues (reacquisition) might be less rapid after acquisition with partial reinforcement. In humans, it may be that the eating behaviour of some individuals resembles partial reinforcement schedules to a greater extent, possibly affecting dieting success by interacting with extinction and reacquisition. Furthermore, impulsivity has been associated with less successful dieting, and this association might be explained by impulsivity affecting the learning and extinction of appetitive responses. In the present two studies, the effects of different reinforcement schedules and impulsivity on the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition of appetitive responses were investigated in a conditioning paradigm involving food rewards in healthy humans. Overall, the results indicate both partial reinforcement schedules and, possibly, impulsivity to be associated with worse extinction performance. A new model of dieting success is proposed: learning histories and, perhaps, certain personality traits (impulsivity) can interfere with the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses to food cues and they may be causally related to unsuccessful dieting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  9. Integrated approach reveals diet, APOE genotype and sex affect immune response in APP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyong Nyon; Wolfe, Cody M; Fitz, Nicholas F; Letronne, Florent; Castranio, Emilie L; Mounier, Anais; Schug, Jonathan; Lefterov, Iliya; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is influenced by genetic and environmental risk factors, such as inheritance of ε4 allele of APOE (APOE4), sex and diet. Here, we examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on amyloid pathology and expression profile in brains of AD model mice expressing human APOE isoforms (APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice). APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice were fed HFD or Normal diet for 3months. We found that HFD significantly increased amyloid plaques in male and female APP/E4, but not in APP/E3 mice. To identify differentially expressed genes and gene-networks correlated to diet, APOE isoform and sex, we performed RNA sequencing and applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis. We determined that the immune response network with major hubs Tyrobp/DAP12, Csf1r, Tlr2, C1qc and Laptm5 correlated significantly and positively to the phenotype of female APP/E4-HFD mice. Correspondingly, we found that in female APP/E4-HFD mice, microglia coverage around plaques, particularly of larger size, was significantly reduced. This suggests altered containment of the plaque growth and sex-dependent vulnerability in response to diet. The results of our study show concurrent impact of diet, APOE isoform and sex on the brain transcriptome and AD-like phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Snacking and Diet Quality Are Associated With the Coping Strategies Used By a Socioeconomically Diverse Urban Cohort of African-American and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Cotugna, Nancy; Pohlig, Ryan T; Beydoun, May A; Adams, Erica L; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    Stress affects health-related quality of life through several pathways, including physiological processes and health behaviors. There is always a relationship between stress (the stimulus) and coping (the response). The relationship between snacking and snackers' diet quality and stress coping is a topic overlooked in research. The study was primarily designed to determine whether energy provided by snacks and diet quality were associated with coping behaviors to manage stress. We analyzed a baseline cohort of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (2004 to 2009). The sample was composed of 2,177 socioeconomically diverse African-American and white adults who resided in Baltimore, MD. Energy from snacks was calculated from 2 days of 24-hour dietary recalls collected using the US Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method. Snack occasions were self-reported as distinct eating occasions. Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether coping factors were associated with either energy provided by snacks or Healthy Eating Index-2010, adjusting for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, education, literacy, and perceived stress. Coping was measured by the Brief COPE Inventory with instrument variables categorized into three factors: problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and use of support. Perceived stress was measured with the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale. Adjusting for perceived stress and selected demographic characteristics, emotion-focused coping strategies were associated with greater energy intakes from snacks (P=0.020), and use of coping strategies involving support was positively associated with better diet quality (P=0.009). Energy contributed by snacks and diet quality were affected by the strategy that an individual used to cope with stress. The findings suggest that health professionals working with individuals seeking

  11. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion.

  12. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study used the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to determine the combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults. Twelve studies representing 859 men and women (443 intervention, 416 control) were included. Using random-effects models...

  13. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  14. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  15. Life-long Maternal Cafeteria Diet Promotes Tissue-Specific Morphological Changes in Male Offspring Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLYNE D.S. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated whether the exposure of rats to a cafeteria diet pre- and/or post-weaning, alters histological characteristics in the White Adipose Tissue (WAT, Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT, and liver of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into Control (CTL; fed on standard rodent chow and Cafeteria (CAF; fed with the cafeteria diet throughout life, including pregnancy and lactation. After birth, only male offspring (F1 were maintained and received the CTL or CAF diets; originating four experimental groups: CTL-CTLF1; CTL-CAFF1; CAF-CTLF1; CAF-CAFF1. Data of biometrics, metabolic parameters, liver, BAT and WAT histology were assessed and integrated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. According to PCA analysis worse metabolic and biometric characteristics in adulthood are associated with the post-weaning CAF diet compared to pre and post weaning CAF diet. Thus, the CTL-CAFF1 group showed obesity, higher deposition of fat in the liver and BAT and high fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Interestingly, the association between pre and post-weaning CAF diet attenuated the obesity and improved the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides compared to CTL-CAFF1 without avoiding the higher lipid accumulation in BAT and in liver, suggesting that the impact of maternal CAF diet is tissue-specific.

  16. Effects of overfeeding and high-fat diet on cardiosomatic parameters and cardiac structures in young and adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a complex global health problem because it is a risk factor for multiple chronic pathologies such as cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. It is considered a multicausal disease, and one of the determining factors is nutritional imbalances, which include high-fat diets. In this paper, we use the zebrafish model to assess the impact of overfeeding and a high-fat diet in somatic and cardiac parameters in young and adult zebrafish. The results show that fish receiving a high-fat diet showed greater weight gain compared to fish receiving a standard fat diet. Additionally, changes in the heart, including increases in size, a change in the triangular shape of the ventricle to a globular shape, and an increase in the thickness of the trabeculae of the spongy myocardium were observed. These changes could be indicators of cardiovascular overload. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the intake of a high-fat diet and obesity, which in turn can induce cardiac changes, supporting the hypothesis of the relationship between high-fat diets and cardiovascular risk factors. Given the genetic similarity between zebrafish and humans, these results could be extrapolated to human beings, and the findings similarly highlight the importance of incorporating a balanced diet from the early life stages to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Shanti L; Chey, William D; Han-Markey, Theresa; Ball, Sarah; Jackson, Kenya

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients. This was a single-center, randomized-controlled trial of adult patients with IBS-D (Rome III) which compared 2 diet interventions. After a 2-week screening period, eligible patients were randomized to a low FODMAP or mNICE diet for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients reporting adequate relief of IBS-D symptoms ≥50% of intervention weeks 3-4. Secondary outcomes included a composite end point which required response in both abdominal pain (≥30% reduction in mean daily pain score compared with baseline) and stool consistency (decrease in mean daily Bristol Stool Form of ≥1 compared with baseline), abdominal pain and stool consistency responders, and other key individual IBS symptoms assessed using daily questionnaires. After screening, 92 subjects (65 women, median age 42.6 years) were randomized. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 low FODMAP, 39 mNICE). Baseline demographics, symptom severity, and nutrient intake were similar between groups. Fifty-two percent of the low FODMAP vs. 41% of the mNICE group reported adequate relief of their IBS-D symptoms (P=0.31). Though there was no significant difference in the proportion of composite end point responders (P=0.13), the low FODMAP diet resulted in a higher proportion of abdominal pain responders compared with the mNICE group (51% vs. 23%, P=0.008). Compared with baseline scores, the low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in average daily scores of abdominal pain, bloating

  18. Dietary contribution of foods and beverages sold within a university campus and its effect on diet quality of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rajshri; Rangan, Anna; Hebden, Lana; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Tang, Lie Ming; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-02-01

    Tertiary education institutions have been linked with excessive weight in young adults. However, few data are available on the effect of foods from the university food environment on the diet quality of young adults. The aim of this study was to describe the association of a number of foods and beverages consumed at university food outlets with the diet quality of young adults. This was a cross-sectional survey in which the 103 university student participants, aged 19 to 24 y, contributed 5 d of dietary data. A purposely designed, validated smartphone application was used to collect the data. Diet quality was assessed by adherence to the 2013 dietary guidelines for food groups and nutrients, and the validated Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA-2013) was applied. Individual HEIFA-2013 scores were compared with the frequency of food purchase and consumption from university outlets to assess a dose-response effect of the food environment. Comparisons by tertiles of diet quality for body mass index, waist circumference, and takeaway food consumption (university and other) were computed using a one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of university foods and beverages consumed in 5 d and the HEIFA-2013 scores: More on-campus purchases resulted in a poor-quality diet (P = 0.001). As the HEIFA-2013 tertile scores increased, there was a significant decrease in the number of university campus and other takeaway foods consumed; body mass index and waist circumference showed a decrease in trend. Efforts to improve the diet quality of young adults attending university may benefit from approaches to improve the campus food environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mediterranean Diet and Health-Related Quality of Life in Two Cohorts of Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; León-Muñoz, Luz M; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In older adults, the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, but its association with health-related quality of life (HRQL) is still uncertain. This study assessed the association between the Mediterranean diet and HRQL in 2 prospective cohorts of individuals aged ≥60 years in Spain. The UAM-cohort (n = 2376) was selected in 2000/2001 and followed-up through 2003. At baseline, diet was collected with a food frequency questionnaire, which was used to develop an 8-item index of Mediterranean diet (UAM-MDP). The Seniors-ENRICA cohort (n = 1911) was recruited in 2008/2010 and followed-up through 2012. At baseline, a diet history was used to obtain food consumption. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured with the PREDIMED score and the Trichopoulou's Mediterranean Diet Score (MSD). HRQL was assessed, at baseline and at the end of follow-up, with the physical and mental component summaries (PCS and MCS) of the SF-36 questionnaire in the UAM-cohort, and the SF-12v.2 questionnaire in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. Analyses were conducted with linear regression, and adjusted for the main confounders including baseline HRQL. In the UAM-cohort, no significant associations between the UAM-MDP and the PCS or the MCS were found. In the Seniors-ENRICA cohort, a higher PREDIMED score was associated with a slightly better PCS; when compared with the lowest tertile of PREDIMED score, the beta coefficient (95% confidence interval) for PCS was 0.55 (-0.48 to 1.59) in the second tertile, and 1.34 (0.21 to 2.47) in the highest tertile. However, the PREDIMED score was non-significantly associated with a better MCS score. The MSD did not show an association with either the PCS or the MCS. No clinically relevant association was found between the Mediterranean diet and HRQL in older adults in Spain.

  20. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Federica; Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Ziello, Angela; Mazzoli, Arianna; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Liverini, Giovanna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-03-24

    Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases.

  2. Factors Affecting Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Turkish Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Akdag, Beyza; Telci, Emine Aslan; Cavlak, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the influential factors of cognitive function in older adults. Methods: In this study, 377 older adults (mean age: 74.71 ± 6.15 years) were examined. The Hodkinson Abbreviated Mental Test (HAMT) was used to describe cognitive function of the individuals. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL-4) survey tool was used to measure the quality of life. Possible influential factors of cognitive function w...

  3. Exercise and diet affect quantitative trait loci for body weight and composition traits in an advanced intercross population of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A.; Hua, Kunjie; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the recent obesity epidemic, interest in understanding the complex genetic and environmental basis of body weight and composition is great. We investigated this by searching for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting a number of weight and adiposity traits in a G10 advanced intercross population produced from crosses of mice in inbred strain C57BL/6J with those in a strain selected for high voluntary wheel running. The mice in this population were fed either a high-fat or a control diet throughout the study and also measured for four exercise traits prior to death, allowing us to test for pre- and postexercise QTLs as well as QTL-by-diet and QTL-by-exercise interactions. Our genome scan uncovered a number of QTLs, of which 40% replicated QTLs previously found for similar traits in an earlier (G4) generation. For those replicated QTLs, the confidence intervals were reduced from an average of 19 Mb in the G4 to 8 Mb in the G10. Four QTLs on chromosomes 3, 8, 13, and 18 were especially prominent in affecting the percentage of fat in the mice. About of all QTLs showed interactions with diet, exercise, or both, their genotypic effects on the traits showing a variety of patterns depending on the diet or level of exercise. It was concluded that the indirect effects of these QTLs provide an underlying genetic basis for the considerable variability in weight or fat loss typically found among individuals on the same diet and/or exercise regimen. PMID:23048196

  4. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between obesity and chronic inflammation has been studied. Diet-induced obesity or chronic inflammation could reduce the testicular functions of males. However, the mechanism underlying the reproductive effects of fattening foods in males with or without chronic inflammation still needs further discussion. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of high-fat, high-protein diet on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice under physiological and chronic inflammatory conditions. Because casein can trigger a non-infectious systemic inflammatory response, we used casein injection to induce chronic inflammation in male adult Kunming mice. Twenty-four mice were randomly and equally divided into four groups: (i) normal diet+saline (Control); (ii) normal diet+casein (ND+CS); (iii) high-fat, high-protein diet+saline (HFPD+SI); (iv) high-fat, high-protein diet+casein (HFPD+CS). After 8weeks, there was a significant increase in body weight for groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS and a decrease in group ND+CS compared with the control. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and lipid profiles were increased markedly in groups ND+CS, HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control. A remarkable reduction of serum adiponectin level occurred in group HFPD+CS compared with group ND+CS. Sperm parameters (sperm count, viability and abnormality) were also adversely affected in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI. Groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI showed severe pathological changes in testicular tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining also showed significant reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control, whereas testicular mRNA and protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS significantly increased. The m

  5. Dmbt1 does not affect a Western style diet-induced liver damage in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichold, Astrid; Brenner, Sibylle A; Förster-Fromme, Karin

    2013-01-01

    of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Concerning liver diseases, it is known that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is amongst others related to liver injury and repair. In addition Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 seems to play a role in regard to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis...... Western style diet fed groups gained significant more weight than the controls and developed a mild non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The presence/absence of functional Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 had no effect on parameters like food intake, weight gain, fasting glucose, and liver damage......In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the development...

  6. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  7. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  8. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  9. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration

  10. Factors behind nonadherence to diet regimens among obese adults in Tanta, Egypt: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Ali, Ehab A; Atlam, Salwa A; Ghareeb, Wessam A

    2016-03-01

    Nonadherence to diet regimens is a major cause of treatment failure in the field of obesity management. It varies according to the study design and the type of intervention. In weight loss clinical trials, nonadherence rates range from 10 to 80%. Strategies to reduce dropout rates rely on precise identification of factors leading to premature program termination. The aim of this research was to study factors behind nonadherence to diet regimens among obese adults in Tanta, Egypt. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out during the year 2014 in an obesity management private clinic in Tanta, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. The study included two groups of 150 participants each (adherents and nonadherents) matched for sex and BMI. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, weight changes, dieting, and behavioral, psychological, and medical factors. Personal perspectives on potential factors contributing to nonadherence to diet regimens were also investigated. Factors significantly associated with probabilities high probability of to loss of adherence to diet regimens were as follows: younger age, urban residence, higher educational levels, obesity of grades I and III, a higher frequency of previous weight loss trials, consumption of fruits and vegetables less than that recommended (diet regimens were as follows: unsatisfactory results (37.3%), difficulties in dieting practices (33.3%), logistics (30.0%), and fading of motives (27.3%). Obese individuals seeking weight reduction with young age, urban residence, higher educational levels, a higher frequency of previous weight loss trials, higher weight loss expectations, and those with perceived unsatisfactory results are more prone to lose their adherence to diet regimens. Individuals with factors of nonadherence should receive extra care to avoid their withdrawal from diet programs and to improve clinical outcomes.

  11. Dietary pomegranate extract and inulin affect gut microbiome differentially in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Yang, Jieping; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0.25%), or inulin (9%) or PomX and inulin in combination for 4 weeks. In mice fed the PomX-diet the proportion of Turicibacteraceae and Ruminococcaceae was significantly increased compared to the control HF/HS diet. Supplementation with inulin alone and inulin + PomX combination significantly increased the proportion of Verrucomicrobiaceae (A. muciniphila) and decreased Clostridiaceae. Only mice fed the inulin diet experienced an increase in serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which was reversed when feeding the inulin + PomX diet. Feeding the inulin + PomX diet was associated with a significant increase in Bifidobacteriaceae and Rikenellaceae, which may have contributed to the reduction of endotoxemia markers. Inulin supplementation showed lower species richness of gut microbiota compared to mice fed with HF/HS or HF/HS/PomX, and the reduction was reversed by the addition of PomX. Inulin alone and in combination with PomX had distinct microbial clusters determined by both weighted and unweighted UniFrac Beta-Diversity principle coordinate analysis. A total of 19 KEGG biological pathways were significantly regulated in the gut microbiota with PomX and inulin alone or combined treatment. Inulin significantly enhanced KEGG

  12. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschero Antonio C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC

  13. Lipo-Protein Emulsion Structure in the Diet Affects Protein Digestion Kinetics, Intestinal Mucosa Parameters and Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Douard, Véronique; Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Devime, Fabienne; Laurent, Sandy; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mat, Damien; Le Feunteun, Steven; Michon, Camille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Leclerc, Marion; Gaudichon, Claire; Blachier, François

    2018-01-01

    Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We test the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. Rats (n = 40) are fed for 3 weeks with two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and microstructure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingest a 15 N-labeled LFE or GCE test meal and are euthanized 0, 15 min, 1 h, and 5 h later. 15 N enrichment in intestinal contents and blood are measured. Gastric emptying, protein digestion kinetics, 15 N absorption, and incorporation in blood protein and urea are faster with LFE than GCE. At 15 min time point, LFE group shows higher increase in GIP portal levels than GCE. Three weeks of dietary adaptation leads to higher expression of cationic amino acid transporters in ileum of LFE compared to GCE. LFE diet raises cecal butyrate and isovalerate proportion relative to GCE, suggesting increased protein fermentation. LFE diet increases fecal Parabacteroides relative abundance but decreases Bifidobacterium, Sutterella, Parasutterella genera, and Clostridium cluster XIV abundance. Protein emulsion structure regulates digestion kinetics and gastrointestinal physiology, and could be targeted to improve food health value. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  15. Natural (auto)antibodies in calves are affected by age and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khobondo, J.O.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Webb, L.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural autoantibodies (N(a)ab) were found in every species tested so far, and are likely important in maintaining homeostasis. Objectives: (1) To determine N(a)ab in Bos taurus calves, (2) evaluate effects of diet and age on N(a)ab binding repertoires in calves, and (3) delineate bovine

  16. Early postnatal diets affect the bioregional small intestine microbiome and ileal metabolome in neonatal piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet impacts the small intestinal microbiome, and how microbial shifts impact gut metabolic physiology...

  17. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T.; Wehrli, Suzanne; Dang, Chi V.; Curran, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice. PMID:26192445

  18. In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelst, van M.; Hesta, M.; Alexander, L.G.; Gray, K.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Laing, Du G.; Meulenaer, de B.; Goethals, K.; Janssens, G.

    2015-01-01

    Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for

  19. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T Dang

    Full Text Available The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice.

  20. Prediction of adherence to a gluten-free diet using protection motivation theory among adults with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A J; Jung, M E; Chen, M Y; Beauchamp, M R

    2016-06-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic autoimmune disease that requires strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. However, strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is difficult, with findings from a recent review suggesting that up to 42% of individuals with coeliac disease do not eat a strict gluten-free diet. The present study aimed to examine psychosocial predictors of adherence (purposeful and accidental) to a gluten-free diet among adults with coeliac disease over a 1-month period. In this longitudinal study, 212 North American adults with coeliac disease completed online questionnaires at two time points, baseline and 1 month later. The results revealed that intentions partially mediated the effects of symptom severity, self-regulatory efficacy, planning and knowledge on purposeful gluten consumption. Intentions did not mediate the effects of severity, response cost, self-regulatory efficacy, planning and knowledge for accidental gluten consumption but, interestingly, self-regulatory efficacy directly predicted fewer accidental incidents of gluten-consumption. These findings delineate the differential psychological processes in understanding accidental and purposeful gluten consumption among adults with coeliac disease and emphasise the importance of bolstering self-regulatory efficacy beliefs to prevent accidental and purposeful consumption of gluten. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between healthy diet and exercise, individually and combined, and low muscle mass in older Korean adults. Population-based cross-sectional study from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2011. Community. Nationally representative sample aged 65 and older (1,486 men, 1,799 women) in the Republic of Korea. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine frequency of food group consumption (meat, fish, eggs, legumes; vegetables; fruits). Participation in exercise (aerobic and resistance) was based on self-report. Combined healthy lifestyle factors were calculated as the number of recommendations met regarding consumption of food groups and exercise performed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and low muscle mass was defined using the variable of ASM adjusted for weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between healthy lifestyle factors and low muscle mass, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. In women, after controlling for covariates, vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass. Older women who exercise and consume a healthy diet have lower odds of low muscle mass. Engaging in multiple healthy behaviors may be important in preventing low muscle mass in late life. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoli Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. Methods 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes’ usual diet (a typically western diet, WD. A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. Results No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p  Conclusions Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have demonstrated that using VLCKD for a

  3. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Grimaldi, Keith; D'Agostino, Dominic; Cenci, Lorenzo; Moro, Tatiana; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2012-07-26

    Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs) were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps) before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes' usual diet (a typically western diet, WD). A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg) and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p < 0.001) with a non-significant increase in muscle mass. Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have demonstrated that using VLCKD for a relatively

  4. Naftidrofuryl affects neurite regeneration by injured adult auditory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P P; Staecker, H; Moonen, G; van de Water, T R

    1993-07-01

    Afferent auditory neurons are essential for the transmission of auditory information from Corti's organ to the central auditory pathway. Auditory neurons are very sensitive to acute insult and have a limited ability to regenerate injured neuronal processes. Therefore, these neurons appear to be a limiting factor in restoration of hearing function following an injury to the peripheral auditory receptor. In a previous study nerve growth factor (NGF) was shown to stimulate neurite repair but not survival of injured auditory neurons. In this study, we have demonstrated a neuritogenesis promoting effect of naftidrofuryl in an vitro model for injury to adult auditory neurons, i.e. dissociated cell cultures of adult rat spiral ganglia. Conversely, naftidrofuryl did not have any demonstrable survival promoting effect on these in vitro preparations of injured auditory neurons. The potential uses of this drug as a therapeutic agent in acute diseases of the inner ear are discussed in the light of these observations.

  5. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-11-01

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  6. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p T (p prosocial behavior in older adults.

  7. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Deepraj; Mustika, Martina Dwi; Sjabadhyni, Bertina

    2018-04-01

    In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections.

  8. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Kaur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections. Keywords: Business, Psychology

  9. Beverage Consumption in Relation to Discretionary Food Intake and Diet Quality among US Adults, 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    A majority of Americans consume beverages and discretionary foods-foods that are typically low in nutrient value but high in sugar, sodium, fats, and cholesterol-as part of their daily diet, which profoundly impacts their energy balance and nutritional status. This study examined consumption of different types of beverages in relation to discretionary food intake and diet quality among US adults. Nationally representative sample of 22,513 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012 waves were analyzed. The discretionary food category identifies energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products that do not necessarily provide essential nutrients that the human body needs, but can add variety. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables (eg, eating habits, taste preferences) by using within-individual variations in diet and beverage consumption between 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Approximately 21.7%, 42.9%, 52.8%, 26.3%, and 22.2% of study participants consumed diet beverage, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), coffee, tea, and alcohol, respectively, and 90.1% consumed discretionary foods on any given day. Across beverage types, alcohol (384.8 kcal) and SSB (226.2 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily total calorie intake; coffee (60.7 kcal) and diet-beverage (48.8 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily calorie intake from discretionary foods, and SSB consumption was associated with the largest reduction in daily overall diet quality measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. The impact of beverage consumption on daily calorie intake (overall and from discretionary foods) and diet quality differed across individual sociodemographics and body-weight status. The incremental daily calorie intake from discretionary foods associated with diet-beverage consumption was highest in obese adults, and that associated with SSB was highest in

  10. Hypervigilance to a Gluten-Free Diet and Decreased Quality of Life in Teenagers and Adults with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Randi L; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lee, Anne R; Zybert, Patricia; Reilly, Norelle R; Cadenhead, Jennifer; Amengual, Chelsea; Green, Peter H R

    2018-06-01

    Avoidance of gluten is critical for individuals with celiac disease (CD), but there is also concern that "extreme vigilance" to a strict gluten-free diet may increase symptoms such as anxiety and fatigue, and therefore, lower quality of life (QOL). We examined the associations of QOL with energy levels and adherence to, and knowledge about, a gluten-free diet. This is a cross-sectional prospective study of 80 teenagers and adults, all with biopsy-confirmed CD, living in a major metropolitan area. QOL was assessed with CD-specific measures. Dietary vigilance was based on 24-h recalls and an interview. Knowledge was based on a food label quiz. Open-ended questions described facilitators and barriers to maintaining a gluten-free diet. The extremely vigilant adults in our sample had significantly lower QOL scores than their less vigilant counterparts [(mean (SD): 64.2 (16.0) vs 77.2 (12.2), p = 0.004]. Extreme vigilance was also associated with greater knowledge [5.7 (0.7) vs 5.1 (0.8), p = 0.035]. Adults with lower energy levels had significantly lower overall QOL scores than adults with higher energy levels [68.0 (13.6) vs 78.9 (13.0), p = 0.006]. Patterns were similar for teenagers. Cooking at home and using internet sites and apps were prevalent strategies used by the hypervigilant to maintain a strict gluten-free diet. Eating out was particularly problematic. There are potential negative consequences of hypervigilance to a strict gluten-free diet. Clinicians must consider the importance of concurrently promoting both dietary adherence and social and emotional well-being for individuals with CD.

  11. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  12. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, M.; Van der Schans, C. P.; Hobbelen, J. S. M.

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being

  13. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  14. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager, Harriët; Visser, M.; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  15. Effect of the NU-AGE Diet on Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseglia, Anna; Xu, W.; Fratiglioni, Laura; Fabbri, Cristina; Berendsen, A.M.; Bialecka-Debek, Agata; Jennings, A.; Gillings, Rachel; Meunier, N.; Caumon, E.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Pietruszka, B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Santoro, A.; Franceschi, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Background: Findings from animal and epidemiological research support the potential neuroprotective benefits from healthy diets. However, to establish diet-neuroprotective causal relations, evidence from dietary intervention studies is needed. NU-AGE is the first multicenter intervention assessing

  16. Stool patterns of Malaysian adults with functional constipation: association with diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlyn, Mena M; Nagarajah, Lee H L; Fatimah, A; Norimah, A K; Goh, K L

    2013-04-01

    Diet and lifestyle modification is commonly used in constipation management. As there is a dearth of studies on this topic in Malaysia, we aim to elucidate the relations between stool patterns, dietary intake and physical activity levels among adults with functional constipation. From a database collected via surveys at public events, a convenience sample of 100 adults diagnosed with Rome II-defined functional constipation was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After severity assessment using the Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, subjects completed 2-week bowel movement diaries to determine stool frequency, consistency and output. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were assessed twice using three-day 24-hour diet recalls and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Ninety subjects who completed the study were included in the analysis. Mean weekly stool frequency was 3.9 +/- 1.9 times, consistency score was 2.6 +/- 0.6 (range 1.0-4.0), output was 11.0 +/- 6.3 balls (40 mm diameter) and severity score was 10.3 +/- 3.3 (range 5.0-22.0). Mean daily dietary intakes were: energy 1,719 +/- 427kcal, dietary fibre 15.0 +/- 4.9g and fluid 2.5 +/- 0.8L. The majority of subjects were physically inactive. Stool frequency and output were positively associated with dietary fibre (r(s) = 0.278, P < 0.01; r(s) = 0.226, P < 0.05) and fluid intake (r(s) = 0.257, P < 0.05; OR = 3.571, 95% CI [1.202-10.609]). Constipation severity was associated with higher physical activity levels (OR = 2.467, 95% CI [1.054-5.777]). Insufficient intake of dietary fibre and fluid are associated with aggravated constipation symptoms. Further studies are necessary to confirm usefulness of dietary intervention in treatment of constipation as dietary factors alone may not influence overall severity and stool consistency, an integral element of constipation.

  17. High-fat diet reprograms the epigenome of rat spermatozoa and transgenerationally affects metabolism of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Ingerslev, Lars R; Alm, Petter S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic and high consumption of fat constitutes an environmental stress that leads to metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally remodels the epigenome of spermatozoa and metabolism of the offspring. METHODS: F0-male rats fed either HFD or chow diet......1 male offspring showed common DNA methylation and small non-coding RNA expression signatures. Altered expression of sperm miRNA let-7c was passed down to metabolic tissues of the offspring, inducing a transcriptomic shift of the let-7c predicted targets. CONCLUSION: Our results provide insight...... into mechanisms by which HFD transgenerationally reprograms the epigenome of sperm cells, thereby affecting metabolic tissues of offspring throughout two generations....

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with the gut microbiota pattern and gastrointestinal characteristics in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsou, Evdokia K; Kakali, Aimilia; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kyriacou, Adamantini

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential associations of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with gut microbiota characteristics and gastrointestinal symptomatology in an adult population. Other long-term dietary habits (e.g. consumption of snacks and junk food or stimulant intake) were also evaluated in terms of the gut microbiota profile. Participants (n 120) underwent anthropometric, dietary, physical activity and lifestyle evaluation. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a Mediterranean diet score, the MedDietScore, and subjects were classified into three tertiles according to individual adherence scoring. Gut microbiota composition was determined using quantitative PCR and plate-count techniques, and faecal SCFA were analysed using GC. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. Participants with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet had lower Escherichia coli counts (P=0·022), a higher bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio (P=0·025), increased levels and prevalence of Candida albicans (P=0·039 and P=0·050, respectively), greater molar ratio of acetate (P=0·009), higher defaecation frequency (P=0·028) and a more pronounced gastrointestinal symptomatology compared with those reporting low adherence. A lower molar ratio of valerate was also observed in the case of high adherence to the Mediterranean diet compared with the other two tertiles (P for trend=0·005). Positive correlations of MedDietScore with gastrointestinal symptoms, faecal moisture, total bacteria, bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio, relative share of Bacteroides, C. albicans and total SCFA, as well as negative associations with cultivable E. coli levels and valerate were indicated. Fast food consumption was characterised by suppressed representation of lactobacilli and butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, our findings support a link between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and gut microbiota characteristics.

  19. Diet quality of urban older adults age 60 to 99 years: the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Morland, Kimberly B; Scanlin, Kathleen; Wong, Sally; Spark, Arlene

    2014-02-01

    There are few studies that evaluate dietary intakes and predictors of diet quality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to describe nutrient intakes and examine associations between demographic, economic, behavioral, social environment, and health status factors and diet quality. Cross-sectional data were from black, white, and Hispanic adults, age 60 to 99 years, living independently in New York City and participating in the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and the Built Environment Study, 2009-2011 (n=1,306). Multivariable log-linear regression estimated associations between selected factors and good diet quality, defined as a Healthy Eating Index score more than 80 (based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [HEI-2005]). Dietary intakes were similar for men and women; intakes of energy, fiber, and the majority of micronutrients were less than recommendations, whereas intakes of fats, added sugar, and sodium were within the upper range or exceeded recommendations. Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk [RR]=1.37; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.75), energy intake older adults, such as blacks or those who live alone, who may benefit from dietary interventions, as well as specific modifiable behaviors among older adults, such as eating restaurant meals or shopping at supermarkets, which may be targeted through interventions. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. One-year high fat diet affects muscle-but not brain mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Tenna; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that few weeks of high fat (HF) diet may induce metabolic disturbances and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletalmuscle. However, little is known about the effects of long-term HF exposure and effects on brain mitochondria are unknown. Wistarrats were fed either chow (13E% fat......) or HF diet (60E% fat) for 1 year. The HF animals developed obesity, dyslipidemia, insulinresistance, and dysfunction of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria: state 3 and state 4 were 30% to 50% increased (P .... Adding also succinate in state 3 resulted in ahigher substrate control ratio (SCR) with PC, but a lower SCR with pyruvate (P mitochondria from the same animal showed no changes with the substrates relevant...

  1. Prenatal methylmercury exposure affects spatial vision in adult monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Grant, Kimberly S.; Mayfield, David B.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Rice, Deborah C.

    2005-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can have both early and long-term neurobehavioral consequences in exposed offspring. The present study assessed visual functioning in adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) exposed in utero to 0, 50, 70, or 90 μg/kg/day of MeHg hydroxide. Twenty-one full-term, normal birth weight offspring (9 controls, 12 exposed) were tested at approximately 11-14.5 years of age on a visual contrast sensitivity task. A forced-choice tracking procedure was utilized with spatial frequencies of 1, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle. On each test session, a single spatial frequency was presented across five levels of contrast, each differing by 3 dB. Methylmercury-exposed monkeys exhibited reduced contrast sensitivity thresholds, particularly at the higher spatial frequencies. The degree of visual impairment was not related to MeHg body burden or clearance and almost half of the exposed animals were unimpaired. The results from this study demonstrate that chronic in utero MeHg exposure, at subclinical levels, is associated with permanent adverse effects on spatial vision in adult monkeys

  2. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  3. The protein type within a hypocaloric diet affects obesity-related inflammation: the RESMENA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia, Rocio; Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two energy-restricted, differing with regard to protein content, on the inflammation state of obese individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Ninety-six participants completed an 8-wk randomized intervention trial that compared the RESMENA diet (-30% energy, with 30% energy from protein) with a control diet (-30% energy, with 15% energy from protein) that was based on American Heart Association criteria. The mean body weight losses were 7.09 ± 0.82 kg and 6.73 ± 0.71 kg, respectively, with no differences seen between the groups. The endpoint inflammation score-which was based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels-was significantly lower (P = 0.012) in the low-protein group (6.81 ± 2.32 versus 7.94 ± 1.94). The linear regression analyses revealed that total protein intake was positively associated with inflammation (P = 0.007) as well as with animal protein (P = 0.025) and meat protein (P = 0.015), but neither vegetable- nor fish-derived proteins were found to influence inflammatory status. Our results suggest that the type of protein consumed (more than the total protein consumed) within an energy-restricted diet influences the inflammation status associated with obesity-related comorbidities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lycopene from two food sources does not affect antioxidant or cholesterol status of middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J K; Arjmandi, B H; Claypool, P L; Perkins-Veazie, P; Baker, R A; Clevidence, B A

    2004-09-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by plasma lipid concentrations and measures of ex vivo antioxidants. Ten healthy men and women consumed a low lycopene diet with no added lycopene (control treatment) or supplemented with watermelon or tomato juice each containing 20 mg lycopene. Subjects consumed each treatment for three weeks in a crossover design. Plasma, collected weekly was analyzed for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride concentrations and for the antioxidant biomarkers of malondialdehyde formation products (MDA), plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed Procedure and associations between antioxidant and lipid measures were identified by Pearson's product moment correlation analysis. Compared to the control diet, the lycopene-containing foods did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant biomarkers. Women had higher total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations than did the men. Total cholesterol was positively correlated to MDA and FRAP while HDL-C was positively correlated to MDA and GPX. GPX was negatively correlated to triglyceride concentration. The inclusion of watermelon or tomato juice containing 20 mg lycopene did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant status of healthy subjects. However, plasma cholesterol levels impacted the results of MDA and FRAP antioxidant tests.

  5. Lycopene from two food sources does not affect antioxidant or cholesterol status of middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker RA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by plasma lipid concentrations and measures of ex vivo antioxidants. Methods Ten healthy men and women consumed a low lycopene diet with no added lycopene (control treatment or supplemented with watermelon or tomato juice each containing 20 mg lycopene. Subjects consumed each treatment for three weeks in a crossover design. Plasma, collected weekly was analyzed for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations and for the antioxidant biomarkers of malondialdehyde formation products (MDA, plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed Procedure and associations between antioxidant and lipid measures were identified by Pearson's product moment correlation analysis. Results Compared to the control diet, the lycopene-containing foods did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant biomarkers. Women had higher total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations than did the men. Total cholesterol was positively correlated to MDA and FRAP while HDL-C was positively correlated to MDA and GPX. GPX was negatively correlated to triglyceride concentration. Conclusions The inclusion of watermelon or tomato juice containing 20 mg lycopene did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant status of healthy subjects. However, plasma cholesterol levels impacted the results of MDA and FRAP antioxidant tests.

  6. A comparative study on the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampal CA1 area of adult and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Khair, Doaa M; El-Safti, Fatma El-Nabawia A; Nooh, Hanaa Z; El-Mehi, Abeer E

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is one of the most important problems nowadays. Aging is associated with learning and memory impairments. Diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. This work was carried out to compare the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampus of adult and aged male albino rats. Twenty adult and twenty aged male rats were used in this study. According to age, the rats were randomly subdivided into balanced and high cholesterol diet fed groups. The diet was 15 g/rat/day for adult rats and 20 g/rat/day for aged rats for eight weeks. Serial coronal sections of hippocampus and blood samples were taken from each rat. For diet effect evaluation, Clinical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric assessments were done. In compare to a balanced diet fed rat, examination of Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA 1) area in the hippocampus of the high cholesterol diet adult rats showed degeneration, a significant decrease of the pyramidal cells, attenuation and/or thickening of small blood vessels, apparent increase of astrocytes and apparent decrease of Nissl's granules content. Moreover, the high cholesterol diet aged rats showed aggravation of senility changes of the hippocampus together with Alzheimer like pathological changes. In conclusion, the high cholesterol diet has a significant detrimental effect on the hippocampus and aging might pronounce this effect. So, we should direct our attention to limit cholesterol intake in our food to maintain a healthy life style for a successful aging.

  7. [The effects of a low-fat versus a low carbohydrate diet in obese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Daniel A; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; González Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa

    2009-02-21

    The aim of our study was to compare the effect of a high fat and a high protein diet vs a fat restricted diet on weight loss in obese patients. A population of 74 obesity non diabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: a) diet I (low fat diet: 1500kcal/day, 52% carbohydrates, 20% proteins, 27% fats) with a distribution of fats and b) diet II (high fat and high protein diet: 1507kcal/day, 38% carbohydrates, 26% proteins, 36% fats). After three months with diet, weight, blood pressure, glucose, C reactive protein, insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated. There were randomized 35 patients (4 males and 31 females) in the group I and 39 patients (6 males and 33 females) in diet group II. In group I, systolic pressure, BMI, weight, fat free mass, fat mass total body water, intracellular body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. In group II, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, systolic blood, BMI, weight, fat mass, total body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. Differences among averages of parameters before treatment with both diets were not detected. No differences were detected on weight loss between a fat-restricted diet and a high fat and high protein enhanced diet.

  8. Promoting brain health through exercise and diet in older adults: a physiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pialoux, Vincent; Corbett, Dale; Drogos, Lauren; Erickson, Kirk I.; Eskes, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rise in incidence of age‐related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss. Of interest, there are substantial inter‐individual differences in the degree to which these physical and functional changes impact upon cognitive function as we grow older. This review describes how engaging in physical activity and cognitive activities and adhering to a Mediterranean style diet promote ‘brain health’. From a physiological perspective, we discuss the effects of these modifiable lifestyle behaviours on the brain, and how some recent human trials are beginning to show some promise as to the effectiveness of lifestyle behaviours in combating cognitive impairment. Moreover, we propose that these lifestyle behaviours, through numerous mechanisms, serve to increase brain, cerebrovascular and cognitive reserve, thereby preserving and enhancing cognitive function for longer. PMID:27524792

  9. Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity and diet quality in Hispanic/Latino adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Jung, Molly M; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Espinoza, Rebeca A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Schneiderman, Neil; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of psychosocial stress with obesity, adiposity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods Participants were 5077 men and women, 18–74 years old, from diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of ongoing chronic stressors and recent perceived stress with measures of adiposity (waist circumference and percentage body fat) and dietary intake (total energy, saturated fat, alternative healthy eating index [AHEI-2010]). Multinomial logistic models were used to describe the odds of obesity or overweight relative to normal weight. Results Greater number of chronic stressors and greater perceived stress were associated with higher total energy intake. Greater recent perceived stress was associated with lower diet quality as indicated by AHEI-2010 scores. Compared to no stressors, reporting ≥ 3 chronic stressors was associated with higher odds of being obese (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.01–2.1), greater waist circumference (β = 3.3, 95%CI 1.0–5.5) and percentage body fat (β = 1.5, 95%CI 0.4, 2.6). Conclusions The study found an association between stress and obesity and adiposity measures, suggesting that stress management techniques may be useful in obesity prevention and treatment programs that target Hispanic/Latino populations. PMID:25487969

  10. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  11. Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity and diet quality in Hispanic/Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Jung, Molly M; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Espinoza, Rebeca A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Schneiderman, Neil; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial stress with obesity, adiposity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults. Participants were 5077 men and women, aged 18 to 74 years, from diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of ongoing chronic stressors and recent perceived stress with measures of adiposity (waist circumference and percentage body fat) and dietary intake (total energy, saturated fat, alternative healthy eating index-2010). Multinomial logistic models were used to describe the odds of obesity or overweight relative to normal weight. Greater number of chronic stressors and greater perceived stress were associated with higher total energy intake. Greater recent perceived stress was associated with lower diet quality as indicated by alternative healthy eating index-2010 scores. Compared with no stressors, reporting three or more chronic stressors was associated with higher odds of being obese (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.1), greater waist circumference (β = 3.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.5), and percentage body fat (β = 1.5, 95% CI 0.4-2.6). The study found an association between stress and obesity and adiposity measures, suggesting that stress management techniques may be useful in obesity prevention and treatment programs that target Hispanic/Latino populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of palatability, protein and energi consumtion of adult lizard (Mabouya multifasciata by feed them of with many diet variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONI RIDWAN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lizard (Mabouya multifasciata, one of natural resources that spreads almost all Indonesian islands. The animals can potentially be used as a source of protein and medicine as well as a pet. The objectives of the research were therefore to investigate the preference of certain kind of diet, measure the protein and energy consumption, and also to observe the weight gain of the lizard. Seventy two lizards consisting of 36 females that each having weight of 29.7 + 2.6 grams and 36 male that having weight of 30.0 + 2.9 grams were used in this study. These lizards were captured from their wild nature around Bogor, Ciamis, Sumedang and Cianjur of West Java. Block experimental design was used, with 4 diet treatments and two grouping based on sex, (male and female. The diets were crickets, mealworm, red ant larva and artificial diet. Each tree lizards was put on 0.30m x 0.30m x 0.50m nets made from glass. Diets were given 3% dry matter of lizard body weight and water has given ad libitum. Parameter measured was dry matter consumption, protein consumption, energy consumption and body weight gain. ANOVA used for the data analysis, followed with Duncan range-test. The result showed that dry matter consumption of crickets, red ant larva and artificial diet was significantly (P<0.01 higher than mealworms. Consumption of crickets crude-protein was significantly (P<0.01 higher than mealworms, red ant larva and artificial diet. Mealworm crude-protein consumption was significantly (P<0.01 lower compared with both red ant larva and artificial diet. Crickets and red ant larva showed higher affect (P<0.01 on body weight gain than artificial diet. However, there were no significant effect of all diet on consumption, brute energy and relatively metabolic energy. Grouping based on sex also did not show any significant affect to all parameters observed. It can be concluded that lizards prefer eating crickets, red ant larva and diet than mealworms.

  13. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  14. Retrospective analysis of factors affecting the progression of Chronic Renal Failure in Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.R.; Tashkandi, Muhammed A.; Nahrir, S.; Maulana, A.

    2006-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the commonest congenital cystic renal disease. Factors such as hypertension, urinary tract infection, hematuria and proteinuria may effect the progression to chronic renal failure in ADPKD patients. Therapeutic interventions, such as the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or diet modification, may impact the natural progression of the disease. We aim in this study to review a registry of ADPKD patients in order to compare the slow and fast progressors and identify possible predictors of progression and interventions that slow the progression of this disease. Sheffield Kidney Institute (SKI), one of the largest kidney institutes in Northern Europe, has registered a large number of ADPKD patients since 1981. SKI's computer network contains a wide range of information on these patients. We selected 94 adult polycystic patients from the SKI for retrospective analysis of factors affecting progression to chronic renal failure. Patients who doubled their s. creatinine in 3 6 months were considered fast progressors (FP), while those who doubled their s. creatinine in > 36 months were regarded as slow progressors (SP). There 70 patients in the FP group and 24 patients in the SP group. A third group of 137 patients consisted of non-progressors (NP) who ha d stable s. creatinine levels during the same period. We found that the incidence of hypertension, UTI, macroscopic and microscopic hematuria, and overt proteinuria in the FP group was higher than in SP and NP groups. Modification of some factors, such as hypertension and UTI, may decrease the rate of the deterioration of renal function. (author)

  15. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  16. Loci associated with adult stature also affect calf birth survival in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Höglund, Johanna; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    growth and adult stature in several species. The QTL exhibited large effects on calf size and stature in Nordic Red cattle. Two deviant haplotypes (HAP1 and HAP2) were resolved which increased calf size at birth, and affected adult body conformation. However, the haplotypes also resulted in increased...

  17. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

  18. The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Lisa M; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2018-05-24

    Vegetarian diets exclude meat, seafood, and products containing these foods. Although the vegetarian lifestyle could lead to a better health status in adults, it may also bear risks for certain nutritional deficiencies. Cross-sectional studies and narrative reviews have shown that the iron status of vegetarians is compromised by the absence of highly bioavailable haem-iron in meatless diets and the inhibiting effect of certain components present in plant foods on non-haem iron bioavailability. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane CentralRegister of Controlled Trials were searched for studies comparing serum ferritin, as the major laboratory parameter for iron status of adult vegetarians with non-vegetarian control groups. A qualitative review was conducted as well as an inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis to pool available data. In addition the effect of vegetarian diets according to gender was investigated with a subgroup analysis. The results were validated using a sensitivity analysis. A total of 27 cross-sectional studies and three interventional studies were selected for the systematic review. The meta-analysis which combined data of 24 cross-sectional studies showed that adult vegetarians have significantly lower serum ferritin levels than their non-vegetarian controls (-29.71 µg/L, 95% CI [-39.69, -19.73], p vegetarian diets did not change the results considerably (-23.27 µg/L, 95% CI [-29.77, -16.76], p vegetarians are more likely to have lower iron stores compared with non-vegetarians. However, since high iron stores are also a risk factor for certain non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, it is recommended that not only vegetarians but also non-vegetarians should regularly control their iron status and improve their diet regarding the content and bioavailability of iron by consuming more plants and less meat.

  19. A Western Diet Ecological Module Identified from the ‘Humanized’ Mouse Microbiota Predicts Diet in Adults and Formula Feeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Jay; Holway, Nicholas; Parkinson, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in ‘humanized’ mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and ‘low-fat’ diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets) correlating with formula (vs breast) feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits. PMID:24391809

  20. Decreased ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin plasma levels in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy and maintained on the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiò, Maddalena; Roli, Laura; Giordano, Carmela; Trenti, Tommaso; Guerra, Azzurra; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2018-03-23

    The gastric hormones ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin have been found to be altered in patients treated with antiepileptic drugs. However, it is unknown if these hormones could be modified by other antiepileptic treatments, such as the ketogenic diet. Especially, a reduction in ghrelin levels could be relevant in view of the growth retardation observed under ketogenic diet treatment. For this reason we aimed to determine the changes in ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin plasma levels in children affected by refractory epilepsy and treated with the ketogenic diet up to 90 days. Both peptides were measured by immunoassays in plasma obtained from 16 children. Ghrelin plasma levels were progressively reduced by the ketogenic diet, reaching a minimum corresponding to 42% of basal levels after 90 days of ketogenic diet (P ketogenic diet (P ketogenic diet administration. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are downregulated by the ketogenic diet in children affected by refractory epilepsy. Although no significant changes in growth were observed during the short time period of our investigation, the reduction in ghrelin availability may explain the reported growth retardation found in children treated with the ketogenic diet in the long-term. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical diet as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment in dogs affected by Keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destefanis, Simona; Giretto, Daniela; Muscolo, Maria Cristina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Giovazzino, Angela; Centenaro, Sara; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-09-22

    Canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (cKCS) is an inflammatory eye condition related to a deficiency in the tear aqueous fraction. Etiopathogenesis of such disease is substantially multifactorial, combining the individual genetic background with environmental factors that contribute to the process of immunological tolerance disruption and, as a consequence, to the emergence of autoimmunity disease. In this occurrence, it is of relevance the role of the physiological immune-dysregulation that results in immune-mediated processes at the basis of cKCS. Current therapies for this ocular disease rely on immunosuppressive treatments. Clinical response to treatment frequently varies from poor to good, depending on the clinical-pathological status of eyes at diagnosis and on individual response to therapy. In the light of the variability of clinical response to therapies, we evaluated the use of an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant nutraceutical diet with potential immune-modulating activity as a therapeutical adjuvant in cKCS pharmacological treatment. Such combination was administered to a cohort of dogs affected by cKCS in which the only immunosuppressive treatment resulted poorly responsive or ineffective in controlling the ocular symptoms. Fifty dogs of different breeds affected by immune-mediated cKCS were equally distributed and randomly assigned to receive either a standard diet (control, n = 25) or the nutraceutical diet (treatment group, n = 25) both combined with standard immunosuppressive therapy over a 60 days period. An overall significant improvement of all clinical parameters (tear production, conjunctival inflammation, corneal keratinization, corneal pigment density and mucus discharge) and the lack of food-related adverse reactions were observed in the treatment group (p metabolic changes could affect the immune response orchestration in a model of immune-mediated ocular disease, as represented by cKCS.

  2. Effects of nymphal diet and adult feeding on allocation of resources to glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter is an invasive insect capable of transmitting the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Pre-oviposition periods of laboratory reared glassy-winged sharpshooters are variable. Here, two questions were addressed: does nymphal diet affect pre-oviposition period and how d...

  3. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bradley C; Kanters, Steve; Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wu, Ping; Naji, Faysal; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Ball, Geoff D C; Busse, Jason W; Thorlund, Kristian; Guyatt, Gordon; Jansen, Jeroen P; Mills, Edward J

    2014-09-03

    Many claims have been made regarding the superiority of one diet or another for inducing weight loss. Which diet is best remains unclear. To determine weight loss outcomes for popular diets based on diet class (macronutrient composition) and named diet. Search of 6 electronic databases: AMED, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE from inception of each database to April 2014. Overweight or obese adults (body mass index ≥25) randomized to a popular self-administered named diet and reporting weight or body mass index data at 3-month follow-up or longer. Two reviewers independently extracted data on populations, interventions, outcomes, risk of bias, and quality of evidence. A Bayesian framework was used to perform a series of random-effects network meta-analyses with meta-regression to estimate the relative effectiveness of diet classes and programs for change in weight and body mass index from baseline. Our analyses adjusted for behavioral support and exercise. Weight loss and body mass index at 6- and 12-month follow-up (±3 months for both periods). Among 59 eligible articles reporting 48 unique randomized trials (including 7286 individuals) and compared with no diet, the largest weight loss was associated with low-carbohydrate diets (8.73 kg [95% credible interval {CI}, 7.27 to 10.20 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.25 kg [95% CI, 5.33 to 9.25 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and low-fat diets (7.99 kg [95% CI, 6.01 to 9.92 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.27 kg [95% CI, 5.26 to 9.34 kg] at 12-month follow-up). Weight loss differences between individual diets were minimal. For example, the Atkins diet resulted in a 1.71 kg greater weight loss than the Zone diet at 6-month follow-up. Between 6- and 12-month follow-up, the influence of behavioral support (3.23 kg [95% CI, 2.23 to 4.23 kg] at 6-month follow-up vs 1.08 kg [95% CI, -1.82 to 3.96 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and exercise (0.64 kg [95% CI, -0.35 to 1.66 kg] vs 2.13 kg [95% CI, 0.43 to 3.85 kg], respectively

  4. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Offringa, Lisa C; Hartle, Jennifer C; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2016-01-01

    To test for differential weight loss response to low-fat (LF) vs. low-carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) , were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. Baseline % carbohydrate:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6 months, the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; there was no significant diet × IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet × IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  5. Weight Loss on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carb Diets by Insulin Resistance Status Among Overweight Adults & Adults with Obesity: A Randomized Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D.; Offringa, Lisa; Hartle, Jennifer; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test for differential weight loss response to Low-Fat (LF) vs. Low-Carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. METHODS Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m2, were randomized in a 2X2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. RESULTS Baseline % carb:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6m the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; no significant diet X IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet X IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. PMID:26638192

  6. The association between diet quality, dietary patterns and depression in adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that diet modifies key biological factors associated with the development of depression; however, associations between diet quality and depression are not fully understood. We performed a systematic review to evaluate existing evidence regarding the association between diet quality and depression. Method A computer-aided literature search was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, January 1965 to October 2011, and a best-evidence analysis performed. Results Twenty-five studies from nine countries met eligibility criteria. Our best-evidence analyses found limited evidence to support an association between traditional diets (Mediterranean or Norwegian diets) and depression. We also observed a conflicting level of evidence for associations between (i) a traditional Japanese diet and depression, (ii) a “healthy” diet and depression, (iii) a Western diet and depression, and (iv) individuals with depression and the likelihood of eating a less healthy diet. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first review to synthesize and critically analyze evidence regarding diet quality, dietary patterns and depression. Further studies are urgently required to elucidate whether a true causal association exists. PMID:23802679

  7. Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Barbara Lohse; Tricia Psota; Ramon Estruch; Itziar Zazpe; Jose V. Sorli; Merce Serra; Jodi Stotts Krall; Fabiola Ma´rquez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2010-01-01

    Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. Eating competence (EC), a bio-psychosocial model for intrapersonal approaches to eating and food-related behaviors, is associated with less weight dissatisfaction, lower BMI, and increased HDL-cholesterol in small U.S. studies, but its relationship to nutrient quality and overall cardiovascular risk have not been examined. Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PRE...

  8. Your Way to a Better Theory of Mind: A Healthy Diet Relates to Better Faux Pas Recognition in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Zhang, Julie; Taumoepeau, Mele; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a well-documented worsening of general cognition, and also a decline in social understanding such as the ability to recognize emotions or detect socially inappropriate behavior (faux pas). Several studies have demonstrated that lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, social integration, smoking) tend to offset general cognitive decline, and we examined whether they also help to offset age-related declines in social cognition. There were 56 participants aged 60 years or over. General cognition was measured using a matrices task and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Emotion recognition was measured by the matching of faces to emotion sounds and bodies to sounds. Faux pas recognition was measured by 16 videos, examining participants' ability to differentiate appropriate and inappropriate social behavior. Diet, exercise, social integration, and smoking habits were measured via questionnaires. For general cognition, diet, pr = .32, p smoking, pr = -.32, p = .02, and education, pr = .48, p exercise habits, smoking, and social integration, a healthy diet explained independent variance in the ability to identify appropriate social behavior, pr = .29, p = .04. We replicated previous research in finding that lifestyle factors were related to fluid intelligence. In addition, we obtained the novel finding that a healthy diet is associated with better recognition of faux pas in older adults, likely acting through facilitation of brain health, and providing initial support for a means of enhancing social functioning and well-being in old age.

  9. Effect of diet composition on acid-base balance in adolescents, young adults and elderly at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietavala, E-M; Stout, J R; Hulmi, J J; Suominen, H; Pitkänen, H; Puurtinen, R; Selänne, H; Kainulainen, H; Mero, A A

    2015-03-01

    Diets rich in animal protein and cereal grains and deficient in vegetables and fruits may cause low-grade metabolic acidosis, which may impact exercise and health. We hypothesized that (1) a normal-protein diet with high amount of vegetables and fruits (HV) induces more alkaline acid-base balance compared with a high-protein diet with no vegetables and fruits (HP) and (2) diet composition has a greater impact on acid-base balance in the elderly (ELD). In all, 12-15 (adolescents (ADO)), 25-35 (young adults (YAD)) and 60-75 (ELD)-year-old male and female subjects (n=88) followed a 7-day HV and a 7-day HP in a randomized order and at the end performed incremental cycle ergometer tests. We investigated the effect of diet composition and age on capillary (c-pH) and urine pH (u-pH), strong ion difference (SID), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and total concentration of weak acids (Atot). Linear regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of SID, pCO2 and Atot to c-pH. In YAD and ELD, c-pH (P⩽0.038) and u-pH (Pdiet-induced acid-base changes.

  10. Higher Dietary Cost Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study among Selected Malaysian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnteesam Pondor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI. DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM was calculated from dietary intake and national food prices. Linear regression models were fitted to determine associations between DDC and M-HEI scores and predictors of diet quality. The mean M-HEI score of respondents was 61.31 ± 10.88 and energy adjusted DDC was RM10.71/2000 kcal (USD 2.49. The highest quintile of adjusted DDC had higher M-HEI scores for all respondents (Q1: 57.14 ± 10.07 versus Q5: 63.26 ± 11.54, p = 0.001. There were also positive associations between DDC and M-HEI scores for fruits (p < 0.001 and vegetables (p = 0.017 for all respondents. Predictors of diet quality included carbohydrate (β = 0290; p < 0.001 and fat intakes (β = −0.242; p < 0.001 and energy adjusted DDC (β = 0.196; p < 0.001. Higher dietary cost is associated with healthy eating among Malaysian adults.

  11. Higher Dietary Cost Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study among Selected Malaysian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondor, Ibnteesam; Gan, Wan Ying; Appannah, Geeta

    2017-09-16

    Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI). DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM) was calculated from dietary intake and national food prices. Linear regression models were fitted to determine associations between DDC and M-HEI scores and predictors of diet quality. The mean M-HEI score of respondents was 61.31 ± 10.88 and energy adjusted DDC was RM10.71/2000 kcal (USD 2.49). The highest quintile of adjusted DDC had higher M-HEI scores for all respondents (Q1: 57.14 ± 10.07 versus Q5: 63.26 ± 11.54, p = 0.001). There were also positive associations between DDC and M-HEI scores for fruits ( p diet quality included carbohydrate (β = 0290; p healthy eating among Malaysian adults.

  12. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. McKay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh. K.Koch. We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-β were significantly greater than after the control diet (p < 0.05. Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.

  13. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Diane L; Eliasziw, Misha; Chen, C Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2018-03-11

    Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) were significantly greater than after the control diet ( p Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.

  14. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Vergis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.

  15. Diet assessment in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: Development of a food frequency questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present the development of the Food Frequency Questionaire used in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil and analyze how diet exposes individuals to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil dietary assessment instrument is based on a previously validated Food Frequency Questionaire and the final list of items took into consideration a study done in the six Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil investigation centers. RESULTS: New foods/preparations were included in the Food Frequency Questionaire with their respective portions, totaling 114 items. The perspectives of dietary analysis and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are presented in Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil. CONCLUSION: A new instrument was developed to cover the regional particularities of the study population.

  16. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  17. Dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing diet cost according to income: An analysis among French adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Maillot

    Full Text Available To explore the dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy across income levels at constant energy and diet cost.Individual diet modelling was used to design iso-caloric, nutritionally adequate optimised diets for each observed diet in a sample of adult normo-reporters aged ≥20 years (n = 1,719 from the Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2, 2006-2007. Diet cost was estimated from mean national food prices (2006-2007. A first set of free-cost models explored the impact of optimisation on the variation of diet cost. A second set of iso-cost models explored the dietary changes induced by the optimisation with cost set equal to the observed one. Analyses of dietary changes were conducted by income quintiles, adjusting for energy intake, sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, and smoking status.The cost of observed diets increased with increasing income quintiles. In free-cost models, the optimisation increased diet cost on average (+0.22 ± 1.03 euros/d and within each income quintile, with no significant difference between quintiles, but with systematic increases for observed costs lower than 3.85 euros/d. In iso-cost models, it was possible to design nutritionally adequate diets whatever the initial observed cost. On average, the optimisation at iso-cost increased fruits and vegetables (+171 g/day, starchy foods (+121 g/d, water and beverages (+91 g/d, and dairy products (+20 g/d, and decreased the other food groups (e.g. mixed dishes and salted snacks, leading to increased total diet weight (+300 g/d. Those changes were mostly similar across income quintiles, but lower-income individuals needed to introduce significantly more fruit and vegetables than higher-income ones.In France, the dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing cost are similar regardless of income, but may be more difficult to implement when the budget for food is lower than 3.85 euros/d.

  18. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... in adult life. In this poster, we report data on hepatic lipid content. Methods: Rat dams were fed a 60 E% fat diet and given 15% sucrose (HFHS) in the drinking water or chow and pure water (C) six weeks before mating as well as during gestation and lactation. After birth, male pups was cross......-fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age...

  19. Microbial biomass in faeces of dairy cows affected by a nitrogen deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Daphne Isabel; Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Joergensen, Rainer Georg; Sundrum, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Since more than half of the faecal nitrogen (N) originates from microbial N, the objective of the study was to develop a method for quantitatively detecting microbial biomass and portion of living microorganisms in dairy cattle faeces, including bacteria, fungi and archaea. Three techniques were tested: (1) the chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) method, (2) detection of the fungal cell-membrane component ergosterol and (3) analysis of the cell wall components fungal glucosamine and bacterial muramic acid. In a second step, an N deficient (ND) and an N balanced (NB) diets were compared with respect to the impacts on faecal C and N fractions, microbial indices and digestibility. The mean values of microbial biomass C and N concentrations averaged around 37 and 4.9 mg g(-1) DM, respectively. Ergosterol, together with fungal glucosamine and bacterial muramic acid, revealed a 25% fungal C in relation to the total microbial C content in dairy cattle faeces. Changes in ruminal N supply showed significant effects on faecal composition. Faecal concentrations of NDF, hemicelluloses and undigested dietary N and the total C/N ratio were significantly higher in ND treatment compared to the NB treatment. N deficiency was reflected also by a higher microbial biomass C/N ratio. It was concluded that the assessment of microbial indices provides valuable information with respect to diet effects on faecal composition and the successive decomposition. Further studies should be conducted to explore the potentials for minimising nutrient losses from faeces.

  20. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Factors Affecting Obesity in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Yüksel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence overweight and obese among children and adolescents increases gradually in the world and became an epidemic in both developing and developed countries. Overweight and obesity in the adolescent period are the main risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases in the adulthood period. This study was planned to reveal the prevalence of obesity and association of healthy lifestyle behaviors with obesity in adolescents. Methods: This research was carried out 859 students studying at Istanbul Hezarfen High School between the dates 1 February to 31 March 2017. The general dietary habits and night eating statuses were determined using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ and anthropometric parameters such as height and body weight were measured. Results: The mean age of the students was 15.9 ± 1.3 years. Of the students, 19.2% had overweight, 13.7% had obese BMI values. In this study, 32.4% of all students had low and 13% of them had optimal nutritional quality. The difference between two genders was statistically significant (p<0.05. The Night Eating Syndrome was not present in 78.9% of all students whereas it was detected in 21.1% of them. Conclusions: In our study, there was no statistically significant relationship between obesity, adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Night Eating Syndrome.

  1. Daily interactions with aging parents and adult children: Associations with negative affect and diurnal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Manalel, Jasmine A; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    Midlife adults report greater investment in their children than in their parents, and these ties have important implications for well-being. To date, little research has addressed daily experiences in these ties. The present study examines daily experiences (negative and positive) with aging parents and adult children and their associations with daily negative affect and diurnal cortisol rhythms. Participants were middle-aged adults (N = 156; 56% women) from Wave 2 of the Family Exchanges Study, conducted in 2013, who completed a 7-day daily diary study, which included assessments of daily negative and positive social encounters and negative affect, and 4 days of saliva collection, which was collected 3 times a day (upon waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime) and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models revealed that individuals were more likely to have contact with adult children than with parents but more likely to have negative experiences (negative interactions, avoidance, negative thoughts) with parents than with adult children. Nevertheless, contact and negative experiences with adult children were more consistently associated with negative affect and daily cortisol patterns than were interactions with parents. Findings are consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis, which suggests that individuals have a greater stake in their children than in their parents. Indeed, negative experiences with adult children may be more salient because tensions with adult children occur less frequently than do tensions with parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Factors affecting self-regulatory driving practices among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Charlton, Judith L; Eby, David W; Langford, Jim; Koppel, Sjaan; Kolenic, Giselle E; Marshall, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to better understand how self-regulatory driving practices at multiple levels of driver decision making are influenced by various factors. Specifically, the study investigated patterns of tactical and strategic self-regulation among a sample of 246 Australian older drivers. Of special interest was the relative influence of several variables on the adoption of self-regulation, including self-perceptions of health, functioning, and abilities for safe driving and driving confidence and comfort. The research was carried out at the Monash University Accident Research Centre, as part of its Ozcandrive study, a partnership with the Canadian Driving Research Initiative for Vehicular Safety in the Elderly (Candrive), and in conjunction with the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). Candrive/Ozcandrive represents the first study to follow a large group of older drivers over several years and collect comprehensive self-reported and objectively derived data on health, functioning, and driving. This study used a subset of data from the Candrive/Ozcandrive study. Upon enrolling in the study, participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment during which data on visual, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning were collected. Approximately 4 months after study enrollment, participants completed the Advanced Driving Decisions and Patterns of Travel (ADDAPT) questionnaire, a computer-based self-regulation instrument developed and pilot-tested at UMTRI. Self-regulation among older adults was found to be a multidimensional concept. Rates of self-regulation were tied closely to specific driving situations, as well as level of decision making. In addition, self-regulatory practices at the strategic and tactical levels of decision making were influenced by different sets of factors. Continuing efforts to better understand the self-regulatory practices of older drivers at multiple levels of driver performance and

  3. Does allergic rhinitis affect communication skills in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, Can Cemal; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence in the general population. The symptoms of AR can impair the cognitive capabilities of the affected people. The study of communication skills and AR interaction has not been adequately discussed. We aimed to analyze Social Communication Skills of university students with AR. Fifty patients suffering from AR and 50 healthy subjects were studied. All participants completed two questionnaires [Social Communication Skills Rating Scale (SCSRS) and Communication Questionnaire] for the assessment of social communication skills. Total scores of both SCSRS and Communication Questionnaire were higher in participants with AR than controls. When the questions of SCSRS were compared between the groups one by one, significant difference was observed between the groups for questions numbered 1-9 and 11, 12 (p Communication Questionnaire (p communication skills of the patients with AR. More research is however needed to validate this hypothesis.

  4. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y; ...

  5. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: A meta-analysis of andomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  6. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  7. Intervening on Affective Involvement and Expression of Emotions in an Adult with Congenital Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marga A. W.; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Huisman, Mark; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 20-week intervention to foster affective involvement during interaction and communication between an adult with congenital deafblindness (CDB) and his caregivers in a group home and a daytime activities center. Using a single-subject design, we examined whether the intervention increased affective involvement…

  8. Mediterranean diet and 3-year Alzheimer brain biomarker changes in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Valentina; Walters, Michelle; Sterling, Joanna; Quinn, Crystal G; Logue, Michelle; Andrews, Randolph; Matthews, Dawn C; Osorio, Ricardo S; Pupi, Alberto; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Isaacson, Richard S; de Leon, Mony J; Mosconi, Lisa

    2018-04-13

    To examine in a 3-year brain imaging study the effects of higher vs lower adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (MeDi) on Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker changes (brain β-amyloid load via 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] PET and neurodegeneration via 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] PET and structural MRI) in midlife. Seventy 30- to 60-year-old cognitively normal participants with clinical, neuropsychological, and dietary examinations and imaging biomarkers at least 2 years apart were examined. These included 34 participants with higher (MeDi+) and 36 with lower (MeDi-) MeDi adherence. Statistical parametric mapping and volumes of interest were used to compare AD biomarkers between groups at cross section and longitudinally. MeDi groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. At baseline, compared to the MeDi+ group, the MeDi- group showed reduced FDG-PET glucose metabolism (CMRglc) and higher PiB-PET deposition in AD-affected regions ( p brain aging and AD. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and perceptions of the environment in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A A; Townshend, T; Alvanides, S; Stamp, E; Adamson, A J

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have explored both food behaviour and physical activity in an environmental context. Most research in this area has focused on adults; the aim of the present study was to describe perceptions of the environment, diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns in 16-20 year olds in full-time education (Newcastle, UK). Participants (n = 73) recruited from a college and sixth-form college completed a UK version of the Youth Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Survey, which included measures of sedentary behaviour. A validated food frequency questionnaire was completed and a factor applied to produce an estimated mean daily frequency of intake of each item, which was converted to nutrient intakes. A rank for Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) was assigned to their home postcode. Analysis explored associations between sedentary behaviours and nutrient intake. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, most participants reported being physically active for at least 1 h day(-1) on 3-4 (n = 28) or 5-7 days (n = 31). There were no significant differences in nutrient intake according to sample quartile IMD position. Sedentary behaviours were significantly associated with less healthy eating patterns. Higher total energy (P = 0.02), higher fat (P = 0.005), percentage energy from fat (P = 0.035) and lower carbohydrate intakes (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with more time spent watching DVDs at the weekend. This combination of sedentary behaviour and less healthy eating patterns has important implications for long-term health (e.g. the tracking of being overweight and obesity from adolescence into adulthood). Understanding behaviour relationships is an important step in developing interventions in this age group.

  10. Clinical features and symptom recovery on a gluten-free diet in Canadian adults with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Olga; Zarkadas, Marion; Dubois, Sheila; Macisaac, Krista; Cantin, Isabelle; La Vieille, Sebastien; Godefroy, Samuel; Rashid, Mohsin

    2013-08-01

    Celiac disease can present with mild or nongastrointestinal symptoms, and may escape timely recognition. The treatment of celiac disease involves a gluten-free diet, which is complex and challenging. To evaluate clinical features and symptom recovery on a gluten-free diet in a Canadian adult celiac population. All adult members (n=10,693) of the two national celiac support organizations, the Canadian Celiac Association and Fondation québécoise de la maladie coeliaque, were surveyed using a questionnaire. A total of 5912 individuals (≥18 years of age) with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and⁄or dermatitis herpetiformis completed the survey. The female to male ratio was 3:1, and mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 45.2 ± 16.4 years. Mean time to diagnosis after onset of symptoms was 12.0 ± 14.4 years. Abdominal pain and bloating (84.9%), extreme weakness⁄tiredness (74.2%), diarrhea (71.7%) and anemia (67.8%) were the most commonly reported symptoms at the time of diagnosis. Many respondents continued to experience symptoms after being on a gluten-free diet for >5 years. Sex differences were reported in clinical features before diagnosis, recovery after being on gluten-free diet and perceived quality of life, with women experiencing more difficulties than men. Delays in diagnosis of celiac disease in Canada remain unacceptably long despite wider availability of serological screening tests. Many patients report continuing symptoms despite adhering to a gluten-free diet for >5 years, with women experiencing more symptoms and a lower recovery rate than men. Awareness of celiac disease needs improvement, and follow-up with a physician and a dietitian is essential for all patients with celiac disease.

  11. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Schmid, J; Schladweiler, M C; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O 3 ). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O 3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW. HF diet was terminated at PND 35 and all offspring were placed on CD. Body weight and %fat of dams were greatest in order; HF-SED > HF-RW > CD-SED > CD-RW. Adult offspring were exposed to O 3 for two consecutive days (0.8 ppm, 4 h/day). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT), ventilatory parameters (plethysmography), and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell counts and protein biomarkers were performed to assess response to O 3 . Exercise and diet altered body weight and %fat of young offspring. GTT, ventilation and BALF cell counts were exacerbated by O 3 with responses markedly exacerbated in males. HF diet and O 3 led to significant exacerbation of several BALF parameters: total cell count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were increased in male HF-SED versus CD-SED. Males were hyperglycemic after O 3 exposure and exhibited exacerbated GTT responses. Ventilatory dysfunction was also exacerbated in males. Maternal exercise had minimal effects on O 3 response. The results of this exploratory study suggest a link between maternal obesity and susceptibility to O 3 in their adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

  12. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es.

  13. Maternal western diet primes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adult mouse offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruis, M. G. M.; Lendvai, A.; Bloks, V. W.; Zwier, M. V.; Baller, J. F. W.; de Bruin, A.; Groen, A. K.; Plosch, T.

    AimMetabolic programming via components of the maternal diet during gestation may play a role in the development of different aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Using a mouse model, we aimed to characterize the role of maternal western-type diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver

  14. Predictors of diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); M.T. Mulder (Monique); A.J.M. Verhoeven; Van Wietmarschen, H. (Herman); Boessen, R. (Ruud); Pellis, L.P. (Linette P.); Van Spijker, A.T. (Adriaan T); R. Timman (Reinier); B. Özcan (Behiye); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2

  15. Predictors of diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, K.A.; Mulder, M.T.; Verhoeven, A.J.M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Boessen, R.; Pellis, L.P.; Spijker, A.T. van; Timman, R.; Ozcan, B.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods

  16. Positive Affect and Suicide Ideation in Older Adult Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Chapman, Benjamin; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem for older adults. Identification of protective factors associated with reduced risk is important. The authors examined the association of positive affect and suicide ideation in 462 primary care patients ages 65 and older. Positive affect distinguished suicide ideators from nonideators, after controlling for age, gender, depression, negative affect, illness burden, activity, sociability, cognitive functioning, and physical functioning. There was ...

  17. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  18. Effects of diet composition on intake by adult wild European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, K A

    1989-12-01

    The voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) of several grass and legume diets, and the amount of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, fibre, and energy assimilated from each diet (i.e. the digestibility coefficients) are presented for the wild European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. The DMI may be predicted from DM% and percentage of total nitrogen (on a DM basis) for a high DM diet (90-95%) but the general relationship may stand for fresh forage also. The metabolizable energy of a diet is correlated with DMI through the DM% and the percentage of nitrogen and fibre in the diet on a DM basis. The DM digestibility coefficient is correlated with fibre content. The wild rabbit's high efficiency of protein digestibility and low fibre digestibility compared with ruminants is also a characteristic of the domestic rabbit. It is suggested that the proportions of different nutrients required by wild rabbits are similar to those required by domestic animals.

  19. Calorie restriction in overweight seniors: response of older adults to a dieting study: the CROSSROADS randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marilyn C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Wingo, Brooks C; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), and functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article.

  20. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

  1. Association between diet quality, dietary patterns and cardiometabolic health in Australian adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2018-02-12

    Diet quality indices score dietary intakes against recommendations, whereas dietary patterns consider the pattern and combination of dietary intakes. Studies evaluating both methodologies in relation to cardiometabolic health in a nationally representative sample are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between diet quality, dietary patterns and markers of cardiometabolic health in Australian adults. Dietary data, using two 24-h dietary recalls, were collected from adults in the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013 (n = 2121; 46.4 (SE 0.48) years). Diet quality was estimated using the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI). Dietary patterns (DPs), derived using reduced rank regression, were estimated using fiber density, SFA: PUFA and total sugars intake as intermediate markers. Multi-variable adjusted linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between diet quality and DPs and blood biomarkers, body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and an overall cardiometabolic risk score. DGI was associated with lower glucose (coef - 0.009, SE 0.004; P-trend = 0.033), body mass index (coef - 0.017, SE 0.007; P-trend = 0.019) and waist circumference (coef - 0.014, SE 0.005; P-trend = 0.008). Two dietary patterns were derived: dietary pattern-1 was characterized by higher intakes of pome fruit and wholegrain bread, while dietary pattern-2 was characterized by higher intakes of added sugars and tropical fruit. Dietary pattern-1 was associated with lower body mass index (coef - 0.028, SE 0.007; P-trendDietary pattern-2 was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol (coef - 0.026, SE 0.012; P-trend = 0.028). There was a trend towards lower diastolic blood pressure. No associations with other markers were observed. Better diet quality and healthier dietary patterns were primarily associated with favorable anthropometric markers of cardiometabolic health. Findings

  2. The association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and diet quality indices in Iranian adults: results from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Akhavanzanjani, Mohsen; Taheri, Marzieh; Golshahi, Jafar; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and dietary quality indices in Iranian adults. This cross section was conducted among 1571 Iranian adults aged  ≥19 years. GI, GL and diet quality indices were estimated by 24-h recall and DDS was calculated using a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants who were in the top tertile of GI had lower healthy eating index (HEI) (57.2 ± 7.8 versus 55.6 ± 8.7; p diet quality indices may suggest the relevance of carbohydrate source in determining the diet quality indices.

  3. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  4. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  5. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  6. Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holm, Lotte; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Tetens, Inge

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults' recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011-2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18-75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised 'unhealthy', 'somewhat healthy' and 'healthy'. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough 'to a high degree', 'to some degree' or 'not at all/only partly'. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does a low FODMAPs diet reduce symptoms of functional abdominal pain disorders? A systematic review in adult and paediatric population, on behalf of Italian Society of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Rossella; Salvatore, Silvia; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Claudio; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Staiano, Annamaria

    2018-05-15

    Despite the rising of the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs)' incidence in the last years, the etio-pathogenesis of FGIDs remains unclear. The diet seems to play an important role in these disorders. Indeed, at least two thirds of adult patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and of children with FGIDs perceive their GI symptoms to be food-related. In particular, in the last years, more interest has been focused in the low Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyol (FODMAPs) diet. To provide a systematic review on the efficacy of a low FODMAPs diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (via Pubmed), and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2017 were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, reporting the efficacy of the FODMAPs diet intervention in FGIDs patients. Nineteen studies were eligible. A FODMAPs-restricted diet is beneficial in 12/13 intervention trials. The low FODMAPs diet improves overall GI symptoms, especially abdominal pain and bloating. In children, only one study reported positive results of a low FODMAPs diet. No effect was found for the lactose free diet whilst fructose-restricted diet was effective in 3/4 studies. The duration of the intervention was very different among the studies, ranging from 2 days to 16 months, and from 3 and 9 weeks for the RCTs. The majority of the trials presented differences in symptoms scoring scales, diet, food diaries, and food frequencies questionnaire. The FODMAPs-restricted diet may be an effective dietary intervention for reducing IBS symptoms in adults. In children, there are promising data, although only one randomized double-blind study exists and further data are needed to better clarify the role of FODMAPs and fructose-restricted diet in IBS. The current evidence does not support the use of a lactose

  8. [Bolsa-Família Program: diet quality of adult population in Curitiba, Paraná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávia Emília Leite de; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Uchimura, Kátia Yumi; Picheth, Telma

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the quality of diet of the population receiving the Bolsa Familia Program in Curitiba, state of Parana, Brazil. It was a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted from July 2006 to July 2007. 747 beneficiaries were interviewed from 19 years of age, of both genders. A 24 hour-recall was implemented in order to assess the quality of the diet and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used as a parameter for the classification of the group in consumption levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the diet quality of the studied population. Wald test and ANOVA test were performed to compare the means of the index according to the socio-economic variables, considering a significance level of 5%. The sample comprised 91.4% of women and 8.6% of men. The average age of the population was 36.4 ± 13.3 years, with 75% having completed elementary school. The mean HEI was 51 points, which features a diet that needs improvement. The population has a monotonous diet with an adequate intake of legumes, but low for fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Comparing the categories of diet quality of individuals, all components, except sodium, showed statistically different median score (p < 0.01). Studies that evaluate the quality of the diet are essential to support the implementation of nutrition education programs targeted to the core of the problem in the populations studied.

  9. Attention Network Test in adults with ADHD - the impact of affective fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Adolfsdottir, Steinunn; Halleland, Helene

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Attention Network Test (ANT) generates measures of different aspects of attention/executive function. In the present study we investigated whether adults with ADHD performed different from controls on measures of accuracy, variability and vigilance as well as the control...... network. Secondly, we studied subgroups of adults with ADHD, expecting impairment on measures of the alerting and control networks in a subgroup with additional symptoms of affective fluctuations. METHODS: A group of 114 adults (ADHD n=58; controls n=56) performed the ANT and completed the Adult ADHD...... Rating Scale (ASRS) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). The latter was used to define affective fluctuations. RESULTS: The sex distribution was similar in the two groups, but the ADHD group was significantly older (p=.005) and their score on a test of intellectual function (WASI) significantly...

  10. Early-life Socio-economic Status and Adult Health: The Role of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Alexandre L., E-mail: aljordao@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa (IEPA), Macapa, AP (Brazil); Nakano, Octavio, E-mail: onakano@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Janeiro, Vanderly, E-mail: vjaneiro@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  12. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordao, Alexandre L.; Nakano, Octavio; Janeiro, Vanderly

    2010-01-01

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  13. Intestinal Barrier Function and the Gut Microbiome Are Differentially Affected in Mice Fed a Western-Style Diet or Drinking Water Supplemented with Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynets, Valentina; Louis, Sandrine; Pretz, Dominik; Lang, Lisa; Ostaff, Maureen J; Wehkamp, Jan; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of a Western-style diet (WSD) and high fructose intake are risk factors for metabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Objective: To unravel the mechanisms by which a WSD and fructose promote metabolic disease, we investigated their effects on the gut microbiome and barrier function. Methods: Adult female C57BL/6J mice were fed a sugar- and fat-rich WSD or control diet (CD) for 12 wk and given access to tap water or fructose-supplemented water. The microbiota was analyzed with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Barrier function was studied with the use of permeability tests, and endotoxin, mucus thickness, and gene expressions were measured. Results: The WSD increased body weight gain but not endotoxin translocation compared with the CD. In contrast, high fructose intake increased endotoxin translocation 2.6- and 3.8-fold in the groups fed the CD + fructose and WSD + fructose, respectively, compared with the CD group. The WSD + fructose treatment also induced a loss of mucus thickness in the colon (-46%) and reduced defensin expression in the ileum and colon. The lactulose:mannitol ratio in the WSD + fructose mice was 1.8-fold higher than in the CD mice. Microbiota analysis revealed that fructose, but not the WSD, increased the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio by 88% for CD + fructose and 63% for WSD + fructose compared with the CD group. Bifidobacterium abundance was greater in the WSD mice than in the CD mice (63-fold) and in the WSD + fructose mice than in the CD + fructose mice (330-fold). Conclusions: The consumption of a WSD or high fructose intake differentially affects gut permeability and the microbiome. Whether these differences are related to the distinct clinical outcomes, whereby the WSD primarily promotes weight gain and high fructose intake causes barrier dysfunction, needs to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Maternal and postnatal high-fat diets with high ?6:?3 ratios affect the reproductive performance of male offspring in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, S; Stutz, G; Solís, M R; Martini, A C; Vincenti, L M; Ponzio, M F; Luque, E; Avendaño, C; Quiroga, P; Santillán, M E

    2018-05-24

    High-fat diets (HFDs) are an acknowledged risk factor for male subfertility, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we compared the effects of two HFDs with different ω6:ω3 ratios, one enriched with soy oil (SOD; ω6:ω3=9.62) and another enriched with sunflower oil (SFOD; ω6:ω3=51.55), with those of a commercial diet (CD; ω6:ω3=19.87), supplied from pregnancy to adulthood, on morphometric parameters and reproductive performance in adult male mice (recommended ω6:ω3 for rodents=1-6). Bodyweight was significantly higher in the SFOD than CD group, and relative testicular weight was significantly lower in the SFOD than the other two groups. SFOD altered sperm performance: it reduced sperm viability (mean±s.e.m.; 76.00±1.35% vs 82.50±1.45% and 80.63±1.00% in the SFOD vs CD and SOD groups respectively; P<0.05) and increased the percentage of immature spermatozoa (71.88±7.17% vs 51.38±5.87% and 48.00±5.72% in the SFOD vs CD and SOD groups respectively; P<0.05). The epididymal ω6:ω3 ratio was higher in the SFOD versus CD and SOD groups, whereas the unsaturation index was higher in the SOD and SFOD groups than in CD group. Sperm membrane integrity was diminished in both the SOD and SFOD groups, but there was no difference in sperm reactive oxygen species production in these two groups compared with the CD group. The fertilisation rate was lower in the SFOD compared with the CD and SOD groups. In conclusion, although both HFDs affected sperm quality, the fertilising ability was more altered by the excessive dietary ω6:ω3 ratio than by the net ω6 content.

  15. Low tryptophan diet increases stress-sensitivity, but does not affect habituation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanke, Marit A. C.; Alserda, Edwin; Doornbos, Bennard; van der Most, Peter J.; Goeman, Kitty; Postema, Folkert; Korf, Jakob

    Cerebral dysfunction of 5-HT (serotonin) has been associated with stress response and with affective disorders. Stress alone is insufficient to induce depression, since only a minor proportion of subjects that have experienced stressful life events develop depressive episodes. We investigated

  16. Storm Impact and Depression Among Older Adults Living in Hurricane Sandy-Affected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Halkett, Ashley; Giunta, Nancy; Kerrigan, Janice; Raeifar, Elmira; Artis, Amanda; Banerjee, Samprit; Raue, Patrick J

    2017-02-01

    Research on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health of older adults finds both vulnerabilities and resilience. We report on the rates of clinically significant depression among older adults (aged ≥60 years) living in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and the factors associated with mental health need. The Sandy Mobilization, Assessment, Referral and Treatment for Mental Health (SMART-MH) program integrates community outreach and needs assessments to identify older adults with mental health and aging service needs. Older adults with significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were offered short-term psychotherapy. Social service referrals were made directly to community agencies. All SMART-MH activities were offered in Spanish, Russian, Mandarin/Cantonese, and English. Across the full sample, 14% of participants screened positive for depression. Hurricane Sandy stressors predicted increased odds of depression, including storm injury, post-storm crime, and the total count of stressors. Outcomes varied significantly by age group, such that all Sandy-related variables remained significant for younger-old adults (aged 60-74 years), whereas only the loss of access to medical care was significant for older-old adults (aged ≥75 years). Storm-affected communities show higher rates of depressive symptoms than seen in the general population, with storm stressors affecting mental health needs differentially by age group. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:97-109).

  17. Ewe's diet (pasture vs grain-based feed) affects volatile profile of cooked meat from light lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Elisabeth; Jordán, María José; Martínez, Cristina; Sotomayor, José Antonio; Bedia, Mario; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-09-08

    The effects of ewe's diet during gestation and lactation on the volatile compounds profile in cooked meat from light lamb were compared. Two lamb groups from ewes that had been fed pasture (PA) or grain-based concentrate (FE) were tested. Cooked loin mixed with saliva was analyzed by solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The fiber coating used was divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane. The volatiles detected and quantified were aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, phenols, indole, and sulfur compounds. The ewe's diet strongly affected the volatile compounds profile of the cooked meat. The total volatiles concentration was higher in PA (409 mg kg(-1)) than in FE (201 mg kg(-1)). The major volatiles in PA were phenol, 4-methylphenol, and hexanoic acid, while the major volatile in FE was 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. No branched C8-C9 fatty acids responsible for mutton flavor were detected in either group. The findings suggest that nutritional strategies can be use during gestation and lactation to modify the aroma of light lamb meat in the light of consumer preferences.

  18. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Coeliac disease in adolescence: Coping strategies and personality factors affecting compliance with gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Grylli, Vasileia; Berger, Gabriele; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Woeber, Christian; Rhind, Charlotte; Karwautz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Patients suffering from a chronic condition such as coeliac disease (CD) need to develop coping strategies in order to preserve emotional balance and psychosocial functioning while adhering to their obligatory life-long gluten free diet (GFD). However, this can be particularly challenging for adolescents and may lead to dietary transgressions. Little is currently known about the influence of coping strategies and personality factors on dietary compliance. This study aims to explore these factors for the first time in adolescents with biopsy-proven CD. We included 281 adolescents with CD and 95 healthy controls. We classified patients according to their GFD adherence status (adherent vs. non-adherent) and assessed coping strategies using the KIDCOPE and personality traits using the Junior-Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI). Adolescents with CD adherent to GFD used less emotional regulation and distraction as coping strategies than non-adherent patients. In terms of personality traits, adherent patients differed from non-adherent patients with respect to temperament, but not with respect to character, showing lower scores in novelty seeking, impulsivity and rule transgressions and higher scores in eagerness with work and perfectionism compared to non-adherent patients. No differences were found between healthy controls and adherent CD patients across these personality traits. Coping strategies and personality traits differ in adolescent patients with CD adherent to GFD from those not adherent, and may therefore relate to risk or protective factors in adherence. Targeting coping and temperament using psychological interventions may therefore be beneficial to support adolescents with CD and optimise their adherence to GFD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  1. Maternal High-Fat and High-Salt Diets Have Differential Programming Effects on Metabolism in Adult Male Rat Offspring

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    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl, high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl, high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet and were culled on postnatal day 130 for plasma and tissue collection. Adipocyte histology and adipose tissue, liver, and gut gene expression were examined in adult male offspring. HF offspring had significantly greater body weight, impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia compared to CD offspring, but these increases were blunted in HFSD offspring. HF offspring had moderate adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of the pre-adipocyte marker Dlk1. There was a significant effect of maternal salt with increased hepatic expression of Dgat1 and Igfb2. Gut expression of inflammatory (Il1r1, Tnfα, Il6, and Il6r and renin–angiotensin system (Agtr1a, Agtr1b markers was significantly reduced in HFSD offspring compared to HF offspring. Therefore, salt mitigates some adverse offspring outcomes associated with a maternal HF diet, which may be mediated by altered adipose tissue morphology and gut inflammatory and renin–angiotensin regulation.

  2. Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats

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    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect.

  3. Improvements in Functional Exercise Capacity after a Residential Behavioural Change, Diet and Fitness Program for Obese Adults.

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    Errickson, Sadye Paez; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Skidmore, Megan Simmons; Endress, Gerald; Østbye, Truls; Crosby, Ross; Eisenson, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Obese adults are at an increased risk for mobility-related problems. National guidelines recommend calorie restrictions and exercise for obese adults as a means to improve functional fitness capacity and to increase mobility. Yet, lifestyle weight loss interventions often fail to measure fitness changes. The aim of this study was to assess whether a 1-month, intensive behavioural change, diet and fitness intervention for overweight and obese adults would result in statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in functional exercise. A pre-post test design was used in this study. Seventy-two participants (40 women, 32 men; mean baseline body mass index (BMI) = 42.6 + 9.0; mean age = 45.8 + 16.8) completed a modified 6-minute walk test (6MWT), performed on a treadmill, at baseline and at end of treatment. Significant improvements included decreased BMI (2.7 + 1.7 kg m(-2) , p diet and fitness programme. Physiotherapists are in a prime position to address the physical and motivational challenges participants face while living with severe obesity: targeting functional exercise capacity is one key strategy for addressing immobility associated with obesity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Effect of Hypoallergenic Diagnostic Diet in Adolescents and Adult Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

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    Jarmila Celakovská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of a diagnostic hypoallergenic diet on the severity of atopic dermatitis in patients over 14 years of age. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic hypoallergenic diet was recommended to patients suffering from atopic dermatitis for a period of 3 weeks. The severity of atopic dermatitis was evaluated at the beginning and at the end of this diet (SCORAD I, SCORAD II and the difference in the SCORAD over this period was statistically evaluated. Results: One hundred and forty-nine patients suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: 108 women and 41 men. The average age of the subjects was 26.03 (SD: 9.6 years, with the ages ranging from a minimum of 14 years to a maximum of 63 years. The mean SCORAD at the beginning of the study (SCORAD I was 32.9 points (SD: 14.1 and the mean SCORAD at the end of the diet (SCORAD II was 25.2 points (SD: 9.99. The difference between SCORAD I and SCORAD II was evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The average decrease of SCORAD was 7.7 points, which was statistically significant (P=.00000. Conclusion: Introduction of the diagnostic hypoallergenic diet may serve as a temporary medical solution" in patients suffering from moderate or severe forms of atopic dermatitis. It is recommended that this diet be used in the diagnostic workup of food allergy.

  5. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-02-06

    Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. We included 100 overweight and obese adults (55-80 year) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design and intention-to-treat analysis. During a 10-week weight loss program all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet. Subjects were randomly allocated to either a high protein (1.3 g/kg body weight) or normal protein diet (0.8 g/kg), with or without a resistance exercise program 3 times/week. FFM was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. At baseline, mean (±SD) BMI was 32 ± 4 kg/m 2 . During intervention, protein intake was 1.13 ± 0.35 g/kg in the high protein groups vs. 0.98 ± 0.29 in the normal protein groups, which reflects a 16.3 ± 5.2 g/d higher protein intake in the high protein groups. Both high protein diet and exercise did not significantly affect change in body weight, FFM and fat mass (FM). No significant protein*exercise interaction effect was observed for FFM. However, within-group analysis showed that high protein in combination with exercise significantly increased FFM (+0.6 ± 1.3 kg, p = 0.011). A high protein diet, though lower than targeted, did not significantly affect changes in FFM during modest weight loss in older overweight and obese adults. There was no significant interaction between the high protein diet and resistance exercise for change in FFM. However, only the group with the combined intervention of high protein diet and resistance exercise significantly increased in FFM. Dutch Trial Register, number NTR4556, date 05-01-2014.

  6. Zooming into daily life: within-person associations between physical activity and affect in young adults.

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    Haas, Petra; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud; Reuter, Merle; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-05-01

    Negative affect in daily life is linked to poorer mental and physical health. Activity could serve as an effective, low-cost intervention to improve affect. However, few prior studies have assessed physical activity and affect in everyday life, limiting the ecological validity of prior findings. This study investigates whether daily activity is associated with negative and positive evening affect in young adults. Young adults (N = 189, Mdn = 23.00) participated in an intensive longitudinal study over 10 consecutive days. Participants wore accelerometers to objectively assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity continuously throughout the day and reported their affect in time-stamped online evening diaries before going to sleep. On days when participants engaged in more activity than usual, they reported not only less depressed and angry evening affect but also more vigour and serenity in the evening. Young adults showed both less negative and more positive affect on days with more activity. Physical activity is a promising health promotion strategy for physical and mental well-being.

  7. Genetic predisposition for adult lactose intolerance and relation to diet, bone density, and bone fractures.

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    Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara M; Bonelli, Christine M; Walter, Daniela E; Kuhn, Regina J; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Berghold, Andrea; Goessler, Walter; Stepan, Vinzenz; Dobnig, Harald; Leb, Georg; Renner, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    Evidence that genetic disposition for adult lactose intolerance significantly affects calcium intake, bone density, and fractures in postmenopausal women is presented. PCR-based genotyping of lactase gene polymorphisms may complement diagnostic procedures to identify persons at risk for both lactose malabsorption and osteoporosis. Lactase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive condition resulting in decreased intestinal lactose degradation. A -13910 T/C dimorphism (LCT) near the lactase phlorizin hydrolase gene, reported to be strongly associated with adult lactase nonpersistence, may have an impact on calcium supply, bone density, and osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. We determined LCT genotypes TT, TC, and CC in 258 postmenopausal women using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Genotypes were related to milk intolerance, nutritional calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, bone mineral density (BMD), and nonvertebral fractures. Twenty-four percent of all women were found to have CC genotypes and genetic lactase deficiency. Age-adjusted BMD at the hip in CC genotypes and at the spine in CC and TC genotypes was reduced by -7% to -11% depending on the site measured (p = 0.04). LCT(T/C-13910) polymorphisms alone accounted for 2-4% of BMD in a multiple regression model. Bone fracture incidence was significantly associated with CC genotypes (p = 0.001). Milk calcium intake was significantly lower (-55%, p = 0.004) and aversion to milk consumption was significantly higher (+166%, p = 0.01) in women with the CC genotype, but there were no differences in overall dietary calcium intake or in intestinal calcium absorption test values. The LCT(T/C-13910) polymorphism is associated with subjective milk intolerance, reduced milk calcium intake, and reduced BMD at the hip and the lumbar spine and may predispose to bone fractures. Genetic testing for lactase deficiency may complement indirect methods in the detection of individuals at risk for both lactose

  8. A Mediterranean-type diet is associated with better metabolic profile in urban Polish adults: Results from the HAPIEE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Topor-Mądry, Roman; Stefler, Denes; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study. Materials/methods A cross-sectional survey including 8821 adults was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Food intake was evaluated through a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the dietary pattern was assessed using a score specifically developed for non-Mediterranean countries (MedTypeDiet score). Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate beta and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. Results Significant associations between the MedTypeDiet score and waist circumference (β = − 0.307 ± 0.239 cm), systolic blood pressure (β = − 0.440 ± 0.428 mmHg), and triglycerides (β = − 0.021 ± 0.016 mmol/L) were observed. After multivariable adjustment, individuals in the highest quartile of the score were less likely to have MetS, central obesity, high triglycerides, and hypertension. Increase of one standard deviation of the score was associated with 7% less odds of having MetS (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). When analyzing the relation of single components of the MedTypeDiet score, wine, dairy products, and the total unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio were associated with MetS. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet may decrease the risk of MetS also among non-Mediterranean populations. PMID:25752843

  9. Description of the healthy eating indices-based diet quality in Turkish adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Eda; Karacil Ermumcu, Merve Seyda; Mortas, Hande

    2017-03-20

    This study aims to describe the dietary status of Turkish adults using two different versions of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). In this cross sectional study, 494 healthy participants (311 females) with randomly selected and living in Ankara were included between September 2013 and March 2014. A questionnaire was completed and anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were performed. The 24-h dietary recall of individuals was collected. Diet quality was measured through HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores of individuals were 32.9 ± 10.8 years; 25.0 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 ; 56.1 ± 13.9 and 41.5 ± 13.7 points, respectively. Significant differences were found between mean HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores (p diet quality needs to be improved according to mean HEI-2005 score, had poorer diet based on mean HEI-2010 scores. The highest mean HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores were stated in female, in subjects had low education levels, aged 51 years or older and in overweight groups (p healthy eating indices were correlated positively with BMI and age CONCLUSION: Diet qualities of the individuals are associated with age, gender, education and BMI. Although the components and scores in HEI-2010 version were changed from the version of HEI-2005, the changes may encourage healthy choices of some food group. HEI-2010 gives more attention to food quality than HEI-2005. Thus, in the present study it was concluded that HEI-2010 provided more precise results about diet quality.

  10. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Yoshioka Miho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P . Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding

  11. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

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    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  12. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  13. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically

  14. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age, piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age, all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age, response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT. During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06, but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05 than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05, and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10. Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by

  15. The EVIDENT diet quality index is associated with cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in adults

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    Carmela Rodríguez-Martin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to simplify information from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs in a single parameter that allows for rapid identification of quality of patient diet and its relationship to cardiovascular risk and pulse wave velocity (PWV. Methods The sample from the EVIDENT study, consisting of 1553 subjects (aged 20–80 years with no cardiovascular disease selected by random sampling among those attending primary care clinics, was used. The EVIDENT diet index (range 0–100 was calculated based on the results of a FFQ. Evaluation of dietary habits also included adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD. Cardiovascular risk was estimated, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured. Results Mean subject age was 54.9 ± 13.8 years, and 60.3% of subjects were female. The mean value of the EVIDENT diet index was 52.1 ± 3.2 points. Subjects in the third tertile (the highest score had the greatest adherence to MD and the highest energy intake, with greater amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and fiber. The best cut-off point of the EVIDENT diet index for predicting good adherence to the MD is 52.3 (0.71 sensitivity, 0.61 specificity. In a multiple regression analysis, after a complete adjustment, it was estimated that for each one-point increase in the EVIDENT diet index, cardiovascular risk (CVR, blood-pressure, waist circumference, and PWV decreased by 0.14, 0.43, 0.24, and 0.09 respectively (p < 0.05, all. Conclusions The diet quality index developed is associated to CVR and its components, and also with arterial stiffness, as measured with PWV. This index is also a good predictor of adherence to MD.

  16. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

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    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  17. Proportion of insoluble fibre in the diet affects behaviour and hunger in broiler breeders growing at similar rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens

    2011-01-01

    With a view to alleviate the feeling of hunger in broiler breeders, different types of fibre sources were used in high-fibre diets to increase feed quantity while limiting growth to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (C1: commercial control diet, 1 × fibre content, 80...

  18. Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures. Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and alcohol, lower intakes of cereals, protein, fat and dietary fibre, and lower HDI (except for SF based on energy contribution in women) and MDS. After adjustment for potential confounders, MF based on time, but not MF based on energy contribution, was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in men only. SF was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference, irrespective of the definition of snacks. Higher SF was consistently associated with lower diet quality and higher adiposity measures, while associations with MF varied depending on the definition of meals and sex.

  19. Differential effects of genetic - and diet - induced obesity on fertility, spermatogenesis and sperm epigenome in adult male rats

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    Sharvari Deshpande

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health issue affecting millions of people of different age groups. The incidence of male obesity induced infertility is rising in couples undergoing ARTs suggesting that obesity is an established risk factor for male infertility. Recent studies demonstrate that paternal diet induced obesity could induce epigenetic disturbances in offspring. Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with predominantly genetic or environmental causes. No studies have compared the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on male reproduction. The present study aims to delineate effects of obesity on male fertility, spermatogenesis and sperm epigenome using two rat models: genetically induced obese (GIO – WNIN/OB and diet induced obese (DIO – High fat diet. Body weights were similar in both groups, but, differential effects on hormonal profiles were observed. Fertility assessment showed decreased litter size mainly due to increased pre- and post-implantation loss in DIO group. However, GIO group were infertile due to decrease in libido. We observed a decrease in sperm counts in GIO group but not in DIO group despite the body weights being similar in both the groups. Flow cytometry and cell type specific marker expression studies in testis revealed that both DIO and GIO affect mitosis and differentiation process by increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In DIO group, no effect was observed on meiosis whereas in GIO group, we observed an effect on meiosis. Spermiogenesis process was affected in both the groups. In order to study the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on different aspects of spermatogenesis, we performed qRT-PCR to study expression of genes involved in spermatocyte progression, spermiogenesis process, reproductive hormone receptors and leptin signaling in testis. Since epigenetic mechanisms are susceptible to environmental and genetic changes, we analyzed the methylation status of Igf2-H19 DMR in spermatozoa of both the

  20. A Healthy Nordic Diet Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile in Adults with Features of Metabolic Syndrome in a Multicenter Randomized Dietary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known. Objective: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Me...

  1. Outdoor Experiential Environmental Education: An Adult-Centred Intervention for the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of an outdoor experiential environmental education (OEEE) programme on the affective domain of adult participants--namely, in-service teachers from Turkey. Data collection methods such as; psychodrama, non-participant observation, open-ended questions and content analysis were used within a…

  2. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  3. The Relationships among Adult Affective Factors, Engagement in Science, and Scientific Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among adult affective factors, engagement in science, and scientific competencies. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to select 504 participants between the ages of 18 and 70 years. Data were collected through individual face-to-face interviews. The results of hierarchical regression…

  4. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  5. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  6. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Tamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01. The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05. This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  7. Xylitol affects the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of daidzein in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-12-10

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p XD group than in the CD group (p XD group than in the CD group (p XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  8. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  9. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (Psoup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  10. Physical activity, diet and behaviour modification in the treatment of overweight and obese adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södlerlund, Anne; Fischer, Annika; Johansson, Titti

    2009-05-01

    The aim was to extend the body of knowledge through a systematic review that combines the strengths and partly fills the gaps from earlier reviews. The aim is to review randomized controlled trials of the long-term effectiveness of physical exercise/activity with or without diet and/or behaviour modification therapy in terms of training effect, weight loss and improvement of body composition in overweight and obese, healthy adults. Data for systematic review was collected via a search of databases for literature published between 1995 and 2006. The search yielded 12 articles. The studies showed that training intensity should be moderate. The treatment of overweight and obese individuals with training alone cannot be expected to result in any substantial weight loss but should be combined with diet and behaviour modification therapy. However training can be an important factor in preventing further weight gain, or in helping individuals maintain a lowered body weight. According to this systematic review of randomized controlled trials, the treatment that produced the best weight loss results included a combination of training, behaviour therapy and diet.

  11. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet. PMID:23036993

  12. Disclosure of personal medical information: differences among parents and affected adults for genetic and nongenetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Summer; Kass, Nancy E; Natowicz, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the confidentiality of medical information has been an issue of great interest in the fields of bioethics, public policy, and law. Few empirical studies have addressed patient experiences and attitudes toward disclosure of private medical information in multiple contexts such as health insurance, employment, and the family. Furthermore, it is unclear whether differences exist in experiences and attitudes about privacy between those living with a serious medical condition versus those who have a child with a medical condition. The study sought to determine whether attitudes and experiences related to medical privacy and confidentiality differ between affected adults and parents of affected children. Interviews were conducted with 296 adults and parents of children with sickle cell disease (SCD), cystic fibrosis (CF), or diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional study collected data regarding their experiences, attitudes, and beliefs concerning medical privacy and confidentiality. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted on quantitative data. Qualitative analysis was conducted on data from open-ended response items. Parents disclose their child's diagnosis to others more often than affected adults disclose their own disease status. Parents are less likely than affected adults to regret their disclosure, to hope others do not find out, to have been pressured to share information, and to be asked about their disease by employers. Affected adults express greater concern about disclosure, a greater prevalence and greater fear of discrimination, and experience greater pressure from family members to disclose. Clinicians and researchers working with these populations should consider these differences in privacy and disclosure. Further study is necessary to examine the implications of these differences in attitudes and experiences concerning insurance, employment, and social interactions among persons with these conditions.

  13. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dijk, van S.J.; Hoelen, D.; Siebelink, E.; Heijligenberg, R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and

  14. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

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    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  15. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  16. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9% than women (17.7%, P Conclusion Eating takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with poorer diet quality and a higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in young men and women.

  17. The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study

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    Behnaz Shakersain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged ≥60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate (β = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077−0.201 and high adherence (β = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175−0.300 to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to ≤24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080−0.386 and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70. Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  18. The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakersain, Behnaz; Rizzuto, Debora; Larsson, Susanna C; Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Fratiglioni, Laura; Xu, Wei-Li

    2018-02-17

    Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged ≥60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate (β = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077-0.201) and high adherence (β = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175-0.300) to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to ≤24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080-0.386) and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70). Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  19. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied.In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation.These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  20. Methionine-supplemented diet affects the expression of cardiovascular disease-related genes and increases inflammatory cytokines in mice heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Amaral, Catia Lira do; Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Machado, Carla da Silva; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Santos, Patrick Wellington da Silva; Curi, Rui; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2017-01-01

    Some important environmental factors that influence the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include tobacco, excess alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Methionine obtained from the diet participates in the synthesis of DNA, proteins, lipids and affects homocysteine levels, which is associated with the elevated risk for CVD development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which dietary methionine might affect cellular mechanisms underlying CVD occurrence. Swiss albino mice were fed either control (0.3% DL-methionine), methionine-supplemented (2% DL-methionine), or a methionine-deprived diet (0% DL-methionine) over a 10-week period. The parameters measured included plasma homocysteine concentrations, oxidative stress by reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as expression of genes associated with CVD. The levels of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), a regulator of plasma triglycerides, were measured. The methionine-supplemented diet increased oxidative stress by lowering the GSH/GSSG ratio in heart tissues and decreased expression of the genes Apob, Ctgf, Serpinb2, Spp1, Il1b, and Sell, but elevated expression of Thbs4, Tgfb2, Ccr1, and Vegfa. Methionine-deprived diet reduced expression of Col3a1, Cdh5, Fabp3, Bax, and Hbegf and increased expression of Sell, Ccl5, Itga2, Birc3, Msr1, Bcl2a1a, Il1r2, and Selp. Methionine-deprived diet exerted pro-inflammatory consequences as evidenced by elevated levels of cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 noted in liver. Methionine-supplemented diet increased hepatic IL-6 and cardiac TNF-α. Both methionine supplementation and deprivation lowered hepatic levels of APOA5. In conclusion, data demonstrated that a methionine-supplemented diet modulated important biological processes associated with high risk of CVD development.

  1. Can an early 24-hour EEG predict the response to the ketogenic diet? A prospective study in 34 children and adults with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebus, S.C.M.; Lambrechts, D.A.J.E.; Herraets, I.J.T.; Majoie, H.J.M.; Louw, de A.J.A.; Boon, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Arends, J.B.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether early EEG changes in a 24-h EEG at 6 weeks of treatment were related to the later clinical response to the ketogenic diet (KD) in a 6-month period of treatment. Methods We examined 34 patients with heterogeneous epilepsy syndromes (21 children, 13 adults) and found 9

  2. Urgency traits moderate daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Fucito, Lisa M; DeMartini, Kelly S; Leeman, Robert F; Kranzler, Henry R; Corbin, William R; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2017-01-01

    Young adults with higher trait urgency (i.e., a tendency to act rashly in response to heightened affect) may be especially vulnerable to heavy drinking. The current study examined 1) the influence of urgency on daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication, and 2) whether urgency influenced the effectiveness of naltrexone (vs. placebo) for reducing alcohol use. This study is a secondary analysis of data from 126 (n=40 female) heavy drinking young adults, ages 18-25, enrolled in a double-blind, 8-week clinical trial comparing brief motivational intervention and either naltrexone or placebo. Multilevel models examined whether trait urgency moderated daily relations between positive and negative affect and drinking to intoxication, measured by an estimated blood-alcohol concentration (eBAC) at or above the legal limit (≥0.08g%). Person-level interactions examined whether naltrexone was more effective than placebo at reducing the odds of eBAC≥0.08g% for individuals with higher vs. lower trait urgency. On days of greater within-person positive or negative affect, young adults with higher urgency were more likely to drink to intoxication than those with lower urgency. Naltrexone reduced the odds of drinking to intoxication significantly more than placebo, independent of positive or negative urgency. Although naltrexone treatment reduced drinking overall, young adults with higher trait urgency were still at increased risk for hazardous drinking following times of strong positive or negative mood. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the risk of heavy drinking among young adults with high trait urgency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Daily relations among affect, urge, targeted naltrexone, and alcohol use in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Fucito, Lisa M; Corbin, William R; DeMartini, Kelly S; Leeman, Robert F; Kranzler, Henry R; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the use of targeted naltrexone. The current study was a secondary analysis of daily diary data from 127 (n = 40 female) young adults (age 18-25) enrolled in a double-blind clinical trial of daily (25 mg) plus targeted (25 mg) naltrexone versus placebo. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effects of daily affect, urge, and taking targeted medication on same-day risk of drinking to intoxication (defined as estimated blood-alcohol-concentration, BAC ≥ .08 g%). Results indicated urge significantly mediated within-person positive affect-drinking relations on a daily level. Specifically, positive affect was associated with greater urge to drink, which in turn was associated with greater odds of BAC ≥ .08 g%. Furthermore, days of greater positive affect and urge were associated with taking a targeted dose of medication, which reduced the likelihood of intoxication by nearly 23% in the naltrexone group compared to placebo. Gender and family history of alcohol dependence were examined as moderators of these daily level effects. These results provide further evidence of naltrexone's ability to reduce alcohol consumption in young adults and identify potential within-person risk processes related to heavy drinking that could inform alcohol-related interventions for this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Mozos, J; García-Ruiz, A I; den Hartog, L A; Villamide, M J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets. A total of 3,000 one-day-old female breeders Ross 308, distributed in 20 pens, was randomly assigned to each treatment. Feed allowance was weekly adjusted to reach the desired BW. Feed was provided as pelleted (zero to 3 wk) and crumble (4 to 19 wk). Time eating was measured at 7, 11, and 19 weeks. A feeding rate test was performed after 11 weeks. Behavior was observed at 9 and 15 wk, by visual scan. At 6, 13, and 19 wk of age, one bird/pen was slaughtered for weighing different organs and analyzing the composition of empty whole bodies. Treatments did not affect BW uniformity; relative weights of the ovary, oviduct, or gizzard; or protein content of empty BW. Time eating varied with the growth curve at 19 wk (P motivation. Behavior was affected by the age and by the time of the d measured, but it did not change with the treatments. Birds spent most time pecking objects (50%), feeding (28%), and drinking (17%). Pullets fed DIL had 8% lower breast yield at different ages and higher empty digestive tracts at 6 weeks. Body composition varied with age; fat content increased from 12.7 to 15.9 to 19.8% for 6, 13, and 19 wk, respectively. The lowest body fat was observed for RBW pullets fed DIL (P = 0.003) at 19 weeks. Feeding DIL diets to HBW pullets could be done to increase the time spent eating and reduce their feeling of hunger without negative effects on body composition. However, its influence on behavior and BW uniformity was not proved. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. The influence of inhibitory processes on affective theory of mind in young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Vetter, Nora; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Löcher, Carolin; Krautschuk, Susan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of an inhibition manipulation on the effect of age on theory of mind (ToM) in an ecologically valid, affective ToM task. Participants were 30 young and 30 old adults. The Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery was used to measure ToM; in addition, measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence were taken. Participants were subjected to three levels of inhibitory demand during ToM reasoning: emotional inhibition, non-emotional inhibition, and no inhibition. Old adults performed worse than young adults. The emotional and non-emotional inhibition conditions resulted in worse ToM performance compared to the no inhibition condition. There were no differences in the impact of the inhibition conditions on old and young adults. Regression analyses suggested that old adults' crystallized intelligence was a significant predictor of ToM performance, whereas it did not predict young adults' ToM performance. Results are discussed in terms of verbal ability as a possible compensatory mechanism in coping with verbal inhibitory load in ToM reasoning.

  6. Effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat feeding on diet-induced thermogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellayah, Dyan; Dib, Lea; Anthony, Frederick W; Watkins, Adam J; Fleming, Tom P; Hanson, Mark A; Cagampang, Felino R

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal undernutrition followed by postweaning feeding of a high-fat diet results in obesity in the adult offspring. In this study, we investigated whether diet-induced thermogenesis is altered as a result of such nutritional mismatch. Female MF-1 mice were fed a normal protein (NP, 18% casein) or a protein-restricted (PR, 9% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both groups were fed either a high-fat diet (HF; 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 7% kcal fat) to generate the NP/C, NP/HF, PR/C and PR/HF adult offspring groups (n = 7-11 per group). PR/C and NP/C offspring have similar body weights at 30 weeks of age. Postweaning HF feeding resulted in significantly heavier NP/HF offspring (P protein-1 and β-3 adrenergic receptor in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) compared with the NP/C mice (both at P diet during pregnancy and lactation, and the postweaning diet of the offspring, can attenuate diet-induced thermogenesis in the iBAT, resulting in the development of obesity in adulthood.

  7. Virgin olive oil, palm olein and coconut oil diets do not raise cell adhesion molecules and thrombogenicity indices in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, P T; Ng, T K W; Lee, V K M; Nesaretnam, K

    2015-06-01

    Effects of high-protein diets that are rich in saturated fats on cell adhesion molecules, thrombogenicity and other nonlipid markers of atherosclerosis in humans have not been firmly established. We aim to investigate the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared separately with virgin olive oil (OO), palm olein (PO) and coconut oil (CO) on cell adhesion molecules, lipid inflammatory mediators and thromobogenicity indices in healthy adults. A randomized cross-over intervention with three dietary sequences, using virgin OO, PO and CO as test fats, was carried out for 5 weeks on each group consisting of 45 men and women. These test fats were incorporated separately at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. For fasting and nonfasting blood samples, no significant differences were observed on the effects of the three test-fat diets on thrombaxane B2 (TXB2), TXB2/PGF1α ratios and soluble intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules. The OO diet induced significantly lower (Pvirgin OO do not alter the thrombogenicity indices-cellular adhesion molecules, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and TXB2/prostacyclin (PGF1α) ratios. However, the OO diet lowered plasma proinflammatory LTB4, whereas the PO diet raised the antiaggregatory plasma PGF1α in healthy Malaysian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00941837.

  8. The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

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    Manolya Calisir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.

  9. High D(+-Fructose Diet Adversely Affects Testicular Weight Gain in Weaning Rats—Protection by Moderate D(+-Glucose Diet

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    Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high D(+-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+-fructose diet (80% D(+-fructose as part of the diet to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001 and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001 and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001 compared to the no D(+-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+-glucose was ã23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  10. Perinatal exposure to a diet high in saturated fat, refined sugar and cholesterol affects behaviour, growth, and feed intake in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal

  11. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  12. Grape powder consumption affects the expression of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in rats chronically fed a high-fructose-high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism in the brain is recognized to be associated with cognitive decline. Because grapes are rich in polyphenols that produce antioxidative and blood sugar-lowering effects, we investigated how grape consumption affects the expression and/or phosphorylation of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Wistar rats were maintained on the HFHF diet from the age of 8 weeks to 66 weeks, and then on an HFHF diet containing either 3% or 6% grape powder as an intervention for 12 weeks. Western blotting was performed to measure the expression/phosphorylation levels of several cortical and hippocampal proteins, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Inclusion of up to 6% grape powder in the diet markedly reduced RAGE expression and tau hyperphosphorylation, but upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and BDNF, as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K and ERK, in the brain tissues of aged rats fed the HFHF diet. Thus, grape powder consumption produced beneficial effects in HFHF-diet-fed rats, exhibiting the potential to ameliorate changes in neurodegeneration-related proteins in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise and diet enhance fat oxidation and reduce insulin resistance in older obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Sistrun, Sakita N; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    oxygen consumption (Vo(2max))] with either normal caloric intake (eucaloric group, 1,901 +/- 277 kcal/day, n = 12) or a reduced-calorie diet (hypocaloric group, 1,307 +/- 70 kcal/day, n = 11), as dictated by nutritional counseling. Body composition (decreased fat mass; maintained fat-free mass), aerobic...... fitness (Vo(2max)), leptinemia, insulin sensitivity, and intramyocellular lipid accumulation (IMCL) in skeletal muscle improved in both groups (P hypocaloric group. Following the intervention...

  14. Understanding why adult participants at the World Senior Games choose a healthy diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Eric C

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying those seniors most likely to adopt a healthy diet, the relative importance they place on certain perceived benefits associated with a healthy diet, and whether these perceived benefits are associated with selected demographic, lifestyle, and health history variables is important for directing effective dietary health promotion programs. Methods Analyses are based on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 670 seniors aged 50 years and older at the 2002 World Senior Games in St. George, Utah. Data are assessed using frequencies, bivariate analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly higher in individuals aged 70–79, in women, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent overall health. Dietary fiber consumption was significantly higher in former or never smokers, current and previous alcohol drinkers, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent health. The strongest motivating factors identified for adopting a healthy diet were to improve the quality of life, to increase longevity, and to prevent disease. Of intermediate importance were the need to feel a sense of control and to satisfy likes or dislikes. Least important were the desire to experience a higher level of spirituality, social reasons, and peer acceptance. Conclusion Seniors who have adopted a healthy diet are more likely to have chosen that behavior because of perceived health benefits than for personal and social benefits. Overweight or obese individuals and those in poor health were less likely to be engaged in healthy eating behavior and require special attention by dieticians and public health professionals.

  15. Impact of birth weight and postnatal diet on the gut microbiota of young adult guinea pigs

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    Kait Al

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life. We sought to understand the potential interactive effects of exposure to a WD upon growing LBW offspring. We postulated that LBW offspring when challenged with a poor postnatal diet, would display an altered microbiota and more severe liver metabolic dysfunction. Methods The fecal microbiota of normal birth weight (NBW and LBW young guinea pig offspring, weaned onto either a control diet (CD or WD was determined with 16S rRNA gene next generation sequencing at young adulthood following the early rapid growth phase after weaning. A liver blood chemistry profile was also performed. Results The life-long consumption of WD following weaning into young adulthood resulted in increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase levels in association with an altered GIT microbiota when compared to offspring consuming CD. Neither birth weight nor sex were associated with any significant changes in microbiota alpha diversity, by measuring the Shannon’s diversity index. One hundred forty-eight operational taxonomic units were statistically distinct between the diet groups, independent of birth weight. In the WD group, significant decreases were detected in Barnesiella, Methanobrevibacter smithii and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii, while Butyricimonas and Bacteroides spp. were increased. Discussion These results describe the GIT microbiota in a guinea pig model of LBW and WD associated metabolic syndrome and

  16. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; Marina, Anna; Song, Xiaoling; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition. Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography. The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low- and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: -0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p vs. HFD: -0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = -0.77; p fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00930371.

  17. Effects on weight loss in adults of replacing diet beverages with water during a hypoenergetic diet: a randomized, 24-wk clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2015-12-01

    Obese people believe that drinking diet beverages (DBs) may be a simple strategy to achieve weight loss. However, nutritionists advise drinking water when attempting to lose weight. It is unclear how important drinking water instead of DBs is during a weight-loss program. In this study, we compared the effect on weight loss of either replacing DBs with water or continuing to consume DBs in adults during a 24-wk weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 89; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 27-40; age: 18-50 y] who usually consumed DBs in their diet were asked to either substitute water for DBs (water group) or continue drinking DBs 5 times/wk after their lunch for 24 wk (DB group) while on a weight-loss program. Sixty-two participants (71%) completed the trial (32 in the DB group, 30 in the water group). Baseline variables were not statistically significantly different between groups. A statistically significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and statistically significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 24 wk in both groups. Compared with the DB group, the water group had a greater decrease in weight (mean ± SD: water: -8.8 ± 1.9 kg; DBs: -7.6 ± 2.1 kg; P = 0.015, time × group), fasting insulin (mean ± SD: water: -2.84 ± 0.77 mU/L; DBs: -1.78 ± 1.25 mU/L, P water: -0.097 ± 0.049; DBs: -0.057 ± 0.042, P water: -1.02 ± 0.25 mmol/L; DBs: -0.72 ± 0.27 mmol/L; P fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profiles within both groups over 24 wk. Replacement of DBs with water after the main meal may lead to greater weight reduction during a weight-loss program. It may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir/ as IRCT201402177754N5. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Food restriction followed by refeeding with a casein- or whey-based diet differentially affects the gut microbiota of pre-pubertal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Solnik, Hadas Isaac; Phillip, Moshe; Yaron, Sima; Shamir, Raanan; Pasmanic-Chor, Metsada; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are gaining an increasing understanding of host-gut microbiota interactions, but studies of the role of gut microbiota in linear growth are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food restriction and refeeding with different diets on gut microbiota composition in fast-growing rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow ad libitum (control group) or subjected to 40% food restriction for 36 days followed by continued restriction or ad libitum refeeding for 24 days. Three different diets were used for refeeding: regular vegetarian protein chow or chow in which the sole source of protein was casein or whey. In the control group, the composition of the microbiota remained stable. Food restriction for 60 days led to a significant change in the gut microbiota at the phylum level, with a reduction in the abundance of Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Rats refed with the vegetarian protein diet had a different microbiota composition than rats refed the casein- or whey-based diet. Similarities in the bacterial population were found between rats refed vegetarian protein or a whey-based diet and control rats, and between rats refed a casein-based diet and rats on continued restriction. There was a significant strong correlation between the gut microbiota and growth parameters: humerus length, epiphyseal growth plate height, and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin. In conclusion, the type of protein in the diet significantly affects the gut microbiota and, thereby, may affect animal's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

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    Yutian Yin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM. This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn, potassium (K, copper (Ca, and sodium (Na as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05 were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se, and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038. Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33. Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98 but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02. Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95

  20. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Natale, Francesco; Torino, Annarita; Capasso, Rosanna; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Pironti, Erica; Santoro, Elena; Calabrò, Raffaele; Verrotti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function of the big vessels of the neck and on cardiac diastolic function, in a cohort of epileptic children and young adults treated with the ketogenic diet. Patients were recruited based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients who were or had been on the ketogenic diet for a time period of at least six months. Each patient underwent measurement of carotid intima media thickness, carotid artery stiffness, echocardiography, and diastolic function assessment. Patients with drug resistant epilepsy, matched for number, age and sex and never treated with ketogenic diet, were recruited as controls. The population study was composed by 43 epilepsy patients (23 males), aged between 19 months and 31 years (mean 11 years). Twenty-three patients were or had been treated with ketogenic diet, and 20 had never been on it (control group). Subjects treated with the ketogenic diet had higher arterial stiffness parameters, including AIx and β-index and higher serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides compared to those who had never been on the diet (control group) (pketogenic diet, before the increase of the intima media thickness. This supports that arterial stiffness is an early marker of vascular damage. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein

    Full Text Available Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese.Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966-2014.Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day.Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase.1797 patients were included from 17 trials with 99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%.Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported.This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.

  2. Apparent digestibility coefficient of chickpea, maize, high-quality protein maize, and beans diets in juvenile and adult Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Montoya-Mejía

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the apparent digestibility of plant ingredients in diets for juvenile (50 g and adult (220 g Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of four plant-derived feedstuffs (chickpea, maize, high-quality maize protein, and beans were tested. The beans diet had the lowest apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (ADCDM (69.41%, while no significant differences were detected in ADCDM among the other diets; ADCDM was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (77.02 vs. 73.76%. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients (ADCI was significantly higher in the chickpea (70.48% and high-quality protein maize (71.09% ingredients, and lower in the beans (52.79% ingredient. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (72.56 vs. 56.80%. The protein digestibility of diet (ADCCP was significantly higher in the reference diet (93.68%, while the lowest corresponded to the maize (87.86% and beans (87.29% diets. Significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCICP was obtained with the high-quality maize protein (59.11% and maize (49.48% ingredients, while higher ADCICP was obtained with the chickpea and beans ingredients (71.31 and 63.89%, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficient of ingredient crude protein ADCICP was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (67.35 vs. 53.46. Digestibility is generally higher in juveniles, and we recommend using chickpea as an ingredient in diets for Nile tilapia.

  3. Parental History of Diabetes, Positive Affect, and Diabetes Risk in Adults: Findings from MIDUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, Vera K; Karlamangla, Arun S; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-12-01

    Family history of diabetes is one of the major risk factors for diabetes, but significant variability in this association remains unexplained, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. To our knowledge, no previous work has examined whether psychological factors moderate the degree to which family history of diabetes increases diabetes risk. We investigated the relationships among parental history of diabetes, affective states (positive affect, negative affect, and depressed affect), and diabetes in 978 adults from the MIDUS 2 national sample. As expected, parental history of diabetes was associated with an almost threefold increase in diabetes risk. We found a significant interaction between positive affect and parental history of diabetes on diabetes (p = .009): higher positive affect was associated with a statistically significant lower relative risk for diabetes in participants who reported having a parental history of diabetes (RR = .66 per unit increase in positive affect; 95 % CI = .47; .93), but it did not influence diabetes risk for participants who reported no parental history of diabetes (p = .34). This pattern persisted after adjusting for an extensive set of health and sociodemographic covariates and was independent of negative and depressed affect. These results suggest that psychological well-being may protect individuals at increased risk from developing diabetes. Understanding such interactions between non-modifiable risk factors and modifiable psychological resources is important for delineating biopsychosocial pathways to diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions to prevent the development of diabetes.

  4. Mental health problems among conflict-affected adults in Grozny, Chechnya: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Amanda J.; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Methods Data were collected in July 20...

  5. Diet- and genetically-induced obesity differentially affect the fecal microbiome and metabolome in Apc1638N mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and alterations in the colonic microbiome and metabolome may be mechanistically involved in this relationship. The relative contribution of diet and obesity per se are unclear. We compared the effect of diet- and genetically-induced obesity on th...

  6. Impact of malocclusion on affective/romantic relationships among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Dos Santos, Camila Rangel; Lima Santos, Nathalia de; Aguiar Sales Lima, Stefanni Olga; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the extent to which different types of malocclusion influence the development of affective/romantic relationships among young adults of both sexes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 360 men and women ranging in age from 18 years to 25 years. Criteria for exclusion from the sample were the following: participants could not be married, visually impaired, or students of a higher education course in the area of health. In this study, images of young adult men and women in the same age range as that of the evaluators were used. These images were manipulated to create different types of malocclusion: diastema, open bite, crowding, gingival (or gummy) smile, little exposure of teeth. Six groups of images containing six images each were formed and consisted of two experimental images (digitally manipulated) and four control images. These images were provided to the participants, who evaluated them by means of a questionnaire and a visual analog scale. The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher exact tests were used for data analysis. All malocclusions had a negative impact on acceptance by the evaluators for the purposes of affective/romantic relationships, with crowding being the type of malocclusion that led to the highest level of rejection (P young adults. Individuals with good occlusion are seen in a more positive light, from the perspective of affective life.

  7. Iron-Restricted Diet Affects Brain Ferritin Levels, Dopamine Metabolism and Cellular Prion Protein in a Region-Specific Manner

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    Jessica M. V. Pino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for several physiological functions, including the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, both iron, and dopamine can affect the folding and aggregation of proteins related with neurodegenerative diseases, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC and α-synuclein, suggesting that deregulation of iron homeostasis and the consequential disturbance of dopamine metabolism can be a risk factor for conformational diseases. These proteins, in turn, are known to participate in the regulation of iron and dopamine metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary iron restriction on brain ferritin levels, dopamine metabolism, and the expression levels of PrPC and α-synuclein. To achieve this goal, C57BL/6 mice were fed with iron restricted diet (IR or with normal diet (CTL for 1 month. IR reduced iron and ferritin levels in liver. Ferritin reduction was also observed in the hippocampus. However, in the striatum of IR group, ferritin level was increased, suggesting that under iron-deficient condition, each brain area might acquire distinct capacity to store iron. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed only in hippocampus of IR group, where ferritin level was reduced. IR also generated discrete results regarding dopamine metabolism of distinct brain regions: in striatum, the level of dopamine metabolites (DOPAC and HVA was reduced; in prefrontal cortex, only HVA was increased along with the enhanced MAO-A activity; in hippocampus, no alterations were observed. PrPC levels were increased only in the striatum of IR group, where ferritin level was also increased. PrPC is known to play roles in iron uptake. Thus, the increase of PrPC in striatum of IR group might be related to the increased ferritin level. α-synuclein was not altered in any regions. Abnormal accumulation of ferritin, increased MAO-A activity or lipid peroxidation are molecular features observed in several neurological

  8. Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Respondek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC, which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  9. Adult nest attendance and diet of nestling Resplendent Quetzals (Pharomachrus mocinno) in the Talamanca Mountains of southern Cosa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Resplendent Quetzals (Pharomachrus mocinno) inhabit mid to high elevation forests from southern Mexico to Panama. Lipid rich fruits from the Lauraceae family have been found to account for a large proportion of adult diet across their annual life cycle. To better understand the relationship between quetzals and Lauraceae during the breeding season, we studied food deliveries to nestlings in the Talamanca Mountains at San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica in the Rio Savegre watershed. Our study had four primary objectives: 1) determine parental contribution of males and females feeding nestling quetzals, 2) determine type of food delivered to nestling quetzals, 3) determine if deliveries of fruit items were related to their abundance and/or nutritional content and 4) determine if Lauraceae fruits made up a large proportion of nestling diets based on the high preference quetzals have displayed for fruits from this plant family. Hourly delivery rates were similar for the male and female (1.24 ± 0.68 and 1.44 ± 0.84). During the first 6 days, the largest proportion of the diet was animal prey; primarily lizards and beetles. After day 6, fruit rapidly became the dominant food item delivered to nestlings until fledging. The dominant number of fruits delivered to nestling quetzals were fruits from the Lauraceae family and included Ocotea holdrigeiana, Necatandra cufodontisii, and Aiouea costaricensis. All three had some of the highest protein and lipid content of all fruits delivered to nestlings. O. holdrigeiana had the highest protein and lipid content of all fruits delivered, had the lowest relative abundance, and was delivered more frequently than all other fruits. Conservation strategies for this species should take into account not just increasing available habitat, but also increasing habitat quality by focusing on species composition to provide abundant food plants for the Resplendent Quetzal to forage.

  10. Texture-modified diets are associated with decreased muscle mass in older adults admitted to a rehabilitation ward.

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    Shimizu, Akio; Maeda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Kei; Ogawa, Mei; Kayashita, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Texture-modified diets (TMD) have significantly lower energy and protein content than normal diets. Therefore, TMD can cause malnutrition and loss of muscle mass. However, few studies have reported the relationship between TMD and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between TMD and decreased skeletal muscle mass. We reviewed data of 188 older adult patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. TMD were defined based on the Japanese Dysphagia Diet Criteria 2013 proposed by the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form was used to assess nutritional status; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the skeletal muscle mass index, and the cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass index were based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia; the Functional Independence Measure was used to evaluate activities of daily living. The patients' mean age was 80.6 ± 7.5 years, and 62% were women. A total of 22 patients (11.7%) consumed TMD. A total of 104 patients (55.3%) had decreased skeletal muscle mass, and approximately 90% of them consumed TMD. Decreased skeletal muscle mass index (odds ratio 7.199, 95% confidence interval 1.489-34.805, P ≤ 0.01) and Functional Independence Measure scores (odds ratio 0.972, 95% confidence interval 0.952-0.992, P ≤ 0.01) were independently related to TMD in the multivariate analysis. The TMD group was associated with decreased skeletal muscle mass. Future, prospective studies are necessary to investigate causality. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 698-704. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attention Network Test in adults with ADHD - the impact of affective fluctuations

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    Lundervold Astri J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Attention Network Test (ANT generates measures of different aspects of attention/executive function. In the present study we investigated whether adults with ADHD performed different from controls on measures of accuracy, variability and vigilance as well as the control network. Secondly, we studied subgroups of adults with ADHD, expecting impairment on measures of the alerting and control networks in a subgroup with additional symptoms of affective fluctuations. Methods A group of 114 adults (ADHD n = 58; controls n = 56 performed the ANT and completed the Adult ADHD Rating Scale (ASRS and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ. The latter was used to define affective fluctuations. Results The sex distribution was similar in the two groups, but the ADHD group was significantly older (p = .005 and their score on a test of intellectual function (WASI significantly lower than in the control group (p = .007. The two groups were not significantly different on measures of the three attention networks, but the ADHD group was generally less accurate (p = .001 and showed a higher variability through the task (p = .033. The significance was only retained for the accuracy measure when age and IQ scores were controlled for. Within the ADHD group, individuals reporting affective fluctuations (n = 22 were slower (p = .015 and obtained a lower score on the alerting network (p = .018 and a higher score on the conflict network (p = .023 than those without these symptoms. The significance was retained for the alerting network (p = .011, but not the conflict network (p = .061 when we controlled for the total ASRS and IQ scores. Discussion Adults with ADHD were characterized by impairment on accuracy and variability measures calculated from the ANT. Within the ADHD group, adults reporting affective fluctuations seemed to be more alert (i.e., less impacted by alerting cues, but slower and more distracted by conflicting stimuli than the

  13. Alternate Mediterranean diet score is positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index in middle-aged adults.

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    Tian, Hui-Yuan; Qiu, Rui; Jing, Li-Peng; Chen, Zhan-Yong; Chen, Geng-Dong; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Researches have suggested Mediterranean diet might lower the risk of chronic diseases, but data on skeletal muscle mass (SMM) are limited. This community-based cross-sectional study examined the association between the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMDS) and SMM in 2230 females and 1059 males aged 40-75 years in Guangzhou, China. General information and habitual dietary information were assessed in face-to-face interviews conducted during 2008-2010 and 3 years later. The aMDS was calculated by summing the dichotomous points for the items of higher intakes of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish and ratio of MUFA:SFA, lower red meat and moderate ethanol consumption. The SMM of the whole body, limbs, arms and legs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during 2011-2013. After adjusting for potential covariates, higher aMDS was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, SMM/height2, kg/m2) at all of the studied sites in males (all P trend0·05). Age-stratified analyses showed that the favourable associations tended to be more pronounced in the younger subjects aged less than the medians of 59·2 and 62·2 years in females and males (P interaction>0·10). In conclusion, the aMDS shows protective associations with SMM in Chinese adults, particularly in male and younger subjects.

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

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    Alice Chaplin

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  16. [Influence of diet and behavior related factors on the peripheral blood triglyceride levels in adults: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M B; Wang, H; Zhang, J; He, Q F; Fang, L; Wang, L X; Su, D T; Zhao, M; Zhang, X W; Hu, R Y; Cong, L M; Ding, G G; Ye, Z; Yu, M

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To study the influence of diet and behavior related factors on the peripheral blood triglyceride levels in adults, through a cross-sectional survey. Methods: The current study included 13 434 subjects without histories of major chronic diseases from a population-based cross-sectional survey: the 2010 Metabolic Syndrome Survey in Zhejiang Province. A generalized linear model was used to investigate the influence of diet/behavior-related factors on the peripheral blood triglyceride levels. Results: Mean TG of the sample population appeared as (1.36±1.18) mmol/L. The proportions of elevated TG and marginally elevated TG were 10.3% and 11.0% respectively, with statistically significant difference seen between males and females ( χ (2)=44.135, P smoking, alcohol-intake, meat, fruit and water intake in male population from this study. However, in females, the intake of aquatic product and physical exercise showed statistically significant differences. After controlling for other variables, factors as age, drinking, staple food and aquatic products showed positive influence on TG, while milk presented negative influence on TG. Through interaction analysis, fruit and meat intake in males and staple food in females showed positive influence on TG, when compared to the reference group. Conclusion: Hyperglyceridemia appeared as one of the major metabolic abnormities in Zhejiang province. Programs on monitoring the alcohol, staple food and meat intake should be priority on intervention, in the communities.

  17. Phosphorus Supplementation Recovers the Blunted Diet-Induced Thermogenesis of Overweight and Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

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    Maya S. Bassil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05, which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02 lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm. P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety.

  18. Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults.

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    Hogan, Candice L; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Body Mass Index Category Moderates the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Diet Quality in Overweight and Obese Rural-Dwelling Adults.

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    Abshire, Demetrius A; Lennie, Terry A; Chung, Misook L; Biddle, Martha J; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Moser, Debra K

    2017-07-07

    This study was conducted to (1) compare diet quality among depressed and nondepressed overweight and obese rural-dwelling adults and (2) determine whether body mass index (BMI) category moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and overall diet quality. Rural adults in Kentucky (n = 907) completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) that assessed depressive symptoms and a food frequency questionnaire that generated 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores. Participants were grouped into overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and obese (≥30 kg/m 2 ), and nondepressed (PHQ-9 category (overweight vs obese) moderated the association between depressive symptoms and overall diet quality. Overall diet quality was poorer in the obese depressed group than in the obese nondepressed group. Intake of fruit and dark green/orange vegetables and legumes was lower in the obese depressed group than in the overweight nondepressed group. Depressive symptoms predicted poor overall diet quality (B = -0.287, P category (coefficient of BMI category * depressive symptom interaction term = 0.355, P category and depressive symptom status. The relationship between depressive symptoms and diet quality is influenced by BMI category. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

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    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  1. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

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    Lisa Jane Burklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one’s emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one’s own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N=39. Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes.

  2. Eating at Food Outlets and “On the Go” Is Associated with Less Healthy Food Choices in Adults: Cross-Sectional Data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2014)

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    Ziauddeen, Nida; Penney, Tarra L.; Nicholson, Sonja; Page, Polly

    2017-01-01

    Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1–6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme (RP) (2008–2014) were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”. Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet) and non-core (all other foods). Out of 97,748 eating occasions reported, the most common was home (67–90% of eating occasions). Leisure places, food outlets and “on the go” combined contributed more energy from non-core (30%) than from core food (18%). Analyses of modulating factors revealed that sex, income, frequency of eating out and frequency of drinking were significant factors affecting consumption patterns (p diet quality vary by location. Public health interventions should focus on availability and access to healthy foods, promotion of healthy food choices and behaviours across multiple locations, environments and contexts for food consumption. PMID:29207469

  3. Eating at Food Outlets and “On the Go” Is Associated with Less Healthy Food Choices in Adults: Cross-Sectional Data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2014

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    Nida Ziauddeen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1–6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS Rolling Programme (RP (2008–2014 were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”. Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet and non-core (all other foods. Out of 97,748 eating occasions reported, the most common was home (67–90% of eating occasions. Leisure places, food outlets and “on the go” combined contributed more energy from non-core (30% than from core food (18%. Analyses of modulating factors revealed that sex, income, frequency of eating out and frequency of drinking were significant factors affecting consumption patterns (p < 0.01. Our study provides evidence that eating patterns, behaviours and resulting diet quality vary by location. Public health interventions should focus on availability and access to healthy foods, promotion of healthy food choices and behaviours across multiple locations, environments and contexts for food consumption.

  4. Eating at Food Outlets and "On the Go" Is Associated with Less Healthy Food Choices in Adults: Cross-Sectional Data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Penney, Tarra L; Nicholson, Sonja; Kirk, Sara F L; Page, Polly

    2017-12-02

    Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1-6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme (RP) (2008-2014) were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and "on the go". Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet) and non-core (all other foods). Out of 97,748 eating occasions reported, the most common was home (67-90% of eating occasions). Leisure places, food outlets and "on the go" combined contributed more energy from non-core (30%) than from core food (18%). Analyses of modulating factors revealed that sex, income, frequency of eating out and frequency of drinking were significant factors affecting consumption patterns ( p eating patterns, behaviours and resulting diet quality vary by location. Public health interventions should focus on availability and access to healthy foods, promotion of healthy food choices and behaviours across multiple locations, environments and contexts for food consumption.

  5. The Intra- or Extracellular Redox State Was Not Affected by a High vs. Low Glycemic Response Diet in Mice

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    Kleckner, Amber S.; Wong, Siu; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    A low glycemic response (LGR) vs. high glycemic response (HGR) diet helps curtail the development of obesity and diabetes, though the mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that consumption of a HGR vs. a LGR diet would lead to a more oxidized circulating redox state and predicted that a HGR diet would increase fat accumulation, reduce insulin sensitivity, and impair metabolic acclimation to a high fat diet in a mouse model. Hence, male C57BL/6 mice consumed a HGR or LGR diet for 16 weeks and a subset of the mice subsequently consumed a high fat diet for 4 weeks. We found that body mass increased at a faster rate for those consuming the HGR diet. Percent body fat was greater and percent lean mass was lesser in the HGR group starting at 12 weeks. However, the groups did not differ in terms of glucose tolerance at week 14 and metabolic parameters (respiratory exchange ratio, heat production, activity) at weeks 4 or 15. Moreover, mice on either diet did not show differences in metabolic acclimation to the high fat leg of the study. At the termination of the study, the groups did not differ in terms of redox pairs (lactate/pyruvate and β-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate) or thioredoxin reductase activity in blood. Also, total and oxidized glutathione levels and lipid peroxidation were similar in blood and liver. Correlations between baseline measures, longitudinal parameters, environmental conditions, and terminal metrics revealed that individual mice have innate propensities to metabolic regulation that may be difficult to perturb with diet alone; for example, starting mass correlated negatively with energy expenditure 4 weeks into the study and total hepatic glutathione at the end of the study. In conclusion, these data suggest that the mechanism by which HGR carbohydrates contributes to obesity is not via prolonged oxidation of the circulating redox state. PMID:26030878

  6. The Intra- or Extracellular Redox State Was Not Affected by a High vs. Low Glycemic Response Diet in Mice.

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    Amber S Kleckner

    Full Text Available A low glycemic response (LGR vs. high glycemic response (HGR diet helps curtail the development of obesity and diabetes, though the mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that consumption of a HGR vs. a LGR diet would lead to a more oxidized circulating redox state and predicted that a HGR diet would increase fat accumulation, reduce insulin sensitivity, and impair metabolic acclimation to a high fat diet in a mouse model. Hence, male C57BL/6 mice consumed a HGR or LGR diet for 16 weeks and a subset of the mice subsequently consumed a high fat diet for 4 weeks. We found that body mass increased at a faster rate for those consuming the HGR diet. Percent body fat was greater and percent lean mass was lesser in the HGR group starting at 12 weeks. However, the groups did not differ in terms of glucose tolerance at week 14 and metabolic parameters (respiratory exchange ratio, heat production, activity at weeks 4 or 15. Moreover, mice on either diet did not show differences in metabolic acclimation to the high fat leg of the study. At the termination of the study, the groups did not differ in terms of redox pairs (lactate/pyruvate and β-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate or thioredoxin reductase activity in blood. Also, total and oxidized glutathione levels and lipid peroxidation were similar in blood and liver. Correlations between baseline measures, longitudinal parameters, environmental conditions, and terminal metrics revealed that individual mice have innate propensities to metabolic regulation that may be difficult to perturb with diet alone; for example, starting mass correlated negatively with energy expenditure 4 weeks into the study and total hepatic glutathione at the end of the study. In conclusion, these data suggest that the mechanism by which HGR carbohydrates contributes to obesity is not via prolonged oxidation of the circulating redox state.

  7. ABO Genotype Does Not Modify the Association between the "Blood-Type" Diet and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Disease in Overweight Adults.

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    Wang, Jingzhou; Jamnik, Joseph; García-Bailo, Bibiana; Nielsen, Daiva E; Jenkins, David J A; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Although 7 million copies of Eat Right 4 Your Type have been sold in >60 languages, there has been a lack of evidence supporting the "blood-type" diet hypothesis. The present study aimed to examine the validity of this diet in overweight adults. A total of 973 adults [mean ± SEM age: 44.6 ± 0.4 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 32.5 ± 0.2; 758 women, 215 men] were participants of the Toronto Healthy Diet Study. A 1-mo, 196-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to determine dietary intakes before and after a 6-mo dietary intervention. Diet scores were calculated to determine relative adherence to each of the 4 blood-type diets as a secondary analysis. ABO blood group was determined by genotyping rs8176719 and rs8176746. ANCOVA was used to compare cardiometabolic risk factors across tertiles of diet scores. At baseline, individuals with a higher adherence score to the type A diet had lower diastolic blood pressure (tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 70.9 ± 1.1 compared with 73.3 ± 1.1 mm Hg; P type B (tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 100.8 ± 1.8 compared with 105.4 ± 1.7 cm; P type AB (tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 101.2 ± 1.8 compared with 104.8 ± 1.7 cm; P type A and type B diets had greater reductions in BMI and waist circumference, respectively (P type O diet adherence showed decreases in both BMI and waist circumference (P blood-type diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease in overweight adults, suggesting that the theory behind this diet is not valid This study was based on the data of a trial that was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00516620.

  8. Aflatoxin B1-contaminated diet disrupts the blood-brain barrier and affects fish behavior: Involvement of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Zeppenfeld, Carla Cristina; Descovi, Sharine N; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-04

    It is known that the cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are associated with behavioral dysfunction. However, the effects of a diet contaminated with AFB 1 on the behavior of silver catfish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB 1 -contaminated diet (1177 ppb kg feed -1 ) impaired silver catfish behavior, as well as whether disruption of the BBB and alteration of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes are involved. Fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 presented a behavioral impairment linked with hyperlocomotion on days 14 and 21 compared with the control group (basal diet). Neurotransmitter levels were also affected on days 14 and 21. The permeability of the BBB to Evans blue dye increased in the intoxicated animals compared with the control group, which suggests that the BBB was disrupted. Moreover, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain synaptosomes was increased in fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 , while activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) was decreased. Based on this evidence, the present study shows that silver catfish fed a diet containing AFB 1 exhibit behavioral impairments related to hyperlocomotion. This diet caused a disruption of the BBB and brain lesions, which may contribute to the behavioral changes. Also, the alterations in the activities of AChE and Na + , K + -ATPase in brain synaptosomes may directly contribute to this behavior, since they may promote synapse dysfunction. In addition, the hyperlocomotion may be considered an important macroscopic marker indicating possible AFB 1 intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes Context: In animal studies exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through only partly understood epigenetic mechanisms....... Human long-term follow-up studies on the same topic are few. Objective: To study the risk of overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, and additionally to study associations between estimates of maternal...... hyperglycemia and outcome in the offspring Design: Follow-up study of 1,066 primarily Caucasians aged 18-27 years. Setting: Center for pregnant women with diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Denmark Participants: Offspring of women with diet-treated GDM (n=168) and an un-exposed reference group (n=141). Offspring...

  10. Diet composition of nestlings and adults of the threatened Bolivian Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris boliviana (Aves: Passeriformes: Cotingidae in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica del Rosario Avalos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of the nestling and adult diet of the threatened Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris boliviana was studied through the analysis of fecal samples.  Nestling diet consisted of 62% fruit and 38% insects but varied according to the nestling age. The diet of adults was made up of 89% fruit and 11% insects.  The fruit eaten came primarily from the trees Schefflera morototoni, Hyeronima moritziana and Ocotea cuprea.  Most insects in the fecal samples were winged-species of the orders Hymenoptera and Coleoptera.  This species relied mostly on fruiting trees from semi-humid forest fragments and isolated trees on mountain savannas.  Thus, management plans for this bird should consider the conservation of these habitats. 

  11. Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults' recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from T...

  12. Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, Victor; Outor-Monteiro, D.; Mourão, J.L.; Cone, J.W.; Guimaraes Dias Lourenco, Ana

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit

  13. The effect of dehulling and a-glactosidase supplementation on the ileal digestibility of lupin based diets in broiler chickens and adult roosters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieczkowska, A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Smulikowski, S.

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred fifty six broiler chickens, 22-days-old, allocated to four groups of four replicate pens with 16 birds each, and six adult ileostomized roosters were used. Four diets containing maize starch and 550 g/kg whole or 458 g/kg dehulled lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Amulet) as the only

  14. Comparison of aerobic exercise, diet or both on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given that previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the effects of diet (D), aerobic exercise (E) or both (DE) on blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults, the meta-analytic approach was used to address this issue. Data Sources: Nine electronic databases, cross-ref...

  15. Effects of diet and exercise on weight-related outcomes for breast cancer survivors and their adult daughters: an analysis of the DAMES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tometich, Danielle B; Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Badr, Hoda J; Snyder, Denise C; Sloane, Richard J; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    Few trials have aimed to promote diet and exercise behaviors in both cancer survivors and their family members and examine their associations with weight-related outcomes. We conducted a secondary analysis to examine associations between change in diet and exercise behaviors and weight-related outcomes for overweight breast cancer survivors and their overweight adult daughters in the Daughters And MothErS Against Breast Cancer (DAMES) randomized trial. The DAMES trial assessed the impact of two iteratively tailored, mailed print diet and exercise interventions against standard brochures over a 12-month period. This analysis examined change in diet and exercise behaviors and weight-related variables from baseline to post-intervention for the 50 breast cancer survivors and their adult daughters randomized to the intervention arms. To reduce the potential for type II error in this pilot, p values diet quality was uniquely related to change in BMI (β = -0.12, p = 0.082), weight (β = -0.12, p = 0.060), and waist circumference (β = -0.38, p = 0.001), whereas change in caloric intake was related to waist circumference (β = 0.21, p = 0.002). For daughters, change in caloric intake was related to change in waist circumference (β = 0.12, p = 0.055). However, change in diet quality was not associated with weight-related outcomes in daughters. Additionally, change in exercise was not associated with weight-related outcomes in mothers or daughters. Findings support mail-based and other tailored interventions for weight loss in this population, with an emphasis on diet quality for breast cancer survivors and caloric intake for their adult daughters.

  16. The Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older Adults in a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial: The MedLey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alissa; Bryan, Janet; Wilson, Carlene; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Davis, Courtney R; Murphy, Karen J

    2016-09-20

    Evidence from a limited number of randomised controlled intervention trials (RCTs) have shown that a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and enhance cognitive function among healthy older adults. However, there are currently no data in non-Mediterranean older adult populations. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining the effect of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) for six months on aspects of cognitive function in a randomised controlled intervention trial (the MedLey study) that extended for a duration of 18 months. In the final analysed cohort, a total of 137 men and women (mean age of 72.1 ± 5.0 years) randomly assigned to either a MedDiet or control diet (HabDiet) (i.e., habitual dietary intake), were assessed on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, including 11 individual tests. In multivariable-adjusted models, the MedDiet group did not perform significantly better than the HabDiet control group for executive functioning (adjusted mean differences: +2.53, 95% CI -2.59 to 7.65, p = 0.33); speed of processing (adjusted mean differences: +3.24, 95% CI -1.21 to 7.70, p = 0.15); memory (adjusted mean differences: +2.00, 95% CI -3.88 to 7.88, p = 0.50); visual-spatial ability (adjusted mean differences: +0.21, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.81, 0.48); and overall age-related cognitive performance (adjusted mean differences: +7.99, 95% CI -4.00 to 19.9, p = 0.19). In conclusion, this study did not find evidence of a beneficial effect of a MedDiet intervention on cognitive function among healthy older adults.

  17. The Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older Adults in a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial: The MedLey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Knight

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from a limited number of randomised controlled intervention trials (RCTs have shown that a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and enhance cognitive function among healthy older adults. However, there are currently no data in non-Mediterranean older adult populations. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining the effect of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet for six months on aspects of cognitive function in a randomised controlled intervention trial (the MedLey study that extended for a duration of 18 months. In the final analysed cohort, a total of 137 men and women (mean age of 72.1 ± 5.0 years randomly assigned to either a MedDiet or control diet (HabDiet (i.e., habitual dietary intake, were assessed on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, including 11 individual tests. In multivariable-adjusted models, the MedDiet group did not perform significantly better than the HabDiet control group for executive functioning (adjusted mean differences: +2.53, 95% CI −2.59 to 7.65, p = 0.33; speed of processing (adjusted mean differences: +3.24, 95% CI −1.21 to 7.70, p = 0.15; memory (adjusted mean differences: +2.00, 95% CI −3.88 to 7.88, p = 0.50; visual-spatial ability (adjusted mean differences: +0.21, 95% CI −0.38 to 0.81, 0.48; and overall age-related cognitive performance (adjusted mean differences: +7.99, 95% CI −4.00 to 19.9, p = 0.19. In conclusion, this study did not find evidence of a beneficial effect of a MedDiet intervention on cognitive function among healthy older adults.

  18. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  19. Hepatic rhythmicity of endoplasmic reticulum stress is disrupted in perinatal and adult mice models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Junpei; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Asilmaz, Esra; Ray, Shuvra; Nguyen, Vi; Carter, Rebeca; Novelli, Marco; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Oben, Jude A

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the regulation of hepatic ER stress in healthy liver and adult or perinatally programmed diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female mice were fed either obesogenic or control diet before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, offspring from each maternal group were divided into either obesogenic or control diet. At six months, offspring were sacrificed at 4-h intervals over 24 h. Offspring fed obesogenic diets developed NAFLD phenotype, and the combination of maternal and offspring obesogenic diets exacerbated this phenotype. UPR signalling pathways (IREα, PERK, ATF6) and their downstream regulators showed different basal rhythmicity, which was modified in offspring exposed to obesogenic diet and maternal programming. The double obesogenic hit increased liver apoptosis measured by TUNEL staining, active caspase-3 and phospho-JNK and GRP78 promoter methylation levels. This study demonstrates that hepatic UPR is rhythmically activated. The combination of maternal obesity (MO) and obesogenic diets in offspring triggered altered UPR rhythmicity, DNA methylation and cellular apoptosis.

  20. Specific synbiotics in early life protect against diet-induced obesity in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, Mona; Arora, Tulika; Tims, Sebastian; Engels, Eefje; Sommer, Nina; Limpt, van Kees; Baars, Annemarie; Oozeer, Raish; Oosting, Annemarie; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Knol, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Aims: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health throughout life. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life

  1. Specific synbiotics in early life protect against diet-induced obesity in adult mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Mona; Arora, Tulika; Tims, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life a...... as preventive measure to ameliorate obesity risk and improve metabolic health throughout life....

  2. Are adult life history traits in oriental fruit moth affected by a mild pupal heat stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jincheng; Cheng, Xiongbin; Hoffmann, Ary A; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2017-10-01

    Thermal stress at one life stage can affect fitness at a later stage in ectotherms with complex life cycles. Most relevant studies have focused on extreme stress levels, but here we also show substantial fitness effects in a moth when pupae are exposed to a relatively mild and sublethal heat stress. We consider the impact of a 35°C heat stress of 2h in three geographically separate populations of the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) from northern, middle and southern China. Heat stress negatively affected fecundity but increased adult heat resistance and adult longevity. Fitness effects were mostly consistent across populations but there were also some population differences. In the Shenyang population from northern China, there was a hormetic effect of heat on female longevity not evident in the other populations. Adults from all populations had higher LT 50 s due to heat stress after pupal exposure to the sublethal stress. These results highlight that the pupal stage is a particularly sensitive window for development and they have implications for seasonal adaptation in uncertain environments as well as changes in pest dynamics under climate warming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

  4. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (Pgluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo B. Batacan, Jr; Mitch J. Duncan; Vincent J. Dalbo; Geraldine L. Buitrago; Andrew S. Fenning

    2018-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) and diet are 2 lifestyle factors that affect cardiometabolic risk. However, data on how a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet influences the effect of different intensities of PA on cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular function in a controlled setting are yet to be fully established. This study investigated the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity training (LIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiometabolic markers and vasc...

  6. A modified Mediterranean diet score is associated with a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome over 25 years among young adults: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Lyn M; Van Horn, Linda; Daviglus, Martha L; Zhou, Xia; Reis, Jared P; Loria, Catherine M; Jacobs, David R; Duffey, Kiyah J

    2014-11-28

    The Mediterranean diet has been reported to be inversely associated with incident metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) among older adults; however, this association has not been studied in young African American and white adults. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association of a modified Mediterranean diet (mMedDiet) score with the 25-year incidence of the MetSyn in 4713 African American and white adults enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. A diet history questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake at baseline, year 7 and year 20 and a mMedDiet score was created. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured at multiple examinations over 25 years. The MetSyn was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was use to evaluate associations for incident MetSyn across the mMedDiet score categories adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and BMI. Higher mMedDiet scores represented adherence to a dietary pattern rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish, but poor in red and processed meat and snack foods. The incidence of MetSyn components (abdominal obesity, elevated TAG concentrations and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations) was lower in those with higher mMedDiet scores than in those with lower scores. Furthermore, the incidence of the MetSyn was lower across the five mMedDiet score categories; the hazard ratios and 95 % CI from category 1 to category 5 were 1·0; 0·94 (0·76, 1·15); 0·84 (0·68, 1·04); 0·73 (0·58, 0·92); and 0·72 (0·54, 0·96), respectively (P trend= 0·005). These findings suggest that the risk of developing the MetSyn is lower when consuming a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish.

  7. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. LOWER BIFIDOBACTERIA COUNTS IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE ON A GLUTEN-FREE DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisléia GOLFETTO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The ingestion of gluten is responsible for the symptoms of Celiac disease, but other environmental factors can also influence. Strains of the Bifidobacterium genus have been shown to afford protection against the inflammatory response and mucosal damage caused by gliadin peptides in vitro. Objectives This study was designed to compare the concentration of fecal bifidobacteria and pH of patients with celiac disease on gluten-free diet and control subjects in order to identify if the imbalance on fecal microbiota still remain during the treatment of celiac disease and identify the necessity of dietary supplementation with pre- or probiotics. Methods It was analyzed the feces of 42 healthy subjects and 14 celiac patients. The bifidobacteria count in feces was done in selective medium BIM-25. Microscopic analysis of the colonies was performed by Gram stain. The identification of the genus Bifidobacterium was performed by determination of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase. Fecal pH was measured using a pH meter. Results The concentration of bifidobacteria per gram of feces was significantly higher in healthy subjects (controls (1.5 ± 0.63 x108 CFU/g when compared to celiac patients (2.5 ± 1.5 x107 CFU/g. The fecal pH was not different between celiac patients (7.19 ± 0.521 and controls (7.18 ± 0.522. Conclusions These results suggest that with lower levels of bifidobacteria, celiac patients have an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota, regardless of pH, even while on a gluten-free diet. This fact could favor the pathological process of the disorder.

  9. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hindell

    Full Text Available Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007 with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ(13C and δ(15N measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ(15N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005, the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006, the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals.

  10. Adaptation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K L; Bianchi, L A; Maras, J; Bermudez, O I

    1998-09-01

    To study issues of diet and health among Hispanic adults living in the northeastern United States, the authors adapted a version of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Block food frequency questionnaire. Foods that contributed to nutrient intake of Puerto Rican adults in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) were ranked to identify items to be added to the food list. Portion sizes were compared across HHANES and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) to assess the adequacy of the assumed values. Within line items, frequencies of consumption of individual foods were ranked and these data were used to adjust the weighting factors within the database. To test the revised form, 24-hour recalls were collected from 90 elderly Hispanics and 35 elderly non-Hispanic whites. These data were coded into the original and revised food frequency forms and nutrient intake results were compared with recall results by paired t-test, and by Pearson and intraclass correlations. Added foods include plantains, avocado, mango, cassava, empanadas, and custard. Portion sizes differed significantly between HHANES and NHANES II, and were left open-ended. Estimated mean nutrient intakes and correlations with recall data were lower with the original versus the revised form. The authors conclude that the use in minority populations of food frequency questionnaires developed for the general population is likely to result in biased estimates of intake unless modifications are made in the questionnaires.

  11. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance.

  12. Factors affecting aging cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, JeeWon; Kang, Se-Won; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine factors affecting aging cognitive function of 3,645 community-dwelling older adults in Korea. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale assessed aging cognitive function, blood analyses and anthropometrics assessed cardio-metabolic risk factors, and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korean Version assessed depressive symptoms. Participants with poor aging cognitive function were more likely to be in the late age group (≥75 y) and currently smoking and have a medical history of stroke, high body mass index, and high level of depressive symptoms; they were also less likely to engage in regular meals and physical activities. Regular meals and physical activities may be primary factors for clinical assessment to identify older adults at risk for aging cognitive function. With aging, depressive symptoms and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours should be managed to prevent cognitive function disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  14. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE Set: Validity and Reliability from Untrained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eLoBue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE. The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for 6 emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  15. Hepatic expression of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway, acute-phase response signalling and complement system are affected in mouse offspring by prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-12-01

    Effects of pre- and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diets are not well understood. Transcription profiling was performed in male mouse offspring exposed to maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation to identify affected hepatic molecular pathways. Dams were fed isoenergetic diets with control (20% w/w) or high protein levels (40%). The hepatic expression profiles were evaluated by differential microarray analysis 3 days (d3) and 3 weeks (d21) after birth. Offspring from three different high-protein dietary groups, HP (d3, high-protein diet during pregnancy), HPHP (d21, high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation) and CHP (d21, control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation), were compared with age-matched offspring from dams fed control diet. Offspring body and liver mass of all high-protein groups were decreased. Prenatal high-protein diet affected hepatic expression of genes mapping to the acute response/complement system and the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF signalling pathways. Maternal exposure to high-protein diet during lactation affected hepatic gene expression of the same pathways but additionally affected genes mapping to protein, fatty acid, hexose and pyruvate metabolism. (1) Genes of the acute response/complement system and GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathways were down-regulated in offspring of dams exposed to high-protein diets during pregnancy and/or lactation. (2) Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, however, were only affected when high-protein diet was administered during lactation. (3) Modulation of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway might be responsible for reduced body and liver masses by maternal high-protein diet.

  16. Mental health problems among conflict-affected adults in Grozny, Chechnya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Amanda J; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith

    2016-01-01

    A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Data were collected in July 2014. A convenience sample of 59 Chechen adults was asked to Free List all problems affecting people in the area. Four problems were explored further in 19 Key Interviewee (KI) interviews, with respondents identified using snowball sampling. Data analysis was conducted in Russian by the Chechen interviewers. Multiple mental health and psychosocial problems emerged, including 'bad psychological health', 'depression', 'stress and nervous people', and 'problems in the family'. Aggression, 'emotional blowing', and 'not adequate' behavior were frequently reported indicators of these problems, with negative effects on the whole family. Chechens reported seeking help through informal social networks, psychiatric and psychological services, and Islamic Centers. Chechens reported mental health and psychosocial problems similar to those experienced in other post-conflict settings. The description of 'emotional blowing' mirrored prior findings in Chechen asylum seekers and fits within a cluster of cultural concepts of distress featuring anger that has been identified in other conflict-affected populations. Further exploration of the nature and prevalence of this construct, as well as evaluations of interventions aimed at reducing these symptoms, is warranted.

  17. A Mediterranean diet pattern with low consumption of liquid sweets and refined cereals is negatively associated with adiposity in adults from rural Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, C; Darmon, N; Salameh, P; Maillot, M; Batal, M; Lairon, D

    2011-02-01

    The beneficial impact of the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern on adiposity is still under debate, and this has never been assessed in a developing Mediterranean country. To assess the relationships between adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet and adiposity indexes, that is, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in a sample from rural Lebanon. A sample of 798 adults, aged 40-60 years, was selected in continental rural areas of Lebanon for a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, anthropometric and dietary sections. The daily consumption frequencies of selected food groups, categorized as positive or negative components, were calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using six a priori scores; including the widely used Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Associations between diet scores and BMI and WC were assessed. Overall, the diet of the study sample only partially matched the traditional Mediterranean diet. A total of 17.0% of men and 33.7% women were obese. The MDS was negatively associated (Pwomen. The constructed composite Mediterranean score combining positive components of the diet (whole cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruit, olive oil and fish) and negative components adapted to this sample (refined cereals and pastries, and liquid sweets) was consistently and negatively associated with both BMI and WC for men and women in multivariate models. A 2-point increase in that score was associated with a decrease in BMI of 0.51 and 0.78 kg m(-2) and a decrease in WC of 2.77 and 4.76 cm in men and women, respectively. The results demonstrate that a Mediterranean diet is negatively associated with obesity and visceral adiposity in a rural population of a developing Mediterranean country.

  18. Callousness and affective face processing in adults: Behavioral and brain-potential indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J; Yancey, James R; Perkins, Emily R; Palumbo, Isabella M; Drislane, Laura E; Salekin, Randall T; Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Blair, R James R; Patrick, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The investigation of callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been central to contemporary research on child behavior problems, and served as the impetus for inclusion of a specifier for conduct disorder in the latest edition of the official psychiatric diagnostic system. Here, we report results from 2 studies that evaluated the construct validity of callousness as assessed in adults, by testing for affiliated deficits in behavioral and neural processing of fearful faces, as have been shown in youthful samples. We hypothesized that scores on an established measure of callousness would predict reduced recognition accuracy and diminished electocortical reactivity for fearful faces in adult participants. In Study 1, 66 undergraduate participants performed an emotion recognition task in which they viewed affective faces of different types and indicated the emotion expressed by each. In Study 2, electrocortical data were collected from 254 adult twins during viewing of fearful and neutral face stimuli, and scored for event-related response components. Analyses of Study 1 data revealed that higher callousness was associated with decreased recognition accuracy for fearful faces specifically. In Study 2, callousness was associated with reduced amplitude of both N170 and P200 responses to fearful faces. Current findings demonstrate for the first time that callousness in adults is associated with both behavioral and physiological deficits in the processing of fearful faces. These findings support the validity of the CU construct with adults and highlight the possibility of a multidomain measurement framework for continued study of this important clinical construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

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    Smith Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  20. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  1. Can prenatal low-dose irradiation affect behavior of adult rats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Tomasova, L.; Kokocova, N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether exposure of very low dose gamma-rays during the critical phase of brain development affects some selected behavioral parameters in adult rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were irradiated with 1 Gy gamma-rays from a cobalt source at 17 th day of pregnancy. The progeniture of irradiated as well as non-irradiated females have undergone behavioral tests at the age of 3 months. Irradiated animals exhibited lower locomotor and exploratory activity in the open field test. (authors)

  2. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  3. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of adult female albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, M A; Inyangmme, I I; Akpantah, A O; Ekanem, T B; Ekong, M B; Asuquo, O R; Nwakanma, A A

    2013-09-01

    Carbonated drinks are widely consumed because of their taste and their ability to refresh and quench thirst. These carbonated drinks also exist in the form of diet drinks, for example Diet Coke®, Pepsi®, extra. A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of female albino Wistar rats was investigated. Fifteen adult female Wistar rats weighing between 180-200 g were divided into 3 groups; designated as groups A, B and C, and each group consisted of five rats. Group A was the Control group and received distilled water, while groups B and C were the experimental groups. Group B was administered 50 ml of regular soda (RS), and group C was administered 50 ml of diet soda (DS) each per day for 21 days, and the rats were sacrificed on Day 22, and their cerebellums excised and preserved. Histological result of the sections of the cerebellum showed shrunken and degenerated Purkinje cells with hypertrophied dendrites, especially in the DS group, which was less in the RS group compared to the control group. These results suggest that diet soda has adverse effect on the cerebellum of adult female albino Wistar rats.

  4. Dietary intakes and diet quality according to levels of organic food consumption by French adults: cross-sectional findings from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to assess dietary profiles of adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort according to different levels of organic food consumption using detailed self-reported data on organic food intakes. Food intakes were obtained using an organic food frequency questionnaire (Org-FFQ). The participants were ranked into five groups (quintiles, Q) according to the proportion of organic foods in their diet. To determine diet quality, two scores were computed reflecting adherence to food-based recommendations (mPNNS-GS) and the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet). Relationships between levels of organic food consumption and dietary characteristics were assessed using multivariable-adjusted ANCOVA models. The NutriNet-Santé Study. French adults from the NutriNet-Santé Study (n 28 245). Intakes of foods of plant origin increased along with the contribution of organic foods to the diet while a reverse trend was identified for dairy products, cookies and soda (P-trendfood consumers exhibited better diet quality, although intermediate organic food consumers showed better adherence to specific nutritional recommendations related to animal products. The study provides new insights into the understanding of organic food consumption as a part of a healthy diet and sheds some light on the dietary profiles of different categories of organic food consumers. These results underline strong dietary behaviour correlates associated with organic food consumption that should be controlled for in future aetiological studies on organic foods and health.

  5. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carla I; Cogswell, Mary E; Perrine, Cria G; Gillespie, Cathleen

    2017-10-25

    Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011-2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls ( n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) ( p -values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  6. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of food high in fructose and salt is associated with the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can originate from early life. Melatonin, a pleiotropic hormone, regulates blood pressure. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose combined with post-weaning high-salt diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND or a 60% fructose diet (HF during pregnancy and the lactation period. Male offspring were on either the ND or a high-salt diet (HS, 1% NaCl from weaning to 12 weeks of age and were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HS, HF/HS, and HF/HS+melatonin. Melatonin (0.01% in drinking water was administered during pregnancy and lactation. We observed that maternal HF combined with post-weaning HS diets induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which was attenuated by maternal melatonin therapy. The beneficial effects of maternal melatonin therapy on HF/HS-induced hypertension related to regulating several nutrient-sensing signals, including Sirt1, Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkab2, Pparg, and Ppargc1a. Additionally, melatonin increased protein levels of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR, decreased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine levels, and increased the l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation.

  7. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla I. Mercado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa <2300 mg/day in the United States (US is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142 from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old, and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal (p-values ≤ 0.001. With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15. Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  8. Increasing levels of zeolite and Yucca schidigera in diets for adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Charleaux Roque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the additives Yucca schidigera (YSC and zeolite (clinoptilolite on digestibility, fecal texture and odor, blood parameters and urine pH of domesticated felines was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with twenty-one cats, in two periods, distributed in seven treatments: moist commercial feed (control; control + 125, 250 and 375 ppm YSC; and control + 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0 % zeolite. No differences were observed between the diets regarding apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrient, energy, urine pH or blood parameters. However, levels of 0.5 and 0.75% zeolite were effective both in reducing odor (R² = 96.39 and for fecal texture (R² = 99.63, showing a quadratic pattern for these variables. Levels of 125 and 375 ppm YSC were also efficient in reducing fecal odor; however they did not adjust to regression. Levels of 0.5% and 0.75% zeolite significantly reduce odor of feces and increase fecal texture when added to commercial feed for cats.

  9. Juices in the diet of a child and an adult: Their significance for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Juices are of great importance in human rational nutrition during the first years of life. In accordance with the generally accepted recommendations, they are introduced into the infant diet no earlier than 4 months of age, usually after the first complementary foods. Juices provide essential macro- and micronutrients for the infant, promote his/her adaptation to a new eating pattern, and play an important role in the formation of taste preferences and food programming. Juices are a source of vitamins (primarily vitamin C, some minerals (iron, fibers, and water. At the same time, juices contain significant amount of other organic compounds important for the human body, such as polyphenols that are an important component of plant products. They are present in vegetables and fruits, both fresh foods and drinks. Polyphenols include phenolic acid and flavonoids: flavonols (catechins and proanthocyanidines, anthocyanins, etc. Fruit juices contain an average of 34 mg/ 100 ml polyphenols and tomato juice does 69 mg/100 ml. Polyphenols play the most important role in the body’s antioxidant defense mechanisms. Their anti-atherogenic and anti-cancer effects (reducing the risk of myocardial infarction and that of lung and rectal cancers are shown in the long term.

  10. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  11. Adult dogs are capable of regulating calcium balance, with no adverse effects on health, when fed a high-calcium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Jonathan; Watson, Phillip; Gilham, Matthew; Allaway, David; Atwal, Jujhar; Haydock, Richard; Colyer, Alison; Renfrew, Helen; Morris, Penelope J

    2017-05-01

    Although the implications of long-term high Ca intakes have been well documented in growing dogs, the health consequences of Ca excess in adult dogs remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of feeding a diet containing 7·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) Ca for 40 weeks on Ca balance and health parameters in adult dogs, eighteen neutered adult Labrador Retrievers, (nine males and nine females) aged 2·5-7·4 years were randomised to one of two customised diets for 40 weeks. The diets were manufactured according to similar nutritional specifications, with the exception of Ca and P levels. The diets provided 1·7 and 7·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) (200(SD26) and 881(SD145) mg/kg body weight0·75 per d, respectively) Ca, respectively, with a Ca:P ratio of 1·6. Clinical examinations, ultrasound scans, radiographs, health parameters, metabolic effects and mineral balance were recorded at baseline and at 8-week intervals throughout the study. Dogs in both groups were healthy throughout the trial without evidence of urinary, renal or orthopaedic disease. In addition, there were no clinically relevant changes in any of the measures made in either group (all P>0·05). The high-Ca diet resulted in a 3·3-fold increase in faecal Ca excretion (P0·05). Ca intakes of up to 7·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) are well tolerated over a period of 40 weeks, with no adverse effects that could be attributed to the diet or to a high mineral intake.

  12. DASH for asthma: A pilot study of the DASH