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Sample records for adult dental fear

  1. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaton Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish

  2. Dental fear and its possible relationship with periodontal status in Chinese adults: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yeungyeung; Huang, Xin; Yan, Yuxia; Lin, Hanxiao; Zhang, Jincai; Xuan, Dongying

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of dental fear of Chinese adult patients with periodontal disease and provide information for clinical assessment. Methods A total of 1203 dental patients completed questionnaires that included Corach’s Dental Anxiety Scales (DAS), Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and the short-form Dental Anxiety Inventory (S-DAI). Among all the patients, 366 cases were self-reported periodontal disease. The general characteristics were desc...

  3. Dental fear in Japan: Okayama Prefecture school study of adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, P.; Shimono, T.; Domoto, P.; Wohlers, K.; Matsumura, S.; Ohmura, M.; Uchida, H.; Omachi, K.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 3,041 students and staff in middle school in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, were surveyed regarding dental fear. Over 88% reported fear, with 42.1% classified as having high fear. Almost 70% reported acquiring dental fear prior to junior high school. A majority reported being hurt at the last appointment. Delay of dental work was also reported for over 50% of the sample. Coping, pattern of physiological upset, nondental fears, and sex and age differences were also reported. Results suggest intervention is needed to address the major dental public health problems associated with dental fear. PMID:8250343

  4. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  5. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Survey (DFS) questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht's DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates' of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 9...

  6. Dental fear in Japan: Okayama Prefecture school study of adolescents and adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, P; Shimono, T; Domoto, P.; Wohlers, K.; Matsumura, S.; Ohmura, M; Uchida, H.; Omachi, K.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 3,041 students and staff in middle school in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, were surveyed regarding dental fear. Over 88% reported fear, with 42.1% classified as having high fear. Almost 70% reported acquiring dental fear prior to junior high school. A majority reported being hurt at the last appointment. Delay of dental work was also reported for over 50% of the sample. Coping, pattern of physiological upset, nondental fears, and sex and age differences were also reported. Results sug...

  7. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht’s DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates’ of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 90.4%. However, most of the fear encountered among dental students was in the low fear category as compared to their medical counterpart (69.2 versus 51.2%. Significantly more medical students cancelled dental appointment due to fear compared to dental students (P=0.004. “Heart beats faster” and “muscle being tensed” were the top two physiological responses experienced by the respondents. “Drill” and “anesthetic needle” were the most fear provoking objects among respondents of both faculties. Conclusion. Dental fear and anxiety are a common problem encountered among medical and dental undergraduates who represent future health care professionals. Also, high level of dental fear and anxiety leads to the avoidance of the dental services.

  8. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

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    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  9. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B. G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Comp...

  10. Factors of Child Dental Fear : A Literature Review of Dental Fear in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Ayumi; Sato, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To provide an overview of the literature investigating dental fear in children during the past ten years and to review factors of child dental fear. Methods. The literature was systematically retrieved from an electronic database. The thirty four literatures which were written about the fear of dentistry, psychology and behavior during dental treatment were chosen. Results. The terms of fear being used were “Shika-kyoufu”, “Dental fear”, etc. However, the terms were not de...

  11. Dental Fear Among University Employees: Implications for Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…

  12. Gagging and Associations with Dental Care-Related Fear, Fear of Pain, and Beliefs about Treatment

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    Randall, Cameron L.; Shulman, Grant P.; Crout, Richard J.; McNeil, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gagging is a behavioral response that interferes with oral health care and has been suggested to relate to dental care-related fear. Little is known, however, about the epidemiology of gagging during dental treatment. Methods To explore this phenomenon, 478 participants were recruited from the waiting area of an oral diagnosis clinic. Participants completed the Dental Fear Survey, the Short Form-Fear of Pain Questionnaire, Dental Beliefs Scale, and a demographics questionnaire that included items about problems with gagging. Results Over half of the participants reported gagging on at least one occasion during dental visits, with 7.5% almost always, or always gagging. With higher frequency of problems with gagging, patients were more likely to have greater levels of dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and more negative beliefs of dental professionals and dental treatment. Further, participants who gagged more readily had greater dental care-related fear than other gaggers. Conclusion Gagging in the dental clinic is a prevalent problem, and dental care-related fear and fear of pain are associated with more frequent gagging. Clinical Implications Given the prevalence of patients reporting problem gagging, it may be helpful for providers to assess for this barrier to treatment. By targeting dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and negative beliefs about dental care in patients who often gag in the clinic, gagging may be reduced in frequency or intensity, potentially making treatment more comfortable for patients and easier for dental care providers. PMID:24789238

  13. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Serra-Negra, Júnia M.; Vale, Miriam P.; Paiva, Saul M.; Maurício A. Oliveira; Ferreira, Meire C.; Bendo, Cristiane B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Associatio...

  14. The vicious cycle of dental fear: exploring the interplay between oral health, service utilization and dental fear

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer A John; Stewart Judy F; Armfield Jason M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Based on the hypothesis that a vicious cycle of dental fear exists, whereby the consequences of fear tend to maintain that fear, the relationship between dental fear, self-reported oral health status and the use of dental services was explored. Methods The study used a telephone interview survey with interviews predominantly conducted in 2002. A random sample of 6,112 Australian residents aged 16 years and over was selected from 13 strata across all States and Territories....

  15. The Phenomenon of Dental Fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    ) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has...... into the community and make the social environment right for these patients is an important factor in all strategies....

  16. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

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    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  17. Fear of Pain Mediates the Association between MC1R Genotype and Dental Fear.

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    Randall, C L; McNeil, D W; Shaffer, J R; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Marazita, M L

    2016-09-01

    Fear of pain is experienced in acute and chronic pain populations, as well as in the general population, and it affects numerous aspects of the orofacial pain experience, including pain intensity, pain-related disability, and pain behavior (e.g., avoidance). A related but separate construct-dental fear-is also experienced in the general population, and it influences dental treatment-seeking behavior and oral and systemic health. Minimal work has addressed the role of genetics in the etiologies of fear of pain and dental fear. Limited available data suggest that variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene may predict greater levels of dental fear. The MC1R gene also may be etiologically important for fear of pain. This study aimed to replicate the finding that MC1R variant status predicts dental fear and to determine, for the first time, whether MC1R variant status predicts fear of pain. Participants were 817 Caucasian participants (62.5% female; mean ± SD age: 34.7 ± 8.7 y) taking part in a cross-sectional project that identified determinants of oral diseases at the community, family, and individual levels. Participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms on MC1R and completed self-report measures of fear of pain and dental fear. Presence of MC1R variant alleles predicted higher levels of dental fear and fear of pain. Importantly, fear of pain mediated the relation between MC1R variant status and dental fear (B = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.281 to 3.056). MC1R variants may influence orofacial pain perception and, in turn, predispose individuals to develop fears about pain. Such fears influence the pain experience and associated pain behaviors, as well as fears about dental treatment. This study provides support for genetic contributions to the development/maintenance of fear of pain and dental fear, and it offers directions for future research to identify potential targets for intervention in the treatment of fear of pain and dental

  18. Aspects and determinants of children’s dental fear

    OpenAIRE

    Rantavuori, K. (Kari)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to explore different aspects of dental fear and their determinants among children at different ages. The study samples comprised 378 children from the Veneto region of Italy aged 3–13 years and 1474 children from Jyväskylä and Kuopio, Finland, aged 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 years. In the Italian study, the child’s age, first dental visit, number of subsequent visits and dental fear, and the parent’s dental fear were asked in a questionnaire. In the Finnis...

  19. The prevalence of dental anxiety and fear in patients referred to Isfahan Dental School, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saatchi, Masoud; Abtahi, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Golshan; Mirdamadi, Motahare; Binandeh, Elham Sadaat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety and fear are major complications for both patient and dental care provider. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear in patients who referred to Isfahan Dental School and their relation to their age, gender, educational level, past traumatic experiences and frequency of dental visits. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 473 patients were provided with a questionnaire including three sections. First section c...

  20. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia M. Serra-Negra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.

  1. Dental fear of Japanese residents in the United States.

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    Domoto, P.; Weinstein, P.; Kamo, Y.; Wohlers, K.; Fiset, L.; Tanaka, A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dental fear in a sample of Japanese adults and to make preliminary comparisons with a previously described US sample. The survey instrument was translated into Japanese and then translated back into English and was sent to 839 Japanese residing in the Seattle area. A total of 419 (49.9%) usable questionnaires were returned. Results indicate a level of fear higher than the US population (only 17.9% were not at all afraid). Fear level did not vary by age; most respondents (73.3%) acquired their fear in early childhood. While reported utilization was lower than the American sample, the percentage of Japanese respondents who reported being hurt at the last appointment was high (68.0%). Japanese respondents indicated that 35% of dentists appeared to be in a hurry, hurry being associated with being hurt. Japanese coping practices appeared to differ from the American sample. For example, 14.7% of the Japanese whereas 28.2% of the US sample requested the dentist to stop treatment. PMID:1814250

  2. Dental subscale of children's fear survey schedule and dental caries prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    J P Beena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the level of fear of dental procedures among 6-12 year school children and correlate the prevalence of dental caries with their dental fears scores. Materials and Methods: The study sample of 444 school children, comprising of 224 girls and 220 boys in the age group of 6-12 years old from a private English medium school were selected. Each student was asked to independently complete a Children's Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) questionnaire. Children havi...

  3. From Public Mental Health to Community Oral Health: The Impact of Dental Anxiety and Fear on Dental Status

    OpenAIRE

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Díaz, María; Armfield, Jason M.; Romero, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Dental fear is a widely experienced problem. Through a “vicious cycle dynamic,” fear of dental treatment, lower use of dental services, and oral health diseases reinforce each other. Research on the antecedents of dental anxiety could help to break this cycle, providing useful knowledge to design effective community programs aimed at preventing dental fear and its oral health-related consequences. In this regard, frameworks that analyze the interplay between cognitive and psychosocial determi...

  4. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    OpenAIRE

    B S Suprabha; Arathi Rao; Shwetha Choudhary; Ramya Shenoy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1) age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2) dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionna...

  5. Structural Analysis of Dental Fear in Children with and Without Dental Trauma Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bakarčić, Danko; Ivančić Jokić, Nataša; Majstorović, Martina; Škrinjarić, Ana; Zarevski, Predrag

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dental fear in children with and without dental injuries in a randomly selected children in Croatia (59 girls and 88 boys). Children were divided into three groups depending on dental trauma experience. They were also divided into two age groups: 5–8 and 9–12 years. Only dental trauma to the permanent teeth was included in the study. The CFSS–DS, CDAS and CMFQ were used for evaluation of dental anxiety and the ISP Hollingshead Index of Social P...

  6. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Fear Generalization, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal-cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726

  7. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Esa, Rashidah; Leng Ong, Ali; Humphris, Gerald Michael; Freeman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is funded by University Malaya. Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants' demographic profile and assessed th...

  8. Addressing the fears of HIV transmission in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, J

    1992-03-01

    Recent surveys indicate that dental personnel are prepared to provide care for HIV+/AIDS patients, but do so with some reluctance. Their specific concerns have been identified and an attempt has been made to allay these fears by examining them from scientific, clinical, epidemiologic and historical perspectives. These somewhat pragmatic criteria suggest that HIV transmission in dental practice is extremely unlikely-if not impossible. However, the explanations offered to arrive at these conclusions may fail to resolve the suspicions that some dentists and their auxiliaries harbor toward individuals demonstrating lifestyles foreign to their own. If this is so, the advice of counsellors, social scientists and behavioral modification experts must be sought if dental personnel wish to provide care to HIV+/AIDS patients in an atmosphere of mutual trust, confidence and respect. PMID:1555122

  9. Dental fear, tobacco use and alcohol use among university students in Finland: a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pohjola, Vesa; Rannanautio, Lauri; Kunttu, Kristina; Virtanen, Jorma I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco- and alcohol use are associated with psychological problems. Individuals with high dental fear also more often report other psychological problems than do those with lower level of dental fear. We evaluated the association between dental fear and tobacco- and alcohol use while controlling for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations. Methods The data (n = 8514) were collected from all universities in Finland with an electronic inquiry sent to all first-ye...

  10. Factors that limit access to dental care for adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Wolf, Bethany J; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M; Selassie, Anbesaw W; Salinas, Carlos F

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated dental care service utilization among adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and identified barriers and other factors affecting utilization among this population. There were 192 subjects with SCI who participated in the oral health survey assessing dental care service utilization and they were compared with subjects from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS). There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with SCI who visited the dentist for any reason in the past year compared to the general population (65.5% vs. 68.8%, p= .350). However, subjects with SCI were less likely to go to the dentist for a dental cleaning in the past year compared to the general population (54.6% vs. 69.4%, p dental care were cost (40.1%), physical barriers (22.9%), and dental fear (15.1%). Multivariate modeling showed that physical barriers and fear of dental visits were the two significant factors deterring subjects from dental visits in the past year. Physical barriers preventing access to dental facilities and dental fear are prevalent and significantly impede the delivery of dental health care to adults with SCI. Dentists should undertake necessary physical remodeling of their facilities to accommodate wheelchair users and implement appropriate strategies for the management of dental fear among patients with SCI. PMID:20618781

  11. Epidemiological Survey of Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children Living in Transylvania

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    Gyergyay Réka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The objectives of the present survey were: 1 a systematic epidemiological investigation of dental fear and anxiety among children living in the central part of Romania and 2 to identify the most fearful aspects of dental care perceived by these children.

  12. A dental fears typology of oral surgery patients: matching patients to anxiety interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, M D; Kalinowski, L; Shafer, D

    1999-11-01

    Two studies are described in which dental patients were administered the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and then received 1 of 5 anxiety reduction interventions to prepare them for extraction of 3rd-molar teeth. Interventions included standard clinic treatment, oral premedication, and several relaxation-based procedures. Dependent variables were self-reported and observer-rated distress. In the 1st study (N = 231), cluster analyses of the DFS subscales revealed that patients could be subtyped as low-fear, high-fear, or cue-anxious patients who admitted fear only in response to specific stimuli. Dental fear subtypes were distinguishable by situational cognitions reported, and fear subtype interacted with anxiety intervention to predict distress. These results were replicated in the 2nd study (N = 150). The results are seen as supportive of a multidimensional view of dental anxiety. PMID:10619535

  13. Self-Reported Dental Fear among Dental Students and Their Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Freire-Maia; Isabela Pordeus; Efigenia Ferreira; Mauricio de Oliveira; Paiva, Saul M; Junia Serra-Negra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare self-reported dental fear among dental students and patients at a School of Dentistry in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Eighty students ranging in age from 20 to 29 years and 80 patients ranging in age from 18 to 65 years participated in the study. A self-administered pre-tested questionnaire consisting of 13 items was used for data acquisition. The city of Belo Horizonte Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) was employed for socioeconomic classification. The c...

  14. Child′s dental fear: Cause related factors and the influence of audiovisual modeling

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    Jayanthi Mungara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delivery of effective dental treatment to a child patient requires thorough knowledge to recognize dental fear and its management by the application of behavioral management techniques. Children′s Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS helps in identification of specific stimuli which provoke fear in children with regard to dental situation. Audiovisual modeling can be successfully used in pediatric dental practice. Aim: To assess the degree of fear provoked by various stimuli in the dental office and to evaluate the effect of audiovisual modeling on dental fear of children using CFSS-DS. Materials and Methods: Ninety children were divided equally into experimental (group I and control (group II groups and were assessed in two visits for their degree of fear and the effect of audiovisual modeling, with the help of CFSS-DS. Results: The most fear-provoking stimulus for children was injection and the least was to open the mouth and having somebody look at them. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall mean CFSS-DS scores between the two groups during the initial session (P > 0.05. However, in the final session, a statistically significant difference was observed in the overall mean fear scores between the groups (P < 0.01. Significant improvement was seen in group I, while no significant change was noted in case of group II. Conclusion: Audiovisual modeling resulted in a significant reduction of overall fear as well as specific fear in relation to most of the items. A significant reduction of fear toward dentists, doctors in general, injections, being looked at, the sight, sounds, and act of the dentist drilling, and having the nurse clean their teeth was observed.

  15. Effects of Lidocaine with Epinephrine on Fear Related Arousal Among Dental Phobics

    OpenAIRE

    Fiset, Louis; Ramsay, Douglas; Milgrom, Peter; Weinstein, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The effects of 2% lidocaine containing 72 μg epinephrine on fear related arousal were tested using a cross-over design on dental patients fearful of injections and other dental procedures. Heart rate and body movement in the dental operatory were monitored, and subjects' self-reported upset in the Epinephrine condition than in the No-Epinephrine condition (F = 4.8, p = .04), but the clinical significance was negligible. No interaction between initial fear levels and the drug condition could b...

  16. Minimizing fear during dental treatment using ultrasonic points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Di Salvo Mastrantonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, new technologies have been developed to making cavity preparations, among which the diamond burs CVDentus® (CVDentus, São José dos Campos, Brazil are outstanding. These points are produced by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, forming a single diamond stone, with greater durability than the conventional diamond burs. Coupled to the ultrasound appliance, they have several clinical applications in Dentistry with advantages over conventional rotary instruments, such as lower pressure, noise, vibration and heat, as well as reducing the need to use local anesthesia, contributing to minimize patient’s fear and anxiety. The aim of this study was to present the complete restorative dental treatment performed with this system in a child patient with a prior history of non-cooperative behavior. The use of this new technology offered the patient greater comfort, making it possible recondition the patient’s attitude to dental treatment, in addition to favoring conservative cavity preparations to be made.

  17. Salivary Alpha Amylase as a Noninvasive Biomarker for Dental Fear and Its Correlation with Behavior of Children during Dental Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Noorani, Hina; Joshi, Hrishikesh V.; Shivaprakash, PK

    2014-01-01

    ABSTrACT Objective: Objectives of our studies were to predict dental fear in a child patient depending on salivary alpha amylase (sAA) level before and after dental treatment and to evaluate correla­tion of later with behavior of child patient during dental treatment. Materials and methods: Seventy-seven children between age of 5 and 12 years were divided in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 school children who did not undergo any dental treatment. Groups 2 and 3 underwent dental treatmen...

  18. Characteristics of dental fear among Arabic-speaking children: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    El-Housseiny, Azza A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Farsi, Najat M.; El Derwi, Douaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental fear has not only been linked to poor dental health in children but also persists across the lifespan, if unaddressed, and can continue to affect oral, systemic, and psychological health. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Arabic version of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), and to assess the difference in factor structure between boys and girls. Methods Participants were 220 consecutive paediatric dental patients 6–12...

  19. Dental fear and anxiety in children and adolescents - A qualitative study using social media

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaoli; Hamzah, SH; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; McGrath, Colman; King, Nigel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) refers to the fear of and anxiety towards going to the dentist. It exists in a considerable proportion of children and adolescents and is a major dilemma in pediatric dental practice. As an Internet social medium with increasing popularity, the video-sharing website YouTube offers a useful data source for understanding health behaviors and perceptions of the public. Objective Using YouTube as a platform, this qualitative study aimed to examine the mani...

  20. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 471-481, 2016. PMID:26798984

  1. The use of dental services by adult Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, G L

    1993-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the rate of dental service utilisation amongst the adult Singaporeans and to examine factors influencing their service utilisation. 1959 subjects aged between 18-75 years participated in a questionnaire survey. Respondents were asked whether they had seen a dentist in the past twelve months. It was found that 57% of the subjects had not seen a dentist in the past year. The reasons given for non-attendance were "felt it was unnecessary" (69.7%), "lack of time" (13.8%), "fear" (5.7%) and "cost" (2.4%). The low level of dental awareness appeared to be the major block to utilisation of dental services in this population. PMID:9582690

  2. Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coric, Anka; Banozic, Adriana; Klaric, Miro; Vukojevic, Katarina; Puljak, Livia

    2014-01-01

    An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers' CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children's fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children's DFA. PMID:25187737

  3. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention on dental fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Nicolaisen, Camilla;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for patients with dental fear in a private dental clinic. Patients presenting with subjectively reported dental fear were randomly assigned to either an immediate intervention (n = 53) or a waiting...... list (n = 51) group. Both groups received an identical intervention, but delayed by 4-6 weeks in the waiting list group. Participants were asked to fill out two self-report questionnaires of dental fear at pre- and post-intervention, and again at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Analysis of variance...... showed that dental fear was significantly reduced in the immediate intervention group (d = 1.5-2.2), compared with the waiting list group (d = 0.3-0.4). Additionally, all participants showed a significant reduction of dental fear following the brief intervention, and in the subgroup available for follow...

  4. Genetic variations associated with red hair color and fear of dental pain, anxiety regarding dental care and avoidance of dental care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Catherine J.; Beacham, Abbie; Neace, William; Gregg, Ronald G.; Liem, Edwin B.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Red hair color is caused by variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene. People with naturally red hair are resistant to subcutaneous local anesthetics and, therefore, may experience increased anxiety regarding dental care. The authors tested the hypothesis that having natural red hair color, a MC1R gene variant or both could predict a patient's experiencing dental care–related anxiety and dental care avoidance. Methods The authors enrolled 144 participants (67 natural red-haired and 77 dark-haired) aged 18 to 41 years in a cross-sectional observational study. Participants completed validated survey instruments designed to measure general and dental care–specific anxiety, fear of dental pain and previous dental care avoidance. The authors genotyped participants' blood samples to detect variants associated with natural red hair color. Results Eighty-five participants had MC1R gene variants (65 of the 67 red-haired participants and 20 of the 77 dark-haired participants) (P < .001). Participants with MC1R gene variants reported significantly more dental care–related anxiety and fear of dental pain than did participants with no MC1R gene variants. They were more than twice as likely to avoid dental care as were the participants with no MC1R gene variants, even after the authors controlled for general trait anxiety and sex. Conclusion Dental care–related anxiety, fear of dental pain and avoidance of dental care may be influenced by genetic variations. Clinical Implications Dentists should evaluate all patients, but especially those with naturally red hair, for dental care–related anxiety and use appropriate modalities to manage the patients' anxiety. PMID:19571053

  5. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention on dental fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Nicolaisen, Camilla; Poulsen, Rikka

    2015-01-01

    showed that dental fear was significantly reduced in the immediate intervention group (d = 1.5-2.2), compared with the waiting list group (d = 0.3-0.4). Additionally, all participants showed a significant reduction of dental fear following the brief intervention, and in the subgroup available for follow......-up, this effect was maintained after 2 years. This indicates that a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention may be efficacious in helping a significant number of patients with dental fear return to regular dental treatment. Future research should investigate the applicability of a brief cognitive...

  6. The Level of Dental Anxiety and Dental Status in Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dobros, Katarzyna; Hajto-Bryk, Justyna; Wnek, Anna; Zarzecka, Joanna; Rzepka, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to assess potential correlation between dental anxiety and overall dental status in adult patients, in consideration of the frequency of dental appointments and individual dental hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: Individual dental anxiety levels were assessed with the aid of the Corah’s dental anxiety scale (DAS). The study embraced 112 patients of the University Dental Clinic, Kraków. Following clinical and X-ray exams, r...

  7. Reliability and validity of Serbian version of children's dental fear questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Dental anxiety leads to avoidance of dental treatment and could lead to impaired oral health. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the Serbian version of Children’s Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS and the relations between dental anxiety and oral health status in a sample of Serbian schoolchildren. Methods. The CFSS-DS scale was translated into Serbian and administered to 231 (12-year old patients of the Pediatric Dental Department, Public Health Center Čukarica, Belgrade. The number of healthy, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT score in children was determined by a clinical exam. Results. The average CFSS-DS score was 26.47 ± 10.33. The girls reported higher anxiety than the boys (p < 0.05. Most common fears were drilling, choking, going to the hospital and anesthesia. Lower CFSS-DS scores were recorded in children with all healthy teeth (p < 0.05. Children with higher CFSS-DS scores mostly visit the dentist due to pain or parental insistence, and those with lower anxiety scores more often visited dentist due to regular check-ups or non-invasive treatments (p < 0.01. A high value of the Cronbach's coefficient of internal consistency (α = 0.88 was found in the entire scale. Conclusion. The Serbian version of CFSS-DS questionnaire is reliable and valid psychometric instrument for evaluation of dental fear in Serbian children. Dental anxiety negatively affects dental attendance and oral health of the examined schoolchildren.

  8. Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coric A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anka Coric,1 Adriana Banozic,2 Miro Klaric,3 Katarina Vukojevic,4 Livia Puljak5 1School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Health Center Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 4Department of Anatomy, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 5Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Abstract: An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS, Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS, Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001 and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001. Fathers' CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05. There were no significant differences in children's fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings

  9. The dentist's care-taking perspective of dental fear patients - a continuous and changing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensvärd, K; Qvarnström, M; Wolf, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to analyse the care taking of dental fear patients from the perspective of the dentist, using a qualitative methodology. In total, 11 dentists from both the private and public dental service were selected through a purposive sampling according to their experience of treating dental fear patients, their gender, age, service affiliation and location of undergraduate education. Data were obtained using one semi-structured interview with each informant. The interviews were taped and verbatim transcribed. The text was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The theme, 'The transforming autodidactic process of care taking', covering the interpretative level of data content was identified. The first main category covering the descriptive level of data was 'The continuous and changing challenge', with the subcategories 'The emotional demand' and 'The financial stress'. The second main category identified was 'The repeated collection of experience', with the subcategories 'The development of resources' and 'The emotional change'. The dentists' experience of treating dental fear patients was considered a challenging self-taught process under continuous transformation. The competence and routine platform expanded over time, parallel to a change of connected emotions from frustration towards safety, although challenges remained. PMID:27152865

  10. Acoustic Noise Levels of Dental Equipments and Its Association with Fear and Annoyance Levels among Patients Attending Different Dental Clinic Setups in Jaipur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Atri, Mansi; Singh, Kushpal; Sidiq, Mohsin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noise is a source of pervasive occupational hazard for practicing dentists and the patients. The sources of dental sounds by various dental equipments can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system and add to the annoyance levels of the patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the noise levels from various equipments and evaluate the effect of acoustic noise stimulus on dental fear and annoyance levels among patients attending different dental clinic setups in Jaipur, India. Methodology: The sampling frame comprised of 180 patients, which included 90 patients attending 10 different private clinics and 90 patients attending a Dental College in Jaipur. The levels of Acoustic Noise Stimulus originating from different equipments were determined using a precision sound level meter/decibulometer. Dental fear among patients was measured using Dental Fear Scale (DFS). Results: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test and unpaired t-test. The mean background noise levels were found to be maximum in the pre-clinical setup/ laboratory areas (69.23+2.20). Females and the patients attending dental college setup encountered more fear on seeing the drill as compared to the patients attending private clinics (p<0.001). Conclusion: The sources of dental sounds can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system. It was analyzed that the environment in the clinics can directly have an effect on the fear and annoyance levels of patients. Hence it is necessary control the noise from various dental equipments to reduce the fear of patients from visiting a dental clinic. PMID:24959512

  11. Dental fear among university students: implications for pharmacological research.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaakko, T.; Milgrom, P.; Coldwell, S. E.; Getz, T.; Weinstein, P.; Ramsay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    University students are often subjects in randomized clinical trials involving anxiolytic and analgesic medications used during clinical dental and medical procedures. The purpose of this study was to describe a typical university student population available for research by using data from a mail survey. Subjects were 350 students chosen randomly from all enrolled, full-time, traditional students on the main campus at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. The aim was to determine the ...

  12. Eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage in California led to increased dental emergency visits and associated costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Caplan, Daniel J; Jones, Michael P; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Buresh, Christopher T; Isman, Robert; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dental coverage for adults is an elective benefit under Medicaid. As a result of budget constraints, California Medicaid eliminated its comprehensive adult dental coverage in July 2009. We examined the impact of this policy change on emergency department (ED) visits by Medicaid-enrolled adults for dental problems in the period 2006-11. We found that the policy change led to a significant and immediate increase in dental ED use, amounting to more than 1,800 additional dental ED visits per year. Young adults, members of racial/ethnic minority groups, and urban residents were disproportionately affected by the policy change. Average yearly costs associated with dental ED visits increased by 68 percent. The California experience provides evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits shifts dental care to costly EDs that do not provide definitive dental care. The population affected by the Medicaid adult dental coverage policy is increasing as many states expand their Medicaid programs under the ACA. Hence, such evidence is critical to inform decisions regarding adult dental coverage for existing Medicaid enrollees and expansion populations. PMID:25941275

  13. Reviewing the parental standpoint about origin of the dental fear in children referred to dentistry centers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarzadeh, Mehdi; Keshani, Fatemeh; Ghazavi, Zahra; Keshani, Foruz

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental fear leads to lack of child cooperation. In general, without the patient's cooperation, success in remedy is impossible. This study aimed to evaluate parental view about the origins of the dental fear in children as well as their view about factors contributing to the prevention of child dental fear. METHODS: This was a cross sectional descriptive and analytical study which was carried out on 200 parents of children aged 6-12 years referred to dentistry center of Isfahan Un...

  14. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  15. [The phenomenon of dental fear - on science, people and technology] Fænomenet tandlægeskræk - om videnskab, mennesker og teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.

    1993-01-01

    for 80 odontophobic patients indicated that the majority (46%) had a social phobic reaction in the presence of dental personnel, 35% had complicating general anxiety tendencies and only 19% had a well-defined fear of dental procedures or resultant pain; ie. it was not just fear of drilling, but mostly......Inspite of technological development in dentistry, historically there has always been a new set of instruments or procedures to provide people with symbols of fear (Figs. 2 and 3). The dental consequences of treatment avoidance due to fear are often dramatic (Fig. 4). Diagnosis of the problem...... dental fear adequately and continued to be reduced even after a year at a private dentist of the patients' choosing. Conclusion: The phenomenon of dental fear illustrates that new technological developments in dentistry must be accompanied by improved social and psychological understanding in the future...

  16. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE

    OpenAIRE

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques; Morgana Pontes Brasil Gradvohl; Maria Cristina Germano Maia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test), an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so th...

  17. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  18. Dietary behavior and knowledge of dental erosion among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Karie KL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To study the dietary behavior and knowledge about dental erosion and self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods Chinese adults aged 25-45 years were randomly selected from a list of registered telephone numbers generated by computer. A telephone survey was administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, dietary habits, dental visits, and knowledge of and presence of self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Results A total of 520 participants were interviewed (response rate, 75%; sampling error, ± 4.4% and their mean age was 37. Most respondents (79% had ever had caries, and about two thirds (64% attended dental check-ups at least once a year. Respondents had a mean of 5.4 meals per day and 36% had at least 6 meals per day. Fruit (89% and lemon tea/water (41% were the most commonly consumed acidic food and beverage. When asked if they ever noticed changes in their teeth, most respondents (92% said they had experienced change that can be related to erosion. However, many (71% had never heard about dental erosion and 53% mixed up dental erosion with dental caries. Conclusion Hong Kong Chinese adults have frequent intake of food and many have experienced symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Their level of awareness of and knowledge about dental erosion is generally low, despite most of them have regular dental check-ups. Dental health education is essential to help the public understand dental erosion and its damaging effects.

  19. Early adversity disrupts the adult use of aversive prediction errors to reduce fear in uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Wright

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversity increases anxiety in adult rodents and primates, and increases the risk for developing post-traumatic disorder (PTSD in humans. We hypothesized that early adversity impairs the use of learning signals – negative, aversive prediction errors – to reduce fear in uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, we gave adolescent rats a battery of adverse experiences then assessed adult performance in probabilistic Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction. Rats were confronted with three cues associated with different probabilities of foot shock: one cue never predicted shock, another cue predicted shock with uncertainty, and a final cue always predicted shock. Control rats initially acquired fear to all cues, but rapidly reduced fear to the non-predictive and uncertain cues. Early adversity rats were slower to reduce fear to the non-predictive cue and never fully reduced fear to the uncertain cue. In extinction, all cues were presented in the absence of shock. Fear to the uncertain cue in discrimination, but not early adversity itself, predicted the reduction of fear in extinction. These results demonstrate early adversity impairs the use of negative, aversive prediction errors to reduce fear, especially in situations of uncertainty.

  20. Adults with Disabilities and Proper Dental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Cinotti, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated studies of graduating dental students indicate limited preparation to provide services for individuals with special healthcare needs. By the end of the 1990s and into the present decade, more than half of the U.S. dental schools provided less than five hours of class room presentations and about three quarters of the schools provided 0-5…

  1. Trans-adapted, reliability, and validity of children fear survey schedule-dental subscale in Bahasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used measuring instrument for determination of dental fear in children nowadays is the children’s fear survey schedule-dental scale (CFSS-DS. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the scale with Indonesian trans adapted version of the scale, thus the scale can be reliable to be used in other similar research in Indonesia. Methods: Total of 113 participants, who were parent’s 3 to 12 years old children. Children were divided into two age groups, group I 3-6 year old (83 children and group II 7-12 year old (30 children. Eighty three children from the first group were divided into first dental visit group (30 children and non first dental visit group (53 children. Test-retest approach was applied to 30 first dental visit children aged 3-6 year old. Original scale was translated to Indonesian language. Result: The result showed the high value of the Cronbach’s coefficient of internal consistency α=0.956. Three factors were extracted by screen test method with Eigen values higher than 1, which explained 93.05% variance of results. Conclusion: CFSS-DS scale is reliable and valid psychometric instrument for dental fear evaluation in children in Bahasa Indonesia. The differences between this study and those of others may appear due to many factors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Factors influencing dental care access in Jordanian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Obeidat, Suhair Ref’at; Alsa’di, Amani Ghassan; Taani, Dafi Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study are to assess the influences of demographic and personal factors on Jordanian adults’ abilities to use dental services and the barriers to regular attendance. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 650 Jordanian adults attending King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) (n = 200), Jordan University of Science and Technology–Dental Health Teaching Center (JUST–DHTC) (n = 150), Yarmouk University Health Clinics (YUHC) (n = 150),...

  3. Abandonment Fears in Persons with Alzheimer's at Adult Day Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Judkins, Wayne A

    1999-01-01

    In my research, I examined abandonment fears in persons with Alzheimerâ s disease at the Salem Veterans Affairs adult day care center. I observed fifty hours at the center, and conducted open-ended interviews with two of the participants and their respective caregivers. These two participants (Ellen and Opel) at the center expressed abandonment fears much more frequently than any of the other participants. I found that most of the time, these two women would express their abandonment f...

  4. SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A BIOMARKER OF DENTAL FEAR AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Réka GYERGYAY; Béla KOVÁCS; Nagy, Előd; Krisztina MÁRTHA; Cristina BICĂ; Melinda SZÉKELY

    2015-01-01

    Dental treatment represents a stress factor for most children. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation of salivary alpha-amylase concentration in children after a video viewing on dental treatments. In this study, 7 to 10 year-old school children were evaluated (n=119). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after viewing a 15 min video on dental treatments performed on children. Changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been assessed. Video viewing on dental ...

  5. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of dental anxiety among a group of adult patients attending a dental institution in Vadodara city, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta A Malvania; C G Ajithkrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anxiety is a subjective state of feelings. Dental anxiety is often reported as a cause of irregular dental attendance, delay in seeking dental care or even avoidance of dental care, resulting in poor oral health related quality of life. Aim: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of dental anxiety among a group of adult patients attending a dental institution in Vadodara, Gujarat. Patients and Methods: A total of 150 adult patients waiting in the out-patien...

  6. Factors Associated with Fear of Falling among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in the Shih-Pai Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Fear of falling is an important risk indicator for adverse health related outcomes in older adults. However, factors associated with fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults are not well-explored.To explore the quality of life and associated factors in fear of falling among older people in the Shih-Pai area in Taiwan.This community-based survey recruited three thousand eight hundred and twenty-four older adults aged ≥ 65 years. The measurements included a structured questionnaire, including quality of life by using Short-Form 36, and information of fear of falling, fall history, demographics, medical conditions, insomnia, sleep quality, depression and subjective health through face-to-face interviews.A total of 53.4% of participants reported a fear of falling. The rate of fear of falling was higher in female subjects. Subjects with fear of falling had lower Short Form-36 scores both for men and women. Falls in the previous year, older age, insomnia, depression and worse subjective health were correlates of fear of falling for both sexes. Male-specific associations with fear of falling were the accessibility of medical help in an emergency, diabetes mellitus and stroke. In parallel, cardiovascular diseases were a female-specific correlate for fear of falling.Fear of falling is prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. It is seems that there are gender differences in fear of falling with respect to the prevalence and associated factors in older adults. Gender differences should be considered when planning prevention and intervention strategies for fear of falling among older people.

  7. Comparison of acceptance, preference and efficacy between pressure anesthesia and classical needle infiltration anesthesia for dental restorative procedures in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetana Sachin Makade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraoral local anesthesia is essential for delivering dental care. Needless devices have been developed to provide anesthesia without injections. Little controlled research is available on its use in dental restorative procedures in adult patients. The aims of this study were to compare adult patients acceptability and preference for needleless jet injection with classical local infiltration as well as to evaluate the efficacy of the needleless anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Twenty non fearful adults with no previous experience of dental anesthesia were studied using split-mouth design. The first procedure was performed with classical needle infiltration anesthesia. The same amount of anesthetic solution was administered using MADA jet needleless device in a second session one week later, during which a second dental restorative procedure was performed. Patients acceptance was assessed using Universal pain assessment tool while effectiveness was recorded using soft tissue anesthesia and pulpal anesthesia. Patients reported their preference for the anesthetic method at the third visit. The data was evaluated using chi square test and student′s t-test. Results: Pressure anesthesia was more accepted and preferred by 70% of the patients than traditional needle anesthesia (20%. Both needle and pressure anesthesia was equally effective for carrying out the dental procedures. Conclusion: Patients experienced significantly less pain and fear (p<0.01 during anesthetic procedure with pressure anesthesia. However, for more invasive procedures needle anesthesia will be more effective.

  8. Effects of propranolol on fear of dental extraction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steenen, S.A.; Wijk, van, A.J.; Westrhenen, van, SC; Lange, de, J.; Jongh, de, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Undergoing an extraction has been shown to pose a significantly increased risk for the development of chronic apprehension for dental surgical procedures, disproportionate forms of dental anxiety (that is, dental phobia), and symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that intrusive emotional memories of these events both induce and maintain these forms of anxiety. Addressing these problems effectively requires an intervention that durably reduces both the intrusiveness o...

  9. 口腔修复患者牙科畏惧症的心理护理%Psychological nursing of patients with oral cavity repair dental fear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑富菊; 刘晓花

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relevant content of dental fear in patients with oral cavity repair of dental fear, and the needle phobia solutions. Methods Dental patients collected 100 cases of our hospital, by asking the way of questionnaire investigation and relevant information to the patient's dental fear for collection,And according to these information to discuss how to carry out psychological nursing for dental patients with dental fear. Result The patients with oral repair dental fear related information collected, and for patients withthese information pertinent psychological nursing,All patients were able to successfully treated, at the same time in the treatment of the actual process of emotional stability, with a high degree of. Conclusion According to the psychological nursing method in patients with dental fear the actual conditionand detailed and thoughtful can reduce or eliminate the patient's dental fear, worth in clinical application.%目的:探讨口腔修复患者的牙科畏惧症的相关内容,并且针对牙科畏惧症探讨解决方法。方法收集100例我院收治的牙科修复患者,采用询问以及问卷调查的方式对患者的牙科畏惧症的相关信息进行收集,并且针对这些信息讨论出如何对有牙科畏惧症的口腔修复患者进行心理护理。结果通过采集到的口腔修复患者的牙科畏惧症相关信息,并且针对这些信息对患者进行针对性的心理护理,所有患者均能够顺利地进行治疗,同时在实际的治疗过程中情绪稳定,配合度较高。结论针对患者的牙科畏惧症实际病情采取详细周到的心理护理方式能够较好的减轻或消除患者的牙科畏惧症,在临床上值得推广应用。

  10. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth. PMID:26943088

  11. Barriers to social participation among lonely older adults: the influence of social fears and identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C Goll

    Full Text Available Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England.An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed.Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity.It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples' beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided.

  12. Assessment of Negative Self-Image and Fear of Negative Evaluation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agbu Jane-Frances; Ibida Ebele

    2014-01-01

    Concern with real or imagined defect in physical appearance can become a major preoccupation during adolescence and young adult years. This is because, changes of puberty, rapid physical growth, and resulting sexual maturation that characterizes this age can trigger feelings of self-consciousness and awkwardness about body-image perceptions. In addition, the "perfect" body-image as dictated in the social culture could become a measure of self-worth, and this is capable of triggering negative self-image and social anxiety among adolescents. This study seeks to assess the incidence of negative self-image (preoccupation with real or imagined defect in physical appearance) and social anxiety characterized by fear of negative evaluation, among adolescents and young adults. Samples of 329 participants in the age range of 16-25 were drawn from the first and second years students of Federal University Wukari and University of Lagos, Nigeria. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet as well as NSII (Negative Self-Image Inventory) and revalidated version of FNE (Fear of Negative Evaluation). Findings revealed that there is a correlation between negative self-image and fear of negative evaluation; males manifested higher symptoms of negative self-image than females; young adults aged 21-25 presented higher negative self-image that those aged 16-20, adolescents and young adults from Lagos metropolis experience higher manifestation of fear of negative evaluation than those from Wukari axis. This study therefore adds to knowledge in this area.

  13. Anxiety and panic fear in adults with asthma: prevalence in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C.L.; Parry, G.D.; Saul, C.; Morice, A H; Hutchcroft, B J; J. Moore; Esmonde, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Patients may find it difficult to distinguish between the symptoms of anxiety and those of asthma. Findings are equivocal on whether there is a specific link between anxiety and asthma. The aims of this study were to i) to identify the prevalence of anxiety, depression and panic fear in adults with asthma compared with that of the general population ii) to investigate whether there is a specific relationship between asthma and anxiety. Methods An epidemiological survey ...

  14. SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A BIOMARKER OF DENTAL FEAR AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka GYERGYAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental treatment represents a stress factor for most children. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation of salivary alpha-amylase concentration in children after a video viewing on dental treatments. In this study, 7 to 10 year-old school children were evaluated (n=119. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after viewing a 15 min video on dental treatments performed on children. Changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been assessed. Video viewing on dental procedures led to a significant increase of the alpha-amylase level in the whole sample group. This was noticeable in terms of gender as well as age groups. From the viewpoint of age and gender, girls displayed significantly higher levels of amylase in all age groups, while this could be observed only in younger boys. In conclusion, analysis of salivary alpha-amylase revealed that the sight of dental treatment represents a significant source of stress among children.

  15. Dental Fear Survey: A Cross-Sectional Study Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Brazilian Portuguese Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Antônio Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS, previously translated to the Brazilian Portuguese language and validated. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 1,256 undergraduates from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was carried out. The DFS and a questionnaire about previous dental experiences were self-administered. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, principal components analysis (PCA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and construct, discriminant, and convergent validity. Results. PCA identified a three-factor structure. CFA confirmed the multidimensionality of the Brazilian version of the DFS. A modified model of the Brazilian version of the DFS fits better than the hypothesized model. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total DFS scale was 0.95. Conclusion. The DFS demonstrated acceptable construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. These results supported the reliability and validity of the DFS among Brazilian undergraduates.

  16. Preventive care delivered within Public Dental Service after caries risk assessment of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänsel Petersson, G; Ericson, E; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study preventive care provided to young adults in relation to their estimated risk category over a 3-year period. METHODS: The amount and type of preventive treatment during 3 years was extracted from the digital dental records of 982 patients attending eight public dental clinics...... adults attending public dental service. Further research is needed how to reach those with the greatest need of primary and secondary prevention....

  17. 牙科恐惧心理的现况调查研究%Investigation and Study on the Status of Dental Fear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of dental fear and the influencing factors.To search for the method and countermeasures about how to reduce patient's psychological fear.Methods 242 patients were investigated randomly by dental anxiety scale and self-made scale of general conditions.Results The prevalence of dental fear was 64.9% and the average DAS score was 9.68±3.87.Significant differences were found among different sex and different education level (P<0.01).The most popular reason for dental fear were being afraid of pain (72%) , being worried about unskilled doctor (44.6%) and personal experience of dental treatment (36.4%).Conclusions The prevalence of fear in this survey was high.It is relative to many kinds of factors.Dentists should gain a better understanding of this status, pay more attention to this, try to avoid or reduce the fear, and take effective measures to make clinical treatment smoothly.%目的 探讨影响牙科恐惧心理的相关因素,寻找减轻患者恐惧心理的方法及对策.方法采用Coach's牙科焦虑量表(Dental Anxiety Scale,DAS)及自制一般状况问卷调查表,随机选择医院口腔门诊患者242名进行调查分析.结果 牙病患者存在恐惧心理157人,占总数64.9%,DAS平均得分(9.68±3.87)分.不同性别及不同文化程度人群心理恐惧差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).心理恐惧的主要原因为害怕疼痛(72%)、担心医生技术不好(44.6%),自身不愉快看牙经历(36.4%).结论牙科恐惧症的发生率较高,它与多种因素相关,口腔医生应对其有足够的认识和了解,尽量降低患者的恐惧状态,使牙科治疗顺利进行.

  18. Experiences of Dental Care and Dental Anxiety in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    My Blomqvist; Göran Dahllöf; Susanne Bejerot

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental...

  19. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  20. Dental anxiety among adults: An epidemiological study in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Devapriya Appukuttan; Sangeetha Subramanian; Anupama Tadepalli; Lokesh Kumar Damodaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a major barrier for dental care utilization. Hence, identifying anxious individuals and their appropriate management becomes crucial in clinical practice. Aim: The study aims to assess dental anxiety, factors influencing dental anxiety, and anxiety towards tooth extraction procedure among patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1,148 consecutive patients aged 18-70 years. The assessment tools consisted o...

  1. Analysis on dental fear between dentists and the child patients%儿童患者牙科恐惧症原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 秦满

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference of dental fear between dentists and the child patients. Methods: 104 pediatric dentists and 107 children were randomly selected and asked to complete the questionnaire regarding pain cognition of dental fear in pediatric dentistry. Results: Dentists'opinion on the reasons of dental fear differed from children. The main reason of dental fear for children was injection, followed by chocking; while dentists with less than 5 years professional experience believed drilling noise was the main reason, and dentists working more than 16 years considered the main reason was pain( P < 0.001 ). 25.7% of dentists would not inform their patients of pain in advance, and 74. 7% of children expected to know whether the dental treatment is painful or not before treatment. Conclusion: The opinion on the reasons of dental fear differed between dentists and children.%目的:调查儿童患者牙科恐惧症的因素,分析医患间对这些因素感知的差异.方法:随机选择104 名儿童口腔科医师及4~9 岁的儿童口腔科患儿107 人分别填写调查问卷,内容涉及对口腔科治疗时疼痛的认识.结果:患儿害怕口腔治疗的主要原因,医患间存在显著差异(P<0.001),患儿自述害怕就诊的首要原因是打针,其次为口内有水;从医时间长于15 年的医师多认为是治疗时的疼痛感,从医时间短于5 年的医生认为是牙钻等的声音导致患儿惧怕看牙.74.3%的医生在出现疼痛的操作前预告知患儿,从医时间延长,告知患儿的比率越低(P<0.001).74.7%的患儿术前希望获知治疗是否疼痛.结论:医患间在惧怕口腔治疗的原因上存在差异.

  2. Dental health education: training of homecarers of mentally handicapped adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K W; Whittle, J G

    1990-06-01

    A seven week induction course for homecarers of mentally handicapped adults, organised by the Social Services Department in Salford, UK, includes a dental health education session of one and a half hours. The session is divided into three parts; an illustrated discussion, a demonstration of tooth-brushing and a practical component session where carers are divided into pairs and carry out oral hygiene measures for each other. The effectiveness of the session has been assessed using a questionnaire. This was completed by 33 carers who attended the session and 31 carers who had not. Many members of both groups knew about the shape and colour of healthy gums and what plaque was. However significantly fewer of the control group knew that gum disease resulted from a lack of toothbrushing, what to do with bleeding gums and the amount of toothpaste to use on the toothbrush. PMID:2379095

  3. Drebrin A regulates hippocampal LTP and hippocampus-dependent fear learning in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, N; Yasuda, H; Hanamura, K; Ishizuka, Y; Sekino, Y; Shirao, T

    2016-06-01

    Structural plasticity of dendritic spines, which underlies higher brain functions including learning and memory, is dynamically regulated by the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Drebrin A is an F-actin-binding protein preferentially expressed in the brain and localized in the dendritic spines of mature neurons. Isoform conversion from drebrin E to drebrin A and accumulation of the latter in dendritic spines occurs during synapse maturation. We have previously demonstrated that drebrin A plays a pivotal role in spine morphogenesis and plasticity. However, it is unclear whether drebrin A plays a specific role in processes required for structural plasticity, and whether drebrin E can substitute in this role. To answer these questions, we analyzed mutant mice (named DAKO mice), in which isoform conversion from drebrin E to drebrin A is disrupted. In DAKO mouse brain, drebrin E continues to be expressed throughout life instead of drebrin A. Electrophysiological studies using hippocampal slices revealed that long-term potentiation of CA1 synapses was impaired in adult DAKO mice, but not in adolescents. In parallel with this age-dependent impairment, DAKO mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent fear learning in an age-dependent manner; the impairment was evident in adult mice, but not in adolescents. In addition, histological investigation revealed that the spine length of the apical dendrite of CA1 pyramidal cells was significantly longer in adult DAKO mice than in wild-type mice. Our data indicate that the roles of drebrin E and drebrin A in brain function are different from each other, that the isoform conversion of drebrin is critical, and that drebrin A is indispensable for normal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent fear memory in the adult brain. PMID:26970584

  4. Inductive effect of parental dental anxiety on child dental fear%父母牙科焦虑诱导儿童牙科畏惧症行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家媛; 李洁; 李帅; 丁芳; 刘丽; 顾瑜; 张绍伟; 王胜; 刘建国

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inductive effect of parental dental anxiety (PDA) on child dental fear(CDF). METHODS: Two hundred and forty children with CDF and their parents with PDA were divided into the control group and the test group by stratified randomization. In the test group, parents with PDA accepted behavior induction before inducing children with CDF, and in the control group only behavior induction was giren to CDF. RESULTS:The induction of PDA could effectively promote the induction of CDF. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: There is significant relationship between parental and child dental fear. Induction of parental dental anxiety plays an important role in the induction of CDF.%目的:观察父母牙科焦虑(parental dental anxiety,PDA)在对儿童牙科畏惧症(child dental fear,CDF)行为诱导中的作用.方法:240例同时伴有CDF和PDA的家庭,按照儿童年龄进行分层随机分组.实验组CDF在实施诱导前首先进行家长PDA的行为诱导.对照组仅对CDF实施行为诱导.结果:对PDA的诱导可有效促进CDF的行为诱导效果,与对照组相比具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:对伴随家长 PDA的CDF诱导过程中,父母(家长)PDA的行为诱导具有重要作用.

  5. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  6. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  7. The Psychometric analysis in dental fear patients%牙科畏惧症患者的异常心理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承芳; 范江宏; 王旭; 郭德惠; 张文婷; 牟凌丹; 吴亚楠; 孟秀华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同年龄段牙科畏惧症患者的抑郁、焦虑状态、对人性的信心以及自信。方法:选取329名牙痛患者,填写抑郁自评量表(SDS),焦虑自评量表(SAS),信赖他人量表(FPA),状态-特质焦虑问卷(STAI),得到各评分值,用牙科畏惧(DF)量表筛选出畏惧症患者,将无畏惧症者作为正常对照组与畏惧症患者进行比较,并根据年龄段分组,进行统计学分析。结果:牙科畏惧症患者与正常对照组的抑郁自评量表评分经统计学处理有显著性差异。男女患者在牙科畏惧症评分上有显著性差异,女性的畏惧程度较男性要严重。青年组和中年组畏惧症患者的抑郁自评量表与正常对照组比较有统计学差异。青年组的状态焦虑评分有统计学意义。结论:牙科畏惧症患者具有异常的心理状态。%Objectives: To investigate depression and anxiety state, faith and ability of self-confident in dental fear patients. Methods: All patients in this investigation ,total 329, were asked to fill out self-rating depression scale (SDS), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), faith in people scale (FPA) and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), and got the result. The participants who responded to dental fear scale were screened as dental fear patients.The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance stratified by age between normal and dental fear patients. Results:Statistically significant differences were found between patients with and without dental fear using SDS scale. Significant sex differences based on the DAS score indicated female patients suffered from more severe anxiety than male counterparts did. For patients 18~30 and 46~60 years old, significant difference were found between patients with or without dental fear based on SDS scores. There were statistical significance of state anxiety in patients of 18~30 years old. Conclusion:Dental fear patients have abnormal psychology.

  8. Progress on diagnosis and treatment of children’s dental fear%儿童牙科畏惧症诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 刘中林; 彭澜

    2014-01-01

    比较了行为测试、心理测试、生理测试及投射测试等儿童牙科畏惧症的评估方法,并就儿童牙科畏惧症的防治进展进行综述。笑气作为镇静剂在国外儿童牙科得到了广泛应用,表面麻醉下的局部麻醉是国内儿童牙科最常用的疼痛控制方法,侵袭疗法临床应慎用。儿童牙科畏惧症已具备较成熟的评估方法和多元化干预策略,但我国口腔科医护人员对此重视不够。%It compared the assessment methods of children’s dental fear in-cluding behavioral tests,psychological tests,physiological tests and proj ec-tion testing.And it reviewed the progress on the prevention and treatment of children’s dental fear.Nitrous oxide as a sedative in pediatric dentistry in a-broad has been widely applied.However,local anesthesia under surface anes-thesia is the most common pain control method in children’s dental clinic in China.And clinical application of invasion therapy should be with caution. Children’s dental fear already has more mature assessment methods and in-tervention strategies for diversification,but health care workers in dentistry department do not pay attention to it in China.

  9. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Faulks Denise; Collado Valérie; Nicolas Emmanuel; Bullier Brigitte; Hennequin Martine

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a Fre...

  10. DENTAL ANXIETY AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Donka G. Kirova

    2011-01-01

    Dental anxiety and dental fear are major factors causing much troubles for the people attending to their own personal health. Statistics show that the 25-26-year-olds experience higher dental anxiety than others. This can be accounted for by the diverse, intense effects of a number of psychological factors in this age range that can cause dental fear and dental anxiety.The aim of the present study was to survey the dental anxiety levels among the students of the Faculty of Dentistry in Plovd...

  11. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila J Patil; Preetam P Shah; Jayakumar A Patil; Anand Shigli; Anil T Patil; Tamagond, Sridevi B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. Aim: To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Materials and Methods:...

  12. Dental anxiety among adults: An epidemiological study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devapriya Appukuttan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety is a major barrier for dental care utilization. Hence, identifying anxious individuals and their appropriate management becomes crucial in clinical practice. Aim: The study aims to assess dental anxiety, factors influencing dental anxiety, and anxiety towards tooth extraction procedure among patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1,148 consecutive patients aged 18-70 years. The assessment tools consisted of a consent form, history form, a questionnaire form containing the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS which was used to assess the level of dental anxiety, and an additional question on anxiety towards dental extraction procedure. Results: Among the study group, 63.7% were men and 36.3% were women. Based on the MDAS score, 45.2% of the participants were identified to be less anxious, 51.8% were moderately or extremely anxious, and 3% were suffering from dental phobia. Mean MDAS total score was 10.4 (standard deviation (SD = 3.91. Female participants and younger subjects were more anxious (P < 0.001. Subjects who were anxious had postponed their dental visit (P < 0.001. Participants who had negative dental experience were more anxious (P < 0.05. Notably, 82.6% reported anxiety towards extraction procedure. Significant association was seen between anxiety towards extraction procedure and the respondents gender (P < 0.05, age (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.05, employment status (P < 0.001, income (P < 0.001, self-perceived oral health status (P < 0.05, and their history of visit to dentist (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant percentage of population was suffering from dental anxiety in this study population. A plethora of factors like age, gender, education level, occupation, financial stability, and previous bad dental experience influences dental anxiety to various levels. Extraction followed by drilling of tooth and receiving local anesthetic injection

  13. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. PMID:25521216

  14. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p358

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    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  15. Assessing fear of hypoglycemia among adults with type 1 diabetes – psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II questionnaire

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    Marit Graue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes, but the overall frequency of both mild and severe hypoglycemia is difficult to estimate. The Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II (HFS-II is often used to assess the fear of hypoglycemia. Material and methods: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the HFS-II for adults, including the behavior (HFS-B and worry (HFS-W subscales, among 235 adults in Norway with type 1 diabetes. We assessed associations between HFS-II scores and other rating scales and demographic and clinical variables. Results: The Norwegian version of HFS-II had an acceptable factor structure in relation to HFS-W, whereas the structure within HFS-B was more questionable. The expected relationships between HFS-II subscales and measures of related constructs administered concurrently demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Conclusion: Access to reliable and valid self-report instruments enables the early detection of psychosocial problems. HFS-W performs well, whereas HFS-B needs to be further examined and developed.

  16. Evaluating components of dental care utilization among adults with diabetes and matched controls via hurdle models

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    Chaudhari Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About one-third of adults with diabetes have severe oral complications. However, limited previous research has investigated dental care utilization associated with diabetes. This project had two purposes: to develop a methodology to estimate dental care utilization using claims data and to use this methodology to compare utilization of dental care between adults with and without diabetes. Methods Data included secondary enrollment and demographic data from Washington Dental Service (WDS and Group Health Cooperative (GH, clinical data from GH, and dental-utilization data from WDS claims during 2002–2006. Dental and medical records from WDS and GH were linked for enrolees continuously and dually insured during the study. We employed hurdle models in a quasi-experimental setting to assess differences between adults with and without diabetes in 5-year cumulative utilization of dental services. Propensity score matching adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between the two groups. Results We found that adults with diabetes had lower odds of visiting a dentist (OR = 0.74, p  0.001. Among those with a dental visit, diabetes patients had lower odds of receiving prophylaxes (OR = 0.77, fillings (OR = 0.80 and crowns (OR = 0.84 (p 0.005 for all and higher odds of receiving periodontal maintenance (OR = 1.24, non-surgical periodontal procedures (OR = 1.30, extractions (OR = 1.38 and removable prosthetics (OR = 1.36 (p  Conclusions Patients with diabetes are less likely to use dental services. Those who do are less likely to use preventive care and more likely to receive periodontal care and tooth-extractions. Future research should address the possible effectiveness of additional prevention in reducing subsequent severe oral disease in patients with diabetes.

  17. Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults

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    Shervin Assari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition to adulthood is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among African Americans. In addition to stress related to emerging adulthood, neighborhood fear may contribute to depressive symptoms for African Americans. We examined gender differences in longitudinal associations between changes in perceived neighborhood fear, parental support, and depressive symptoms among African American youth who were in transition to adulthood. Five hundred and thirteen African American youths (235 males and 278 females were included in the study. An increase in perceived neighborhood fear was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms, and change in perceived maternal support was predictive of depressive symptoms among males, but not females. The findings suggest that policies and programs should help parents provide support to young adult children who live in violent neighborhoods as a strategy to prevent depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood.

  18. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FEAR OF DENTISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena IORGA; Tudor CIUHODARU

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psych...

  19. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  20. Changes in lower dental arch dimensions and tooth alignment in young adults without orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Aldo Mauad; Robson Costa Silva; Mônica Lídia Santos de Castro Aragón; Luana Farias Pontes; Newton Guerreiro da Silva Júnior; David Normando

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this longitudinal study, comprising young adults without orthodontic treatment, was to assess spontaneous changes in lower dental arch alignment and dimensions. METHODS: Twenty pairs of dental casts of the lower arch, obtained at different time intervals, were compared. Dental casts obtained at T1 (mean age = 20.25) and T2 (mean age = 31.2) were compared by means of paired t-test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There was significant reduction in arch dimensions: 0.43 mm for interca...

  1. The protein kinase KIS impacts gene expression during development and fear conditioning in adult mice.

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    Valérie Manceau

    Full Text Available The brain-enriched protein kinase KIS (product of the gene UHMK1 has been shown to phosphorylate the human splicing factor SF1 in vitro. This phosphorylation in turn favors the formation of a U2AF(65-SF1-RNA complex which occurs at the 3' end of introns at an early stage of spliceosome assembly. Here, we analyzed the effects of KIS knockout on mouse SF1 phosphorylation, physiology, adult behavior, and gene expression in the neonate brain. We found SF1 isoforms are differently expressed in KIS-ko mouse brains and fibroblasts. Re-expression of KIS in fibroblasts restores a wild type distribution of SF1 isoforms, confirming the link between KIS and SF1. Microarray analysis of transcripts in the neonate brain revealed a subtle down-regulation of brain specific genes including cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels and metabolic enzymes. Q-PCR analyses confirmed these defects and point to an increase of pre-mRNA over mRNA ratios, likely due to changes in splicing efficiency. While performing similarly in prepulse inhibition and most other behavioral tests, KIS-ko mice differ in spontaneous activity and contextual fear conditioning. This difference suggests that disregulation of gene expression due to KIS inactivation affects specific brain functions.

  2. Changes in lower dental arch dimensions and tooth alignment in young adults without orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aldo Mauad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this longitudinal study, comprising young adults without orthodontic treatment, was to assess spontaneous changes in lower dental arch alignment and dimensions. METHODS: Twenty pairs of dental casts of the lower arch, obtained at different time intervals, were compared. Dental casts obtained at T1 (mean age = 20.25 and T2 (mean age = 31.2 were compared by means of paired t-test (p 0.05. Furthermore, incisors irregularity at T2 could not be predicted due to the severity of this variable at T1 (p = 0.5051. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that post-growth maturation of the lower dental arch leads to a reduction of dental arch dimensions as well as to a mild, yet significant, increase in dental crowding, even in individuals without orthodontic treatment. Furthermore, dental alignment in the third decade of life cannot be predicted based on the severity of dental crowding at the end of the second decade of life.

  3. Computerized Tool to Manage Dental Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, M; Potter, C M; Kinner, D G; Jensen, D; Waldron, E; Heimberg, R G; Myers Virtue, S; Zhao, H; Ismail, A I

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety regarding dental and physical health is a common and potentially distressing problem, for both patients and health care providers. Anxiety has been identified as a barrier to regular dental visits and as an important target for enhancement of oral health-related quality of life. The study aimed to develop and evaluate a computerized cognitive-behavioral therapy dental anxiety intervention that could be easily implemented in dental health care settings. A cognitive-behavioral protocol based on psychoeducation, exposure to feared dental procedures, and cognitive restructuring was developed. A randomized controlled trial was conducted (N = 151) to test its efficacy. Consenting adult dental patients who met inclusion criteria (e.g., high dental anxiety) were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: immediate treatment (n = 74) or a wait-list control (n = 77). Analyses of covariance based on intention-to-treat analyses were used to compare the 2 groups on dental anxiety, fear, avoidance, and overall severity of dental phobia. Baseline scores on these outcomes were entered into the analyses as covariates. Groups were equivalent at baseline but differed at 1-mo follow-up. Both groups showed improvement in outcomes, but analyses of covariance demonstrated significant differences in dental anxiety, fear, avoidance, and overall severity of dental phobia in favor of immediate treatment at the follow-up assessment. Of the patients who met diagnostic criteria for phobia at baseline, fewer patients in the immediate treatment group continued to meet criteria for dental phobia at follow-up as compared with the wait-list group. A new computer-based tool seems to be efficacious in reducing dental anxiety and fear/avoidance of dental procedures. Examination of its effectiveness when administered in dental offices under less controlled conditions is warranted (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02081365). PMID:26202996

  4. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: Applying psychological theory to practical observations

    OpenAIRE

    Young, WR; A Mark Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article was made available through the Brunel Open Access Fund. It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies o...

  5. Application of Comprehensive Psychological Intervention to Children's Dental Fear%综合心理干预在儿童牙科畏惧症中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐月娥

    2011-01-01

    目的:为减少儿童牙科畏惧症的产生,提高儿童牙病的诊疗效果.方法:对本院儿童口腔保健科就诊的具有牙科畏惧症的470名患儿按年龄分4组,初诊行为分4型,在治疗前、中、后进行综合心理干预,最后记录患儿合作行为,并对合作程度及不同性别的干预效果进行分析.结果:各年龄组患儿合作程度干预效果比较:A组(1~3岁)无显著差异,其他各年龄组均有显著差异(P<0.05);各年龄组不同性别比较结果:B组(4~6岁)中男、女均有显著性差异,男孩(P<0.01),女孩(P<0.05),其他各组无显著性差异.结论:综合心理干预能有效地减少或消除儿童牙科畏惧症,随着患儿年龄的增长,显著性差异有下降的趋势.%Objective: To reduce children's dental fear and to improve children's dental clinic effect. Methods: 470 children with dental fear were divided into 4 groups by age. Initial seeking behavior was divided into 4 types. Comprehensive psychological intervention In the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative , record with cooperative behavior at the end, and analysed was performed the interference effect which to the cooperation degree and different gender. Results: The intervention effect to various age groups of children's cooperative degree was: group A( 1 - 3 ) had no significant difference; the other age groups had significant difference (P<0. 05 ); for different gender, group B ( 4 - 6 ) has significant difference in the male and female, the other groups had no significant difference. Conclusion: Comprehensive psychological intervention can effectively reduce or eliminate the children's dental fear. As children grow old, the difference has a tendency to fall.

  6. Analysis on Investigation and Correlation Factors in Patients with Dental Fear in Karashar County in Xinjiang%新疆焉耆县牙科恐惧症患者调查及其相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 韩祥祯; 魏薇

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查新疆巴州第二师焉耆医院口腔科成人患者的牙科恐惧症发生情况,并进行比较研究,为其防治提供相关依据.方法 主要采用Corah's牙科焦虑量表,抽样调查236名口腔患者恐惧、焦虑情况,并对其进行相关因素分析.结果AS平均分值为10.12±3.10,DF患病率为18.2%.女性DF患病率明显高于男性;17-35岁人群的患病率最高,大于60岁人群患病率最低;汉族人群的患病率明显高于少数民族,且差异存在统计学意义.而DF的主要影响因素为疼痛,担心治疗意外、疗效不好以及对牙科器械及诊疗过程不了解所造成的恐惧.结论 牙科焦虑症的形成与多种因素有关,临床口腔医生治疗时应注意观察和沟通,了解患者的需求,从不同方面着手预防和缓解牙科恐惧症,从而提高口腔医疗质量.%Objective TTo investigate the second division Yanqi Bazhou hospital dentistry adult patients the incidence of dental fear, and comparative studies provide evidence for its prevention. Methods The main use Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale, sampling 236 patients with oral fear, anxiety situation, and its related factors. Results DAS average score was 10.12 ± 3.10, DF prevalence rate of 18.2%. DF female prevalence was significantly higher than the male;the highest prevalence of 17-35-year-olds, 60-year-old population prevalence is greater than the minimum; Han population prevalence was significantly higher than minorities, and the difference was statistically significant. The main factors for DF is pain, treat accident, poor efficacy and treatment of dental instruments and do not understand the fear caused by the process. Conclusion The formation of dental anxiety related to many factors, clinical dentist treatment should observe and communicate and understand the needs of patients, begin prevention and mitigation from different aspects of dental phobia, to improving the quality of oral health care.

  7. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. PMID:23022220

  8. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FEAR OF DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena IORGA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.

  9. Differences Among Older Adults in the Types of Dental Services Used in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J; Hyde, Jody Schimmel; Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore differences in the socioeconomic, demographic characteristics of older adults in the United States with respect to their use of different types of dental care services. The 2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) collected information about patterns of dental care use and oral health from individuals aged 55 years and older in the United States. We analyze these data and explore patterns of service use by key characteristics before modeling the relationship between service use type and those characteristics. The most commonly used service category was fillings, inlays, or bonding, reported by 43.6% of those with any utilization. Just over one third of those with any utilization reported a visit for a crown, implant, or prosthesis, and one quarter reported a gum treatment or tooth extraction. The strongest consistent predictors of use type are denture, dentate, and oral health status along with dental insurance coverage and wealth. Our results provide insights into the need for public policies to address inequalities in access to dental services among an older US population. Our findings show that lower income, less wealthy elderly with poor oral health are more likely to not use any dental services rather than using only preventive dental care, and that cost prevents most non-users who say they need dental care from going to the dentist. These results suggest a serious access problem and one that ultimately produces even worse oral health and expensive major procedures for this population in the future. PMID:27284127

  10. A critical review of approaches to the treatment of dental anxiety in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dina; Heimberg, Richard G; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I

    2013-05-01

    Dental anxiety and specific phobia of dental procedures are prevalent conditions that can result in substantial distress and oral health impairment. This paper critically reviews 22 randomized treatment trials aimed at reducing dental anxiety and avoidance in adults, published in peer-reviewed journals between 1974 and 2012. The following treatment techniques are reviewed: various forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation training, benzodiazepine premedication, music distraction, hypnotherapy, acupuncture, nitrous oxide sedation, and the use of lavender oil scent. CBT delivered in a variety of formats, including one-session treatment, has the most evidence for its efficacy. Cognitive techniques, relaxation, and techniques to increase patients' sense of control over dental care are also efficacious but perform best when combined with repeated, graduated exposure. Other interventions require further study in randomized trials before conclusions about their efficacy are warranted. Limitations of the extant outcome research and implications for future treatment and research are discussed. PMID:23746494

  11. 恐惧心理对口腔门诊病人就诊行为和服务需求的影响%Influence of dental fear on patient behavior and oral care needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成凡平; 武玉海; 冯金兰; 高赐凤

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查影响口腔门诊病人产生恐惧心理的相关因素,分析恐惧心理对就诊行为以及就诊服务需求的影响.方法:采用系统抽样的方式按照纳入标准选取831名口腔门诊病人作为问卷调查对象,问卷内容包括人口统计学资料、就诊心理状态、就诊行为、对服务舒适度需求等.结果:831人中有恐惧心理503人(60.5%),其中男性173人,女性330人,男女之间有显著性差异(P<0.05);有无恐惧心理在不同年龄、不同职业、不同受教育程度人群中也有显著性差异(P<0.05);有、无恐惧心理两组人群在定期口腔检查、按时复诊两个就诊行为中有显著性差异(P<0.05);在就诊前是否了解医生情况方面无显著差异;两组人群对就诊过程中与服务舒适度相关的因素感到不安的程度由高到低依次均为①牙钻声、②出血、③气味、④灯光、⑤体位,各因素不安程度有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:恐惧心理在口腔门诊大多数病人中存在,其形成与性别、年龄、职业、受教育程度相关;与无恐惧心理人群相比,有恐惧心理人群更难定期口腔检查,但更容易按时复诊,对就诊服务舒适度的潜在需求明显增高.%AIM: To investigate the effects of dental fear on patient behavior when seeing a dentist and on patient needs when seeking dental care. METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty-one patients who met the inclusion criteria from Huadu Maternal & Child Health Care Hospital of Guangzhou were included in this study. Subjects were asked to fill a self- reported questionnaire. Questions in the questionnaire included demographic information, psychological state, patient behavior, and dental service needs. RESULTS; Among the 831 subjects, 503 (173 male, 330 female) reported dental fear, a significant genial difference was found. Age, occupation, and education level also showed significant influence on dental fear (P<0.05). Patients with

  12. Income-related inequalities in preventive and curative dental care use among working-age Japanese adults in urban areas: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Keiko; Aida, Jun; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; HASHIMOTO Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive dental care use remains relatively low in Japan, especially among working-age adults. Universal health insurance in Japan covers curative dental care with an out-of-pocket payment limit, though its coverage of preventive dental care is limited. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that income inequality in dental care use is found in preventive, but not curative dental care among working-age Japanese adults. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted usin...

  13. The opinions and attitudes of dental school academic staff towards oral healthcare education for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresaku, S; Mariño, R; Naito, T; Morgan, M V

    2016-08-01

    The term 'oral health care for older adults' has various interpretations, and its meaning is not clear among dental school academic staff. Additionally, there are no theoretical or practical stand-alone courses on oral health care for older adults in Japanese dental schools. To improve oral health care education, we investigated the opinions and attitudes toward oral health care education for older adults among academic staff in dental schools. Data were collected in seven dental schools from May to September 2013 via an online questionnaire survey. Five-hundred-fifty-eight academics (428 male, 130 female) participated (response rate 57%). The average number of years since they had completed a university degree was 20.2 (SD 10.2) years. The majority (Over 90%) of participants perceived that oral health care should be provided in nursing facilities, hospitals, and at home. Its treatments and instructions should include, not only methods of keeping good oral hygiene, but also improvement of oral function such as swallowing training and salivary glands massage. The majority (84.2%) suggested oral health care education should be combined as a one-credit, stand-alone course. Findings indicate that dental academics have an understanding the need for a course in oral health care for older adults. Participants supported the need for further development of education in oral health care for older adults' in Japan, as a separate course on its own right. However there were some different views about content by teaching field. The need for a national core program for teaching oral health care education was suggested. PMID:26083002

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating a Deficit in Recall of Fear Extinction in Adult Mice Exposed to Cocaine In Utero

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Zeeba D.; Katzman, Aaron C.; Kosofsky, Barry E.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure has been shown to alter cognitive processes of exposed individuals, presumed to be a result of long-lasting molecular alterations in the brain. In adult prenatal cocaine exposed (PCOC) mice we have identified a deficit in recall of fear extinction, a behavior that is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus. While we observed no change in the constitutive expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA in the mPFC a...

  15. Aplikasi teori belajar sosial dalam penatalaksanaan rasa takut dan cemasan anak pada perawatan gigi (Application of social learning theory in the management of children dental fear and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety is a prevalent problem faced by dentists till nowadays, especially in treating child patients. Several methods in managing anxiety are available, but there is no single method can be applied extensively. Purpose: This article was aimed to describe the application of social learning theory in preventing or reducing dental anxiety in children. Literature review: Anxiety and fear are psych feelings that is experienced by a person. A child developed these feelings by learning from their own past experienced or by information obtained from their environment. If fear and anxiety can be learned by a child, thus the opposite term which is preventing the feelings is assumed can be also offered to learned. This application actually being applied in the field of dentistry as modeling, but the exploration of how this process is due is often being ignored. Conclusion: Social learning theory provides an easy preventive approach and effective intervention that can be applied to children in 4-9 years old to reduce dental anxiety.Latar belakang: Kecemasan pada perawatan gigi merupakan hal yang paling sering dijumpai dan merupakan masalah yang dihadapi oleh dokter gigi sampai saat ini, terutama pada pasien anak. Berbagai metode penatalaksanaan kecemasan banyak tersedia, namun tidak satu pun metode yang dapat diterapkan secara luas. Tujuan: Makalah ini disusun untuk membahas mengenai aplikasi teori belajar sosial dalam mencegah kecemasan pada anak saat perawatan gigi. Tinjauan pustaka: Rasa cemas dan takut merupakan perasaan psikis yang dialami seorang individu. Perasaan ini pada seorang anak lebih banyak didapat dari proses belajar dalam menyerap informasi berdasarkan pengalaman pribadi ataupun informasi dari lingkungan sekitar. Bila rasa cemas dan takut dapat dipelajari oleh seorang anak, maka diasumsikan bahwa menghindari timbulnya perasaan ini dapat pula diajarkan pada anak. Aplikasi hal tersebut sebenarnya telah diterapkan di bidang

  16. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740 was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years. The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively or alcohol (moderate or high (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.

  17. Development of dental charts according to tooth development and eruption for Turkish children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadayl, Beytullah; Ozaslan, Abdi [University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department, Istanbul (Turkey); Afsin, Hueseyin [University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department, Istanbul (Turkey); Karadayi, Suekriye [Public Health Agency, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-06-15

    In this study, we aimed to develop dental charts for Turkish children and young adults of both genders within the age group of 4.5-22.5 years according to tooth mineralization and eruption in a format similar to that proposed by AlQahtani et al. In total, 753 digital panoramic radiographs from 350 males and 403 females were assessed. The permanent teeth were evaluated according to the classification system described by Demirjian et al. The eruption stage was assessed with Bengston's system, which was modified by AlQahtani et al at four points. Teeth generally developed earlier in females than in males. This was particularly notable in the age group of 5-14 years. However, this difference was usually visible in only one stage, not in all teeth. It has been determined that the mixed dentition period ended with the shedding of the second deciduous molars in both genders. The dental charts presented here included information that could be beneficial to dental clinicians in making appropriate diagnosis and planning orthodontic and surgical procedures. These charts also provided datasets for preliminary dental age estimation in Turkish children and young adults.

  18. Development of dental charts according to tooth development and eruption for Turkish children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we aimed to develop dental charts for Turkish children and young adults of both genders within the age group of 4.5-22.5 years according to tooth mineralization and eruption in a format similar to that proposed by AlQahtani et al. In total, 753 digital panoramic radiographs from 350 males and 403 females were assessed. The permanent teeth were evaluated according to the classification system described by Demirjian et al. The eruption stage was assessed with Bengston's system, which was modified by AlQahtani et al at four points. Teeth generally developed earlier in females than in males. This was particularly notable in the age group of 5-14 years. However, this difference was usually visible in only one stage, not in all teeth. It has been determined that the mixed dentition period ended with the shedding of the second deciduous molars in both genders. The dental charts presented here included information that could be beneficial to dental clinicians in making appropriate diagnosis and planning orthodontic and surgical procedures. These charts also provided datasets for preliminary dental age estimation in Turkish children and young adults.

  19. Prevalence of incidental paranasal sinus opacification in an adult dental population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus opacification among adult dental patients. Five hundred and sixty-four Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of dental patients over the age of 18 were reviewed for sinus opacification. Opacification was graded as clear, mild, moderate or severe. Patients with any sinus-related signs or symptoms were excluded. Sinus opacification in one or more sinuses was found in 59.2% of the patients. The sinus opacification was mild in 49.8%, moderate in 8.3%, and severe in 1.1%. The maxillary (37.7%) and ethmoid (37.4%) sinuses were most frequently affected. The prevalence was higher in the older age group and showed a male predomination (p<0.05). Sinus opacification in asymptomatic adults is very common and emphasizes the importance of clinical correlation before deciding on the final diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Prevalence of incidental paranasal sinus opacification in an adult dental population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus opacification among adult dental patients. Five hundred and sixty-four Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of dental patients over the age of 18 were reviewed for sinus opacification. Opacification was graded as clear, mild, moderate or severe. Patients with any sinus-related signs or symptoms were excluded. Sinus opacification in one or more sinuses was found in 59.2% of the patients. The sinus opacification was mild in 49.8%, moderate in 8.3%, and severe in 1.1%. The maxillary (37.7%) and ethmoid (37.4%) sinuses were most frequently affected. The prevalence was higher in the older age group and showed a male predomination (p<0.05). Sinus opacification in asymptomatic adults is very common and emphasizes the importance of clinical correlation before deciding on the final diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Treatment of Orally Handicapped Edentulous Older Adults Using Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The oral handicap of complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient-related factors. Fully edentulous orally handicapped older adults have been neglected because removable acrylic dentures have been the classic therapy for complete edentulism but are only rehabilitative, not therapeutic. Not replacing missing teeth with stable dentures could prevent adequate food intake. Osseointegrated endosseous implants used as a therapeutic adjunct can reduce the problem of long-term bone resorption to less than 0.1 mm per year. Implant-borne prostheses substantially increase the overall health and quality of life of orally handicapped fully edentulous older adults. PMID:27264857

  2. Childhood brain tumours : Health and function in adult survivors and parental fears

    OpenAIRE

    Anclair, Malin

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of the present research was to investigate health and functional ability of patients treated for childhood brain tumour and systematically examine parental fears after a child s brain tumour. The aims were realised through two part-studies. Childhood cancer once regarded as an acute fatal illness has become a life threatening disease. Previous studies of the long-term sequelae in survivors of children treated for a brain tumour reflect the fact that most ...

  3. Isolation and Culture of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Incisor

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Miquella G.; Hu, Jimmy; SEIDEL, KERSTIN; Li, Chunying; Jheon, Andrew; Naveau, Adrien; Horst, Orapin; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest1-4, and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give...

  4. Recruitment of rural and cognitively impaired older adults for dental research

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bei; Goedereis, Eric A.; Crout, Richard J.; Plassman, Brenda L.; DiNapoli, Elizabeth A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Wiener, Michael; Boone, Martin L.; Wiener, R Constance; Kao, Elizabeth; Bai, Lina

    2010-01-01

    The recruitment of community-dwelling older adults, particularly those with cognitive impairment and those residing in rural areas, has been consistently challenging for researchers, especially in the dental field. This study reports on recruitment experiences from an ongoing study investigating the association between oral health and cognitive status in later life. Multiple recruitment strategies, including educational presentations and traveling to participants’ homes, were used to enroll r...

  5. Radiation dose evaluation of dental cone beam computed tomography using an anthropomorphic adult head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-resolution tomographic images and has been gradually used in clinical practice. Thus, it is important to examine the amount of radiation dose resulting from dental CBCT examinations. In this study, we developed an in-house anthropomorphic adult head phantom to evaluate the level of effective dose. The anthropomorphic phantom was made of acrylic and filled with plaster to replace the bony tissue. The contour of the head was extracted from a set of adult computed tomography (CT) images. Different combinations of the scanning parameters of CBCT were applied. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the absorbed doses at 19 locations in the head and neck regions. The effective doses measured using the proposed phantom at 65, 75, and 85 kVp in the D-mode were 72.23, 100.31, and 134.29 µSv, respectively. In the I-mode, the effective doses were 108.24, 190.99, and 246.48 µSv, respectively. The maximum percent error between the doses measured by the proposed phantom and the Rando phantom was l4.90%. Therefore, the proposed anthropomorphic adult head phantom is applicable for assessing the radiation dose resulting from clinical dental CBCT. - Highlights: • A home-made anthropomorphic adult head phantom was proposed. • The proposed phantom can be easily built with lower price than the standard Rando phantom. • The proposed phantom can be used for evaluating the effective dose during dental CBCT scanning

  6. Dental anxiety and pain related to ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Coelho Leal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART is considered to be well accepted, both by children and by adult patients. The objective of this review is to present and discuss the evidence regarding the acceptability of ART, from the patient's perspective. Aspects related to dental anxiety/fear and pain/discomfort have been highlighted, to facilitate better understanding and use of the information available in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: The ART approach has been shown to cause less discomfort than other conventional approaches and is, therefore, considered a very promising "atraumatic" management approach for cavitated carious lesions in children, anxious adults and possibly, for dental-phobic patients.

  7. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  8. Lentiviral Silencing of GSK-3β in Adult Dentate Gyrus Impairs Contextual Fear Memory and Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eChew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to use glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β inhibitors for prophylactic treatment of neurocognitive conditions. However the use of lithium, a non-specific inhibitor of GSK3β results in mild cognitive impairment in humans. The effects of global GSK3β inhibition or knockout on learning and memory in healthy adult mice are also inconclusive. Our study aims to better understand the role of GSK3β in learning and memory through a more regionally, targeted approach, specifically performing lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GSK3β within the dentate gyrus (DG. DG-GSK3β-silenced mice showed impaired contextual fear memory retrieval. However, cue fear memory, spatial memory, locomotor activity and anxiety levels were similar to control. These GSK3β-silenced mice also showed increased induction and maintenance of dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP compared to control animals. Thus, this region-specific, targeted knockdown of GSK3β in the DG provides better understanding on the role of GSK3β in learning and memory.

  9. Increases in the numerical density of GAT-1 positive puncta in the barrel cortex of adult mice after fear conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Siucinska

    Full Text Available Three days of fear conditioning that combines tactile stimulation of a row of facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS expands the representation of "trained" vibrissae, which can be demonstrated by labeling with 2-deoxyglucose in layer IV of the barrel cortex. We have also shown that functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 increases GABAergic markers in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse. This study investigated how whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS affected the expression of puncta of a high-affinity GABA plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in the barrel cortex of mice 24 h after associative learning paradigm. We found that whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS led to increase expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta in the "trained" row compared to controls: Pseudoconditioned, CS-only, UCS-only and Naïve animals. These findings suggest that fear conditioning specifically induces activation of systems regulating cellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

  10. Dental anxiety among adult patients and its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the dental anxiety levels and to assess its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs of patients. Methods: The study was conducted at the Out Patient Department of Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Karachi. Using non-probability quota sampling, the study included the first 32 patients between 18 and 35 years of age, visiting the facility. Over a period of one month (22 working days) 704 patients comprised the study population. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to self-assess their dental anxiety levels, oral health status and treatment needs. The data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 with descriptive frequencies and chi-square test. Results: Of the total participants, 650 (92.32%) patients provided consent. Average dental anxiety scale score was 12.46, representing high anxiety score. There were 174 (26.8%) smokers; only 234 (36%) had visited a dentist less than a year ago; 385 (59.2%) considered their dental health to be satisfactory; 306 (47.1%) thought of their treatment needs to be little'; 222 (34.2%) brushed their teeth twice daily. Dental anxiety was statistically significant with treatment needs and dental status. Relation of tooth-brushing with last dental visit and treatment needs was also found to be significant. Conclusion: A high level of dental anxiety was observed among the study population. The dental professionals should seek ways to help dentally anxious individuals. (author)

  11. Combination of fluoxetine and extinction treatments forms a unique synaptic protein profile that correlates with long-term fear reduction in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Dina; Ágústsdóttir, Arna; Lindholm, Jesse; Mazulis, Ulams; Akamine, Yumiko; Castrén, Eero; Karpova, Nina N

    2014-07-01

    The antidepressant fluoxetine induces synaptic plasticity in the visual and fear networks and promotes the structural remodeling of neuronal circuits, which is critical for experience-dependent plasticity in response to an environmental stimulus. We recently demonstrated that chronic fluoxetine administration together with extinction training in adult mice reduced fear in a context-independent manner. Fear conditioning and extinction alter excitatory and inhibitory transmissions within the fear circuitry. In this study, we investigated whether fluoxetine, extinction or their combination produced distinct long-lasting changes in the synaptic protein profile in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of conditioned mice. We determined that extinction induced synaptophysin expression and down-regulated the GluA1:GluA2 ratio throughout the fear network in water- and fluoxetine-treated mice, suggesting a common fluoxetine-independent mechanism for increased synaptic transmission and re-arrangement of AMPA-receptors by extinction training. In contrast to common changes, the presynaptic vesicular neurotransmitter transporters VGAT and Vglut1 were upregulated after extinction in water- and fluoxetine-treated mice, respectively. The cortical levels of the GABA transporter Gat1 were reduced in high-freezing water-drinking mice, suggesting a maladaptive increase of GABA spillover at cortical inhibitory synapses. Fear conditioning decreased, and extinction induced the expression of GABA-receptor alpha1 and alpha2 subunits in water- and fluoxetine-treated mice, respectively. Only a combination of fluoxetine with extinction enhanced GluN2A expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, emphasizing the role of this NMDA-receptor subunit in the successful erasure of fear memories. Our finding provides novel data that may become helpful in developing beneficial pharmacological fear-reducing treatment strategies. PMID:24837571

  12. Self-reported and clinically diagnosed dental needs among institutionalized adults in Vijayawada: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Reddy, Vishnuvardhan B; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Satti, Narayana Reddy; Allareddy, Swapna; Babu, Ravisekhar P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Frail and functionally dependent elderly people, living in institutions, have difficulties in accessing dental care. Hence, the present study aims to determine the relationship between subjective need and the equivalent clinical findings in an attempt to understand the factors that contribute to individual's perception of the need for dental care among institutionalized adults in Vijayawada. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study is conducted in all old age homes in Vijaya...

  13. Perceived Dental Treatment Need Among Older Tanzanian Adults - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Åstrøm Anne N; Kida Irene A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Need perceptions for dental care play a key role as to whether people in general will seek dental care. The aim was to assess the prevalence of perceived need of problem based dental care, dental check-ups and any type of dental care. Guided by the conceptual model of Wilson and Cleary, the relationship of perceived need for dental care with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined dental problems and self-reported oral health outcomes was investigated. Partia...

  14. 3种不同龋病治疗方法对儿童牙科畏惧症的影响%Influence of different caries treatments on children′s dental fear and anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧民; 汪俊; 陈曦; 冯希平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of three different caries treatments,including traditional application of rotary instru-ments,atraumatic restorative treatment(ART)and chemo-mechanical method,on children′s dental fear and anxiety.Methods Ninety pediatric patients aged 5-1 2 years who suffered from dental caries were randomly divided into different treatment groups:conventional bur caries group,ART group and chemo-mechanical caries removal group.Dental fear during the treatments was assessed using Facial Image Scale (FIS).Chi square test was performed with SPSS1 9.0 statistical software.Results The degrees of fear among three groups were significantly different.The group using traditional method had higher rate of fear than other two groups.Conclusions The Atrau-matic restorative treatment and the chemo-mechanical technique are more effective in easing children′s dental fear and anxiety and a-chieving better physical and psychological health of children.%目的:比较3种不同龋病治疗方法对儿童牙科畏惧症的影响。方法选择乳磨牙患Ⅱ度龋的90例患儿,随机分为不同龋病治疗组:传统车针去龋组、非创伤性修复(atraumatic restorative treatment,ART)组、化学-机械去龋组。运用面部表情分级法(Facial Image Scale,FIS)比较3组患儿的畏惧程度。采用SPSS19.0软件包进行卡方检验统计学处理。结果3组畏惧程度有显著性差异(P<0.05),传统去龋组的畏惧程度高于其他两组,其与 ART组之间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论非创伤性修复法和化学-机械去龋法可较为有效地缓解儿童牙科畏惧。

  15. Dental anxiety and pain related to ART

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya Coelho Leal; Danielle Matos de Menezes Abreu; FRENCKEN, Jo. E.

    2009-01-01

    Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is considered to be well accepted, both by children and by adult patients. The objective of this review is to present and discuss the evidence regarding the acceptability of ART, from the patient's perspective. Aspects related to dental anxiety/fear and pain/discomfort have been highlighted, to facilitate better understanding and use of the information available in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: The ART approach has been shown to cause less discomfort than...

  16. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Soumiya

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.

  17. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation. PMID:27362655

  18. The application of radiosterilised bovine bone xenograft as a dental haemostatic agent in adult merino sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to look at the efficacy of radiosterilised demineralised freeze dried bovine bone xenograft as a dental haemostatic agent in tooth socket wound following tooth extraction. Six adult Merino sheep underwent extraction of two central incisor teeth under general anaesthesia. In one tooth extraction socket (socket side A) a standard gelatin dental haemostatic agent was inserted while a radiosterilised cancellous bovine bone cube was inserted into the second tooth extraction socket (socket side B). The time taken for the bleeding from the both socket to stop was noted and the sheep were kept asleep under general anesthesia till complete hemostasis was achieved. The feeding habits and wound healing were observed till the tenth postoperative day. Results showed that in socket A, complete hemostasis was achieved in a mean time of 135 seconds (range 110 seconds to 145 seconds) and in socket B, complete hemostasis was achieved in a mean time of 97 seconds (range 8 8 seconds to 112 seconds). Observation regarding feeding habits demonstrate that all the sheep showed preference to chew food on the side of socket 'side B' till the fifth postoperative day and by the seventh day, all sheep chew on both sides of the jaw. The standard gelatin dental hemostatic agent was found to be dislodged from all socket side B on the first postoperative day while the bovine bone cube remained in socked side A till the seventh postoperative day. In conclusion, radiosterilised cancellous bovine bone cube may be applied as an effective dental hemostatic agent following tooth extraction

  19. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS: A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder John J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983 were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877

  20. Equal pain—Unequal fear response: enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael L.; de Matos, Nuno M. P.; Brügger, Mike; Ettlin, Dominik A.; Lukic, Nenad; Cheetham, Marcus; Jäncke, Lutz; Lutz, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c) vs. the right tibia (UCS-t). For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+). Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were (1) skin conductance changes and (2) time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point toward a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population. PMID:25100974

  1. Equal pain – Unequal fear response: Enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lukas Meier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c versus the right tibia (UCS-t. For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+. Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were 1 skin conductance changes and 2 time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point towards a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

  2. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, C.; Dunne, G.; Ozdil, A; Reynolds, G; Field, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance prefere...

  3. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  4. Dental caries and tooth loss in adults in a Brazilian southeastern state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze dental caries experience of adults living in the southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil, according to some socio-demographic conditions of this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,159 school teachers and workers (35 to 44 years old from 29 cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: 92.3% were dentate and the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth was 21.0 and the mean number of decayed teeth was 1.1, with no significant difference among adults from regions with and without fluoridation. Male subjects presented the highest mean values of "D" (decayed teeth and "M" (missing teeth components. The percentage of caries-free subjects was higher among white subjects, as well as the mean number of teeth present in the mouth. The mean values of the "F" component (filled teeth [9.81] and present teeth [19.3] were higher for adults from fluoridated water regions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the worse condition observed was the early tooth loss in all groups. In addition, people with worse socio-demographic conditions had worse oral health conditions. It is expected that oral health programs targeted to this population could be established with the goal of improving the oral health conditions of this population and hence the maintenance of the teeth for a longer period in function.

  5. Income-related inequality in perceived oral health among adult Finns before and after a major dental subsidization reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raittio, Eero; Aromaa, Arpo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-07-01

    Objectives In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate income-related inequality in the perceived oral health and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Materials and methods Three identical cross-sectional nationally representative postal surveys, concerning perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2157), in 2004 (n = 1814) and in 2007 (n = 1671). Three measures of perceived oral health were used: toothache or oral discomfort during the past 12 months, current need for dental care and self-reported oral health status. Concentration index was used to analyse the income-related inequalities. Its decomposition was used to study factors related to the inequalities. Results The proportion of respondents reporting need for dental care decreased from 2001 to 2007, while no changes were seen in reports of toothache or self-reported oral health status. Income-related inequalities in reports of toothache and perceived need for care widened, while the inequality in self-reported oral health remained stable. Most of the inequalities were related to income itself, perceived general health and the time since the last visit to dental care. Conclusions It seems that the income-related inequalities in perceived oral health remained or even widened after the reform. PMID:26980421

  6. 全程心理诱导对儿童窝沟封闭效果的观察%Experience in the Clinical Application of Psychological Induction Intervention in Children’s Dental Fear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静娴; 阙荣萍

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨心理诱导在儿童牙科畏惧症患者中临床应用的价值。方法:选择松江区一年级6~7岁儿童,随机分为诱导组和对照组,进行心理学诱导介入。结果:通过心理学诱导,窝沟封闭操作效率有所提高。结论:临床医疗活动中心心理诱导对提高窝沟封闭效率起到一定的作用。%Objective:To discuss the clinical application value of psychological induction in children’s dental fear patient was investigated. Method:6-7-year-old children were selected in Songjiang district.The children had been divided into induction group and control group with the random number table.Then,psychological induction was intervened.Result:Abscission ratio of fissure sealant decreased greatly.Conclusion:It is good to induce children’s dental fear by psychological induction during the process of clinical.

  7. A scoping review of the implications of adult obesity in the delivery and acceptance of dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A; Loescher, A; Marshman, Z

    2016-09-01

    Background Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity within the general population it is presumed that the prevalence of overweight and obese adults accessing dental services will also increase. For this reason dentists need to be aware of implications of managing such patients.Methods A scoping review was carried out. Both Medline via OVID and Scopus databases were searched along with grey literature databases and the websites of key organizations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. The data were collected on a purpose-made data collection form and analysed descriptively.Results The review identified 28 relevant published articles and two relevant items of grey literature. Following review of this literature three themes relating to adult obesity in the delivery and acceptance of dental care emerged; clinical, service delivery and patient implications. The majority of the papers focused on the clinical implications.Conclusion On the topic of adult obesity and dental care, the majority of published and grey literature focuses on the clinical implications. Further research is needed on both the patients' perspectives of being overweight or obese and the delivery and acceptance of dental care and the service delivery implications. PMID:27608579

  8. HELPinKids&Adults Knowledge Synthesis of the Management of Vaccination Pain and High Levels of Needle Fear: Limitations of the Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C Meghan; Chambers, Christine T; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-10-01

    The HELPinKids&Adults knowledge synthesis for the management of vaccination-related pain and high levels of needle fear updated and expanded upon the 2010 HELPinKIDS knowledge synthesis and clinical practice guideline for pain mitigation during vaccine injections in childhood. Interventions for vaccine pain management in adults and treatment of individuals with high levels of needle fear, phobias, or both were included, thereby broadening the reach of this work. The present paper outlines the overarching limitations of this diverse evidence base and provides recommendations for future research. Consistent with the framing of clinical questions in the systematic reviews, the Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design (PICOAS) framework was used to organize these predominant issues and research directions. The major limitations we identified across systematic reviews were an overall dearth of trials on vaccination, lack of methodological rigor, failure to incorporate important outcomes, poor study reporting, and various sources of heterogeneity. Future research directions in terms of conducting additional trials in the vaccination context, improving methodological quality and rigor, assessment of global acceptability and feasibility of interventions, and inclusion of outcomes that stakeholders consider to be important (eg, compliance) are recommended. Given concerns about pain and fear are known contributors to vaccine hesitancy, improving and expanding this evidence base will be integral to broader efforts to improve vaccine compliance and public health worldwide. PMID:26352918

  9. Psychosocial determinants of dental service utilization among adults: Results from a population-based survey (Urban HEART-2) in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahramian, Hoda; Mohebbi, Simin Z.; Khami, Mohammad R; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Shamshiri, Ahmad R.; Hessari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the association between dental service utilization and mental health in an adult population in the context of the socioeconomic status of the participants. Subjects and Methods: Multi-stage cluster random sampling was performed in Tehran, Iran, in 2011. Data were collected on dental service utilization, barriers of dental visit, self-perceived oral health, mental health, age, gender, education, and wealth status. The complex sample analysis method in SPSS and the surve...

  10. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Daniel R.; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Watt, Michael J.; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI...

  11. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel eDavies; Dawne eOlson; Danielle eMeyer; Jamie eScholl; Michael eWatt; Pasquale eManzerra; Kenneth eRenner; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mT...

  12. Conditioned fear in adult rats is facilitated by the prior acquisition of a classically conditioned motor response

    OpenAIRE

    Lindquist, Derick H.; Mahoney, Luke P.; Steinmetz, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Early in eyeblink classical conditioning, amygdala-dependent fear responding is reported to facilitate acquisition of the cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioned response (CR), in accord with the two-process model of conditioning (Konorski, 1967). In the current study, we predicted that the conditioned fear (e.g., freezing) observed during eyeblink conditioning may become autonomous of the eyeblink CR and amenable to further associative modification. Conditioned freezing was assessed during...

  13. Pulpal sequelae after trauma to anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekoya-Sofowora Comfort A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show that about 11.6% to 33.0% of all boys and about 3.6% to 19.3% of all girls suffer dental trauma of varying severity before the age of 12 years. Moderate injuries to the periodontium such as concussion and subluxation are usually associated with relatively minor symptoms and hence may go unnoticed by the patient or the dentist, if consulted. Patients with these kinds of injuries present years after a traumatic accident most of the time with a single discoloured tooth. This study sets out to document the incidence of various posttraumatic sequelae of discoloured anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients. Methods One hundred and sixty eight (168 traumatized discoloured anterior teeth in 165 patients were studied. Teeth with root canal treatment were excluded from the study. Partial obliteration was recorded when the pulp chamber or root canal was not discernible or reduced in size on radiographs, total obliteration was recorded when pulp chamber and root canal were not discernible. A retrospective diagnosis of concussion was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth without abnormal loosening, while subluxation was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth with abnormal loosening. Results Of the 168 traumatized discoloured anterior teeth, 47.6% and 31.6% had partial and total obliteration of the pulp canal spaces respectively, 20.8% had pulpal necrosis. Concussion and subluxation injuries resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while fracture of the teeth resulted in more pulpal necrosis (p st and 2nd decade of life resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while injuries sustained in the 3rd decade resulted in more pulpal necrosis. Conclusion Calcific metamorphosis developed more in teeth with concussion and subluxation injuries. Pulpal necrosis occurred more often in traumatized teeth including fractures.

  14. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

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    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  15. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel R; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L; Scholl, Jamie L; Watt, Michael J; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes. PMID:27147992

  16. Short-term enriched environment exposure facilitates fear extinction in adult rats: The NPY-Y1 receptor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Gilliard; Bicca, Maira Assunção; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; da Silva Santos, Evelyn Cristina; Costa, Ana Paula Ramos; de Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptides have an important role in several psychiatric conditions. Among them, neuropeptide Y (NPY) seems to be essential to modulate some features of stress-related disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), characterized by inappropriate fear generalization to safe situations may be modulated by NPY manipulation since this neuropeptide is involved in the promotion of coping with stress. Experimentally, coping strategies have been obtained after exposure in enriched environment (EE) rather than standard one. Thus, in the present study we aimed to assess whether short-term EE situation and NPY-Y1 receptor (Y1r) modulation may affect the extinction of contextual fear conditioning, an experimental approach to PTSD. Here we show that EE-rats have the contextual fear extinction facilitated, and this facilitation was reverted by central infusion of BIBO3304, a nonpeptide Y1r antagonist. In addition, protein analysis revealed an upregulation of hippocampal Y1r in conditioned EE-rats, but no changes were observed in EE-rats that were not conditioned. Our results demonstrated that protective properties of EE on fear extinction can be regulated, at least in part, by activation of NPY-signaling through Y1r within hippocampus, an area that plays a major role in contextual memories. Overall, the activation of Y1r is important to promote better and faster perception of self-location (context), and to reduce fear generalization in rats exposed to EE. PMID:26490304

  17. Dental plaque development on a hydroxyapatite disk in young adults observed by using a barcoded pyrosequencing approach

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Takeshita; Masaki Yasui; Yukie Shibata; Michiko Furuta; Yoji Saeki; Nobuoki Eshima; Yoshihisa Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Dental plaque is a dynamic microbial biofilm ecosystem that comprises hundreds of species including difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. We observed the assembly of a plaque bacterial community through 16S rRNA gene analysis. Plaque samples that accumulated on a hydroxyapatite disk for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days with saliva on day 0 were collected from 19 young adults using a removable resin splint. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the total bacterial amount gradually increased and reached a ...

  18. Pathways of fear and anxiety in dentistry: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Ava Elizabeth; Carter, Geoff; Boschen, Mark; AlShwaimi, Emad; George, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to analyze the theories underpinning dental fear, anxiety and phobias. To be included, articles must have been published between the years of 1949 and 2013 concerning fears and phobias within dentistry and/or psychiatry. Of 200 articles originally under review, 140 were included and reviewed by the authors.Five specific pathways relating to dental fear and anxiety were identified; Cognitive Conditioning, Informative, Visual Vicarious, Verbal Threat, and Parental. E...

  19. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fears that stem from childhood experiences. An adult's fear of public speaking may be the result of embarrassment in front of peers many years before. It's important for parents to recognize and identify the signs and symptoms of kids' anxieties so that fears don't get in the way of everyday ...

  20. Prevalence and risks of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in adult dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S; Mohammed A. Nazir; Naif N. Al-Masoud; Nasser D. Alqahtani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among dental patients and investigate factors associated with high-risk OSA. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between October and December 2014. A total of 200 consecutive female and male dental patients were included in this study. Subjective and objectiv...

  1. Price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eduardo Tascón; Julio César Giraldo; Alejandro Madrid; Mónica del Pilar Gallego

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE tape as an oral hygiene method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm, compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults. Methods: The polytetrafluoroethylene tape was used as a method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm. By a randomized procedure the sample size was of 87 (31 men and 56 women) between 16 and 28 years old. The oral hygiene of the participants was s...

  2. Psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a dental clinic: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Rasheed Erinfolami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls, was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12 and 36 (±13 years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22 of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003. Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38 had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001. In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls.

  3. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  4. Phenotypic characterizations and comparison of adult dental stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Alipour

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Both cell populations derived from adipose tissue and dental pulp showed common phenotypic markers of mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem cells could be isolated and cultured successfully from dental pulp of human exfo-liated deciduous teeth, they are very good candidates for treatment and prevention of human diseases.

  5. Caries risk assessment in young adults using Public Dental Service guidelines and the Cariogram-a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänsel Petersson, Gunnel; Ericson, Ewa; Isberg, Per-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To investigate the caries risk profiles in young adults and to compare the risk classification using the Public Dental Service (PDS) guidelines with a risk assessment program, the Cariogram. Materials and methods. All 19-year-old patients registered at eight public dental...... to the PDS guidelines. A research team collected whole saliva samples and information from a questionnaire and a structured interview in order to calculate risk according to the Cariogram model. Results. The mean DFS value was 4.9 and 23% of the patients were registered as caries-free (DFS = 0). The...... PDS risk classification was predominantly based on past caries and/or present caries activity. The majority was classified as 'some risk', while 16.7% were assessed as being of 'high' or 'very high risk'. The corresponding value for the two highest risk groups in the Cariogram model was 17.4%. The...

  6. Acidogenicity and acidurance of dental plaque and saliva sediment from adults in relation to caries activity and chlorhexidine exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreadis Georgios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ecological plaque hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of caries implies a microbial shift towards a more aciduric dental plaque microbiota, due to a frequent carbohydrate intake. Acid tolerance has been suggested as an important property of the caries-associated bacteria and several in vitro studies with mixed cultures indicated that a low pH rather than the carbohydrate availability is responsible for microbiota shifts associated with the development of dental caries. Objective: To examine 1 the acidogenic potential (amount lactate produced per mg plaque and minute, at pH 7.0 or pH 5.5 and the aciduric potential (acidogenic potential at pH 5.5/acidogenic potential at pH 7.0 of dental plaque and salivary sediment taken from caries-active or caries-free adults, and 2 the effect of a short-term chlorhexidine treatment on these potentials. Design: Dental plaque and saliva sediment samples were taken from caries-free and caries-active subjects and suspended in Ringer's solution containing 1% sucrose and buffered with 0.5 M 3-[N-morpholino]propanesulfonic acid (MOPS, pH 7.0, or 3-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES, pH 5.5. After incubation at 37°C for 10–20 min, the concentration of lactic acid in the suspension was determined by an enzymatic assay. The acid production of dental plaque was also determined after a period of mouth rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine. Results: Both dental plaque and salivary sediment from caries-free subjects exhibited significantly lower acidogenic potentials at both pHs compared to caries-active volunteers. The opposite was observed with the aciduric potential. Chlorhexidine treatment significantly reduced all three potentials but had no effect on the relative proportion of bacteria grown on acidic agar. Conclusions: Caries-active adults have an oral microbiota characterised by an increased catabolic velocity for sugar. The increase is more pronounced at neutral than acidic pH. Exposure to

  7. Service evaluation of a nurse-led dental anxiety management service for adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, J; Jones, K; Marshman, Z

    2016-05-27

    Objective Evaluate patients' and professionals' experiences of a nurse-led dental anxiety management service (NDAMS).Design Service evaluation.Setting The NDAMS operates as part of the Sheffield Salaried Primary Dental Care Service.Subjects and methods Questionnaire survey of anxious patients and qualitative interviews with patients and professionals.Interventions Dental nurses delivered low-level psychological interventions as part of an integrated care pathway (ICP) for dental anxiety.Main outcome measures Dental anxiety and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaires were completed by patients before and following NDAM.Results A total of 187 patients were assessed as suitable for NDAM (mean age = 33.7, 77% female) and 33 had completed it at the time of the service evaluation. Of those patients who had completed the intervention, significant improvements in dental anxiety and OHRQoL were reported. Professionals highlighted the importance of integrated working, adequate support and training, and assessing the suitability of patients for NDAM.Conclusion ICPs that combine pharmacological and psychological management approaches can help meet the needs of dentally anxious patients; however, early identification of patients most likely to benefit from psychological intervention should be a priority. PMID:27228931

  8. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050

  9. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...... experimental groups were demographically comparable and showed reduced anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared with 51 control patients. The 25 HT patients did not differ significantly in numbers of dropouts during training compared with the 30 GT patients or 68 SD patients. For patients completing...... treatment, HT (n = 22) reduced dental anxiety to the same degree as GT (n = 24) and SD (n = 60). HT and SD patients required more therapist hours per patient than did GT, but total dropouts at 1 yr after specialist treatment were significantly greater in HT (13/ 25) than for SD rehearsals (5/34) or SD video...

  10. Adolescent and adult rats differ in the amnesic effects of acute ethanol in two hippocampus-dependent tasks: Trace and contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Pamela S; Barnet, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Experience-produced deficits in trace conditioning and context conditioning have been useful tools for examining the role of the hippocampus in learning. It has also been suggested that learning in these tasks is especially vulnerable to neurotoxic effects of alcohol during key developmental periods such as adolescence. In five experiments we systematically examined the presence and source of age-dependent vulnerability to the memory-disrupting effects of acute ethanol in trace conditioning and contextual fear conditioning. In Experiment 1a pre-training ethanol disrupted trace conditioning more strongly in adolescent (postnatal day, PD30-35) than adult rats (PD65-75). In Experiment 1b when pre-training ethanol was accompanied by pre-test ethanol no deficit in trace conditioning was observed in adolescents, suggesting that state-dependent retrieval failure mediated ethanol's disruption of trace conditioning at this age. Experiment 2a and b examined the effect of ethanol pretreatment on context conditioning. Here, adult but not adolescent rats were impaired in conditioned freezing to context cues. Experiment 2c explored state-dependency of this effect. Pre-training ethanol continued to disrupt context conditioning in adults even when ethanol was also administered prior to test. Collectively these findings reveal clear age-dependent and task-dependent vulnerabilities in ethanol's disruptive effects on hippocampus-dependent memory. Adolescents were more disrupted by ethanol in trace conditioning than adults, and adults were more disrupted by ethanol in context conditioning than adolescents. We suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to changes in internal state (state-dependent retrieval failure) than adults and that ethanol disrupted performance in trace and context conditioning through different mechanisms. Relevance of these findings to theories of hippocampus function is discussed. PMID:26192910

  11. Pharmacologic desensitization for dental phobias: clinical observations.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, P. A.; Peskin, R. M.; Pierce, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The elimination of the extreme fear reported by dental phobic patients traditionally involves psychologic interventions such as systematic desensitization. Observations resulting from a conscious sedation approach, as outlined in two case histories, suggest that a desensitization phenomena is occurring. This pharmacologic desensitization appears to mimic elements of systematic desensitization. Optimal management of fearful patients may sometimes require conjunctive support from both dental be...

  12. Diabetes and Tooth Loss in a National Sample of Dentate Adults Reporting Annual Dental Visits

    OpenAIRE

    Julie M. Kapp, PhD, MPH; Suzanne Austin Boren, PhD; Shumei Yun, PhD; Joseph LeMaster, MD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease has been associated with tooth loss and reported as more prevalent among people with diabetes than among those without diabetes. Having an annual dental examination is a national goal of Healthy People 2010. Our objective was to examine whether an association exists between diabetes and tooth loss among a population reporting an annual dental visit. Methods We used data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association between...

  13. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from wear (attrition and abrasion) of gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G Mark; Clemow, Scott R; Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the chemical exposures and risks of dental restorative materials other than from dental amalgam and composite resins. Here we provide the first exposure and risk assessment for gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. Based on the 2001-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we assessed the exposure of US adults to the components of Au alloy and ceramic dental restorations owing to dental material wear. Silver (Ag) is the most problematic component of Au alloy restorations, owing to a combination of toxicity and proportional composition. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of four tooth surfaces restored with Au alloy before exceeding, on average, the reference exposure level (REL) for Ag. Lithium (Li) is the most problematic component of dental ceramics. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of 15 tooth surfaces restored with ceramics before exceeding the REL for Li. Relative risks of chemical exposures from dental materials decrease in the following order: Amalgam>Au alloys>ceramics>composite resins. PMID:25805253

  14. Anti-dentine Salivary SIgA in young adults with a history of dental trauma in deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fleury SEIXAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-dentin autoantibodies are associated with inflammatory root resorption in permanent teeth and are modulated by dental trauma and orthodontic force. However, it is not known whether deciduous tooth trauma can stimulate the development of a humoral immune response against dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of salivary SIgA reactivity against human dentin extract in young adults with a history of trauma in the primary dentition. A sample of 78 patients, aged 18 to 25, who had completed an early childhood (0 to 5 years old caries prevention program years earlier at the Universidade Estadual de LondrinaPediatric Clinic, underwent radiographic examination and salivary sampling. Anti-dentin SIgA levels were analyzed by immunoenzymatic assay and Western blotting. Although dental trauma to deciduous teeth had occurred in 34 (43.6% of the patients, no differences in SIgA levels were detected between individuals who had experienced trauma and those who had not (p > 0.05. Multivariate regression analysis showed no association between dental trauma and SIgA levels (p > 0.05. Patients with a history of deciduous trauma presented low levels of anti-dentin antibodies, associated with orthodontic root resorption (p

  15. Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Richard John

    2016-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Richard Macey for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy entitled “Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists”, February 2016.Many adult patients that attend NHS dental practices on a regular basis are asymptomatic and do not need any further treatment other than a routine dental examination (“check-up”). As the oral health of the adult population is predicted to improve further, using the General Dental Practitioner to und...

  16. Radiographic evaluation of dental age of adults using Kvaal′s method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a well-known fact that the assessment of the dental development can be related to an individual′s age, but after the age of 21 years when the wisdom teeth also complete their development, there arises a need for an optimal age estimation procedure. With advancing age, there is a reduction in the size of the pulp due to secondary dentin deposition and a measurement of this reduction can also be used as a parameter to assess the age of the individuals, both in the living and dead. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in the estimation of age of adults, using Kvaal′s method in the set sample. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of the digital long-cone intraoral periapical radiographs from 50 subjects of either sex in the age group of 15-60 years, who were selected after evaluation for the set inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pulp width and length from radiographs of 6 selected teeth, namely, maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor, and second premolar and mandibular lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar of either right or left side were measured using the RVG trophy software [Trophy® Windows is a software program supplied by Trophy Radiologie (Trophy Windows Version 5.03, Copyright 1993-2002,Trophy RVG patented by Trophy, Chicago]. In order to compensate for the differences in magnification and angulation, various ratios were calculated and the mean of all ratios (M was taken as the first predictor, while the difference between the mean of 2 width ratios and the mean of 2 length ratios (W − L was taken as the second predictor. Different regression formulae for all 6 teeth, 3 maxillary teeth, 3 mandibular teeth, and each of the individual teeth were derived and the age was assessed. The assessed age was then co-related with the actual age of the patient using the Student′s t test. Results: The results showed that the coefficient of

  17. Influence of Carisolv caries removal on 155 children's dental fear%Carisolv去腐对155例牙科畏惧症患儿影响的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤根兄; 李静; 吴国英; 周淑

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较Carisoly去腐和传统车针去腐对牙科畏惧症患儿的影响.方法 选择门诊龋齿患儿300例,其中采用Carisoly去腐155例,传统车针去腐145例,比较2组患儿的CFSS-DS评分值、术中行为分级、疼痛情况和去腐时间.结果 2组患儿CFSS-DS评分值治疗前无显著性差异,治疗后有显著性差异;2组患儿术中行为分级、疼痛率和去腐时间均有显著性差异.结论 Carisoly去腐可有效缓解儿童对牙科的畏惧,值得临床推广.%Objective To compare the influence of Carisolv and traditional bur caries removal on the childrens dental fear. Methods 300 children patients with dental caries were choosen.and devided into two groups; 155 patients with Carisolv caries removal and 145 patients traditional bur caries removal. The CFSS-DS,behavioral measure,the state of pain and treatment time were compared between the two groups. Results The average CFSS-DS scores had no significant differences before treatment,while there were significant differences after treatment. There were significant differences with behavioral measure,the incidence rate of pain and treatment time between the two groups. Conclusions The Carisolv removal of caries can effectively relieve DF in children,and future appliance is suggested.

  18. Pharmacologic desensitization for dental phobias: clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Peskin, R. M.; Pierce, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The elimination of the extreme fear reported by dental phobic patients traditionally involves psychologic interventions such as systematic desensitization. Observations resulting from a conscious sedation approach, as outlined in two case histories, suggest that a desensitization phenomena is occurring. This pharmacologic desensitization appears to mimic elements of systematic desensitization. Optimal management of fearful patients may sometimes require conjunctive support from both dental behavioral scientists and dental anesthesiologists. PMID:1982984

  19. Self – perceived and clinically diagnosed dental and periodontal health status among young adults and their implications for epidemiological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sgan-Cohen Harold D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical (normative and subjective (self-assessment evaluation of caries and periodontal diseases have been reported to demonstrate a significant disparity. The dental public health team is obligated to recognize and understand this gap. The objectives of the study were to investigate the practical values of using questionnaires (self–perceived assessment as compared to clinical examinations (normative assessment and to evaluate the implications of the results in understanding the public's perception of oral health. Methods The investigation was performed on 4920, 21 year-old Israeli adults upon release from compulsory military service between 1996 and 1998. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire inquiring how they would rate their personal dental and periodontal health levels. Clinical examinations, employing the DMFT and CPITN indices, were performed to determine normative oral health status. Perceived and normative assessments were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall proportions using the clinical examinations as a gold standard. Results The sensitivity (disease perception for dental status was found to be 0.34, while the specificity (health perception was found to be 0.83. The positive predictive value for perceived dental status was found to be 0.68, whereas the negative predictive value was found to be 0.54. The sensitivity for perceived periodontal status was found to be 0.28, while the specificity was found to be 0.83. The positive predictive value for perceived periodontal status was found to be 0.05, whereas the negative predictive value was found to be 0.97. Regarding the overall proportions, a large discrepancy was found between self–assessment and professional assessment for both dental and periodontal health status. Conclusions Self-assessment questionnaires were of low value in evaluating oral health status both in the individual and public

  20. Diabetes and Tooth Loss in a National Sample of Dentate Adults Reporting Annual Dental Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Kapp, PhD, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPeriodontal disease has been associated with tooth loss and reported as more prevalent among people with diabetes than among those without diabetes. Having an annual dental examination is a national goal of Healthy People 2010. Our objective was to examine whether an association exists between diabetes and tooth loss among a population reporting an annual dental visit.MethodsWe used data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association between self-reported diabetes and tooth removal due to decay or periodontal disease among 155,280 respondents reporting a dental visit within the past year. We calculated prevalence estimates, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. Multiple logistic regression allowed for adjustment.ResultsThe overall prevalence of tooth removal among the people in the study was 38.3%. People with diabetes had a significantly higher prevalence of tooth removal. In a multivariable model adjusting for selected covariates, respondents with diabetes were 1.46 times as likely (95% CI, 1.30–1.64 to have at least one tooth removed than respondents without diabetes. A stronger association between diabetes and tooth loss was observed among people in the younger age groups than among those in the older age groups.ConclusionEven among people reporting a recent dental visit, diabetes was independently associated with tooth loss. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed to raise awareness of the risk of tooth loss among younger people with diabetes. Good oral hygiene as well as annual dental examinations are important for preventing tooth loss.

  1. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  2. Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John DB

    2015-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. Methods This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deeme...

  3. DENTAL CAST STUDY OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH UNTREATED UNILATERAL CLEFT-LIP OR CLEFT-LIP AND PALATE IN INDONESIA COMPARED WITH SURGICALLY TREATED PATIENTS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPAUWEN, PHM; HARDJOWASITO, W; BOERSMA, J; LATIEF, BS

    1993-01-01

    To determine differences in maxillary and dentoalveolar relationships between untreated and treated patients having unilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus (UCLA) or lip and palate (UCLP), dental cast assessments were done on 70 untreated adult Indonesian patients (UCLA-I, UCLP-I) and 67 Dutch pat

  4. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 62-76. ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2014

  5. Posttraumatic Dental-Care Anxiety: Is "dental phobia" a misnomer?

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha, MD Stefan; Vega, PHD Edward; Vega, Carrie

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this article, we suggest that the term “dental phobia,” as commonly applied to the experience of dental fear and anxiety, is typically a misnomer. The problem with using the term “phobia” in a dental-care context is as follows: by definition, phobias involve a fear that is “excessive or unreasonable,” which the individual recognizes as such, and in which the anxiety, panic attacks and phobic avoidance are not better accounted for by another disorder, including posttraumat...

  6. Food fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  7. Neuroligin-1 is required for normal expression of LTP and associative fear memory in the amygdala of adult animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Juhyun; Jung, Sang-Yong; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Park, Sangki; Choi, June-Seek; Lee, C. Justin; Kim, Hye-Sun; Choi, Yun-Beom; Scheiffele, Peter; Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Kim, Joung-Hun

    2008-01-01

    Neuroligin-1 is a potent trigger for the de novo formation of synaptic connections, and it has recently been suggested that it is required for the maturation of functionally competent excitatory synapses. Despite evidence for the role of neuroligin-1 in specifying excitatory synapses, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences that neuroligin-1 may have at mature synapses of normal adult animals remain unknown. By silencing endogenous neuroligin-1 acutely in the amygda...

  8. Price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE tape for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Tascón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE tape as an oral hygiene method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm, compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults. Methods: The polytetrafluoroethylene tape was used as a method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm. By a randomized procedure the sample size was of 87 (31 men and 56 women between 16 and 28 years old. The oral hygiene of the participants was suspended during a period of 12 hours. A suitable disclosing solution was used to paint the dental surfaces. The removal of the biofilm was made by the same operator who used the same technique with the two materials (polytetrafluoroethylene tape and nylon dental floss. The information was collected using the coronal division (in thirds of the Greene and Vermillion Oral Hygiene Index. This index was modified to evaluate proximal surfaces only. Results: In the group of dental floss the presence of the proximal biofilm was 72.6% before and 11.2% after its removal. In the group of PTFE was 72.9% before and 11% after. After the comparison of the two methods the differences are not significant. PTFE price is 2.7 times lower than common nylon dental floss. Conclusions: The similarity in the removal of the proximal biofilm of the PTFE tape when compared to the nylon floss was significant. Thanks to its biocompatibility, tolerance and its low price, the PTFE tape is an alternative method for the removal of the biofilm in these proximal areas. Results of this study open a way for the investigation on non orthodox techniques, but effective, for the maintenance of the oral health with the only purpose of improving life quality of poor populations.

  9. An Adult Patient with Pneumonia Due to Aspiration of Dental Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Samil Gunay

    2014-01-01

    In patients with a new and suddenly beginning of bronchial asthma and repetitive respiratory infection, one should consider the possibility of obstruction by a foreign body. In this case we present a male patient with pneumonia due to aspiration of dental prosthesis. A 32-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of dyspnea, chest pain and new    compliants of diaphoresis and fever persistend despite of antibiotic treatment. Then the patient consultated to our chest surgery...

  10. Prevalence and risks of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in adult dental patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S.; Nazir, Mohammed A.; Al-Masoud, Naif N.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among dental patients and investigate factors associated with high-risk OSA. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between October and December 2014. A total of 200 consecutive female and male dental patients were included in this study. Subjective and objective assessments were carried out. Habitual snoring and risk of OSA were assessed using the Arabic version of the Berlin questionnaire. Two trained investigators carried out the objective measurements of anthropometric data, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and clinical examination of upper-airway, and dental occlusion. Results: Habitual snoring was present in 18.2% of the females and 81.8% of the males (p<0.05). Breathing pauses during sleep of more than once a week occurred in 9% (n=17) of the sample. Of the males, 78.3% were at high risk of OSA compared with 21.7% of the females. Multivariate analysis for risk of OSA revealed that obese patients were almost 10 times more likely to report OSA symptoms than their non-obese counterparts (odds ratio: 9.9, 95% confidence intervals: 4.4-22.1). Tongue indentations, tonsil size, and a high Epworth Sleepiness Scale score were also independent risks of OSA. Conclusion: Tongue indentations and tonsil grades III and IV were significantly associated with risk of OSA. This validates the important role of dentists in the recognition of the signs and symptoms of OSA. PMID:26837402

  11. Geographic variations in dental services provided to older adults in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, D; Clarke, M

    1999-08-01

    In an initial study, Leake et al. (J Public Health Dent 1996; 52: 182-90) found that older Ontarians living in metropolitan communities received almost twice the amount of dental care than older Ontarians living in non-metropolitan communities. Since data were collected for the 2 years prior to the enrollment of subjects in a longitudinal study, factors responsible for this variation could not be explored. This paper extends these findings by examining the volume of dental services received by these subjects in the 3 years between the baseline and follow-up phases of the longitudinal study. During this 3-year period, geographic variations in the volume of services provided were also observed. In a regression analysis, geographic location remained a significant predictor of the number of services received after controlling for six other explanatory variables: insurance coverage, number of teeth, restorative treatment need, self-rated oral health, regular dental visits and use of specialist services. Together, these explained only 24% of the variance in service provision. Since patient-reported outcomes were better in the communities with higher volumes of provision, further research concerning the patient and dentist factors influencing treatment provision is warranted. PMID:10403087

  12. Dental Amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a discussion with your dentist. More in Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Alternatives to Dental Amalgam Related Resources ...

  13. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, J E; Ramsay, C. R.; Averley, P.; Bonetti, D.; Boyers, D.; L. Campbell; Chadwick, G.R.; Duncan, A; Elders, A.; Gouick, J.; Hall, A.F.; Heasman, L; Heasman, P.A.; Hodge, P.J.; C. Jones

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered ne...

  14. Main and Interactive Effects of Emotion Dysregulation and Breath-Holding Duration in Relation to Panic-Relevant Fear and Expectancies about Anxiety-Related Sensations among Adult Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Charles P.; Johnson, Kirsten A.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the main and interactive effects of emotion dysregulation and distress tolerance in relation to panic-relevant variables among daily smokers. The sample consisted of 172 adults (61.2% male; Mage = 31.58, SD = 11.51), who reported smoking an average of 15.99 cigarettes per day (SD = 10.00). Results indicated that both emotion dysregulation and distress tolerance were significantly related to interoceptive fear and agoraphobia. Additionally, emotion dysregulation,...

  15. Pulpal sequelae after trauma to anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Adekoya-Sofowora Comfort A; Oginni Adeleke O

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show that about 11.6% to 33.0% of all boys and about 3.6% to 19.3% of all girls suffer dental trauma of varying severity before the age of 12 years. Moderate injuries to the periodontium such as concussion and subluxation are usually associated with relatively minor symptoms and hence may go unnoticed by the patient or the dentist, if consulted. Patients with these kinds of injuries present years after a traumatic accident most of the time with a si...

  16. DENTAL CARE COVERAGE AND RETIREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Manski, Richard J.; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Clair, Patricia A.; Schimmel, Jody; Magder, Larry; John V. Pepper

    2010-01-01

    Dental insurance, generally not covered in Medicare, is an important factor in the decision to seek dental care. We examine the convergence of an aging population, retirement and a decreased availability of dental care coverage using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We show that being in the labor force is a strong predictor of having dental coverage. For older retired adults not in the labor force, the only source for dental coverage is either a post retirement health benefit or sp...

  17. Transforming Growth Factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity in heterotopic grafts of adult dental apical papilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo José Mezadri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 in heterotopic grafts of adult dental apical papillae. Methodology: Adult apical papillae of Wistar rats were grafted in the ear of the same donor rats. 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after grafting, rats were perfused and the tissue containing the graft was processed for histological conventional technique and for immunohistochemical detection of transforming growth factor-ß1. Results: Heterotopically grafted apical papilla developed osteoid dentine. In an early post-grafting stage, odontoblast-like cells organized themselves in palisade and synthesized dentine. However, newly formed dentine possessed the structural appearance of reactive osteoid dentine, which was systematically destroyed by the activity of osteoclaste-like cells. Transforming Growth Factor-ß1 was observed in mesenchymal cells, extracellular matrix of the graft and surrounding host tissue, while odontoblast-like cells were systematically devoid of immunoreactivity. Conclusion: The different expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 between normal tissue and grafted tissue development suggests that in heterotopic graft conditions the inflammatory mediation of the transforming growth factor-ß1 prevails against its morphogenetic role.

  18. Adult dental anxiety and related dentist beliefs in Danish private practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1997-01-01

    for FoBCeT patients (8/80) during the same time period. Interviews with 20 of the 42 dentists showed that frequency of anxious patients in their practices varied from 0.3% to 9% (mean = 1.9%). 75% had experienced broken appointments as the most characteristic behavior. 35% of dentists judged the dental...... anxiety problem to be primarily the fault of the patients' own personality, 40% blamed the problem on previous dentists and 10% pointed to a relationship problem between dentists and patients. The dentists expressed confidence about treating anxious patients, but also a need for more education about...... the topic and patient communication. A larger epidemiologic study of dentist beliefs based on these findings will be made in future research....

  19. Impact of dental treatment under general anesthesia on the oral health-related quality of life of adolescents and adults with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhea; Patton, Lauren L; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the perception of the family's primary caregiver on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and the impact on family dynamics, of dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) in adolescent and adult patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and neurocognitive disorders. Self-administered questionnaires were completed, before dental treatment, by 116 primary family caregivers of patients who received dental treatment under GA, and 102 (88%) of these caregivers completed the same questionnaires within 4 wk after treatment. The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and the Family Impact Scale (FIS) were shortened to a 14-item COHIP (COHIP-14) and a 12-item FIS (FIS-12) based on the limitations of patients' communication. The COHIP-14 and FIS-12 scores and each subscale improved after treatment. The baseline scores varied based on certain characteristics of the patients, such as age, disabilities, medications, caregivers, meal types, cooperation levels, and treatment needs. The postoperative improvement in OHRQoL was significant in the patients who were older than 30 yr of age, originally eating soft meals, displaying no or very low levels of cooperation, or receiving endodontic treatment. Based on the primary caregiver perceptions, the OHRQoL of adolescents and adults with IDD and neurocognitive disorders was improved by dental treatment under GA. PMID:25292335

  20. Fear of Fear and the Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambless, Dianne L.

    The fear of fear present in agoraphobics can be broken down into a fear of the body sensations associated with the panic attacks that plague agoraphobics and maladaptive thoughts about the possible consequences of panic. In a retrospective examination of clinical files, 32 agoraphobic patients were compared to 36 patients with simple social…

  1. Surface expression of hippocampal NMDA GluN2B receptors regulated by fear conditioning determines its contribution to memory consolidation in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Cai, Wei; Yu, Jie; Liu, Shu-Su; Zhuo, Min; Li, Bao-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Han

    2016-01-01

    The number and subtype composition of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) at synapses determines their functional properties and role in learning and memory. Genetically increased or decreased amount of GluN2B affects hippocampus-dependent memory in the adult brain. But in some experimental conditions (e.g., memory elicited by a single conditioning trial (1 CS-US)), GluN2B is not a necessary factor, which indicates that the precise role of GluN2B in memory formation requires further exploration. Here, we examined the role of GluN2B in the consolidation of fear memory using two training paradigms. We found that GluN2B was only required for the consolidation of memory elicited by five conditioning trials (5 CS-US), not by 1 CS-US. Strikingly, the expression of membrane GluN2B in CA1was training-strength-dependently increased after conditioning, and that the amount of membrane GluN2B determined its involvement in memory consolidation. Additionally, we demonstrated the increases in the activities of cAMP, ERK, and CREB in the CA1 after conditioning, as well as the enhanced intrinsic excitability and synaptic efficacy in CA1 neurons. Up-regulation of membrane GluN2B contributed to these enhancements. These studies uncover a novel mechanism for the involvement of GluN2B in memory consolidation by its accumulation at the cell surface in response to behavioral training. PMID:27487820

  2. Surface expression of hippocampal NMDA GluN2B receptors regulated by fear conditioning determines its contribution to memory consolidation in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Cai, Wei; Yu, Jie; Liu, Shu-Su; Zhuo, Min; Li, Bao-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Han

    2016-01-01

    The number and subtype composition of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) at synapses determines their functional properties and role in learning and memory. Genetically increased or decreased amount of GluN2B affects hippocampus-dependent memory in the adult brain. But in some experimental conditions (e.g., memory elicited by a single conditioning trial (1 CS-US)), GluN2B is not a necessary factor, which indicates that the precise role of GluN2B in memory formation requires further exploration. Here, we examined the role of GluN2B in the consolidation of fear memory using two training paradigms. We found that GluN2B was only required for the consolidation of memory elicited by five conditioning trials (5 CS-US), not by 1 CS-US. Strikingly, the expression of membrane GluN2B in CA1was training-strength-dependently increased after conditioning, and that the amount of membrane GluN2B determined its involvement in memory consolidation. Additionally, we demonstrated the increases in the activities of cAMP, ERK, and CREB in the CA1 after conditioning, as well as the enhanced intrinsic excitability and synaptic efficacy in CA1 neurons. Up-regulation of membrane GluN2B contributed to these enhancements. These studies uncover a novel mechanism for the involvement of GluN2B in memory consolidation by its accumulation at the cell surface in response to behavioral training. PMID:27487820

  3. 成人根管治疗患者的牙科焦虑症对根管治疗选择及治疗的影响分析%Survey of dental anxiety of adult patients with root canal therapy and effects of dental anxiety on root canal therapy and choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琰; 高义军

    2011-01-01

    Objeetive To survey dental anxiety of adult patients with root canal therapy and effects of dental anxiety on root canal therapy and choices. Methods 340 adult patients with root canal therapy were investigated by means of questionnaire on dental anxiety scales. Adult patients with root canal therapy were divided into two groups according to scores of questionnaire. Root canal therapy choices were analyzed and reasons for not choosing root canal therapy were included, 30 adult patients were selected randomly in each group. Root canal therapy were carried on two groups respectively. The change of DA level were measured in patients of two groups during treatment period. The data before and after root canal therapy were analyzed. Results 1 The incidence ratio of DA among 340 adult patients with root canal therapy was 32. 94%, 35. 71 % ul DA choosed root canal therapy,63. 16% in the other group. There were statistical differences in root canal therapy choices between two groups(P < 0. 01). 2 Primary reasons for not choosing root canal therapy were fear of pain and breaking needie. 3 The level of DA decreased along with the increasing of treatment frequency. There were statistical difference between different treatment period in the DA of same group(P<0. 01). There were statistical difference in the DA of the same treatment period between two groupsCP <0. 01). Conclusion adult patients with dental anxiety choose root canal therapy less likely than those without dental anxiety. Improving people's knowledge about root canal therapy and relief of dental anxiety for root canal therapy will make them choose root canal therapy and receive the better root canal therapy.%目的:了解成人根管治疗患者的牙科焦虑症(dental anxiety,DA)情况和牙科焦虑症对根管治疗选择及治疗的影响.方法:采用改良牙科焦虑量表(MDAS)对340名成人根管治疗患者进行问卷调查,分析牙科焦虑症情况.并按问卷得分将研究

  4. Evaluation of periodontal risk assessment model among adults aged 30-60 years attending KLE Dental College, Belgaum: A hospital-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Eshwar Shruthi; Ankola Anil; Kumar Ashok; Hebbal Mamata

    2010-01-01

    Aim : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal risk of individuals using the modified periodontal risk assessment model. Materials and Methods: Adult subjects aged 30-60 years attending the out patient department of Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum in a week′s period were screened and 30 among those who met the criteria were included in the study. Complete history and examination of the oral cavity was done using mouth mirror and community periodontal index pro...

  5. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Adegboye, Amanda RA; Christensen, Lisa B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. Methods In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified as below vs. within-recommendations and dairy intake as

  6. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila J Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. Aim: To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy children aged between 4 and 8 years having their first dental visit and requiring at least one restoration and one extraction were selected. In each patient, three procedures were carried out: (i Routine dental examination, (ii restoration, and (iii extraction. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected 10 min before, during the procedure, and 30 min after each procedure at three different visits for comparison of cortisol production in response to anxiety and stress over time. Total 180 samples were collected to determine salivary cortisol levels using UBI-MAGIWEL TM kit and the readings were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software with paired t-test, two independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the findings. Results: A correlation between salivary cortisol and stress in dental procedure was noticed. Cavity preparation is more stressful procedure in children, so alternative methods can be used in anxious children. Stress associated with extraction persists to a postoperative period. No correlation exists in between Corah′s anxiety scale and salivary cortisol.

  7. Relationship between dental appointment and dental anxiety: study with a group of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete Rabaldo BOTTAN; Flávia Melissa PELEGRINI; Joselaine Cristina STEIN; Maria Mercês Aquino Gouveia FARIAS; Silvana Marchiori ARAÚJO

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The oral health care is essential to every human being,despite the age, education level or social class. Nevertheless most people have difficulties to access dental services, due to many factors. However,one element interferes in the behavior of many people who search for dental service: the fear.Objective: To evaluate the frequency and the motives of dental appointments in relation to dental anxiety in students of elementary school. Material and methods: Five schools situated i...

  8. Patologías dentales en incisivos, caninos y primer premolar en caballos chilenos adultos Dental pathologies in incisors, canines and first premolar in adult Chilean horses

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, L.; F Vidal; O Sepúlveda; O Ortiz; C Rehhof

    2010-01-01

    Las patologías dentales han ido tomando mayor relevancia clínico veterinaria, aumentando el número de consultas, tratamientos y procedimientos preventivos. En caballos chilenos, la información existente de patologías dentales es nula, por lo que se hace primordial la investigación y recolección de datos en esta raza. Se analizaron 100 caballos pertenecientes a la Asociación de Rodeo Concepción, entre los meses de junio y septiembre del año 2007. Los materiales que se utilizaron fueron puro, l...

  9. Evaluation of the face and dental morphologic alterations in adult individuals with labial incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Cristina Valdrighi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate certain facial and dental characteristics by comparing individuals with labial incompetence and individuals withpassive labial sealing. Method: The study analyzed fifty lateral teleradiographs of which 25 were of subjects with labial incompetence, with minimum opening of 4 mm, and 25 of subjects with labial sealing, none of the subjects having undergone orthodontic treatment, all being between 15 and 30 years of age, irrespective of gender and malocclusion, with slight tendency towards vertical growth. The following cephalometric variables were used: Nfp – Nfa with the objective of determining the width of the upper airway, Sn – St to measure the length of the upper lip, Sn –IIs for the vertical length of the maxilla and 1.NA to determine the inclination of the maxillary incisor. Results: The measurements obtained in the group of passive lip sealing (G1 and labial incompetence (G2 respectively, were as follows: 14.12 mm (G1 and 12.76 mm (G2 for width of the upper airway; 24.24 mm (G1 and 23.80 mm (G2 for the length of the upper lip; 26.92 mm (G1 and 28.64 mm (G2 for the vertical length of the maxilla and 26.76º (G1 and 30.76º (G2 for the inclination of themaxillary incisor. Conclusion: The results allowed one to conclude that the individual with labial incompetence presented width of the upper airway similar to that of the individual with passive lip sealing. Individuals with labial incompetence presented increased vertical length of the maxilla and not shortening of the upper lip. The presence of vestibularized maxillary incisors is a condition inherent to the subject with labial incompetence, who will consequently present hypotonicity of the upper lip.

  10. The Relation between Youth Fear and Avoidance of Crime in School and Academic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kimberly L.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Lynch, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research analyzing fear of crime among adults, little is known about youth fear of crime in general and youth fear of crime in school, specifically. Moreover, among existing studies most emphasize causes of fear, with little discussion of avoidance or the academic consequences of these feelings and behaviors in school. This…

  11. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified as.......53; 95%CI = 0.31--0.92) and dairy servings (OR = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.33--0.89) within-recommendations were significantly associated with lower plaque score after adjustments for age, gender, education, intakes of alcohol, sucrose and mineral supplements, smoking, diseases, number of teeth, visits to the...

  12. Patologías dentales en incisivos, caninos y primer premolar en caballos chilenos adultos Dental pathologies in incisors, canines and first premolar in adult Chilean horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las patologías dentales han ido tomando mayor relevancia clínico veterinaria, aumentando el número de consultas, tratamientos y procedimientos preventivos. En caballos chilenos, la información existente de patologías dentales es nula, por lo que se hace primordial la investigación y recolección de datos en esta raza. Se analizaron 100 caballos pertenecientes a la Asociación de Rodeo Concepción, entre los meses de junio y septiembre del año 2007. Los materiales que se utilizaron fueron puro, linterna, sonda odontológica y espejo odontológico. El examen incluyó reseña, anamnesis y examen dental, registrando todo lo encontrado en una ficha odontológica. Ochenta y ocho ejemplares presentaron algún tipo de patología dental (88%. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron fracturas con 46%, tártaro con 33% y braquignatia con 32%, todos estos ubicados en los incisivos (’01-‘03. Sesenta y siete caballos (55 machos y 22 hembras poseían uno o más caninos (77%. De éstos, 38 (49,35% presentaba patologías en caninos, siendo lo más frecuente caninos ciegos (24,67%. Se encontraron 16 equinos (13 machos y 3 hembras con uno o más primeros premolares (diente de lobo (16%, ninguno mandibular. Sólo se encontró un caso de patología en un primer premolar que correspondió a enfermedad periodontal. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas asociadas al sexo, para boca en declive en incisivos y caninos ciegos.Dental pathologies have reached a higher veterinary clinical relevance, increasing the number of consultations, treatments and preventive proceedings. In Chilean horses, the information of dental pathologies is inexistent making the research and the data collection in this breed interesting. One hundred horses that came from the Asociación de Rodeo de Concepción, were analyzed between June and September 2007. The materials used were nosetwitch, flashlight, dental probe and intra-oral mirror. The visit started with an interview, followed

  13. Research challenges to recruitment and retention in a study of homebound older adults: lessons learned from the nutritional and dental screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, C S; Dennis, C S

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe the many reasons why it is difficult to recruit homebound older adults to participate in research studies. The reasons, not surprisingly, are more practical than theoretical. Complicated procedures for participants to follow, cross-cultural communication, fear of the medical establishment, convoluted consent forms, making contact on the telephone, finding the participants' homes, and a host of other nagging problems combine to erect enormous barriers to running successful studies. It is our hope that in identifying these difficulties we will also shed light on how to design studies that minimize their impact. PMID:10835797

  14. Pattern of traumatic dental injuries in the permanent dentition among children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva; Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Kreiborg, Sven; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2012-01-01

    a luxation injury and 5914 teeth (58.2%) a fracture. The overall most frequent injuries were crown fractures without pulp exposure (34.9%), concussions (24.2%), and subluxations (22.2%). The relative frequency of crown fractures without pulp exposure decreased across age groups (children 45...... (children 5.7%, adolescents 10.9%, adults 13.0%, P < 0.001). One-third of the traumatized teeth (n = 3212) had sustained a combination of a fracture and a luxation injury. The luxation types most frequently presenting with a concomitant crown fracture were concussion (57.9%), intrusion (47.2%), and...... subluxation (33.4%) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The majority of TDI were minor injuries. The relative frequencies of injury types varied among age groups. Combination injuries were observed in one-third of the traumatized teeth and occurred most frequently in teeth with concussion, intrusion, and subluxation....

  15. Dor de origem dental como motivo de consulta odontológica em uma população adulta Dental pain as the reason for visiting a dentist in a Brazilian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Telino de Lacerda

    2004-06-01

    reason for visiting a dentist among adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 860 workers aged 18-58 years at a cooperative located in the State of Santa Catarina, in 1999. The clinical examinations and interviews were carried out by dentists who had received prior guidance. Complaints of dental pain as the reason for the last visit to a dentist were analyzed as the dependent variable, in relation to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions, access to dental services, shift pattern and caries (via the DMFT index, as the independent variables. Non-conditional multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental pain as the reason for the last visit to a dentist was 18.7% (CI 95%: 15.9-20.1 and the mean DMFT index (decayed, missing and filled teeth was 20.2 (CI 95%: 19.7-20.7, with 54% represented by the 'missing' component. The following were independently associated with the presence of dental pain: schooling of less than or equal to eight years (OR=1.9; CI 95%: 1.1-3.1; four to fifteen teeth lost due to caries (OR=2.6; CI 95%: 1.4-4.9; 16 to 32 teeth lost due to caries (OR=2.5; CI 95%: 1.1-5.8; and not having visited the company's dental service (OR=2.8; CI 95%: 1.6-5.1. CONCLUSIONS: Dental pain reflects the severity of the dental caries, expressed by the 'missing' component of the DMFT and non-usage of the company's dental services. These factors are determined by social conditions and represented by the schooling level.

  16. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide helpful ... whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental implants ...

  17. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide ... whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental ...

  18. Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide ... whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental ...

  19. Fear of nuclear war increases the risk of common mental disorders among young adults: a five-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the relation between fear of war and mental health is insufficient. We carried out a prospective cohort study to find out whether fear of nuclear war is related to increased risk of common mental disorders. Methods Within two months preceding the outbreak of Persian Gulf War in January 1991, 1518 adolescents [mean age 16.8 years, SD 0.9] filled in a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 1493 respondents, 47% gave their written informed consent to participate in the follow-up study. There were no material differences between those who chose to respond anonymously and those who volunteered to give their name and address for the follow-up study. In 1995, the response to the follow-up questionnaire was 92%. Common mental disorders were assessed by 36-item version of the General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]. A score 5 or higher was considered to indicate caseness. We excluded 23 cases which had used mental health services in the year 1991 or earlier and two cases with deficient responses to GHQ. This left 626 subjects for analysis [400 women]. Results After adjusting for significant mental health risk factors in logistic regression analysis, the risk for common mental disorders was found to be significantly related to the increasing frequency of fear for nuclear war, high scores of trait anxiety and high scores of immature defense style. Elevated risk was confined to the group reporting fear of nuclear war once a week or more often [odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.29–3.27]. Conclusion Frequent fear of nuclear war in adolescents seems to be an indicator for an increased risk for common mental disorders and deserves serious attention.

  20. Fears and Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the situation calls for. Many people have a fear of public speaking . Whether it's giving a report in class, speaking ... cloudy. A guy with social phobia experiences intense fear of public speaking or interacting, and may be afraid to answer ...

  1. Evaluation of the Frails' Fall Efficacy by Comparing Treatments (EFFECT on reducing fall and fear of fall in moderately frail older adults: study protocol for a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Manju

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are common in frail older adults and often result in injuries and hospitalisation. The Nintendo® Wii™ is an easily available exercise modality in the community which has been shown to improve lower limb strength and balance. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of the Nintendo® Wii™ to improve fall efficacy and reduce falls in a moderately frail older adult. Fall efficacy is the measure of fear of falling in performing various daily activities. Fear contributes to avoidance of activities and functional decline. Methods This randomised active-control trial is a comparison between the Nintendo WiiActive programme against standard gym-based rehabilitation of the older population. Eighty subjects aged above 60, fallers and non-fallers, will be recruited from the hospital outpatient clinic. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale and the secondary outcome measures are self-reported falls, quadriceps strength, walking agility, dynamic balance and quality of life assessments. Discussions The study is the first randomised control trial using the Nintendo Wii as a rehabilitation modality investigating a change in fall efficacy and self-reported falls. Longitudinally, the study will investigate if the interventions can successfully reduce falls and analyse the cost-effectiveness of the programme. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000576022

  2. The advances of fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book treats of four sensible topics of the last decade - the nuclear industry, the cloning, Internet and the greenhouse effect - in order to analyze the irrational or organized fears among the public: what do we fear and why? How this fear is shown? Which questions need to be answered and how? (J.S.)

  3. A climate of fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, Tom Alexander; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework that incorporates fear, acoustics, thought processing and digital game sound theory; with the potential to not only improve understanding of our relationship with fear, but also generate a foundation for reliable and significant manipulation of the fear experience....

  4. Acidogenicity and acidurance of dental plaque and saliva sediment from adults in relation to caries activity and chlorhexidine exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sotirios, Kalfas; Georgios, Andreadis; Vassiliki, Topitsoglou

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ecological plaque hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of caries implies a microbial shift towards a more aciduric dental plaque microbiota, due to a frequent carbohydrate intake. Acid tolerance has been suggested as an important property of the caries-associated bacteria and several in vitro studies with mixed cultures indicated that a low pH rather than the carbohydrate availability is responsible for microbiota shifts associated with the development of dental caries.Objectiv...

  5. CORRELATION BETWEEN DENTAL CARIES WITH SALIVARY FLOW, PH, AND BUFFERING CAPACITY IN ADULT SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION: AN IN-VIVO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Chitharanjan Shetty; Hegde, Mithra N; Darshana Devadiga

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study is to evaluate the correlation between dental caries and salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity in young adult South Indian population. According to DMFT scores eighty subjects between 20 to 30 years of age were divided into four groups. Saliva samples collected were estimated for salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity and the data was statistically analysed. The pH, flow rate, buffering capacity showed a steady decrease with an increase in the DMFT values; which was stat...

  6. Dental Anxiety and its Association with Behavioral Factors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU, SANDA MIHAELA; DASCĂLU, IONELA TEODORA; SCRIECIU, MONICA; MERCUŢ, VERONICA; MORARU, IREN; ŢUCULINĂ, MIHAELA JANA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a condition that causes a decrease in population addressability to the dentist with adverse consequences for long-term oral health. Assessment of behavioral factors that correlate with dental anxiety is important for accurate evaluation of dental fear. Its diagnosis in childhood is important for establishing therapeutic management strategies to reduce anxiety and promote oral health. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental anxiety in a group of Romanian ...

  7. Dental Implant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Oshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities.

  8. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistent...

  9. Failure to overcome 'innate' fear: a developmental test of the non-associative model of fear acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, R; Waldie, K E; Menzies, R G; Craske, M G; Silva, P A

    2001-01-01

    The non-associative, Darwinian theory of fear acquisition proposes that some individuals fail to overcome biologically-relevant fears (e.g. height) because they (1) do not have sufficient safe exposure to the relevant stimuli early in life or (2) are poor habituators who have difficulty 'learning not to fear'. These two hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Study 1 found evidence for reduced exposure to height stimuli in childhood for individuals with a fear of heights compared to study members without fear. Study 2 found evidence for higher levels of stress reactivity (a proxy for habituation) in childhood and adolescence among 18-year-old height phobics compared to study members with dental phobia and those with no fear. The results were discussed in relation to recent findings suggesting that some evolutionary-relevant fears may appear in the absence of traumatic 'learning' experiences. The merits of adding a fourth, non-associative pathway to Rachman's [Rachman, S. (1977)]. The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: a critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 375-387) three pathways model of fear acquisition were briefly considered. PMID:11125722

  10. Extreme Dental Compensation in an Adult Skeletal Class III Malocclusion: 3-Year Follow-up of a Successfully Compromised Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelita, Sérgio; Janson, Guilherme; Chiqueto, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Nonsurgical orthodontic treatment of a patient with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, negative overjet, increased overbite and maxillary crowding is described Although the treatment options included an orthodontic-surgical approach, high cost of the surgical procedure was the main reason for extreme dental compensation to have been performed. Four-premolar extraction protocol associated with intermaxillary Class III elastics were used to correct the malocclusion at the expense of increasing the initial dental compensation without producing any noticeable skeletal change. Satisfactory and stable occlusion was achieved with dental and smile esthetics improvement, but the amount of facial changes was limited by the nonsurgical protocol. The clinical results and implications of compensatory treatment as well as its relevance within the patient context are discussed based on scientific evidences. PMID:26349294

  11. Dental care - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth decay and gum disease are caused by plaque, a sticky combination of bacteria and food. Plaque begins ... cleaned well each day, plaque will lead to tooth decay. If you do not remove plaque, it turns ...

  12. Phobic dimensions : IV. The structure of animal fears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA

    2000-01-01

    Research designed to determine the number and kind of dimensions- underlying self-reports of animal fears is relatively rare. To contribute further knowledge to this area of study, Davey's methodology [Davey, G. C. L. (1994a). Self-reported fears to common indigenous animals in an adult UK populatio

  13. Fear in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  14. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  15. Dental arch asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, can...

  16. Fear load: The psychophysiological over-expression of fear as an intermediate phenotype associated with trauma reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrholm, Seth Davin; Glover, Ebony M; Stevens, Jennifer S; Fani, Negar; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Psychophysiological measures of fear expression provide observable intermediate phenotypes of fear-related symptoms. Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) advocate using neurobiological intermediate phenotypes that provide dimensional correlates of psychopathology. Negative Valence Systems in the RDoC matrix include the construct of acute threat, which can be measured on a physiological level using potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex assessed via electromyography recordings of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Impairments in extinction of fear-potentiated startle due to high levels of fear (termed fear load) during the early phases of extinction have been observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goals of the current work were to examine dimensional associations between fear-related symptoms of PTSD and fear load variables to test their validity as an intermediate phenotype. We examined extinction of fear-potentiated startle in a cohort (n=269) of individuals with a broad range of civilian trauma exposure (range 0-13 traumatic events per person, mean=3.5). Based on previously reported findings, we hypothesized that fear load would be significantly associated with intrusion and fear memories of an index traumatic event. The results indicated that early extinction was correlated with intrusive thoughts (p=0.0007) and intense physiological reactions to trauma reminders (p=0.036). Degree of adult or childhood trauma exposure, and depression severity were not associated with fear load. After controlling for age, sex, race, income, level of prior trauma, and level of fear conditioning, fear load during extinction was still significantly predictive of intrusive thoughts (p=0.004). The significance of these findings is that they support dimensional associations with symptom severity rather than diagnostic category and, as such, fear load may emerge as a transdiagnostic intermediate phenotype expressed across fear-related disorders (e.g., specific phobia, social

  17. Recall of Dental Pain and Anxiety in a Cohort of Oral Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, B N; McNeil, D W; Weaver, B; Wilson, T

    2016-06-01

    Dental patients generally recall more pain than they originally report, with ratings of pain related to state anxiety and dental fear, but the role of depression in recall of dental pain remains uncertain. This study examined the relative contributions of different variables in explaining dental pain recalled after tooth extraction. Patients presenting for tooth extraction, prior to extraction, rated their current dental pain and state anxiety, prediction of pain and state anxiety during extraction, depression, and dental fear. Immediately postprocedure and then 1 mo later, patients rated their pain and state anxiety during extraction. Hierarchical linear regression equations were used to explain variance in recalled pain and state anxiety. In addition, patients were divided into high and low dental fear and depression groups and compared on ratings of pain and state anxiety across time. In a final sample of 157 patients, the most important predictors of recalled pain were pain reported during extraction (β = .53) and recalled state anxiety (β = .52). Dental fear and depression had a significant interaction: only when patients reported less depression did those patients who reported more dental fear also report more pain than patients who reported less dental fear (P < 0.05, ω(2) = .07). Patients who reported more depression entered the dental operatory reporting more pain, but all patients generally reported less pain during extraction than they predicted or recalled. Memory of state anxiety and pain reported during tooth extraction, not depression or state anxiety at the time of extraction, were critical factors in memory of the pain associated with the procedure. At higher levels of depression, patients higher and lower in dental fear did not differ in report of pain. Future studies are needed to further clarify interactions of depression and dental fear over time. PMID:26908629

  18. Dental Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research ...

  19. Psychological treatment of fearful and phobic special needs patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Dental fears and phobias trouble patients with and without special needs, and they are a problem for dentists, as well. This article reviews current research and literature related to methods used to alleviate dental fear and concludes that while some important psychological methods are available, much work is left to be done in this area. It is clear that there is an important role for psychological and behavioral input to the dentist-patient interaction. While dental phobia represents a class of special needs itself, patients with other important disabilities (e.g., physical or cognitive impairments) are sometimes comorbidly phobic, a condition often missed or misdiagnosed by treating practitioners. Office-based techniques that focus on relaxation, breathing, imagery, hypnosis, and effective use of operatory language are described. The methods advocated here can be used with patients having mild or moderate cognitive impairments. Readings are recommended for the dentist or auxiliary practitioner interested in learning these techniques. PMID:19152568

  20. Fear Extinction in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-hui; Knapska, Ewelina; Orsini, Caitlin A.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Zimmerman, Joshua M; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have become important model systems for understanding the neuroscience of behavior. In particular, studies of the extinction of Pavlovian fear responses are yielding important information about the neural substrates of anxiety disorders in humans. These studies are germane to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral interventions that suppress fear, including exposure therapy. This chapter described detailed behavioral protocols for examining ...

  1. Evaluation of adult dental patterns on orthopantomograms and its implication for personal identification: A retrospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Bhateja; Geetika Arora; Ruchita Katote

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing a person′s identity is a very complex process and is one of the main objectives of the forensic science also. Dental radiographs are certainly one of the most desirable pieces of antemortem evidence because of their highly objective nature as compared with other records. The aim of the present study is to establish the utility of orthopantomography for human identification. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 digital orthomopantographs were randomly selected from th...

  2. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez y Mostajo, Mercedes; van der Reijden, Wil A.; Buijs, Mark J.; Beertsen, Wouter; van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2014-01-01

    Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX), has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strain...

  3. A 5-year retrospective study of rampant dental caries among adult patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    M Ajayi Deborah; M F Abiodun-Solanke Iyabode; O Gbadebo Shakeerah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rampant caries in adults has not been a focus of many researches unlike the childhood form of the disease. The disease is an interesting finding in an adult patient. When the condition occurs in children, it has been described as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, and the most recently adopted term, "early childhood caries". Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence of rampant caries among adult patients. Materials and Methods: Cases of rampant caries were id...

  4. Blocking miRNA Biogenesis in Adult Forebrain Neurons Enhances Seizure Susceptibility, Fear Memory, and Food Intake by Increasing Neuronal Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Anna; Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Rovira, Victor; Scandaglia, Marilyn; Geijo-Barrientos, Emilio; Barco, Angel

    2016-04-01

    The RNase Dicer is essential for the maturation of most microRNAs, a molecular system that plays an essential role in fine-tuning gene expression. To gain molecular insight into the role of Dicer and the microRNA system in brain function, we conducted 2 complementary RNA-seq screens in the hippocampus of inducible forebrain-restricted Dicer1 mutants aimed at identifying the microRNAs primarily affected by Dicer loss and their targets, respectively. Functional genomics analyses predicted the main biological processes and phenotypes associated with impaired microRNA maturation, including categories related to microRNA biology, signal transduction, seizures, and synaptic transmission and plasticity. Consistent with these predictions, we found that, soon after recombination, Dicer-deficient mice exhibited an exaggerated seizure response, enhanced induction of immediate early genes in response to different stimuli, stronger and more stable fear memory, hyperphagia, and increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the long term, we also observed slow and progressive excitotoxic neurodegeneration. Overall, our results indicate that interfering with microRNA biogenesis causes an increase in neuronal responsiveness and disrupts homeostatic mechanisms that protect the neuron against overactivation, which may explain both the initial and late phenotypes associated with the loss of Dicer in excitatory neurons. PMID:25595182

  5. THE FEAR OF FEAR CONCEPT - EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF MULTIDIMENSIONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, questions have been raised regarding the dimensionality of existing measures of fear of fear. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed if the dimensions(s) of any scale purporting to assess fear of fear are to guide theory and research. One of the most widely used measu

  6. The Biology of Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Each of us has felt afraid, and we can all recognize fear in many animal species. Yet there is no consensus in the scientific study of fear. Some argue that “fear” is a psychological construct rather than discoverable through scientific investigation. Others argue that the term “fear” cannot properly be applied to animals because we cannot know whether they feel afraid. Studies in rodents show that there are highly specific brain circuits for fear, whereas findings from human neuroimaging see...

  7. Multidisciplinary treatment of tooth wear in a patient with Asperger’s Syndrome and dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wetselaar; J.H. Vermaire; F. Lobbezoo

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who is referred by his home physician to a centre for special dental care because of the presence of severe oral pain with an existing dental phobia. The patient has Asperger's Syndrome. Besides his extreme fear for dental treatment and several deep carious lesio

  8. How to estimate dental age in paleodontology?

    OpenAIRE

    Vedran Šebečić; Andrea Hoch; Maja Sabalić

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays there are many methods available for dental age estimation: morphological, radiological, biochemical. Some methods require sample sectioning while other non-destructive methods are more appropriate for use in paleodontology. Children’s dental age assessment is based on phases in growth and development of the deciduous and permanent dentition, while age assessment in the adult dentition is based upon changes in the structure of hard dental tissue caused by aging. Dental age calculati...

  9. How to estimate dental age in paleodontology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Šebečić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are many methods available for dental age estimation: morphological, radiological, biochemical. Some methods require sample sectioning while other non-destructive methods are more appropriate for use in paleodontology. Children’s dental age assessment is based on phases in growth and development of the deciduous and permanent dentition, while age assessment in the adult dentition is based upon changes in the structure of hard dental tissue caused by aging. Dental age calculating software enables automated age calculations.

  10. Psychosocial Aspects of Dental Anxiety and Clinical Pain Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...... of dental education and necessary changes in dental practice....

  11. Fear: The Teachers' Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Looks at the effects of fear in the classroom and offers suggestions for teachers in dealing with the issue: self-acceptance, other-orientation, trust, patience, self-awareness, and journal writing. (JOW)

  12. The Fears of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, James H.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the self-reported fears and some personality characteristics of a sample of 1112 adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (attending grammar and secondary schools in Northern Ireland). (CS)

  13. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  14. A BDNF Sensitive Mechanism Is Involved in the Fear Memory Resulting from the Interaction between Stress and the Retrieval of an Established Trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Bustos, Silvia G.; Calfa, Gaston; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the fear memory resulting from the interaction of a stressful experience and the retrieval of an established fear memory trace. Such a combination enhanced both fear expression and fear retention in adult Wistar rats. Likewise, midazolam intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion prior to stress attenuated the…

  15. Differences in functional outcomes for adult patients with prosthodontically-treated and -untreated shortened dental arches: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadika Khan

    Full Text Available This review examined differences in functional outcomes and patient satisfaction when shortened dental arches are left untreated compared to their restoration to complete arch lengths with different prosthodontic interventions.A protocol was developed according to the criteria for a systematic review. All relevant databases were searched to identify appropriate clinical trials regardless of language or publication status. Predetermined eligibility criteria were applied, trial quality assessed and data extracted for each study. Relevant outcomes assessed were: functioning ability, patient satisfaction and harmful effects on oral structures.Searches yielded 101 articles: 81 from electronic databases and 20 from reference lists of retrieved articles (PEARLing searches. Sixty-nine citations were assessed for eligibility after removing 32 duplicate records. After reading titles and abstracts, a total of 41 records were excluded and the full-texts of the remaining 28 records were read. Only 21 records were included for the SR because 7 records were excluded after reading the full-text reports. These 21 records report the outcomes of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs and one non-randomized clinical trial (CT which were pre-specified and used for this review. No on-going studies were found and no eligible studies were excluded for failure to report the reviewer's pre-specified outcomes. Outcomes were reported in the retrieved 21 articles. A narrative explanation of the pre-specified outcomes is reported for the 3 comparison groups (which were based on the different interventions used for the individual clinical trials. The shortened dental arch as a treatment option is encouraging in terms of functioning, patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. By using only high quality studies it was expected that the results would be more reliable when making conclusions and recommendations, but some of the included studies had to be downgraded due to

  16. Childhood abuse and fear of childbirth--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Vangen, Siri; Øian, Pål;

    2010-01-01

    Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth.......Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth....

  17. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... helpful facts so you can make an informed decision as to whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental implants over other tooth replacement systems is that an implant connects directly to the ...

  18. Thinking about going to the dentist: a Contemplation Ladder to assess dentally-avoidant individuals' readiness to go to a dentist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillstead M Blake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Transtheoretical Model suggests that individuals vary according to their readiness to change behavior. Previous work in smoking cessation and other health areas suggests that interventions are more successful when they are tailored to an individual's stage of change with regards to the specific behavior. We report on the performance of a single-item measure ("Ladder" to assess the readiness to change dental-avoidant behavior. Methods An existing Contemplation Ladder for assessing stage of change in smoking cessation was modified to assess readiness to go to a dentist. The resulting Ladder was administered to samples of English-speaking adolescents (USA, Spanish-speaking adults (USA, and Norwegian military recruits (Norway in order to assess construct validity. The Ladder was also administered to a sample of English-speaking avoidant adolescents and young adults who were enrolled in an intervention study (USA in order to assess criterion validity. All participants also had dental examinations, and completed other questionnaires. Correlations, chi square, t tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to assess relationships between variables. Results In two samples, participants who do not go to the dentist had significantly more teeth with caries; in a third sample, participants who do not go to the dentist had significantly worse caries. Ladder scores were not significantly related to age, gender, caries, or dental fear. However, Ladder scores were significantly related to statements of intention to visit a dentist in the future and the importance of oral health. In a preliminary finding, Ladder scores at baseline also predicted whether or not the participants decided to go to a dentist in the intervention sample. Conclusions The data provide support for the convergent and divergent construct validity of the Ladder, and preliminary support for its criterion validity. The lack of relationship between dental fear and Ladder scores

  19. PSYCHICAL THERAPY OF CHILDREN‘S FEARS DUE TO DISEASES AND SOMATIC INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivajlo PETROV

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Human civilization in all phases of its development has been accompanied by different kinds of fear related to disease, death, injury, separation, pain, loneliness, darkness, imagined creatures, natural appearances etc. Fear has become a constant part of human life and it has always required appropriate mechanisms for defense. It is very important to be mentioned that fears occur with children as well. Fears acquire specific form with physically disabled, ill children and children with poor health etc.A great number of authors explain children’s fears from many aspects connected with the factor and manifestations of certain forms of children’s fear.In that sense, it is pointed out that the reasons for children’s fears can be divided in three categories: innate, endured and imagined.Fear, both with adults and children, is accompanied by concrete physiological processes mainly of biochemical and functional nature.

  20. Factors influencing use of dental services in rural and urban communities: considerations for practitioners in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P

    2004-10-01

    Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health. PMID:15466058

  1. Dental OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  2. Dental Insurance and Dental Care: the Role of Insurance and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Munkin, Murat K.; Trivedi, Pravin K

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of dental insurance on utilization of general dentist services by adult US population aged from 25 to 64 years. Our econometric framework accommdates endogeneity of insurance and the ordered nature of the measure of dental utilization. The study finds strong evidence of endogeneity of dental insurance to utilization and identifies interesting patterns of nonlinear dependencies between the dental insurance status and individual’s age and income. The calculated av...

  3. Emetophobia: A fear of vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Abhijeet D; Gawande, Sushil; Tadke, Rahul; Kirpekar, Vivek C; Bhave, Sudhir H

    2013-10-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear of vomiting including fear of feeling nausea, seeing or hearing another person vomit, or seeing vomitus itself. It may occur at any age and we need to understand its symptomatology. We report a case of emetophobic child whose fear of vomiting started after an attack of acute appendicitis. In the initial stage, fear was limited to vomiting, later it became generalized to a fear of seeing the vomitus, worries that parents may suffer vomiting, fear of vomiting in public places followed by avoiding social activities. Patient improved on short course of anti-anxiety drugs and Graded Exposure Therapy. PMID:24459314

  4. Mozart effect on dental anxiety in 6–12 year old children

    OpenAIRE

    Arlette Suzy Setiawan; Hilnia Zidnia; Inne Suherna Sasmita

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children anxiety in dental treatment often becomes a barrier for dentist to perform optimum dental treatment procedure. Various methods to manage anxiety and fear in children have been applied including listening to classical music during dental treatment. One of the classical music usually used is music by Mozart. Purpose: This study is aimed to discover the role of classical music by Mozart in dental anxiety changes. Method: This study was a quasi experimental study using purpos...

  5. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...... legislations are Thus primarily founded on arguments concerning moral, social or public order. The article furthermore argues that although anti-censorship satire gradually weakened the legitimacy of censorship, the notion of religion as 'the social bond of society' is still operative in contemporary blasphemy...

  6. The impact of Medicaid insurance coverage on dental service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonkyung Kate

    2011-09-01

    The new comprehensive health reform, beginning in 2014, will require Medicaid to expand all elements of coverage to individuals with incomes up to 133 percent of the federal poverty line. With millions more individuals gaining eligibility for adult Medicaid dental benefits, generating an unbiased estimate of the elasticity of demand for dental services is critical. The causal relationship between access to adult Medicaid dental benefits and usage of dental services for low-income adults is estimated, using difference-in-differences estimation procedures to exploit the state-level variation in adult Medicaid dental benefits. Results suggest that adult Medicaid dental benefits increase the probability of a dental visit within 12 months by 16.4-22 percent. A variety of robustness checks are invoked to confirm the finding. PMID:21885138

  7. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from the leaching of elements from gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G Mark; James, Kyle Jordan; Peters, Rachel Elizabeth; Clemow, Scott Richard; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Using data from the 2001 to 2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) on the number and placement of tooth restorations in adults, we quantified daily doses due to leaching of elements from gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. The elements with the greatest leaching rates from these materials are often the elements of lowest proportional composition. As a result, exposure due to wear will predominate for those elements of relatively high proportional composition, while exposure due leaching may predominate for elements of relatively low proportional composition. The exposure due to leaching of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) from Au alloys exceeded published reference exposure levels (RELs) for these elements when multiple full surface crowns were present. Six or more molar crowns would result in exceeding the REL for Ag, whereas three or more crowns would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. For platinum (Pt), the majority of tooth surfaces, beyond just molar crowns, would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. Exposures due to leaching of elements from ceramic dental materials were less than published RELs for all components examined here, including having all restorations composed of ceramic. PMID:26374655

  8. Evaluation of periodontal risk assessment model among adults aged 30-60 years attending KLE Dental College, Belgaum: A hospital-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwar, Shruthi; Ankola, Anil V.; Kumar, Ashok; Hebbal, Mamata

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal risk of individuals using the modified periodontal risk assessment model. Materials and Methods: Adult subjects aged 30-60 years attending the out patient department of Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum in a week’s period were screened and 30 among those who met the criteria were included in the study. Complete history and examination of the oral cavity was done using mouth mirror and community periodontal index probes. Periodontal status was recorded using community periodontal index. Systemic conditions like hypertension and diabetes was assessed by suitable investigations. All the risk factors were plotted on a model using Microsoft excel and periodontal risk was assessed based on the findings and categorized as low, moderate and high risk. Results: Among 30 patients 13 were in low risk group, 10 in moderate risk group, and 7 in high risk group identified by proposed model given by Vishwa Chandra whereas 20 patients were in low risk group, 5 in moderate risk group and 5 in high risk group when identified Lang and Tonetti model (2003). Conclusion: In conclusion the use of risk assessment tool would result in reduction of complex therapies and would prevent the future effects of periodontal disease such as bone and tooth loss. PMID:21760671

  9. Evaluation of periodontal risk assessment model among adults aged 30-60 years attending KLE Dental College, Belgaum: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwar Shruthi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal risk of individuals using the modified periodontal risk assessment model. Materials and Methods: Adult subjects aged 30-60 years attending the out patient department of Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum in a week′s period were screened and 30 among those who met the criteria were included in the study. Complete history and examination of the oral cavity was done using mouth mirror and community periodontal index probes. Periodontal status was recorded using community periodontal index. Systemic conditions like hypertension and diabetes was assessed by suitable investigations. All the risk factors were plotted on a model using Microsoft excel and periodontal risk was assessed based on the findings and categorized as low, moderate and high risk. Results: Among 30 patients 13 were in low risk group, 10 in moderate risk group, and 7 in high risk group identified by proposed model given by Vishwa Chandra whereas 20 patients were in low risk group, 5 in moderate risk group and 5 in high risk group when identified Lang and Tonetti model (2003. Conclusion: In conclusion the use of risk assessment tool would result in reduction of complex therapies and would prevent the future effects of periodontal disease such as bone and tooth loss.

  10. An evaluation of in vivo desensitization and video modeling to increase compliance with dental procedures in persons with mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Peterson, Blake; Gubin, Amber; Jurgens, Mandy; Selders, Andrew; Dickinson, Jessica; Barenz, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Fear of dental procedures deters many individuals with mental retardation from accepting dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two procedures, in vivo desensitization and video modeling, for increasing compliance with dental procedures in participants with severe or profound mental retardation. Desensitization increased compliance for all 5 participants, whereas video modeling increased compliance for only 1 of 3 participants.

  11. Adult Stem Cells Properties in Terms of Commitment, Aging and Biological Safety of Grit-Blasted and Acid-Etched Ti Dental Implants Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Bressan, Eriberto; Calvo - Guirado, José L.; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used biomaterials for manufacturing dental implants. The implant surface properties strongly influence osseointegration. The aim of the present study was to in vitro investigate the characteristics of Ti dental implants in terms of mutagenicity, hemocompatibility, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity and biological safety. The Ames test was used to test the mutagenicity of the Ti dental implants, and the hemolysis assay for evaluating their hemocompatibil...

  12. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral microorganisms in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eFernandez y Mostajo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX, has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at one month before the experiment (Pre-exp, at the start of the experiment (Baseline and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp. During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results: AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193, nor did the microbial composition of plaque during a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing. Plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31 at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39 Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after one week of rinsing deserves

  13. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  14. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  15. Animal Models of Fear Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Goode, Travis D.; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, sp...

  16. Visibility of dental pulp spaces in dental ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Szopinski, K T; Regulski, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of dental ultrasound with conventional sonographic equipment. The teeth of three adult volunteers who had cone beam CT examinations performed previously with clinical indications and one extracted tooth were examined using linear and compact (hockey stick) sonographic probes. The sonographic images were compared with cone beam CT images reconstructed accordingly. Dental pulp spaces were demonstrated in all teeth not covered with prosthet...

  17. Dental Anxiety in Elementary Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rabaldo BOTTAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the percentage of students with dentalanxiety.Method: A transversal exploratory study was designed involving976 schoolchildren aged 9 to 17 years from three public schoolslocated in the urban perimeter of the city of Campos Novos (SC.Data collection instruments were questionnaires adapted from theDental Anxiety Scale (DAS and Dental Fear Survey (DFS.Results: 84% of the subjects manifested anxiety, most of thembeing classified as low-anxiety individuals. Girls were a little moreanxious than boys (87% versus 81%. The relationship betweenage group and percentage of anxious patients indicates a decreasein the frequency for older individuals. The most frequently mentionedphysiological responses were accelerated heart beat and tremors.The triggering factors were “to see” or “to hear the noise of” thedental bur and anesthesia. Most subjects (84.5% affirmed to havevisited a dental office in the past two years and 63.5% of themreported that the dental appointments were scheduled for restorativepurposes.Conclusion: Dental anxiety was present in this population in ahigh percentage.

  18. Reforming the mission of public dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F A C; List, P F

    2012-10-01

    Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reform public dental services. PMID:22998313

  19. Additional psychometric data for the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and psychometric data for a Spanish version of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Philip

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hispanics comprise the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. Previous work with the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS yielded good validity, but lower test-retest reliability. We report the performance of the Spanish MDAS in a new sample, as well as the performance of the Spanish Revised Dental Beliefs Survey (R-DBS. Methods One hundred sixty two Spanish-speaking adults attending Spanish-language church services or an Hispanic cultural festival completed questionnaires containing the Spanish MDAS, Spanish R-DBS, and dental attendance questions, and underwent a brief oral examination. Church attendees completed the questionnaire a second time, for test-retest purposes. Results The Spanish MDAS and R-DBS were completed by 156 and 136 adults, respectively. The test-retest reliability of the Spanish MDAS was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.60-0.92. The internal reliability of the Spanish R-DBS was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94-0.97, and the test-retest reliability was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.64-0.94. The two measures were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.38, p Conclusion In this sample, the test-retest reliability of the Spanish MDAS was higher. The significant relationships between dental attendance and questionnaire scores, as well as the difference in caries severity seen in those with high fear, add to the evidence of this scale's construct validity in Hispanic samples. Our results also provide evidence for the internal and test-retest reliabilities, as well as the construct validity, of the Spanish R-DBS.

  20. Fear of holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Geoff G; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2013-10-01

    Phobias are usually described as irrational and persistent fears of certain objects or situations, and causes of such fears are difficult to identify. We describe an unusual but common phobia (trypophobia), hitherto unreported in the scientific literature, in which sufferers are averse to images of holes. We performed a spectral analysis on a variety of images that induce trypophobia and found that the stimuli had a spectral composition typically associated with uncomfortable visual images, namely, high-contrast energy at midrange spatial frequencies. Critically, we found that a range of potentially dangerous animals also possess this spectral characteristic. We argue that although sufferers are not conscious of the association, the phobia arises in part because the inducing stimuli share basic visual characteristics with dangerous organisms, characteristics that are low level and easily computed, and therefore facilitate a rapid nonconscious response. PMID:23982244

  1. Dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is the core diagnostic modality of veterinary dentistry. Dental radiographs assist in detecting hidden painful pathology, estimating the severity of dental conditions, assessing treatment options, providing intraoperative guidance, and also serve to monitor success of prior treatments. Unfortunately, most professional veterinary training programs provide little or no training in veterinary dentistry in general or dental radiology in particular. Although a technical learning curve does exist, the techniques required for producing diagnostic films are not difficult to master. Regular use of dental x-rays will increase the amount of pathology detected, leading to healthier patients and happier clients who notice a difference in how their pet feels. This article covers equipment and materials needed to produce diagnostic intraoral dental films. A simplified guide for positioning will be presented, including a positioning "cheat sheet" to be placed next to the dental x-ray machine in the operatory. Additionally, digital dental radiograph systems will be described and trends for their future discussed. PMID:19410234

  2. Do health-related feared possible selves motivate healthy eating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of what motivates individuals to assume healthy eating habits remains unanswered. The purpose of this descriptive survey is to explore health-related feared possible selves in relation to dietary beliefs and behavior in adults. A convenience sample of 74 middle-aged employees of a health maintenance organization completed self-administered questionnaires. Health-related feared selves, current health perception, knowledge of diet-health association, dietary self-efficacy, dietary intention and intake were measured. Health-related fears were the most frequently reported feared selves, but very few of those represented illnesses and none were related to dietary intake. The number of health and body weight related fears was significantly associated with lower dietary self-efficacy and weaker intention to eat in a healthy manner. Multivariate analysis showed self-efficacy to be the only significant predictor of dietary intention. These adults may not have perceived being at risk for diet-associated illnesses, and so their feared selves did not motivate them to eat in a healthy manner. Research on the effect of hoped for health related possible selves and the perceived effectiveness of diet in reducing health risk are recommended.

  3. Caloric restriction enhances fear extinction learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Megan C; McKenna, Morgan C; Yoon, Yone J; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Santos, Patricia Mae G; Casey, B J; Glatt, Charles E

    2013-05-01

    Fear extinction learning, the ability to reassess a learned cue of danger as safe when it no longer predicts aversive events, is often dysregulated in anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) enhance neural plasticity and their ability to enhance fear extinction learning may explain their anxiolytic properties. Caloric restriction (CR) has SSRI-like effects on neural plasticity and anxiety-related behavior. We implemented CR in mice to determine its effects on conditioned-fear responses. Wild type and serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice underwent CR for 7 days leading to significant weight loss. Mice were then tested for cued fear learning and anxiety-related behavior. CR markedly enhanced fear extinction learning and its retention in adolescent female mice, and adults of both sexes. These effects of CR were absent in SERT knockout mice. Moreover, CR phenocopied behavioral and molecular effects of chronic fluoxetine, but there was no additive effect of CR in fluoxetine-treated mice. These results demonstrate that CR enhances fear extinction learning through a SERT-dependent mechanism. These results may have implications for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN), in which there is a high prevalence of anxiety before the onset of dietary restriction and support proposals that in AN, CR is a motivated effort to control dysregulated fear responses and elevated anxiety. PMID:23303073

  4. Factors influencing the use of public dental services: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer A John; Luzzi Liana

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is limited evidence of the influence of psychosocial factors and health beliefs on public dental patient's patterns of service use in Australia. The research aims were to examine associations between dental attitudes and beliefs of public dental service users and dental visiting intention and behaviour using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Methods 517 randomly selected adult public dental patients completed a questionnaire assessing dental attitudes and beliefs whic...

  5. Fear of being laughed at and social anxiety: A preliminary psychometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Carretero-Dios; Willibald Ruch; Diana Agudelo; Tracey Platt; René T. Proyer

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between questionnaire measures of social phobia and gelotophobia. A sample of 211 Colombian adults filled in Spanish versions of the Social Anxiety and Distress scale (SAD; Watson & Friend, 1969), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (FNE; Watson & Friend, 1969) and the GELOPH (Ruch & Proyer, 2008). Results confirmed that both Social Anxiety and Distress and Fear of Negative Evaluation scale overlapped with the fear of being laughed at without bein...

  6. The Role of Panic-fear in Comorbid Asthma and Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jonathan M.; Siddique, Mahmood I.; Thompson, Nigel S.; Lehrer, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined mediational models of panic-fear, panic disorder (PD), and asthma outcomes among adult asthma patients. PD was assessed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule. Twenty-one asthma-PD patients and 27 asthma-only patients completed spirometry and questionnaires. Asthma-PD patients reported greater illness-specific and generalized panic-fear than asthma-only patients, despite no differences in asthma severity or physical symptoms during asthma attacks. Illness-specific panic-fear ...

  7. The role of fear in mental health service users’ experiences: a qualitative exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Angela; Gillard, Steve; Wykes, Til; Rose, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although studies suggest that fear plays an important role in shaping mental health service users’ experiences, evidence is patchy and the contexts, conditions and consequences of fear have rarely been researched. This paper explores the role of fear in adult mental health service users’ lives and describes its implications for mental health services. Methods Four community health service user focus groups (N32) were held. Each group was reconvened after 7–14 days. An initial thematic...

  8. Does women’s greater fear of snakes and spiders originate in infancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Rakison, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies with adult humans and non-human animals revealed more rapid fear learning for spiders and snakes than for mushrooms and flowers. The current experiments tested whether 11-month-olds show a similar effect in learning associative pairings between facial emotions and fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli. Consistent with the greater incidence of snake and spider phobias in women, results show that female but not male infants learn rapidly to associate negative facial emotion...

  9. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Nabel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia with 2% lignocaine in various minor pediatric dental procedures: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Dhindsa; I K Pandit; Nikhil Srivastava; Neeraj Gugnani

    2011-01-01

    One of the most distressing aspects of dentistry for pediatric patients is the fear and anxiety caused by the dental environment, particularly the dental injection. The application and induction of local anesthetics has always been a difficult task, and this demands an alternative method that is convenient and effective. Electronic dental anesthesia, based on the principal of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), promises to be a viable mode of pain control during various pediatri...

  11. Animal models of fear relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Travis D; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, spontaneous recovery, reacquisition, and reinstatement. Additionally, this review describes recent work, which has focused on the role of psychological stress in the relapse of extinguished fear. Recent developments in behavioral and pharmacological research are examined in light of treatment of pathological fear in humans. PMID:25225304

  12. Dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since dental radiology has become a subject of the final examinations in dental medicine, there is a demand for literature presenting the basic principles of this subject field. The textbook in hand is primarily intended as an introduction for students attending the roentgenography lessons, or for students preparing for their dental medicine examinations. The book discusses the following aspects: physical principles and fundamentals; technical fundamentals of X-ray generation; image formation; X-ray films and film processing; intraoral imaging techniques; extraoral imaging techniques; special methods; panoramic technique; biological radiation effects; basic principles of radiation protection; legal aspects (X-ray Ordinance). (orig.)

  13. Dental OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  14. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  15. What Predicts Fear of School Violence among U.S. Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Motoko

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Ensuring a safe learning environment for every student at school is a major responsibility of educators, school administrators, and policy makers in our society. Students' fear associated with school violence affects their school attendance, learning motivation, and academic achievement. Although predictors of adults' fear of…

  16. Using Cognitive Behavioral Strategies To Reduce Fear of Falling: A Matter of Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Elizabeth Walker

    2003-01-01

    Fear of falling is a threat to the quality of life and independence of older adults. A Matter of Balance is a program that uses cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce fear of falling and improve physical functioning. A randomized controlled trial (n=434) validated immediate and long-term improvements. (Contains 39 references.) (JOW)

  17. Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

  18. Extinction in human fear conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Dirk; Craske, Michelle G.; Mineka, Susan; Lovibond, Peter F.

    2006-01-01

    Although most extinction research is conducted in animal laboratories, the study of extinction learning in human fear conditioning has gained increasing attention over the last decade. The most important findings from human fear extinction are reviewed in this article. Specifically, we review experimental investigations of the impact of conditioned inhibitors, conditioned exciters, context renewal, and reinstatement on fear extinction in human samples. We discuss data from laboratory studies ...

  19. Are fear memories erasable? –reconsolidation of learned fear with fear relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Golkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the field of fear learning have demonstrated that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training can prevent the return of extinguished fear by disrupting the process of reconsolidation. These findings have however proven hard to replicate in humans. Given the significant implications of preventing the return of fear, the purpose of the present study was to further study the prerequisites for the putative effects of disrupting reconsolidation. In two experiments, we assessed whether extinction training initiated within the reconsolidation time window could abolish the return of fear using fear-relevant (experiment 1 or fear-irrelevant (experiment 2 conditioned stimuli (CS. In both experiments, participants went through conditioning, extinction and reinstatement testing on three consecutive days, with one of two reinforced CS being reactivated 10 minutes prior to extinction. We found that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training did not prevent the return of extinguished fear responding using either fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant CSs. Our findings point to the need to further study the specific parameters that enable disruption of reconsolidation.

  20. Fear of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniia Mikhaylovna Patrakeeva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Independently of causes and risk factors of hypoglycaemia, its manifestations are always unfavourable and evoke fear and other negative emotions that lead to negative consequences connected with quality of diabetes control. The fear of hypoglycaemia creates an internal conflict by diminishing patients’ motivation to adhere to intensive treatment regimes. In addition to the severity of hypoglycaemia and its negative consequences, quality of life is one of the main criteria for evaluating the physical, psychological and social components of patient's life as a whole. Fear of hypoglycaemia is one of the most important factors; it either directly or indirectly affects quality of life and influences all aspects of the patient's life. Fear of hypoglycaemia is also a source of anxiety for the patient's relatives, causing damage to their familial and social relations. The negative consequences of hypoglycaemia can affect the relationship between spouses, as well as between parents and children with type 1 diabetes. The qualitative and quantitative data demonstrate that non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia causes more anxiety and fear in patients than daytime hypoglycaemia does. To quantify the fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes, the hypoglycaemia fear scale (HFS was developed and still is the most commonly used instrument. To assess the fear of hypoglycaemia in children and their parents, the HFS scale was adapted to be used in the paediatric population: HFS for parents (PHFS and HFS for children (CHFS. From a clinical point of view, these scales for measuring the level of fear of hypoglycaemia may be useful for monitoring adult patients and families who may need additional support, training or assistance in dealing with issues related to hypoglycaemia. The methods for regulating the fear of hypoglycaemia range from behavioural to pharmaceutical and surgical ones, and include a broad range of activities. Nevertheless, the problem

  1. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is lost for the most predictable esthetic outcome. Timeline Replacing a tooth with an implant and a ... months to complete the process . Due to the timeline, dental implants are actually a series of steps; ...

  2. The role of dental stem cells in regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    MAXIM, MONICA ANGELA; Soritau, Olga; BACIUT, MIHAELA; BRAN, SIMION; BACIUT, GRIGORE

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that have the capacity of rising multiple cell types. A rich source of mesenchymal stem cells is represented by the dental tissues: the periodontal ligament, the dental pulp, the apical papilla, the dental follicle and the deciduous teeth. The aim of this review is to characterize the main dental- derived mesenchymal stem cell population, and to show their important role in tissue regeneration based on their properties : the multi-potency, th...

  3. Exploring Fear: Rousseau, Dewey, and Freire on Fear and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Andrea; Stengel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Fear is not the first feature of educational experience associated with the best-known progressive educational theorists--Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. But each of these important thinkers did, in fact, have something substantive to say about how fear functions in the processes of learning and growth. Andrea English and…

  4. Infant dental care (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  5. Fear conditioning and extinction across development: evidence from human studies and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechner, Tomer; Hong, Melanie; Britton, Jennifer C; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-07-01

    The ability to differentiate danger and safety through associative processes emerges early in life. Understanding the mechanisms underlying associative learning of threat and safety can clarify the processes that shape development of normative fears and pathological anxiety. Considerable research has used fear conditioning and extinction paradigms to delineate underlying mechanisms in animals and human adults; however, little is known about these mechanisms in children and adolescents. The current paper summarizes the empirical data on the development of fear conditioning and extinction. It reviews methodological considerations and future directions for research on fear conditioning and extinction in pediatric populations. PMID:24746848

  6. Determinantes individuais da utilização de serviços odontológicos por adultos e idosos de baixa renda Individual determinants of dental care utilization among low-income adult and elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Helena Baldani

    2010-03-01

    among low-income adult and elderly individuals living in the catchment area of the Family Health Strategy, in Ponta Grossa, PR. The sample included 246 individuals, aged 35 years or over, who answered a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, perceived needs, and access to dental care services. Data analysis was performed according to a conceptual framework based on Andersen's Behavioral Model. Non-recent use of dental care services was considered as the dependent variable in the logistic regression analysis models. There were high prevalences of self-reported oral health diseases and teeth loss. About 40% of the adults and 67% of the elderly had not made any dental visit in the past 3 years. Individuals without ownership of the family home, with inadequate oral hygiene habits and who wore complete dentures had higher odds of having gone to the dentist longer ago. The fact of having a regular source of dental care was identified as a protective factor in the analysis. The conceptual framework confirmed the presence of social and psychosocial inequalities in the use of dental services among low-income adult and elderly individuals.

  7. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  8. The learning of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane; Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Recent work on the extinction of fear-motivated learning places emphasis on its putative circuitry and on its modulation. Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval of previously acquired responses. Fear extinction is used as a major component of exposure therapy in the treatment of fear memories such as those of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is initiated and maintained by interactions between the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which involve feedback regulation of the latter by the other two areas. Fear extinction depends on NMDA receptor activation. It is positively modulated by d-serine acting on the glycine site of NMDA receptors and blocked by AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphono propionate) in the three structures. In addition, histamine acting on H2 receptors and endocannabinoids acting on CB1 receptors in the three brain areas mentioned, and muscarinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum to hippocampal CA1 positively modulate fear extinction. Importantly, fear extinction can be made state-dependent on circulating epinephrine, which may play a role in situations of stress. Exposure to a novel experience can strongly enhance the consolidation of fear extinction through a synaptic tagging and capture mechanism; this may be useful in the therapy of states caused by fear memory like PTSD. PMID:25452113

  9. Heritability of fear: Ukrainian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Filiptsova

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The conducted research demonstrated genetic component presence for nine types of fear – psychic disorder development, complications in personal life, making responsible decisions, senility, closed spaces, sexual dysfunction, suicide commission, speaking in public, and aggressive behavior possibility to relatives. It helps to consider these fear perspectives for further molecular-genetic analysis in Ukraine.

  10. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A; Marwah N; Raju O

    2007-01-01

    Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - s...

  11. Extinction during memory reconsolidation blocks recovery of fear in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D C; Casey, B J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of intensified emotional experiences, during which anxiety and stress-related disorders peak. The most effective behavioral therapies for treating these disorders share exposure-based techniques as a core component. Exposure-based therapies build on the principles of fear extinction learning and involve desensitizing the individual to cues that trigger anxiety. Yet, recent evidence shows an adolescent-specific diminished capacity to extinguish fear responses, suggesting that adolescents may respond less well to exposure-based therapies than other age groups. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for blocking the recall of fear memories in adolescents, building on principles of memory reconsolidation in adults. During memory reconsolidation, a memory that is recalled becomes labile during which time it can be updated. Prior research has shown that extinction training during memory reconsolidation attenuates the recovery of fear memory in human adults and in rodents. Using this method, we show attenuation of fear memory in adolescent humans. These findings have significant implications for treating one of the most vulnerable populations to anxiety and stress related disorders - adolescents - by optimizing exposure therapy based on principles of memory reconsolidation. PMID:25749583

  12. Yoga attitudes in chronic low back pain: Roles of catastrophizing and fear of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Martha A; Thorn, Beverly E

    2015-08-01

    Chronic low back pain is a significant public health problem and, although underused, yoga may be an effective complementary treatment. The current study examined associations of pain catastrophizing and fear of movement with attitudes toward yoga in adults with chronic low back pain. Participants completed three quantitative questionnaires assessing specific constructs: beliefs about yoga, fear of movement, and pain catastrophizing. A semi-structured in-person interview was then conducted to obtain specific pain-related information. Hierarchical regression and mediational analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with the fear-avoidance model of chronic pain, catastrophizing and fear of movement were negatively associated with yoga attitudes. Specifically, fear of movement was a mediator between catastrophizing and attitudes toward yoga. Individuals with higher levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement may be less likely to consider a pain treatment involving physical movement. PMID:26256134

  13. Immunization against social fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Social fear learning offers an efficient way to transmit information about potential threats; little is known, however, about the learning processes that counteract the social transmission of fear. In three separate experiments, we found that safety information transmitted from another individual (i.e., demonstrator) during preexposure prevented subsequent observational fear learning (Experiments 1-3), and this effect was maintained in a new context involving direct threat confrontation (Experiment 3). This protection from observational fear learning was specific to conditions in which information about both safety and danger was transmitted from the same demonstrator (Experiments 2-3) and was unaffected by increasing the number of the safety demonstrators (Experiment 3). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that observational preexposure can limit social transmission of fear. Future research is needed to better understand the conditions under which such effects generalize across individual demonstrators. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077756

  14. Activity, balance, learning, and exposure (ABLE): A new intervention for fear of falling

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, JL; Johnson, K.; Chang, D; Ward, SR; Bower, ES; Merz, C; Petkus, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Objective: Fear of falling is an important problem among older adults, even those with relatively low rates of objective fall risk, who are often overlooked as targets for intervention. Method: We developed and pilot tested a new intervention, Activity, Balance, Learning, and Exposure (ABLE), in a sample of 10 older adults with excessive fear of falling. The ABLE intervention integrates exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring with a home safety evaluation a...

  15. EXISTENTIAL FEAR AS ONTOLOGICALLY BACKGROUND OF MEDIOCRITY

    OpenAIRE

    Гіоргадзе, Галина Василівна

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of fear in terms of the influence of its varieties (fear as a biological defense mechanism, fear as a psychological phenomenon, the varieties of existential fears) on human life and the possibility of creative self. It is determined the protective function of fear, its inhibitory effect on personal development and the limit effect of domestic and social freedom. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of existential fear as a (mostly unconscious) "br...

  16. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  17. Candesartan ameliorates impaired fear extinction induced by innate immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, María M; Maldonado, Lizette; Velazquez, Bethzaly; Porter, James T

    2016-02-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to show signs of a relatively increased inflammatory state suggesting that activation of the immune system may contribute to the development of PTSD. In the present study, we tested whether activation of the innate immune system can disrupt acquisition or recall of auditory fear extinction using an animal model of PTSD. Male adolescent rats received auditory fear conditioning in context A. The next day, an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) prior to auditory fear extinction in context B impaired acquisition and recall of extinction. LPS (100 μg/kg) given after extinction training did not impair extinction recall suggesting that LPS did not affect consolidation of extinction. In contrast to cued fear extinction, contextual fear extinction was not affected by prior injection of LPS (100 μg/kg). Although LPS also reduced locomotion, we could dissociate the effects of LPS on extinction and locomotion by using a lower dose of LPS (50 μg/kg) which impaired locomotion without affecting extinction. In addition, 15 h after an injection of 250 μg/kg LPS in adult rats, extinction learning and recall were impaired without affecting locomotion. A sub-chronic treatment with candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, prevented the LPS-induced impairment of extinction in adult rats. Our results demonstrate that activation of the innate immune system can disrupt auditory fear extinction in adolescent and adult animals. These findings also provide direction for clinical studies of novel treatments that modulate the innate immune system for stress-related disorders like PTSD. PMID:26520214

  18. The Dental Amalgam Toxicity Fear: A Myth or Actuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore, Monika; Singh, Archana; Pant, Vandana A.

    2012-01-01

    Amalgam has been used in dentistry since about 150 years and is still being used due to its low cost, ease of application, strength, durability, and bacteriostatic effect. When aesthetics is not a concern it can be used in individuals of all ages, in stress bearing areas, foundation for cast-metal and ceramic restorations and poor oral hygiene conditions. Besides all, it has other advantages like if placed under ideal conditions, it is more durable and long lasting and least technique sensiti...

  19. Desigualdades contextuais e individuais da prevalência de dor dentária em adultos e idosos no Brasil Contextual and individual inequalities in dental pain prevalence among Brazilian adults and elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Peres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a prevalência de dor dentária e fatores associados em adultos e idosos residentes nas capitais brasileiras usando os dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL, de 2009 (n = 54.367. Dor dentária foi a variável dependente. Macrorregião, idade, sexo, raça, escolaridade, posse de plano de saúde, tabagismo e consumo de refrigerantes foram as variáveis exploratórias. Foram realizadas regressões de Poisson multinível. A prevalência de dor dentária foi de 15,2%; Macapá e São Luís apresentaram prevalências maiores que 20% enquanto em todas as capitais do Sul e Sudeste, em Cuiabá, Campo Grande, Maceió, Recife e Natal foram encontradas prevalências menores que 15%. Residentes no Norte e Nordeste, mulheres, pretos e pardos, aqueles que não possuem plano de saúde, tabagistas e consumidores de refrigerantes apresentaram as maiores prevalências de dor dentária. A dor dentária é um problema de saúde pública que deve ser monitorado pelos sistemas de vigilância em saúde.This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain among adults and older people living in Brazil's State capitals. Information was gathered from the Telephone Survey Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL in 2009 (n = 54,367. Dental pain was the outcome. Geographic region, age, gender, race, schooling, private health coverage, smoking, and soft drink consumption were the explanatory variables. Multilevel Poisson regression models were performed. Prevalence of dental pain was 15.2%; Macapá and São Luís had prevalence rates greater than 20%; all capitals in the South and Southeast, plus Cuiabá, Campo Grande, Maceió, Recife, and Natal had prevalence rates less than 15%. Factors associated with increased prevalence of dental pain were the North and Northeast regions, female gender, black/brown skin

  20. Training Adults and Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder to Be Compliant with a Clinical Dental Assessment Using a TEACCH-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Lorena M.; Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia; Silvestre, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The specific neuropsychological and sensory profile found in persons with autism spectrum disorders complicate dental procedures and as a result of this, most are treated under general anesthesia or unnecessary sedation. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a short treatment and education of autistic and related…

  1. Public fear of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive fear of nuclear technology (EFONT) is estimated to affect from 35-50 percent of the U.S. public, EFONT is defined as an unpleasant state of fear with components of stress and anxiety, threat to security, and anger. The cognitive aspect of EFONT involves perception of risks, benefits, and values which reinforce and perpetuate the fear. EFONT can be reduced through communications and outreach programs by providing basic information, encouraging participation, and targeting misinformation. Risks need to be put in perspective and benefits made explicit. Safety messages should be combined with other information. Understanding and patience are indispensable in dealing with those who are afraid

  2. Dental education in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE A. JARAMILLO; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students mus...

  3. Implementing a National Dental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground The Chronic Dental Disease Scheme (CDSS is the first public dental policy in Australia to attract Medicare benefits for dental services. Aims This study examines the utilisation of a new federal method of funding dental care in Australia and provides an insight into the implications of government dental programs. The program titled; Chronic Dental Disease Scheme, provided government-subsidised dental care for people suffering from a chronic medical condition. Method A retrospective analysis of activity data using the relevant item numbers were extracted from the open source Medicare Benefits Schedule database (MBS for years 2007-2009. Results During the study period, a total of approximately five million dental services were provided. There was a disproportionate use of services between jurisdictions. The highest proportion (66% of services was provided in the state of New South Wales (NSW with Victoria second (22%. The adjusted value of care provided as a proportion of comprehensive examinations ranged from $1937 in the northern territory (NT to $2900 in NSW. The value of care per dentist ranged from nearly $80 000 down to less than $1000 and the value of care per adult of the population ranged between $53 and $1 across Australia. The highest was always in NSW and the lowest always being the NT. Fixed prosthodontics (reconstruction accounted for the significant costs associated with the program. Conclusion The scheme has been utilised above its budget estimate with prosthodontics accounting for the majority of expenses. Treatment plans differed between jurisdictions. The increase in utilisation of the scheme was coincident with periods of increased in subsidy and remuneration and has been postulated to be a main driver for its utilisation rather than the improvement in chronic health.

  4. Minimizing the Risk of Perioperative Bleeding in a Child with Hemophilia A during Dental Rehabilitation under General Anesthesia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia El Batawi, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemophilia, among other bleeding disorders, raises concerns for dental service providers who routinely use sharp hand and rotary instruments, address highly vascular soft tissue and provide dental extractions. In pediatric dentistry, dealing with fearful or irritable children increases the possibility of trauma and subsequent bleeding risks in hemophilic pediatric dental patients. In the current report, we discuss how anesthetic, pediatric and dental management may contribute to the ...

  5. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suffer from social consequences and poor nutrition. Rebuilding Bone When the supporting alveolar bone melts away , it’s gone for good, but through grafting, a skilled dental professional can recreate bone to fuse with and support an implant. This ...

  6. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide helpful facts so you ... found in nature. What Happens When You Lose a Tooth? When you lose a tooth, especially a ...

  7. Dental education and dental practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper relates recent modes of dental practice to changes that the public and government are likely to ask the health care professions to make in the future. As usual they are asking for the best of all worlds. First, that we maintain the clinical model to the highest standards of personal dental care based and tested against the best research at our disposal, whilst we ensure there is no reduction in the high technical standards for which british dentists have a reputation. Second, that ...

  8. Anxiety and personality characteristics in children undergoing dental interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Sarakinova, Olivera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Loleska, Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety about and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as sources of problems in the management of child dental patients. It has been suggested that some individuals who are fearful of or anxious about dental treatment have a constitutional vulnerability to anxiety disorders as is evidenced by the presence of multiple fears, generalized anxiety or panic disorders. Concerning the child population, maternal anxiety is considered to be a major factor affecting the behaviour of young children expecting dental intervention. The aim of the study was to the measure general anxiety of children undergoing dental intervention and to compare it with some personality characteristics, such as psychopathology, extroversion and neuroticism. The evaluated sample comprises 50 children (31 girls and 19 boys), randomly selected at the University Dental Hospital, Skopje. The mean age for girls was 11.4 (± 2.4) years, and for boys 10.7 (± 2.6) years. Two psychometric instruments were used: the General Anxiety Scale for Children (GASC) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The study confirms the presence of a high anxiety level (evaluated with GASC) among all children undergoing dental intervention. It also confirmed differences in anxiety scores between girls and boys, girls having higher scores for anxiety. Personality characteristics (evaluated with EPQ) showed low psychopathological traits, moderate extroversion and neuroticism, but accentuated insincerity (evaluated with L scale). L scales are lower with increasing age, but P scores rise with age, which could be related to puberty. No correlation was found between personality traits (obtained scores for EPQ) and anxiety except for neuroticism, which is positively correlated with the level of anxiety. In the management of dental anxiety some response measures (psychological support, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques) are recommended. PMID:24566020

  9. Sensibilidad dentaria Dental sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tortolini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilidad dentaria l es un problema común que se presenta entre el 9 y el 30% de la población adulta. La teoría hidrodinámica es aceptada como uno de los mecanismos de inducción de la respuesta pulpar dolorosa, debido a que los estímulos provocan el movimiento del fluido y para ello es necesario que la dentina este expuesta y que los túbulos dentinarios estén abiertos y permeables a la pulpa. Es fundamental realizar el diagnostico diferencial con otras causas de dolor dental e identificar los factores etiológicos y predisponentes.Dental sensitivity is a common problem and it affect 9 and 30% the adult poblation. The hidrodynamyc theory is cited as the menchanism of induction of a painful pulpal response and implies that stimuli tranmission across dentine increase the rate of fluid flow through dentinal tubules and for this to accur the dentinal tubules must be opened andpermeable to the pulp. An appropiate tretametn needs a diferential diagnosis eith other causes of dental pain and the identification of predisponing etiologic factors.

  10. MODERN IDEOLOGIES OF MANAGING FEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Konstantinovna Vasilchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is a studying of modern ideologies of managing fear. The purpose of the article is to examine the managing fear practice and explain how it is used in the policy of homeland security. The research methodology is based on the general scientific methods such as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and special kind of theoretical me-thods such as studying literature about the problem. The study can be used in courses on social philosophy and political science. The author concludes that social fears are very effective instrument of influence with mass consciousness. The authorities need to legitimize their political decisions through public opinion. But before that they should form it. The author shows how policy of homeland security helps to produce fears in society and how politicians intentionally exaggerate them. In this regard the author considers a concept of homeland security which can eliminate the negative sides of homeland security in future.

  11. Examining the Fears of Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippey, Jacalyn G.; Burnham, Joy J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered the fears of gifted children. Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; Burnham, 1995), a modified version of the Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (Gullone & King, 1992, 1993), this study focused on the fears of 287 gifted children ages 7-10. This study is a first step in developing…

  12. Relationship between dental appointment and dental anxiety: study with a group of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rabaldo BOTTAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health care is essential to every human being,despite the age, education level or social class. Nevertheless most people have difficulties to access dental services, due to many factors. However,one element interferes in the behavior of many people who search for dental service: the fear.Objective: To evaluate the frequency and the motives of dental appointments in relation to dental anxiety in students of elementary school. Material and methods: Five schools situated in one city localized in the region of Foz do Rio Itajaí (SC were randomly selected and 1.806 students were evaluated. To determine the anxiety level to dental treatment it has been used an adapted tool from the Dental Anxiety Scale. To define the individuals by gender, age, frequency and causes of the appointments, it was applied a questionnaire.Results:Most of them (76.7% had taken a dental appointment in a period which is in its maximum two years before the data collection. A tendencyof linear growth in the number of realized appointment has been noticed due to reduction of anxiety or its inexistence. Among the individuals who have taken the appointments, girls between 11 and 13 years old were the highest number. The main cause of the dental appointments,for individuals with high level of anxiety, is endodontics procedures;for the group without anxiety, is preventive procedures. Conclusion: The researched group shows a relation with the anxiety level to dental treatment and the frequency and motives of dental appointments.

  13. Fear Conditioning Increases NREM Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    HELLMAN, Kevin; Abel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    To understand the role that sleep may play in memory storage, the authors investigated how fear conditioning affects sleep–wake states by performing electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings of C57BL/6J mice receiving fear conditioning, exposure to conditioning stimuli, or immediate shock treatment. This experimental design allowed us to examine the effects of associative learning, presentation of the conditioning stimuli, and presentation of the unconditioned stimuli on ...

  14. Commentary about fear of movement

    OpenAIRE

    K. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain influences many aspects of a patient’s life and often results in physical disability. There are many concepts to explain this condition of disability. For example, several psychological variables like coping with pain, depression, hypervigilance, catastrophizing and fear avoidance are considered in literature to play an important role. In Vlaeyen’s model of fear avoidance, he proposes that in a first step negative affectivity and threatening illness information could trigger the ...

  15. Dental Training Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  16. Erasure of fear memories is prevented by Nogo Receptor 1 in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, S M; Butler, S S; Taylor, J R; McEwen, B S; Strittmatter, S M

    2016-09-01

    Critical periods are temporary windows of heightened neural plasticity early in development. For example, fear memories in juvenile rodents are subject to erasure following extinction training, while after closure of this critical period, extinction training only temporarily and weakly suppresses fear memories. Persistence of fear memories is important for survival, but the inability to effectively adapt to the trauma is a characteristic of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined whether Nogo Receptor 1 (NgR1) regulates the plasticity associated with fear extinction. The loss of NgR1 function in adulthood eliminates spontaneous fear recovery and fear renewal, with a restoration of fear reacquisition rate equal to that of naive mice; thus, mimicking the phenotype observed in juvenile rodents. Regional gene disruption demonstrates that NgR1 expression is required in both the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and infralimbic (IL) cortex to prevent fear erasure. NgR1 expression by parvalbumin expressing interneurons is essential for limiting extinction-dependent plasticity. NgR1 gene deletion enhances anatomical changes of inhibitory synapse markers after extinction training. Thus, NgR1 robustly inhibits elimination of fear expression in the adult brain and could serve as a therapeutic target for anxiety disorders, such as PTSD. PMID:26619810

  17. Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Deva Priya

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The initial interaction between the dentist and the patient can reveal the presence of anxiety, fear, and phobia. In such situations, subjective evaluation by interviews and self-reporting on fear and anxiety scales and objective assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, finger temperature, and galvanic skin response can greatly enhance the diagnosis and enable categorization of these individuals as mildly, moderately, or highly anxious or dental phobics. Broadly, dental anxiety can be managed by psychotherapeutic interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, depending on the level of dental anxiety, patient characteristics, and clinical situations. Psychotherapeutic interventions are either behaviorally or cognitively oriented. Pharmacologically, these patients can be managed using either sedation or general anesthesia. Behavior-modification therapies aim to change unacceptable behaviors through learning, and involve muscle relaxation and relaxation breathing, along with guided imagery and physiological monitoring using biofeedback, hypnosis, acupuncture, distraction, positive reinforcement, stop-signaling, and exposure-based treatments, such as systematic desensitization, “tell-show-do”, and modeling. Cognitive strategies aim to alter and restructure the content of negative cognitions and enhance control over the negative thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy, and is currently the most accepted and successful psychological treatment for anxiety and phobia. In certain situations, where the patient is not

  18. Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Deva Priya

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The initial interaction between the dentist and the patient can reveal the presence of anxiety, fear, and phobia. In such situations, subjective evaluation by interviews and self-reporting on fear and anxiety scales and objective assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, finger temperature, and galvanic skin response can greatly enhance the diagnosis and enable categorization of these individuals as mildly, moderately, or highly anxious or dental phobics. Broadly, dental anxiety can be managed by psychotherapeutic interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, depending on the level of dental anxiety, patient characteristics, and clinical situations. Psychotherapeutic interventions are either behaviorally or cognitively oriented. Pharmacologically, these patients can be managed using either sedation or general anesthesia. Behavior-modification therapies aim to change unacceptable behaviors through learning, and involve muscle relaxation and relaxation breathing, along with guided imagery and physiological monitoring using biofeedback, hypnosis, acupuncture, distraction, positive reinforcement, stop-signaling, and exposure-based treatments, such as systematic desensitization, "tell-show-do", and modeling. Cognitive strategies aim to alter and restructure the content of negative cognitions and enhance control over the negative thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy, and is currently the most accepted and successful psychological treatment for anxiety and phobia. In certain situations, where the patient is not able

  19. Child friendly colors in a pediatric dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Umamaheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The child′s perception of the dental environment is a significant factor causing dental anxiety. If the color of the dental environment can have a positive impact on the child′s behavior, it is possible that those colors may add to the comfort of a child, thus reducing dental anxiety. Aim: To evaluate the association between color and emotions of children in a pediatric dental set-up. Design: A total of 300 children aged 6-12 years were divided into 2 groups: Younger children (6-9 years, n = 156 and older children (9-12 years, n = 144. All the children were asked to shade two cartoon faces representing happiness and fear with their most preferred color. Results: For the positive emotion, 44% (n = 132 of the children preferred yellow, followed by blue 32.67% (n = 98. For negative emotion, 56.67% (n = 170 of the children preferred black and 42.67% (n = 128 preferred red. Association between color and emotion was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study has attempted to advance the area of color research to dental anxiety in children visiting a dental clinic. The use of child friendly colors like yellow and blue in the dental work place could enhance a positive dental attitude in the child′s mind.

  20. Skin conductance, Marlowe-Crowne defensiveness, and dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, C; Schuurs, A H; Hoogstraten, J

    1994-08-01

    The present study assesses the relationship between self-reported dental anxiety (Dental Anxiety Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale, and Duration of Psychophysiological Fear Reactions), electrodermal activity (skin-conductance level and frequency of spontaneous responses), and Marlowe-Crowne defensiveness. All measurements were made twice. The first session was scheduled immediately before a semi-annual dental check-up (stress condition), and baseline measurements were made two months later without the prospect of a dental appointment. Subjects were male dental patients who regularly attended a university dental clinic and a clinic for Special Dental Care. The main findings were that the low anxious-high defensive-scoring (Marlowe-Crowne Denial subscale) university patients showed significantly higher skin-conductance levels and frequency of nonspecific fluctuations than the low anxious-low defensive-scoring subjects. Besides, the conductance values of the low anxious-high defensive-scoring subjects resembled those of the high anxious-low defensive-scoring patients of the clinic for Special Dental Care, the baseline frequency of nonspecific fluctuations excepted. PMID:7808902

  1. Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fea...

  2. Utilidad de la radiografía panorámica dental digital en la estimación de la edad en adultos Usefulness of dental digital panoramic radiography in the estimation of age in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Landa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de la edad constituye un campo de creciente interés dentro de la Medicina Forense. La cuantificación de la reducción de las dimensiones de la cavidad pulpar como consecuencia del proceso de depósito de la dentina secundaria a lo largo de la vida podría servir como un posible indicador de edad. Este fenómeno además de mediante técnicas morfológicas, puede ser analizado mediante la utilización de diferentes técnicas radiográficas. El objetivo principal de este estudio consistió en evaluar la reproducibilidad del método original de cálculo de edad dental desarrollado por Kvaal et al. sobre radiografías panorámicas digitales dentales así como analizar la aplicación de las fórmulas de estimación de edad dental propuestas. Fueron seleccionadas al azar 100 ortopantomografías digitales obtenidas de pacientes de una clínica de Bilbao de edades comprendidas entre 14 y 60 años. En cada ortopantomografía fueron estudiados tres dientes mandibulares siguiendo la metodología ya descrita. Los resultados obtenidos no confirmaron la reproducibilidad del método desarrollado por Kvaal et al. sobre radiografía digital directa. Los valores tan extremos obtenidos en la estimación de la edad mediante la aplicación de las fórmulas de regresión analizadas sobre las radiografías digitales de esta serie de estudio desaconsejan su aplicación en poblaciones similares a la serie analizada.Estimation of age in individuals has received considerable attention in the forensic literature. The reduction of size of dental pulp cavity as a result of secondary dentin deposit with increasing age could be used as an indicator of age. This regression change, apart from morphological techniques, can also be analysed by radiological techniques. The aim of this work was to evaluate the reproducibility of the original method of Kvaal et al. on digital panoramic radiographs as well as to analyse the application of age estimation formulae

  3. Visibility of dental pulp spaces in dental ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopinski, K T; Regulski, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of dental ultrasound with conventional sonographic equipment. The teeth of three adult volunteers who had cone beam CT examinations performed previously with clinical indications and one extracted tooth were examined using linear and compact (hockey stick) sonographic probes. The sonographic images were compared with cone beam CT images reconstructed accordingly. Dental pulp spaces were demonstrated in all teeth not covered with prosthetic crowns. The dentin and pulp were best visualized at the level of the neck of the teeth. The dentin was hypoechoic, and the superficial layer comprising the cementum and the pulp spaces were hyperechoic. Dental ultrasound is feasible with general purpose sonographic machines. The buccal surfaces of all teeth are accessible with a compact (hockey stick) probe. Visualization and differentiation of dental pulp spaces, dentin and the superficial layer comprising cementum is possible in the portions of teeth not covered by the alveolar bone or prosthetic crowns. The dental pulp spaces are best seen at the level of the tooth neck. Pulp and endodontic fillings can be distinguished on ultrasound. PMID:24170803

  4. American Dental Education Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Holistic Review Dental Care Workforce Issues Financing Dental Education Sex-based Health Differences Access, Diversity and Inclusion ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education What is ADEA CCI? ADEA CCI Campus Liaisons ...

  5. And My Mama Said...: The (Relative) Parental Influence on Fear of Crime among Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groof, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to examine the predictors of fear of crime among adults, but feelings of insecurity among children and adolescents have been practically ignored. The aim of this study is to search for relevant determinants of fear of crime in a representative sample of 1,212 Flemish (Belgian) adolescents, age 14 to 18, and one of…

  6. Dental Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  7. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  8. Health protection: Fluoridation and dental health.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Tooth decay, which affects 95 percent of Americans, is our most common health problem, costing an estimated +2 billion yearly for treatment. By the time children reach 17 years of age, 94 percent have experienced caries and 36 percent have lost one or more permanent teeth due to caries. Dental disease prevention embodies the spectrum of many activities from the fluoridation of community and school water supplies to the dental health education of the child and adult. At this stage of our knowl...

  9. Increasing access to dental care for medicaid preschool children: the Access to Baby and Child Dentistry (ABCD) program.

    OpenAIRE

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Washington State's Access to Baby and Child Dent stry (ABCD) Program, first implemented in Spokane County in 1995, offers extended dental benefits to participating Medicaid-enrolled children and higher fees for certified providers. This study aimed to determine the program's effect on children's dental utilization and dental fear, and on parent satisfaction and knowledge. METHODS: The study used a posttest-only comparison group design. Trained interviewers conducted telephone inter...

  10. Amygdala volume predicts inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli. PMID:24009767

  11. Amygdala volume predicts inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli.

  12. Dental anxiety and dental attendance among 25-year-olds in Norway: time trends from 1997 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skaret Erik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, there are few studies considering the development of dental anxiety and dental attendance patterns across time in the general population of Norwegian adults. This study aimed to 1 determine the frequency of dental anxiety and regular dental attendance among 25-year-olds in Norway in 1997 and 2007, 2 to study the development (time trend of dental anxiety and the socio-behavioral distribution of dental anxiety from 1997 to 2007. Method Random samples of 1,190 and 8,000 25-yr-olds were drawn from the populations of three counties in Western Norway in 1997 and 2007, respectively. The eligible participants received questionnaires by mail including questions on socio-demographics, dental anxiety (DAS and dental attendance. Results In 1997, 11.5% males versus 23% females reported high dental anxiety (DAS ≥ 13. Corresponding figures in 2007 were 11.3% and 19.8%. The proportions who had attended yearly for a dental check-up during the past 5 years fell from 62% in 1997 (men 56.9% and women 66.4% to 44.6% (men 38.1% and women 48.6% in 2007. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the 25-year-olds were 1.4 times more likely to report dental anxiety in 1997 compared to 2007. The decrease was largely attributable to a lower mean DAS score among higher educated females in 2007 than in 1997. The discrepancy in dental anxiety between regular and non-regular dental attendees had decreased, largely attributable to a decline in dental anxiety among irregular dental attendees. Conclusion The study showed reduced dental anxiety and dental attendance among 25 year-olds in Norway from 1997 to 2007. This study points to the importance of controlling for possible changes in socio-demographic distributions when different cohorts are compared.

  13. Finding Dental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research ...

  14. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research ...

  15. Memory-emotional interactions as revealed by fear generalization in animal-fearful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Schlimm, Mike; Hermann, Christiane

    2005-06-01

    Discriminative fear learning and fear generalization were examined in animal-fearful individuals and in control participants. Electrical shocks were administered contingent upon discriminative pictures of spiders or snakes, respectively, in a generalization-after-discrimination paradigm. Neither discriminative fear learning nor extinction was affected by the individual fear status of the animal categories. Novel feared stimuli, which resembled discriminative stimuli, were treated as more shock predictive than novel non-feared stimuli during generalization testing. Neither preparedness theory nor selective sensitization theory was capable to account for these observations. The findings are commensurable with the hypothesis that phobic fear interferes with the retrieval of memory traces. PMID:15814082

  16. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M; Lönnqvist, J K

    1994-01-01

    other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls for......Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger and...... recognition of depression and differentiation of the origin and content of fear....

  17. Referrals for dental care during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloetzel, Megan K; Huebner, Colleen E; Milgrom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Oral health is essential to overall health in the prenatal period. Pregnancy is not a time to delay dental care. Several studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and poor pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth. Interventions to provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women yield inconsistent results regarding preterm birth but have established the safety of periodontal therapy during pregnancy. Postpartum women in poor dental health readily transmit the tooth decay pathogen Streptococcus mutans from their saliva to their infants, resulting in increased risk of early childhood caries. Preventive services and treatment for acute problems should be recommended, fears allayed, and women referred. Dental radiographs may be performed safely with the use of appropriate shielding. Nonemergent interventions are best provided between 14 and 20 weeks' gestation for comfort and optimal fetal safety. Most gravid women do not seek dental care. Increased interprofessional communication to encourage dentists to treat pregnant women will reduce the number of women without care. In states where it is available, Medicaid coverage of dental services for pregnant women is typically allowed during pregnancy and for 2 months postpartum. Women's health providers should understand the importance of protecting oral health during pregnancy and educate their patients accordingly. PMID:21429074

  18. Neonatal Odor-Shock Conditioning Alters the Neural Network Involved in Odor Fear Learning at Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Sullivan, Regina M.; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Adult learning and memory functions are strongly dependent on neonatal experiences. We recently showed that neonatal odor-shock learning attenuates later life odor fear conditioning and amygdala activity. In the present work we investigated whether changes observed in adults can also be observed in other structures normally involved, namely…

  19. Memory Retrieval before or after Extinction Reduces Recovery of Fear in Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D.; McNally, Gavan P.; Richardson, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit impaired extinction retention compared to pre-adolescent and adult rats. A single nonreinforced exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS; a retrieval trial) given shortly before extinction has been shown in some circumstances to reduce the recovery of fear after extinction in adult animals. This study investigated whether a…

  20. Fear experience reading: women reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant, the fears experienced by women in the process of constructing themselves as such are also constant. She concludes that the only course to follow is necessarily a way where feminine consciousness must be integrated, both in men and women, as a previous step in the construction of a reality based on equals, though, at the same time, different. This would allow us to discover the masculine and feminine dimension in all of us.

  1. Dental demographics and metrics of oral diseases in the ageing Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, M S

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the dental profession in Australia is the provision of quality and timely dental care to the elderly. Adults aged 65+ years are an exponentially growing section of the community with rapidly changing dental needs, thanks in part to improvements in oral health over the past 60 years that have resulted in a dramatically decreased rate of edentulism and subsequently an increased number of teeth present. This is a challenge not only for the public dental services, but also public health policy makers, private dental practitioners, professional organizations and dental education providers. It is an issue that crosses a range of dental care providers, not only dentists but also dental prosthetists and dental hygienists, whose role in the provision of dental services has been slowly growing in Australia. Furthermore, with evidence of links between oral and systemic health, this issue has significant impacts for the broader health system. PMID:25762037

  2. Overuse of non-prescription analgesics by dental clinic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zallen Richard D; Bogdan Gregory M; Dart Richard C; Ries Nicole L; Heard Kennon J; Daly Frank

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Many patients present to dental clinics for treatment of painful conditions. Prior to seeking treatment, many of these patients will self-medicate with non-prescription analgesics (NPA), and some will unintentionally overdose on these products. The objective of this study is to describe the use of NPA among dental patients. Methods All adult patients presenting to an urban dental clinic during a two-week period in January and February of 2001 were approached to participate...

  3. Fear experience reading: women reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant,...

  4. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2013-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 h prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 h after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22796109

  5. Fear Not: Neurobiological Mechanisms of Fear and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Fear is a common, core emotion. Moreover, anxiety disorders are among the most common form of psychiatric disease. In this thesis neuroimaging, genetic, pharmacological, brain stimulation and behavioral techniques were used in healthy subjects and specific patient populations to shed more light on t

  6. Elites and Panic: More to Fear than Fear Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lee; Chess, Caron

    2008-01-01

    Attributions of panic are almost exclusively directed at members of the general public. Here, we inquire into the relationships between elites and panic. We review current research and theorizing about panic, including problems of identifying when it has occurred. We propose three relationships: elites fearing panic, elites causing panic and…

  7. Fear of blushing : fearful preoccupation irrespective of facial coloration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulkens, S; de Jong, Peter; Dobbelaar, A; Bogels, SM

    1999-01-01

    Women, with high (n = 29) and low (n = 28) fear of blushing, were exposed to a mild social stressor (watching a television test card in the presence of two male confederates) and to an intense social stressor (watching their own prerecorded 'sing' video, in the presence of two male confederates). Fa

  8. Pediatric dental chair vs. traditional dental chair: A pediatric dentist′s poll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Barjatya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper positioning of the child patient, can not only have positive ramifications for the operator′s posture, comfort, and career longevity - it can also lead to better treatment and increased productivity. The aim of the survey questionnaire was to assess the utilization, need, and attitude concerning dental chairs among pediatric dentist while working on and managing the child patient. Study Design: The questions were structured using adobe forms central online software, regarding the user-friendliness of pediatric dental chair vs. traditional adult dental chair available in the market. Results: Our result shows that out of 337 respondents, 79% worked on pediatric dental chair, whereas 21% had no experience of it. Of these 79% pediatric dentist, 48% preferred pediatric dental chair. But pediatric dental problem still has certain disadvantages like higher cost, leg space problem, lower availability, etc. Conclusion: During the research it was found that ergonomics and usability issues were the main problems. Thus, pediatric dental chair is not so popular in the current scenario. This study allowed for general ideas for the improvement of dental chairs and thus improved dental chair would fill the gap in the current scenario.

  9. Fear conditioning and extinction across development: Evidence from human studies and animal models☆

    OpenAIRE

    Shechner, Tomer; Hong, Melanie; Britton, Jennifer C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to differentiate danger and safety through associative processes emerges early in life. Understanding the mechanisms underlying associative learning of threat and safety can clarify the processes that shape development of normative fears and pathological anxiety. Considerable research has used fear conditioning and extinction paradigms to delineate underlying mechanisms in animals and human adults; however, little is known about these mechanisms in children and adolescents. The cu...

  10. Fear of crime in the capital cities of the former Yugoslav Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the fear of crime has been the subject of intensive study carried out by criminologists and sociologists in other countries for more than four decades, domestic theoretical and empirical examination of this complex phenomenon is almost nonexistent. The main objectives of this study are determining the prevalence and possible differences in the fear of crime among the residents of major cities of the former Yugoslav republics. The analysis uses data collected as part of the regional research project “The Fear of Crime in Large Cities“. The method of interviewing in households using a specially created questionnaire is applied on a multi-stage random sample of 1977 adult respondents living in urban areas of the cities. By choosing the appropriate questionnaire items, three scales to measure affective, cognitive and behavioral dimensions of the fear of crime and a unified scale of the general construct were made for the purpose of this study. All scales have high internal consistency reliability. The results show that a significant percentage of people who exhibit a high level of the fear of crime are present in all cities, regardless of the size of the dimension tested. Higher prevalence of the fear of crime is determined by measuring the extent of affective and up to a point behavioral dimension, while the prevalence of fear of crime is slightly lower on the level of the cognitive dimension. Statistically significant differences in the level of fear of crime among residents of cities studied are identified on all scales.

  11. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  12. CAMBRA: An Examination of Change in the Dental Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease process, one that will not be eliminated by tooth repair alone. Caries is the most prevalent disease of children and the primary reason for most restorative dental visits in both adults and children. A risk-based approach to managing caries targets those in greatest jeopardy for contracting the disease and provides…

  13. Fear at the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLOTTE; SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    "i’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace: She has a morbid fear of—well, everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights, heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  14. Fear at the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLOTTE SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    “I’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace:She has a morbid fear of-well,everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights,heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  15. Different Mechanisms of Fear Extinction Dependent on Length of Time since Fear Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael; Myers, Karyn M.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2006-01-01

    Fear extinction is defined as a decline in conditioned fear responses (CRs) following nonreinforced exposure to a feared conditioned stimulus (CS). Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction is a form of inhibitory learning: Extinguished fear responses reappear with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), a shift of context (renewal), and…

  16. When the mind forms fear: embodied fear knowledge potentiates bodily reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Oosterwijk; M. Topper; M. Rotteveel; A.H. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors tested whether conceptual fear knowledge can (a) evoke bodily reactions and (b) enhance subsequent bodily reactions to fearful stimuli. Participants unscrambled neutral or fear sentences and subsequently viewed fearful and neutral pictures in combination with startl

  17. Evaluation of physiological and behavioral measures in relation to dental anxiety during sequential dental visits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a special variety of fear, experienced in anticipation of threatening stimuli. While some research workers have said that the response of a child improves with the number of visits, many have felt otherwise. The present study is yet another effort to find the patterns of anxiety in children during sequential dental visits. The main aim was to determine the physiological and behavioral variations during sequential dental visits and its impact on age and sex. The study was conducted at the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai to evaluate the physiological and behavioural measures of stress and anxiety in children. One hundred and fifteen children, between four and eleven years of age who reported for dental treatment were selected for the study.

  18. Fears of American Children Following Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Two months after 9/11, the fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 were examined utilizing the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents (FSSC-AM). Fear intensity scores and age and gender differences are reported. Terrorist-related content on the FSSC-AM (e.g., terrorist attacks, our country being invading by enemies)…

  19. Placing prediction into the fear circuit

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, Gavan P.; Johansen, Joshua P.; Blair, Hugh T.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning depends on synaptic plasticity at amygdala neurons. Here we review recent electrophysiological, molecular, and behavioral evidence suggesting the existence of a distributed neural circuitry regulating amygdala synaptic plasticity during fear learning. This circuitry, which involves projections from the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region, can be linked to prediction error and expectation modulation of fear learning as described by associative and computationa...

  20. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  1. Dental Implant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiki Oshida; Tuna, Elif B.; Oya Aktören; Koray Gençay

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with...

  2. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proper amount of fluoride helps prevent and control tooth decay in children and adults. Fluoride works both while ... more sources of fluoride became available to prevent tooth decay. These sources include drinking water with fluoride, fluoride ...

  3. A window of vulnerability: impaired fear extinction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D; Den, Miriam L; Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2014-09-01

    There have been significant advances made towards understanding the processes mediating extinction of learned fear. However, despite being of clear theoretical and clinical significance, very few studies have examined fear extinction in adolescence, which is often described as a developmental window of vulnerability to psychological disorders. This paper reviews the relatively small body of research examining fear extinction in adolescence. A prominent finding of this work is that adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction relative to both younger (e.g., juvenile) and older (e.g., adult) groups. We then review some potential mechanisms that could produce the striking extinction deficit observed in adolescence. For example, one neurobiological candidate mechanism for impaired extinction in adolescence involves changes in the functional connectivity within the fear extinction circuit, particularly between prefrontal cortical regions and the amygdala. In addition, we review research on emotion regulation and attention processes that suggests that developmental changes in attention bias to threatening cues may be a cognitive mechanism that mediates age-related differences in extinction learning. We also examine how a differential reaction to chronic stress in adolescence impacts upon extinction retention during adolescence as well as in later life. Finally, we consider the findings of several studies illustrating promising approaches that overcome the typically-observed extinction impairments in adolescent rodents and that could be translated to human adolescents. PMID:24513634

  4. Recognizing Student Fear: The Elephant in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…

  5. Influence of deciduous canine extractions on incisor alignment, dental arch dimensions and dental fear

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Interception of crowding, by extraction of deciduous and permanent teeth, to eliminate or at least facilitate orthodontic treatment has a long tradition. This treatment procedure, know as “guided eruption” or “serial extraction” was re-introduced by Robert Hotz and Birger Kjellgren in 1947-48. The sequential extraction procedure begins with the removal of the deciduous canines in the early mixed dentition and additional extractions of deciduous first molars and permanent bicusp...

  6. Worrying Affects Associative Fear Learning: A Startle Fear Conditioning Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gazendam, F.J.; Kindt, M

    2012-01-01

    A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS) and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS). Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve from a traumatic experience. Insights from neuroscience show that memory can be modified post-learning, which may elucidate how pathological fear can develop after relatively mild aversive events. W...

  7. Ramadan fasting and dental treatment considerations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeesta, Khaleelahmed Bhavikatti; Prabhuji, M Lv; Shruthi, J R

    2015-01-01

    During the sacred month of Ramadan, Muslims abstain from the consumption of food from dawn until dusk. Extended fasting hours produce changes in the body's metabolism during this period. A majority of the population who fast also restrict themselves from undergoing dental treatments due to a fear of breaking the fast. Even among health professionals, a certain amount of uncertainty prevails about the implications of treating a patient who is fasting. To help clinicians carry out safe and effective treatment without hampering a patient's religious beliefs, the present article focuses on the effect of Ramadan fasting on the body's metabolism and the ramifications for treatment aspects, including medications and dental procedures. PMID:26147170

  8. Current Concepts of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Dental Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini-zadeh, Mehran

    2016-04-01

    Despite numerous guidelines, joint interprofessional collaboration, and years of data collection, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures remains controversial. There continues to be disagreement on indications, justification, and outcome of the use of various antibiotic prophylaxis regiments. This is complicated by the lack of data demonstrating any positive or negative impact on the care of patients. The dental community has distanced itself from a leadership role in this conversation, based on multiple concerns including fear of litigation, lack of clear pathophysiology, and unclear cause-effect relationship. PMID:27040296

  9. A study of patient attitudes towards fasting prior to intravenous sedation for dental treatment in a dental hospital department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous sedation is the most commonly used method of sedation for the provision of adult dental care. However, disparity exists in pre-operative fasting times in use for patients throughout the United Kingdom.

  10. Tracheobronchial Foreign Body Aspiration: Dental Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataman Köse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to extract foreign bodies for avoiding life-threatening complications. They can lead to death if they are not treated. Different signs and symptoms could occur according to the complete or partial airway obstruction. Foreign body aspiration is a rare incident in adults. The organic foreign materials such as foods are found to be aspirated more commonly and are usually settled in the right bronchial system. However, dental prosthesis and teeth aspirations are rare in literature. In our study, a 52-year-old male patient who had aspirated the front part of his lower dental prosthesis accidentally is presented and the foreign body is extracted by using rigid bronchoscopy. There are many causes of aspiration but dental prosthetic aspirations should be kept in mind during sleep. For this reason, dental apparatus must be taken out while asleep.

  11. Mercury derived from dental amalgams and neuropsychologic function.

    OpenAIRE

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Hasselgren, Gunnar; Jacobs, Diane; Begg, Melissa; Kline, Jennie; Geier, Jamie; MERVISH, NANCY; Schoenholtz, Sonia; Graziano, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    There is widespread concern regarding the safety of silver-mercury amalgam dental restorations, yet little evidence to support their harm or safety. We examined whether mercury dental amalgams are adversely associated with cognitive functioning in a cross-sectional sample of healthy working adults. We studied 550 adults, 30-49 years of age, who were not occupationally exposed to mercury. Participants were representative of employees at a major urban medical center. Each participant underwent ...

  12. The bioarchaeology of the neolitic transition: evidence of dental pathologies at Lepenski Vir (Serbia):

    OpenAIRE

    Radović, Marija; Stefanović, Sofija

    2013-01-01

    The Neolithic transition affected human biology, which is visible as a series of inter- related skeletal and dental pathological conditions. The population of Lepenski vir culture, which inhabited the region of the Danube Gorges between 95005500 BC, also went through the neolithisa- tion process. In this study, the dental pathological conditions of 32 adult individuals from the Lepenski Vir site were examined for the incidence of enamel hypoplasia, the rate of dental wear, dental caries and a...

  13. COMMUNITY DENTAL HEALTH SURVEY TRAINING TO DENTAL HEALTH PERSONNEL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Ita Yulita

    2015-01-01

    Dentist and dental nurse as dental health personnel in community health center are spearheads in community dental health service. The effectiveness and efficacy of community dental health service needs updated adequate dental health knowledge and skill. One effort to assure the fulfillment of those needs is by providing community dental health survey training. This training aims at improving the skill and capability of dental health personnel to conduct dental health survey. The training cons...

  14. Dental caries in young male adults: prevalence, severity and associated factors Cárie dentária em homens jovens: prevalência, severidade e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as the needs for dental treatment in 18-year-old males from Maringá, PR, Brazil. The association of dental caries experience with socioeconomic variables was also tested. A cross sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 241 conscripts of the Brazilian Army. The adopted diagnosis criteria were those proposed by the World Health Organization. A socioeconomic questionnaire was utilized to determine family income and the criterion of the Brazil Economic Classification of the National Association of Research Enterprises. Associations among caries prevalence, DMF-T index, treatment needs and socioeconomic variables were evaluated by means of the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Caries prevalence was 82.6% and the mean DMF-T index was 4.6. Only a mean of 0.8 tooth per individual presented treatment needs. Significant statistical differences were found in caries prevalence and severity (DMF-T. The worst results were observed in the groups of lower income and purchasing power, indicating a need for the implementation of social policies that address these populations aiming at diminishing the existing differences in the health-disease process indicators. On the other hand, treatment needs were only associated to the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion variable (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária, bem como as necessidades de tratamento odontológico de jovens de 18 anos de idade do sexo masculino em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. A associação da experiência de cárie com variáveis socioeconômicas também foi testada. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em uma amostra aleatória de conscritos (n = 241 do Exército Brasileiro. Os critérios de diagnóstico adotados foram aqueles estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram utilizados um question

  15. Enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in spider-fearful individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eMosig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP. The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.

  16. Factors influencing the use of public dental services: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Liana; Spencer, A John

    2008-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence of the influence of psychosocial factors and health beliefs on public dental patient's patterns of service use in Australia. The research aims were to examine associations between dental attitudes and beliefs of public dental service users and dental visiting intention and behaviour using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Methods 517 randomly selected adult public dental patients completed a questionnaire assessing dental attitudes and beliefs which was matched with electronic records for past and future dental service use. A questionnaire measured intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceptions of behavioural control and self-efficacy in relation to visiting public dentists. A measure of dental attendance at public dental clinics was obtained retrospectively (over 3 1/2 years) and prospectively (over a one year period following the return of the questionnaire) by accessing electronic patient clinical records. Results Participants had positive attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy beliefs towards dental visiting but perceived a lack of control over visiting the dentist. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and perceived control were significant predictors of intention (P < 0.05). Intentions, self-efficacy and past dental attendance were significant predictors of actual dental attendance (P < 0.05). Conclusion Public dental patients held favourable attitudes and beliefs but perceived a lack of control towards dental visiting. Reducing structural barriers may therefore improve access to public dental services. PMID:18445298

  17. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Den Haan, Wouter; Rendahl, Pontus; Riegler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features – in isolation – dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise in money demand has important consequences. The desire to hold money puts deflationar...

  18. Unemployment (fears) and deflationary spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Den Haan, Wouter J; Rendah, Pontus; Riegler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features ??? in isolation ??? dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise in money demand has important consequences. The desire to hold money puts deflati...

  19. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Den Haan; Pontus Rendahl; Markus Riegler

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features - in isolation - dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise ...

  20. Trace Fear Conditioning in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment we present a technique to measure learning and memory. In the trace fear conditioning protocol presented here there are five pairings between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. There is a 20 sec trace period that separates each conditioning trial. On the following day freezing is measured during presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and trace period. On the third day there is an 8 min test to measure contextual memory. The representative results are f...

  1. DENTAL EROZYON-Dental Erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, Elif; DEMİRBAŞ KAYA, Ayşegül

    2013-01-01

    özErozyon mine ya da dentinde intrinsik/ekstrinsik asit alımında meydana gelen parsiyel deminera-lizasyon olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Diş yüzeyindeki mekanik aşınmaların (abrazyon ve atrizyon) kom-binasyonuyla artan erozyonun etkisiyle birlikte, eroziv diş aşınması hızlandırılmış bir sert doku kaybı haline gelmektedir. Dental erozyon multifaktöriyel bir doku kaybıdır. Kimyasal, biyolojik ve davranışsal faktörlerin karşılıklı etkilenmesi erozyonun başlamasında kritik noktayı oluşturmaktadır. Bu d...

  2. Neural correlates of the mother-to-infant social transmission of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Da-Jeong; Debiec, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Although clinical and basic studies show that parental trauma, fear, and anxiety may be transmitted to offspring, the neurobiology of this transmission is still not well understood. We recently demonstrated in an animal model that infant rats acquire threat responses to a distinct cue when a mother expresses fear to this cue in their presence. This ability to acquire maternal fear through social learning is present at birth and, as we previously reported, depends on the pup's amygdala. However, the remaining neural mechanisms underlying social fear learning (SFL) in infancy remain elusive. Here, by using [(14) C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, we show that the mother-to-infant transmission of fear in preweaning rats is associated with a significant increase of activity in the subregions of the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, retrosplenial cortex, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, medial and the lateral preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the lateral periaqueductal gray. In contrast to studies of adult SFL demonstrating the role of the anterior cingulate cortex and possibly the insular cortex or research of infant classical fear conditioning showing the role of the posterior piriform cortex, no changes of activation in these areas were observed. Our results indicate that the pup's exposure to maternal fear activates a number of areas involved in processing threat, stress, or pain. This pattern of activation suggests a unique set of neural mechanisms underlying SFL in the developing brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27091313

  3. Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukuttan DP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deva Priya Appukuttan Department of Periodontics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The initial interaction between the dentist and the patient can reveal the presence of anxiety, fear, and phobia. In such situations, subjective evaluation by interviews and self-reporting on fear and anxiety scales and objective assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, finger temperature, and galvanic skin response can greatly enhance the diagnosis and enable categorization of these individuals as mildly, moderately, or highly anxious or dental phobics. Broadly, dental anxiety can be managed by psychotherapeutic interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, depending on the level of dental anxiety, patient characteristics, and clinical situations. Psychotherapeutic interventions are either behaviorally or cognitively oriented. Pharmacologically, these patients can be managed using either sedation or general anesthesia. Behavior-modification therapies aim to change unacceptable behaviors through learning, and involve muscle relaxation and relaxation breathing, along with guided imagery and physiological monitoring using biofeedback, hypnosis, acupuncture, distraction, positive reinforcement, stop-signaling, and exposure-based treatments, such as systematic desensitization, “tell-show-do”, and modeling. Cognitive strategies aim to alter and restructure the content of negative cognitions and enhance control over the negative thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy

  4. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  5. Determining the focus of driving fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J E; Deane, F P; Podd, J V

    2000-01-01

    Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. Studies on flying phobia have drawn similar conclusions, although increasing clarity has been gained through research that indicates that there may be subtypes of flying phobia based on the focus of fear. However, it is unclear if similar subtypes exist for fear of driving. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of driving fear subtypes and to clarify further whether there were differences between driving-fearful respondents who had been in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and those who had not. Eighty-five driving-fearful, media-recruited respondents completed a questionnaire that assessed anxiety, avoidance, and concerns related to their driving fears. The sample had high expectations of negative events while driving. There were no significant differences between those who had experienced an MVA and those who had not on various measures of fear severity. Cluster analysis revealed two main foci of fear, one characterized by danger expectancies and the other based on anxiety expectancies and unpleasant driving situations. This emphasizes the importance of assessing both internal and external foci of fear. Although this finding is consistent with the results obtained for flying phobia, more research is required to replicate and extend these results and to develop and evaluate differential treatment programs. PMID:11095540

  6. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  7. The demand for preventive and restorative dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoefer, Chad D; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Manski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tooth decay is the most common chronic condition in the United States among children ages 5-17 and also affects a large percentage of adults. Oral health conditions are preventable, but less than half of the US population uses dental services annually. We seek to examine the extent to which limited dental coverage and high out-of-pocket costs reduce dental service use by the nonelderly privately insured and uninsured. Using data from the 2001-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and an American Dental Association survey of dental procedure prices, we jointly estimate the probability of using preventive and both basic and major restorative services through a correlated random effects specification that controls for endogeneity. We found that dental coverage increased the probability of preventive care use by 19% and the use of restorative services 11% to 16%. Both conditional and unconditional on dental coverage, the use of dental services was not sensitive to out-of-pocket costs. We conclude that dental coverage is an important determinant of preventive dental service use, but other nonprice factors related to consumer preferences, especially education, are equal if not stronger determinants. PMID:23349123

  8. Fear information and the development of fears during childhood: effects on implicit fear responses and behavioural avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Field, A. P.; Lawson, J

    2003-01-01

    Field, Argyris and Knowles (Behav Res Ther 39 (2001) 1259), and Field, Hamilton, Knowles and Plews (Behav Res Thera 41 (2003) 113) have developed a prospective paradigm for testing Rachman’s (Behav Res Ther 15 (1977) 375) proposition that fear information is important in the development of fears and phobias in children. Despite this paradigm being an advance on retrospective reports, the research so far has been restricted to self-reported fear beliefs measured after the information is given....

  9. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  10. Dental Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for emergency dental care. Open communication with the dentist can reduce the risk of complications during dental ... usually done in a reclining position. Let your dentist know if you are so far back that ...

  11. Fatigue of dental ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; lawn, brian

    2013-01-01

    Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics

  12. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some are: Bitewing Periapical Palatal (also called occlusal) ...

  13. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ...

  14. Dental caries vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Vidya S; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from c...

  15. Biocompatibility of Dental Amalgams

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Uçar; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words “dental amalgam” and “toxicity” were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on ...

  16. Stress Among Dental Students

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahem, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Dental students are facing many stressors in dental education, causing many negative outcomes. The most common are the exams and the clinical requirements. We suggest exposing the dental students to patient care as early as possible in their curriculum. This can help to balance stress across the different years of the curriculum, and maybe reduce the stress levels in the later years of the curriculum. A study into the new Dental Education Stress Management (DESM) prog...

  17. Accessibility to dental services

    OpenAIRE

    Evenden, Craig Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background: Access to dental care has become a key focus for Government officials in Scotland. Newton et al. (2004) note that the White Paper ‘Towards a healthier Scotland’ (The Scottish Office Department of Health, 1999), identifies dental health as a key area for action, with large numbers of the population unable to gain access to dental care. Various methodologies have been developed in an attempt to explore the inequalities in dental health care access; however a number of studies have ...

  18. Dental records: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Charangowda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental records consist of documents related to the history of present illness, clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment done, and the prognosis. A thorough knowledge of dental records is essential for the practicing dentist, as it not only has a forensic application, but also a legal implication with respect to insurance and consumerism. This article reviews the importance of dental records in forensics.

  19. Stress Among Dental Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Alzahem (Abdullah)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Dental students are facing many stressors in dental education, causing many negative outcomes. The most common are the exams and the clinical requirements. We suggest exposing the dental students to patient care as early as possible in their curriculum. This can help to bal

  20. Dental records: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Charangowda, B K

    2010-01-01

    Dental records consist of documents related to the history of present illness, clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment done, and the prognosis. A thorough knowledge of dental records is essential for the practicing dentist, as it not only has a forensic application, but also a legal implication with respect to insurance and consumerism. This article reviews the importance of dental records in forensics.

  1. Mice lacking the PSD-95–interacting E3 ligase, Dorfin/Rnf19a, display reduced adult neurogenesis, enhanced long-term potentiation, and impaired contextual fear conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanwool Park; Jinhee Yang; Ryunhee Kim; Yan Li; Yeunkum Lee; Chungwoo Lee; Jongil Park; Dongmin Lee; Hyun Kim; Eunjoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination has a significant influence on diverse aspects of neuronal development and function. Dorfin, also known as Rnf19a, is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, but its in vivo functions have not been explored. We report here that Dorfin is a novel binding partner of the excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95. Dorfin-mutant (Dorfin −/−) mice show reduced adult neurogenesis and enhanced long-term pot...

  2. Ansiedade ao tratamento odontológico em atendimento de urgência Dental anxiety in an emergency dental service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Kanegane

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de pacientes com ansiedade ou medo do tratamento odontológico em um setor de urgência. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 252 pacientes, com 18 anos ou mais, que compareceram ao setor de urgência de uma faculdade de odontologia, de São Paulo, SP, entre agosto e novembro de 2001. Para avaliar a ansiedade, foram utilizadas a Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS, e a Escala de Medo de Gatchel. O grupo estudado respondeu a questões sobre: tempo decorrido desde a última visita ao dentista e desde o início dos sintomas, escolaridade, renda familiar e história prévia de trauma. Os resultados foram analisados pelos testes estatísticos (chi2 e Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 28,2% de indivíduos com algum grau de ansiedade, segundo a MDAS, na qual as mulheres foram consideradas mais ansiosas que os homens (chi2=0,01; e 14,3% de pacientes com alto grau de medo segundo a Escala de Medo de Gatchel. Em 44,4% da amostra a demora para procura de alívio dos sintomas foi > sete dias. Mulheres ansiosas procuraram atendimento mais rapidamente e em maior número. Experiência traumática anterior ocorreu em 46,5% dos pacientes ansiosos. Não foi possível relacionar escolaridade e renda familiar com ansiedade e/ou medo. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes ansiosos, com destaque para as mulheres, são freqüentes no atendimento odontológico de urgência. Experiência prévia traumática mostrou-se importante para o desenvolvimento da ansiedade em relação ao atendimento odontológico.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the frequency of dental anxiety and/or fear among patients in an emergency dental service. METHODS: Research was based on interviews with 252 patients, aged 18 years old and over, attended at an emergency dentistry service of São Paulo, Brazil, from August to November, 2001. Two methods were used to measure dental anxiety: the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS and the Gatchel Fear

  3. Modeling fear-conditioned bradycardia in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Castegnetti, G.; Tzovara, A.; Staib, M.; Paulus, P. C.; Hofer, N.; Bach, D R

    2016-01-01

    Across species, cued fear conditioning is a common experimental paradigm to investigate aversive Pavlovian learning. While fear-conditioned stimuli (CS+) elicit overt behavior in many mammals, this is not the case in humans. Typically, autonomic nervous system activity is used to quantify fear memory in humans, measured by skin conductance responses (SCR). Here, we investigate whether heart period responses (HPR) evoked by the CS, often observed in humans and small mammals, are suitable to co...

  4. Fear Inhibition in High Trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear [1]. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...

  5. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  6. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  7. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  8. [AMYGDALA: NEUROANATOMY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF FEAR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, E A; Krasnoshchekova, E I; Vesselkin, N P; Kharazova, A D

    2015-01-01

    This work describes neuroanatomical and neurophysiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning, focusing on contributions of the amygdala, a subcortical nuclear group, to control of conditioned fear responses. The mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at projections to the amygdala and within amygdala were shown to mediate the formation and retention of fear memory. This work reviews current data on anatomical organization of the amygdala, as well as its afferent and efferent projections, in respect to the role of the amygdala in auditory fear conditioning during which acoustic signals serve as the conditioned stimulus. PMID:26983275

  9. Immediate extinction promotes the return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that immediate extinction is less effective than delayed extinction in attenuating the return of fear. This line of fear conditioning research impacts the proposed onset of psychological interventions after threatening situations. In the present study, forty healthy men were investigated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with fear acquisition in context A, extinction in context B, followed by retrieval testing in both contexts 24h later to test fear renewal. Differently coloured lights served as conditioned stimuli (CS): two CS (CS+) were paired with an electrical stimulation that served as unconditioned stimulus, the third CS was never paired (CS-). Extinction took place immediately after fear acquisition or 24h later. One CS+ was extinguished whereas the second CS+ remained unextinguished to control for different time intervals between fear acquisition and retrieval testing. Immediate extinction led to larger skin conductance responses during fear retrieval to both the extinguished and unextinguished CS relative to the CS-, indicating a stronger return of fear compared to delayed extinction. Taken together, immediate extinction is less potent than delayed extinction and is associated with a stronger renewal effect. Thus, the time-point of psychological interventions relative to the offset of threatening situations needs to be carefully considered to prevent relapses. PMID:26995309

  10. Perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students

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    Lahari Ajay Telang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental student training is known to be stressful and associated with physical and psychological distress, emotional exhaustion, and burnout. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the stress provoking factors among students performing clinical tasks in a Malaysian Dental School. Materials and Methods: A modified dental environment stress questionnaire was distributed to 179 Bachelor of Dental Surgery students during the clinical years 3-5 and their responses are analyzed. Results: The most stress provoking factor was found to be "fear of failing the course or year" (72% followed by "fear of facing parents after failure" (46%. The least stress provoking factors were related to personal issues such as personal physical health (48% and lack of home atmosphere in living quarters (40%. Female students were found to be more stressful than the male students and financial responsibilities provoked only moderate amount of stress among many of the students. There was a significant difference in the overall stress levels perceived by students belonging to 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th year of study. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that with the advent of newer teaching modalities, a more student friendly environment can be created so that detrimental consequences of stress can be reduced.

  11. Conventional dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, conventional dental radiology was performed by dentists and orofacial surgeons. Due to the rapid development of radiological technique, the demand of radiological advice is increasing. The radiologists see more and more dental patients in their daily routine. The aim of this article is to give an overview on established dental radiology and a glimpse into the future. Conventional dental radiology and digital radiography are presently in use. Intraoral technique comprises dental films, bite-wing views and occlusal radiographs. Panoramic views and cephalometric radiographs are done with extraoral technique. Digital radiography lacks all processes in behalf of film development. It leads to dose reduction and enables image manipulation. (orig.)

  12. Implementing a National Dental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Lam; Estie Kruger; Marc Tennant

    2012-01-01

    AbstractBackground The Chronic Dental Disease Scheme (CDSS) is the first public dental policy in Australia to attract Medicare benefits for dental services. Aims This study examines the utilisation of a new federal method of funding dental care in Australia and provides an insight into the implications of government dental programs. The program titled; Chronic Dental Disease Scheme, provided government-subsidised dental care for people suffering from a chronic medical condition. Method A retr...

  13. Adult attachment styles

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    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  14. APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN DENTAL PRACTICE

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    Todor T. Uzunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to determine the extent of the use of photography by dentists for the needs of everyday practice. Material and methods: The survey was conducted among 254 dentists practicing in Sofia, 64 (25.2% - men and 190 (74.8% - women. The average age of respondents is 43.21 years. Questionnaire was developed, consisting of 9 questions, divided into two parts. The first part covers questions about the nature of the dental practice of respondent doctor. The second part includes questions about the use of photography for the purpose of daily practice. Results: A statistical data processing is made. The average values of the responses received by groups of questions are analyzed. The factors that affect the use of dental photography were defined. The results show that from all of the surveyed persons, 82 (32.28% people use photography for dental practice and 172 (67.72% dentists do not to apply this method in their daily work. It was found that the reasons for not using the photography by dentists are: fear of cross-infection - 4 persons (1.57%; lack of need to use photography - 14 persons (5.51%; lack of interest - 18 persons (7.09%; cost of clinical time - 24 persons (9.45%; additional training - 58 (22.83%; expensive investment - 98 persons (38.58%. Conclusion: The extent and reasons for use of photography for the dental practice were found. The factors that are relevant to the use of dental photography by dentists were investigated.

  15. Forming Competing Fear Learning and Extinction Memories in Adolescence Makes Fear Difficult to Inhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Fear inhibition is markedly impaired in adolescent rodents and humans. The present experiments investigated whether this impairment is critically determined by the animal's age at the time of fear learning or their age at fear extinction. Male rats (n = 170) were tested for extinction retention after conditioning and extinction at different ages.…

  16. Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

  17. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  18. I can see, hear, and smell your fear : Comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R.; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued

  19. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yun Hoa [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm{sup 2} (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p<0.05). Doses of digital radiography (DR) type were lower than those of film-based type (p<0.05). We recommend 3.1 mGy (PED), 87.4 mGycm{sup 2} (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

  20. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p2 (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

  1. Dental hygienists' perceptions of barriers to graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D; Bailey, Angela

    2011-08-01

    To advance the profession of dental hygiene, graduate education is necessary to support growth in research, education, administration, and practice in the discipline and to sustain credibility in a climate in which other health professions require entry-level master's and doctoral degrees. The purpose of this study was to explore what dental hygienists perceive as barriers to pursuing a graduate degree. A survey was developed based on the literature and other national surveys. Data were collected from 160 respondents to the survey: 50 percent held an entry-level baccalaureate degree in dental hygiene, while the rest held an entry-level associate degree (48 percent) or certificate (2 percent) in dental hygiene. All respondents had completed a bachelor's degree. The top five barriers these respondents identified in pursuing graduate education were as follows: 1) cost of graduate education, 2) family responsibilities are too great, 3) concerns about personal funding to pay for graduate education, 4) finding time for graduate school while working, and 5) fear of thesis research. Dental hygiene is one of the few health professions that still have entry-level degrees at the associate and baccalaureate levels. The profession needs to reduce such barriers to enable dental hygienists to pursue graduate education and thus ensure an adequate supply of future leaders, educators, and researchers. PMID:21828296

  2. The fear of love: the denial of self in relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jean

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores the fear of love and relationship which develops when a child has experienced parents who cannot tolerate emotional separation and so attempt to retain perfect contingency with their infant, long after the infant needs to begin to separate and individuate. The child is a 'self-object' for the parents, who depend on the responses of others, including their own child, to maintain a sense of their own identity. The impact of this demand for 'reverse parenting' on the child's development is explored and clinical work with an adult patient whose history reflects this process is described. PMID:17970936

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  4. Durable fear memories require PSD-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, P J; Pinard, C R; Camp, M C; Feyder, M; Sah, A; Bergstrom, H C; Graybeal, C; Liu, Y; Schlüter, O M; Grant, S G; Singewald, N; Xu, W; Holmes, A

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. Although overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Using a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95(GK)), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown (KD) approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95(GK) mice to retrieve remote cued fear memory was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex (but not the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated virus-mediated PSD-95 KD in the IL, but not the ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511

  5. Slovakian and Turkish Students' Fear, Disgust and Perceived Danger of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Fancovicova, Jana; Bahar, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Human perceives invertebrates less positively than vertebrates because they are small and behaviourally and morphologically unfamiliar. This cross-cultural research focused on Slovakian (n=150) and Turkish (n=164) students' fear, disgust and perceived danger regarding 25 invertebrates [including 5 disease relevant adult insects, 5 ectoparasites, 5…

  6. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  7. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  8. Dental care and treatments provided under general anaesthesia in the Helsinki Public Dental Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savanheimo Nora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental general anaesthesia (DGA is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care. Methods The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age ( Results The DGA patients (n=349 were aged 2.3 to 67.2 years. Immigrants predominated in the youngest age group (p Conclusions Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA.

  9. Dissemination of an Evidence-based Program to Reduce Fear of Falling, South Carolina, 2006-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ullmann, Gerhild; Williams, Harriet G.; Plass, Cora F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Falls among older adults are a serious public health issue, and fear of falling can limit mobility, which in turn increases fall risk. A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model is an evidence-based program designed to address fear of falling. The objective of this study was to describe implementation, dissemination, and outcomes of this program in 3 regions of South Carolina with a predominantly African American and largely underserved population. Methods We developed partne...

  10. Uso regular de serviços odontológicos entre adultos: padrões de utilização e tipos de serviços Regular use of dental care services by adults: patterns of utilization and types of services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz J. Camargo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso regular de serviços odontológicos entre adultos, identificando grupos nos quais esse comportamento é mais freqüente. O estudo foi realizado em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com desenho transversal de base populacional, envolvendo 2.961 indivíduos, que responderam um questionário estruturado. A prevalência de uso regular encontrada foi de 32,8%. Estiveram positivamente associadas ao uso de forma regular as seguintes características: ser do sexo feminino, ter idade The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of regular use of dental services by adults and identify groups where this behavior is more frequent. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in Pelotas, southern Brazil, including 2,961 individuals who answered a standardized questionnaire. Overall prevalence of regular use of dental services was 32.8%. The following variables were positively associated with regular use: female gender, age > 60 years, no partner, high educational level, high economic status, private service user, good/excellent self-rated oral health, and no perceived need for dental treatment. Those who had received orientation on prevention and expressed a favorable view towards the dentist had higher odds of being regular users. Especially among lower-income individuals, regular use was infrequent (15%. When restricting the analysis to users of public dental services, schooling was still positively associated with the outcome. Dental services, especially in the public sector, should develop strategies to increase regular and preventive use.

  11. The development of fear learning and generalization in 8-13 year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine R; Klein, Daniel N; Lissek, Shmuel; Britton, Jennifer C; Pine, Daniel S; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-11-01

    The current study examined developmental changes in fear learning and generalization in 40 healthy 8-13 year-olds using an aversive conditioning paradigm adapted from Lau et al. [Lau et al. [2008] Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47:94-102]. In this task, the conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-) are two neutral female faces, and the unconditioned stimulus is a fearful, screaming face. The second phase of the study also included a generalization stimulus (GS): a 50% blend of the CS± faces. The eye-blink startle reflex was utilized to measure defensive responding. Patterns of fear learning and generalization were qualified by child age. Older children demonstrated greater fear learning (i.e., larger startle during CS+ than CS-) than younger children. In addition, older children exhibited the typical pattern of generalization observed in adults, whereas younger children did not. Finally, fear learning also related to contingency awareness; only children who correctly identified the CS+ demonstrated fear-potentiated startle to the CS+. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:22072276

  12. Neuroticism modifies psychophysiological responses to fearful films.

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    Emmanuelle Reynaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroticism is a personality component frequently found in anxious and depressive psychiatric disorders. The influence of neuroticism on negative emotions could be due to its action on stimuli related to fear and sadness, but this remains debated. Our goal was thus to better understand the impact of neuroticism through verbal and physiological assessment in response to stimuli inducing fear and sadness as compared to another negative emotion (disgust. METHODS: Fifteen low neurotic and 18 high neurotic subjects were assessed on an emotional attending task by using film excerpts inducing fear, disgust, and sadness. We recorded skin conductance response (SCR and corrugator muscle activity (frowning as indices of emotional expression. RESULTS: SCR was larger in high neurotic subjects than in low neurotics for fear relative to sadness and disgust. Moreover, corrugator activity and SCR were larger in high than in low neurotic subjects when fear was induced. CONCLUSION: After decades of evidence that individuals higher in neuroticism experience more intense emotional reactions to even minor stressors, our results indicate that they show greater SCR and expressive reactivity specifically to stimuli evoking fear rather than to those inducing sadness or disgust. Fear processing seems mainly under the influence of neuroticism. This modulation of autonomic activity by neurotics in response to threat/fear may explain their increased vulnerability to anxious psychopathologies such as PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder.

  13. Methylphenidate Enhances Extinction of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…

  14. The nuclear energy: law and fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document mentions the feeling of fear which goes along the idea of nuclear energy, as well as ethics and law. Technological aspects, political choices and financial matters are responsible for the nuclear energy development. Then it is shown that the consequences of this development is the continuous feeling of fear and risk which goes with every nuclear activities. (TEC)

  15. The Old English Language of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the development of the Old English vocabulary for fear under the influence of the Latinate discourse of Christian doctrine. The first chapter arranges the Old English words for fear into etymologically organized families and describes their incidence and usage across attested corpus of Old English, using the Dictionary…

  16. Mediators between education and dental pain: a cross-sectional study to assess the role of dental services utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Helena M; Peres, Marco A; Schroeder, Fernanda C; Bastos, João L

    2016-02-01

    This study tested whether the pattern of dental services utilization and the reason for the last dental visit mediate the association between educational attainment and dental pain. This is a cross-sectional analysis (n = 1099) based on data from a prospective cohort study in adults, southern Brazil. The mediating effects were assessed by including interaction terms in logistic regression models and by the KHB method, which estimated the direct, mediated, and total effects of education on dental pain. The prevalence of dental pain was 17.5%. Individuals with less than 12 yr of study who visited the dentist to solve dental problems had a 20% higher odds of reporting dental pain than those with 12 or more years of study, who sought the dentist for preventive reasons. Dental services should also focus on preventive measures, especially if less-educated individuals visit the dentist only to treat problems; this may help reduce the frequency of negative oral health outcomes, including dental pain. PMID:26718615

  17. Factors influencing the use of public dental services: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence of the influence of psychosocial factors and health beliefs on public dental patient's patterns of service use in Australia. The research aims were to examine associations between dental attitudes and beliefs of public dental service users and dental visiting intention and behaviour using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Methods 517 randomly selected adult public dental patients completed a questionnaire assessing dental attitudes and beliefs which was matched with electronic records for past and future dental service use. A questionnaire measured intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceptions of behavioural control and self-efficacy in relation to visiting public dentists. A measure of dental attendance at public dental clinics was obtained retrospectively (over 3 1/2 years and prospectively (over a one year period following the return of the questionnaire by accessing electronic patient clinical records. Results Participants had positive attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy beliefs towards dental visiting but perceived a lack of control over visiting the dentist. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and perceived control were significant predictors of intention (P Conclusion Public dental patients held favourable attitudes and beliefs but perceived a lack of control towards dental visiting. Reducing structural barriers may therefore improve access to public dental services.

  18. Remembering the object you fear: brain potentials during recognition of spiders in spider-fearful individuals.

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    Jaroslaw M Michalowski

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated long-term memory for unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures in 15 spider-fearful and 15 non-fearful control individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. During the initial (incidental encoding, pictures were passively viewed in three separate blocks and were subsequently rated for valence and arousal. A recognition memory task was performed one week later in which old and new unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures were presented. Replicating previous results, we found enhanced memory performance and higher confidence ratings for unpleasant when compared to neutral materials in both animal fearful individuals and controls. When compared to controls high animal fearful individuals also showed a tendency towards better memory accuracy and significantly higher confidence during recognition of spider pictures, suggesting that memory of objects prompting specific fear is also facilitated in fearful individuals. In line, spider-fearful but not control participants responded with larger ERP positivity for correctly recognized old when compared to correctly rejected new spider pictures, thus showing the same effects in the neural signature of emotional memory for feared objects that were already discovered for other emotional materials. The increased fear memory for phobic materials observed in the present study in spider-fearful individuals might result in an enhanced fear response and reinforce negative beliefs aggravating anxiety symptomatology and hindering recovery.

  19. Arousal and Associative Processes in Reinstatement of Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Daniel Erik

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is a two-paper investigation of the basic associative and arousal-based processes involved in reinstatement of conditional fear. Clarifying the factors involved in reinstatement of fear--a behavioral phenomenon in which the experience of an aversive event following fear extinction produces a return of fear--provides a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the waxing and waning of untreated fear and the return of fear following exposure treatment. Shedding li...

  20. Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: an analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants’ poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants’ access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period. Methods A secondary data analysis was con...

  1. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  2. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Muppa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient′s feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method.

  3. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre R Vieira; Carolyn W Gibson; Kathleen Deeley; Hui Xue; Yong Li

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogeni...

  4. Increased expression and levels of human β defensins (hBD2 and hBD4 in adults with dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Jose Barrera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Defensins are small anti-microbial peptides produced by epithelial cells. These peptides have a broad range of actions against microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Human defensins are classifi ed into two subfamilies, the α-, and β- defensins, which differ in their distribution of disulphide bonds between the six conserved cysteine residues. Defensins are found in salivaand others compartments of the body. Human β defensins 2 (hBD2, beta defensins 4 (hBD4 and alpha defensins 4 (hNP4 in saliva may contributes to vulnerability or resistance to caries. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries and levels of defensins measuring the expression in gingival tissue and concentrations in saliva samples.Methods: Oral examinations were performed on 100 adults of both genders (18-30 years old, and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for immunoassays of the three peptides and for the salivary pH, buffercapacity, protein, and peroxidase activity. mRNA levels of defensins in gingival sample were assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique.Results: The median salivary levels of hBD2 and hBD4 were 1.88 μg/ml and 0.86 μg/ml respectively for the caries-free group (n=44 and 7.26 μ/ml (hBD2 and 4.25 μg/ml (hBD4 for all subjects with evidenceof caries (n=56. There was no difference in the levels of hNP4, salivary pH, and proteins between groups, however the peroxidase activity and buffer capacity (interval 6.0-5.0 were reduced in caries group. Transcriptional levels of hBD2 and hBD4 did correlate with caries experience, the mRNA expression of hBD2 and hBD4 were signifi cantly higher in patients with caries than in patients with no-caries (p Conclusion: We conclude that high salivary levels and expression of beta defensins, low peroxidase activity and buffer capacity may represent a biological response of oral tissue to caries. Our observation couldlead to new ways to prevent caries

  5. BMP7 and EREG Contribute to the Inductive Potential of Dental Mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong; Pi, Caixia; Xu, Ruoshi; Wan, Mian; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Chengcheng; Sun, Jianxun; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenesis is accomplished by reciprocal signaling between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. It is generally accepted that the inductive mesenchyme is capable of inducing the odontogenic commitment of both dental and non-dental epithelial cells. However, the duration of this signal in the developing dental mesenchyme and whether adult dental pulp tissue maintains its inductive capability remain unclear. This study investigated the contribution of growth factors to regulating the inductive potential of the dental mesenchyme. Human oral epithelial cells (OEs) were co-cultured with either human dental mesenchymal/papilla cells (FDPCs) or human dental pulp cells (ADPCs) under 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional conditions. Odontogenic-associated genes and proteins were detected by qPCR and immunofluorescence, respectively, and significant differences were observed between the two co-culture systems. The BMP7 and EREG expression levels in FDPCs were significantly higher than in ADPCs, as indicated by human growth factor PCR arrays and immunofluorescence analyses. OEs co-cultured with ADPCs supplemented with BMP7 and EREG expressed ameloblastic differentiation genes. Our study suggests that BMP7 and EREG expression in late bell-stage human dental papilla contributes to the inductive potential of dental mesenchyme. Furthermore, adult dental pulp cells supplemented with these two growth factors re-established the inductive potential of postnatal dental pulp tissue. PMID:25952286

  6. Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amendments Dental Care Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees Dental health is an important part of ... for dental services. Dental Benefits for Children in CHIP States that provide CHIP coverage to children through ...

  7. Dental radiology for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation

  8. Dental amalgam: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Ramesh; Wadhwani Kulvinder; Tikku Aseem; Chandra Anil

    2010-01-01

    Dental amalgam has served as an excellent and versatile restorative material for many years, despite periods of controversy. The authors review its history, summarize the evidence with regard to its performance and offer predictions for the future of this material. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for dental amalgam featured 8641 articles and 13 publications dealing with recent advances in dental amalgam. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using...

  9. Osteoporosis in Dental Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Keles Evlice

    2013-01-01

    It is very significant to know the bone quality of the jaws and structural changes in bone for treatment planning and prognosis in dental practice. It is also important to have detailed information about the bone structure (density, trabeculation, quality, volume) for avoiding surprises during dental surgical procedures including dental implant surgery, graft applications, endodontic surgery, periodontal surgery. Osteoporosis is one of the diseases that cause low bone quality. It is a chronic...

  10. Is hypoglycemia fear independently associated with health-related quality of life?

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lizheng; Shao, Hui; Zhao, Yingnan; Thomas, Nina A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients may fear the symptoms and consequences associated with hypoglycemia. We tested whether fear of hypoglycemia is independently associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Research design and methods Data were collected using direct-mail survey and enrollment information from adult commercial health plan enrollees with type 2 diabetes during a 12-month period (12/01/2008 to 11/30/2009). HRQOL was evaluated by the EuroQol (EQ)–5D index and 12-item Short Form ...

  11. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; R.ZARE; A. Moeintaghavi; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of gr...

  12. Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    DeStefano, F.; Anda, R F; Kahn, H. S.; Williamson, D F; Russell, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate a reported association between dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease. SETTING--National sample of American adults who participated in a health examination survey in the early 1970s. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study in which participants underwent a standard dental examination at baseline and were followed up to 1987. Proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate relative risks adjusted for several covariates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incidence of morta...

  13. Income Inequality and Use of Dental Services in 66 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, B.; Newton, J.T.; Bernabé, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between income inequality and use of dental services and the role that investment in health care plays in explaining that association. We pooled individual-level data from 223,299 adults, 18 years or older, in 66 countries, who participated in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Health Surveys with country-level data from different international sources. Income inequality was measured at the national level using the Gini coefficient, and use of dental...

  14. Dental magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing distribution and utilization of digital volume tomography (DVT) extend the spectrum of clinical dental imaging. Additional diagnostic value, however, comes along with an increasing amount of radiation. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging is a radiation free imaging technique. Furthermore, it offers a high soft tissue contrast. Morphological and numerical dental anomalies, differentiation of periapical lesions and exclusion of complications of dental diseases are field of applications for dental MRI. In addition, detection of caries and periodontal lesions and injury of inferior alveolar nerve are promising application areas in the future.

  15. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  16. Risk perception, safety fears and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is significant evidence from a range of studies that fears of nuclear exposure or radiological threat may become associated with health preoccupations and potentially psychiatric disorders. These include somatisation, anxiety and depressive syndromes. There are findings from our own and others research that knowledge may lessen fear. Nevertheless, concerns exist despite recognition that radiotherapy and other use of radiation technology for investigation have significant benefits for health. These background vulnerabilities in terms of health fears, especially concerning cancer and potential genetic impacts will be reviewed. In current studies we have examined fears related to radiation and nuclear issues and a range of health variables and social capital. This paper will examine health issues in these non-exposed populations, and whether fear levels correlate with mental health, or other health related variables. The degree to which such fears may have been exacerbated by the nuclear incident in Japan, or other adverse disaster circumstances will be reviewed. The influence of fear per se, without exposure, may indicate pre-existing vulnerabilities and the degree to which resilience indicators may be protective. Findings relevant to prevention and management will be reviewed.

  17. Modeling fear-conditioned bradycardia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castegnetti, Giuseppe; Tzovara, Athina; Staib, Matthias; Paulus, Philipp C; Hofer, Nicolas; Bach, Dominik R

    2016-06-01

    Across species, cued fear conditioning is a common experimental paradigm to investigate aversive Pavlovian learning. While fear-conditioned stimuli (CS+) elicit overt behavior in many mammals, this is not the case in humans. Typically, autonomic nervous system activity is used to quantify fear memory in humans, measured by skin conductance responses (SCR). Here, we investigate whether heart period responses (HPR) evoked by the CS, often observed in humans and small mammals, are suitable to complement SCR as an index of fear memory in humans. We analyze four datasets involving delay and trace conditioning, in which heart beats are identified via electrocardiogram or pulse oximetry, to show that fear-conditioned heart rate deceleration (bradycardia) is elicited and robustly distinguishes CS+ from CS-. We then develop a psychophysiological model (PsPM) of fear-conditioned HPR. This PsPM is inverted to yield estimates of autonomic input into the heart. We show that the sensitivity to distinguish CS+ and CS- (predictive validity) is higher for model-based estimates than peak-scoring analysis, and compare this with SCR. Our work provides a novel tool to investigate fear memory in humans that allows direct comparison between species. PMID:26950648

  18. Prefrontal NMDA receptors expressed in excitatory neurons control fear discrimination and fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Philip A; Corches, Alex; Lovelace, Jonathan W; Westbrook, Kevin B; Mendoza, Michael; Korzus, Edward

    2015-03-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critically involved in various learning mechanisms including modulation of fear memory, brain development and brain disorders. While NMDARs mediate opposite effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interneurons and excitatory neurons, NMDAR antagonists trigger profound cortical activation. The objectives of the present study were to determine the involvement of NMDARs expressed specifically in excitatory neurons in mPFC-dependent adaptive behaviors, specifically fear discrimination and fear extinction. To achieve this, we tested mice with locally deleted Grin1 gene encoding the obligatory NR1 subunit of the NMDAR from prefrontal CamKIIα positive neurons for their ability to distinguish frequency modulated (FM) tones in fear discrimination test. We demonstrated that NMDAR-dependent signaling in the mPFC is critical for effective fear discrimination following initial generalization of conditioned fear. While mice with deficient NMDARs in prefrontal excitatory neurons maintain normal responses to a dangerous fear-conditioned stimulus, they exhibit abnormal generalization decrement. These studies provide evidence that NMDAR-dependent neural signaling in the mPFC is a component of a neural mechanism for disambiguating the meaning of fear signals and supports discriminative fear learning by retaining proper gating information, viz. both dangerous and harmless cues. We also found that selective deletion of NMDARs from excitatory neurons in the mPFC leads to a deficit in fear extinction of auditory conditioned stimuli. These studies suggest that prefrontal NMDARs expressed in excitatory neurons are involved in adaptive behavior. PMID:25615540

  19. The effect of music exposure in juvenile stage on anxiety-like behavior and fear extinction in adult rat%幼龄期音乐暴露对大鼠成年后焦虑行为和恐惧记忆消退的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁拓; 王超; 曹烨; 王非一凡; 陈锶; 郑梅; 李昌琪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of music exposure in juvenile stage on anxiety-like behavior and fear extinction in adult rats.Methods 4 broods of two-week-old healthy Sprague-Dawleyda rats were separated into two groups randomly.The music groups were exposed to music from 20:00 to 22:00 for 21 consecutive days.When the rats were 5 weeks old,they were caged by sex,with 8 male rats and 6 female rats in each group.When the rats were 8 weeks old,the two groups were assessed in the elevated-plus maze test,the open-field test,trained and assessed by the conditional fear training and fear extinction training.Results In the elevated-plus maze test:Prior to the foot shock,the percent of time spent in the open arms in the music group (female(7.07 ± 1.14)%,male (5.12 ± 1.95 ) % ) exhibited no significant difference (P> 0.05 ) comparing with the rats in the control group (female (4.65 ± 0.86 ) %,male ( 4.86 ± 1.95 ) % ).After the foot shock,the percent of time spent in the open arms in the music group ( female ( 8.63 ± 3.35 ) %,male ( 7.79 ± 2.49 ) % ) increased comparing to the control group (female(1.48 ±0.11)%,male(4.29 ± 1.68)%) (P<0.01). In the open-field test:prior to the foot shock,the percent of time spent in the center zone of the music group ( female (6.16 ± 2.17 ) %,male (6.25 ±3.47) % ) exhibited no significant difference (P> 0.05) comparing with the rats in control group (female(5.27 ±1.95 )%,male (6.22 ± 3.13 )% ).After the foot shock,the percent of time spent in the center zone in the music group (female(8.52 ± 1.93) %,male (6.95 ± 2.46 ) % ) was larger than the control group ( female ( 3.47 ±0.93 ) %,male (4.36 ± 2.22 ) % ) (P < 0.05 ).The fear extinction training showed that the percent of freezing time exhibited no significant difference between the male and female rats of the music group and control group in the first block of the first extinction training day and the percentage of freezing time of

  20. TO FEAR OR NOT TO FEAR ON CYBERCRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bernik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand cybercrime and its various forms, one must be familiar with criminality in general. How individuals perceive crime, and how much they fear it is further influenced by news media (Crawford, 2007. Van Duyne (2009, who monitored criminality, wrote about changes which started to be noticed twenty years ago and have shaped a new Europe, a territory without inner borders, and so with more mobility and opportunities for the Europeans. But these novelties and changes in the way we work have also caused certain new problems. It can be said that perpetrators of crimes, who are no longer hindered by state borders, now know no geographical limitations. Vander Baken and Van Daele (2009, for example, have researched mobility in connection to transnational criminality. Von Lampe (2007 has established that perpetrators no longer act individually, but frequently work in cooperation with one another. Crime and mobility are being “greased” by money, and have become a part of everyday life (Van Duyne, 2009. An individual’s perception and understanding of criminality is also biased on certain cultural myths in regard to crime (Meško and Eman, 2009.

  1. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    -structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia, this...

  2. Evaluation of digital dental models obtained from dental cone-beam computed tomography scan of alginate impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Tingting; Lee, Sang-Mi; Hou, Yanan; Chang, Xin; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models obtained from the dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of alginate impressions according to the time elapse when the impressions are stored under ambient conditions. Methods Alginate impressions were obtained from 20 adults using 3 different alginate materials, 2 traditional alginate materials (Alginoplast and Cavex Impressional) and 1 extended-pour alginate material (Cavex ColorChange). The impressions wer...

  3. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Kuriyama; Motoyasu Honma; Takuya Yoshiike; Yoshiharu Kim

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppress...

  4. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more. PMID:27587574

  5. Fear expression and return of fear following threat instruction with or without direct contingency experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Gaëtan; Kuhn, Manuel; Raes, An K; Kalisch, Raffael; De Houwer, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-08-01

    Prior research showed that mere instructions about the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) can generate fear reactions to the CS. Little is known, however, about the extent to which actual CS-US contingency experience adds anything beyond the effect of contingency instructions. Our results extend previous studies on this topic in that it included fear potentiated startle as an additional dependent variable and examined return of fear (ROF) following reinstatement. We observed that CS-US pairings can enhance fear reactions beyond the effect of contingency instructions. Moreover, for all measures of fear, instructions elicited immediate fear reactions that could not be completely overridden by subsequent situational safety information. Finally, ROF following reinstatement for instructed CS+s was unaffected by actual experience. In summary, our results demonstrate the power of contingency instructions and reveal the additional impact of actual experience of CS-US pairings. PMID:25966279

  6. Blinded by fear? Prior exposure to fearful faces enhances attentional processing of task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Threatening information has been shown to both capture attention and enhance sensory processing. Recent evidence has also suggested that exposure to fearful stimuli may enhance perceptual processing of subsequently presented information, as well as increase attentional capacity. However, these results are inconsistent with other findings that fearful stimuli reduce task-irrelevant distraction and improve selective attention. Here, we investigated the effect of prior exposure to fearful faces on performance in the Eriksen flanker task. Across experiments, fearful cues led to increased task-irrelevant distraction for items positioned across visual space, in contrast to other emotional expressions and inverted face items, and under conditions of attentional load. Findings support the view that fearful images enhance attentional capacity, allowing one to attend to as much visual information as possible when danger is implied. Conflicting findings on the effect of fear and selective attention are discussed. PMID:23510073

  7. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with th...

  8. Fear Assessment: Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Pricing of Fear and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Matthew D.

    2003-01-01

    "Risk assessment" is now a common feature of regulatory practice, but "fear assessment" is not.In particular, environmental, health and safety agencies such as EPA, FDA, OSHA, NHTSA, and CPSC, commonly count death, illness and injury as "costs" for purposes of cost-benefit analysis, but almost never incorporate fear, anxiety or other welfare-reducing mental states into the analysis.This is puzzling, since fear and anxiety are welfare setbacks, and since the very hazards regulated by these age...

  9. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Muppa; Prameela Bhupatiraju; Mahesh Duddu; Narendra Varma Penumatsa; Arthi Dandempally; Priyanka Panthula

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient′s feelings toward noise in the den...

  10. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Abrar Sayed; Vinisha Ranna; Dimple Padawe; Vilas Takate

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD) is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. Aim: To determine if a live visual output of t...

  11. Prereactivation propranolol fails to reduce skin conductance reactivity to prepared fear-conditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Justin D; Wood, Nellie E; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2015-03-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of memory reconsolidation has been demonstrated in fear-conditioned rodents and humans and may provide a means to reduce fearfulness in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Studying the efficacy of potential interventions in clinical populations is challenging, creating a need for paradigms within which candidate reconsolidation-blocking interventions can be readily tested. We used videos of biologically prepared conditioned stimuli (tarantulas) to test the efficacy of propranolol in blocking reconsolidation of conditioned fear in healthy young adults. Strong differential conditioning, measured by skin conductance, was observed among a screened subset of participants during acquisition. However, subsequent propranolol failed to reduce reactivity to the reactivated conditioned stimulus. These results are consistent with other recent findings and point to a need for testing other candidate drugs. PMID:25224026

  12. Delayed extinction fails to reduce skin conductance reactivity to fear-conditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricchione, Jon; Greenberg, Mark S; Spring, Justin; Wood, Nellie; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    A brief 10-min time delay between an initial and subsequent exposure to extinction trials has been found to impair memory reconsolidation in fear-conditioned rodents and humans, providing a potential means to reduce fearfulness in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study used videos of biologically prepared, conditioned stimuli (tarantulas) to test the efficacy of delayed extinction in blocking reconsolidation of conditioned fear in healthy young adults. Strong differential conditioning, measured by skin conductance, was observed among a screened subset of participants during acquisition. However, the delayed-extinction intervention failed to reduce reactivity to the conditioned stimulus paired with the extinction delay. These results are partially consistent with other recent, mixed findings and point to a need for testing other candidate interventions designed to interfere with the reconsolidation process. PMID:27314560

  13. The history of nuclear fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of military and civilian nuclear energy is not only a matter of hard technology, politics, and economics. Our thinking about bombs and reactors is also affected by images with a curious and sometimes overwhelming power. Weird rays that can transform flesh or create monsters, the atom-powered marvels of a future uptopia, the mad scientist who plots to destroy the world: all have an influence on the way people think. Already decades before scientists had discovered how to exploit nuclear energy, a web of interconnected symbols was fully formed in the public mind. These images can be traced back to primitive imagery and, still deeper, into common human experiences, but they were often connected specifically to nuclear energy by nuclear scientists themselves. After the actual development of nuclear technology, a variety of groups used the old symbolism for their propaganda. Since nuclear energy was the most impressive case of the application of the arcane mysteries of science by modern technological authorities, it came to stand for all that people hoped, and still more what they feared, from such authorities

  14. Salivary Markers of Oxidative Stress and Their Relation to Periodontal and Dental Status in Children

    OpenAIRE

    L’ubomíra Tóthová; Viera Celecová; Peter Celec

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that salivary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances are related to the periodontal status in adults. Such an analysis has not been done on children yet. The aim of our study was to analyze salivary markers of oxidative stress in relation to periodontal and dental status in children. Methods: The periodontal and dental status of 82 consecutive pediatric dental patients was assessed. The oral hygiene index (OHI), the papillary bleeding index (PBI) and t...

  15. Redefining the potential applications of dental stem cells: An asset for future

    OpenAIRE

    Shalu Rai; Mandeep Kaur; Sandeep Kaur; Sapna Panjwani Arora

    2012-01-01

    Recent exciting discoveries isolated dental stem cells from the pulp of the primary and permanent teeth, from the periodontal ligament, and from associated healthy tissues. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) represent a kind of adult cell colony which has the potent capacity of self-renewing and multilineage differentiation. Stem cell-based tooth engineering is deemed as a promising approach to the making of a biological tooth (bio-tooth) or engineering of functional tooth structures. Dental prof...

  16. INCIDENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN DENTAL PLAQUE OF SAUDI GASTRITIS PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Refai, Abdel-Nasser M.; Fathalla, Sami E.; Nagamani, Rambhala; Al-Momen, Sami

    2002-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was identified in dental plaque, raising the possibility of future gastritis and peptic ulceration. Objective: This trial was to study the association between presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and in the stomachs of patients with gastritis; the effect of oral hygiene and periodontal condition on the stomach. Patients and Methods: Seventy-five Saudi adult dyspeptic patients, together with 60 healthy persons as control. Two samples of dental plaq...

  17. Psychology: Fear and hope in climate messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.

    2012-08-01

    Scientists often expect fear of climate change and its impacts to motivate public support of climate policies. A study suggests that climate change deniers don't respond to this, but that positive appeals can change their views.

  18. Tracheobronchial Foreign Body Aspiration: Dental Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ataman Köse; Dilek Kostak; Erol Aramagan; Aslıhan Durak; Nur Sezin Seçkin; Serdar Süha Dönmez; Hüseyin Melek

    2014-01-01

    It is important to extract foreign bodies for avoiding life-threatening complications. They can lead to death if they are not treated. Different signs and symptoms could occur according to the complete or partial airway obstruction. Foreign body aspiration is a rare incident in adults. The organic foreign materials such as foods are found to be aspirated more commonly and are usually settled in the right bronchial system. However, dental prosthesis and teeth aspirations are rare in litera...

  19. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  20. Dental Abfraction - Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Maria Gheorghiu; Loredana Mitran; M Mitran; Magdalena Mironiuc-Cureu; A. A. Iliescu; Ioana Suciu

    2015-01-01

    Dental abfraction is a pathological process which causes a loss of dental hard substance. Etiopathogenesis is related to occlusal stress that causes microfractures in enamel and dentin in the cervical region. The restoration treatment is made using aesthetic adhesive materials, but must take into account the causal factors and the specific area where the restoration is done.