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Sample records for adult cotton rats

  1. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  2. The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA

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    Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

    2003-09-01

    In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (≤ 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

  3. The microbial community structure of the cotton rat nose.

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    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Plumeier, Iris; Kahl, Silke; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Oxley, Andrew P A; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-12-01

    The cotton rat nose is commonly used as a model for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, as it is both physiologically and anatomically comparable to the human nares and can be easily colonized by this organism. However, while the colonization of the human anterior nares has been extensively studied, the microbial community structure of cotton rat noses has not been reported so far. We describe here the microbial community structure of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) nose through next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons covering the V1-V2 region and the analysis of nearly full length 16S rRNA genes of the major phylotypes. Roughly half of the microbial community was composed of two undescribed species of the genus Campylobacter, with phylotypes belonging to the genera Catonella, Acholeplasma, Streptobacillus and Capnocytophaga constituting the predominant community members. Thus, the nasal community of the cotton rat is uniquely composed of several novel bacterial species and may not reflect the complex interactions that occur in human anterior nares. Mammalian airway microbiota may, however, be a rich source of hitherto unknown microbes. PMID:26306992

  4. Passive narcosis for anesthesia induction in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jarod M; Anderson, Lydia J; Williams, Colin M; Jorquera, Patricia; Tripp, Ralph A

    2016-08-23

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are widely used as animal models for infectious disease and immunological research. They emulate many aspects of human disease pathogenesis, and the introduction of cotton rat-specific immunological reagents, cell lines and sequencing of relevant genes have all helped to increase the popularity of this disease model. However, the use of cotton rats is problematic owing to their propensity for aggressive responses when handled, which can lead to escape, increased stress to the animals, and bites to staff. When cotton rats are co-housed, which is recommended under current social housing guidelines, these risks are increased. Here, we describe a method of isoflurane anesthesia induction in the home cage that reduces the risk of animal escape, minimizes stress during induction, and provides additional safety for staff. The method uses inexpensive materials that are widely available and can be easily disinfected. Our method also eliminates the need for expensive and cumbersome machines traditionally used with anesthetic chambers, and uses a minimal amount of inhalant anesthetic, saving resources and protecting staff from inhalation of leaked gas. PMID:27551803

  5. Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, Lark L.; Carrara, Anne-Sophie; Paessler, Slobodan; Haynie, Michelle L.; BRADLEY, ROBERT D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    Everglades virus (EVEV), an alphavirus in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) serocomplex, circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes and infects humans, causing a febrile disease sometimes accompanied by neurologic manifestations. EVEV circulates near metropolitan Miami, which indicates the potential for substantial human disease, should outbreaks arise. We characterized EVEV infection of cotton rats in South Florida, USA, to validate their role in enzootic transmission. To evaluate...

  6. Female cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) develop chronic anemia with renal inflammation and cystic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Daisuke; Nakamura, Saori; Sato, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a laboratory rodent that has been used for studies on human infectious diseases. In the present study, we observed that female cotton rats, not the male cotton rats, developed chronic anemia characterized by reduced red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels from 5 to 9 months of age without any changes in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and volume levels. In peripheral blood, the reticulocyte count did not increase in response to anemia in female cotton rats, and no extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed in the liver or spleen. Further, the serum levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine increased from 5 to 9 months of age in female cotton rats compared to male cotton rats, and these increases became more prominent from 10 months of age onward, indicating chronic kidney disease. Histopathologically, female cotton rats manifested tubulointerstitial lesions characterized by the infiltration of mononuclear cells, including plasma cells and CD3(+) T-cells, as well as the dilation of calbindin-D28k(+) distal tubules from 5 to 9 months of age. The severity of these lesions progressed from 10 months of age onward, and renal fibrotic features and numerous tubular cysts appeared without any obvious glomerular lesions. A significant decrease in the erythropoietin protein levels was observed in the kidney of aged female cotton rats, and significant correlations were detected between anemia and tubulointerstitial damage. These results suggest that aged female cotton rats chronically develop renal anemia, and this rodent may serve as a novel model to elucidate its pathogenesis. PMID:27099161

  7. Induction of methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation by Hepatic Microsomes of wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from an abandoned oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase MROD and EROD activity was performed on hepatic microsomes from wild caught hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Cotton rats were collected in January and September of 1991 and March and September 1992 from 6 sites on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Three contaminated sites consisted of an oily sludge treatment ares, sludge storage pits, and sludge traps; there were 3 matching reference sites. Fifty to 60 adult male cotton rats were collected at each sampling period. Results comparing pooled activity of contaminated to reference sites revealed a significant increase in both MROD and EROD activity in the September collections. No significant increase in MROD or EROD activity was seen at the same sites for collections carried out in January 1991 and March 1992. A hypothesis to explain these findings will be proposed

  8. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

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    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

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    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  10. Receptor Characterization and Susceptibility of Cotton Rats to Avian and 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Jorge C. G.; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Wan, Hongquan; Araya, Yonas; Angel, Matthew; Oue, Raymonde O.; Sutton, Troy C.; Perez, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    Animal influenza viruses (AIVs) are a major threat to human health and the source of pandemic influenza. A reliable small-mammal model to study the pathogenesis of infection and for testing vaccines and therapeutics against multiple strains of influenza virus is highly desirable. We show that cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are susceptible to avian and swine influenza viruses. Cotton rats express α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) and α2,6-linked SA residues in the trachea and α2,6-linked SA residu...

  11. CATASTROPHIC DECLINE OF A HIGH-DENSITY POPULATION OF COTTON RATS (SIGMODIN HISPIDUS) IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

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    Along the northern periphery of their range, populations of the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, are vulnerable to major reductions in density and occasional local extinctions as a result of severe winter weather. Between our sampling periods on 3 December 2000 and 14 Januar...

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus escape mutant derived in vitro resists palivizumab prophylaxis in cotton rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palivizumab (PZ) is the only monoclonal antibody in human use against an infectious disease. PZ is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognizes the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). PZ prophylaxis reduces the likelihood of hospitalization for young children at risk for severe RSV infections. The quasispecies nature of RNA viruses allows rapid emergence of viruses with a selective advantage. A PZ resistant virus was selected by passage of RSV in the presence of PZ in cell culture. The cell culture-derived virus was completely resistant to PZ prophylaxis in cotton rats. The increasing use of PZ, and in particular, the use of PZ in immunosuppressed patients, provide opportunities for resistant viruses to emerge. Whether such viruses will appear and be of clinical significance for humans is unknown. Preclinical studies in cotton rats predicted the efficacy of PZ in humans; these results suggest that if PZ resistant viruses arise in humans, PZ prophylaxis may be ineffective

  13. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources.

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    Pimenta, M; Mata, R A; Venzon, M; Cunha, D N C; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S; Sujii, E R

    2016-06-01

    Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus' flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage. PMID:26934148

  14. Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses

  15. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  16. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhang; Stefan Niewiesk; Jianrong Li

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It...

  17. The Cotton Rat Model of Respiratory Viral Infections Pathogenesis and Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Boukhvalova, Marina S.; Prince, Gregory A.; Blanco, Jorge C. G.

    2009-01-01

    Development of successful vaccines against human infectious diseases depends on using appropriate animal models for testing vaccine efficacy and safety. For some viral infections the task is further complicated by the frequently changing genetic make-up of the virus, as in the case of influenza, or by the existence of the little-understood phenomenon of vaccine-enhanced disease, as in the case of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The cotton rat S.hispidus has been used for years as an excell...

  18. Mechanism of antibody-mediated viral clearance in immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection of cotton rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, G A; Hemming, V G; Horswood, R L; Baron, P A; Murphy, B R; Chanock, R M

    1990-01-01

    Antibody-mediated clearance of respiratory syncytial virus from cotton rat pulmonary tissues occurs in the absence of complement and in the absence of the Fc portion of the immunoglobulin G molecule, suggesting that complement-independent, cell-independent neutralization is the major mechanism of clearance.

  19. The Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus) Is a Permissive Small Animal Model of Human Metapneumovirus Infection, Pathogenesis, and Protective Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, John V.; Tollefson, Sharon J.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Crowe, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a newly described paramyxovirus that is an important cause of acute respiratory tract disease. We undertook to develop a small animal model of hMPV infection, pathogenesis, and protection. Hamsters, guinea pigs, cotton rats, and nine inbred strains of mice were inoculated intranasally with hMPV. The animals were sacrificed, and nasal and lung tissue virus yields were determined by plaque titration. None of the animals exhibited respiratory symptoms. The quantit...

  20. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  1. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  2. Opiates inhibit neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Eisch, Amelia J.; Barrot, Michel; Schad, Christina A.; Self, David W; Nestler, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work implicates regulation of neurogenesis as a form of plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus. Given the known effects of opiates such as morphine and heroin on hippocampal function, we examined opiate regulation of neurogenesis in this brain region. Chronic administration of morphine decreased neurogenesis by 42% in the adult rat hippocampal granule cell layer. A similar effect was seen in rats after chronic self-administration of heroin. Opiate regulation of neurogenesis was not me...

  3. Development of Acquired Immunity following Repeated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Cotton Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamaji

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infections occur every year worldwide. Most infants are infected with RSV by one year of age and are reinfected because immune responses after the first infection are too weak to protect against subsequent infections. In the present study, immune responses against RSV were investigated in order to obtain a better understanding of repetitive RSV infections in cotton rats. No detectable neutralizing antibody (NT was developed after the first infection, and the second infection was not prevented. The results of histological examinations revealed severe inflammation, viral antigens were detected around bronchial epithelial cells, and infectious viruses were recovered from lung homogenates. Following the second infection neutralizing antibodies were significantly elevated, and CD8+ cells were activated in response to RSV-F253-265. No viral antigens was detected thereafter in lung tissues and infectious viruses were not recovered. Similar results were obtained in the present study using the subgroups A and B. These results support the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses following repetitive infections with RSV; however, these responses were insufficient to eliminate viruses in the first and second infections.

  4. A review of Gongylonema spp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in North American rodents with description of a new species from the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus (Mammalia: Cricetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, John M; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Preisser, Whitney C

    2016-01-01

    Gongylonema archboldi n. sp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) is described from tunnels in the gastric mucosa of the stomach of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) from Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A. Measurements are also given for specimens from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus), oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), Florida mice (Podomys floridanus), and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) from the same locality. Additional specimens were collected from the cotton rat and the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) from Berry Island, San Patricio County, Texas. The new species is differentiated from congeners by a combination of the following characters: length of the left spicule, length and shape of the gubernaculum, distribution of cuticular bosses, length of esophagus, and distance of the vulva from the posterior end. The status of the genus Gongylonema in North American rodents is reviewed. PMID:27394819

  5. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  6. Morphological alterations in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from an abandoned petrochemical refinery with emphasis on dental lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected in January and September of 1991 and March and September 1992 from six sites on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Three contaminated sites consisted of an oil sludge treatment area, sludge storage pits, and sludge traps. There were 3 matched reference sites. The most prominent morphological alterations were in teeth. The normal color of cotton rat incisors is deep yellow-orange, which is imparted by a pigment produced by ameloblasts. Sixty-one of 107 animals from the contaminated site and one of 102 animals from the reference sites had grossly abnormal teeth. The abnormal incisors were pale and mottled. Microscopic examination of the undecalcified normal and abnormal incisors revealed that the enamel of the abnormal teeth was irregular, and lacked pigment, focally or diffusely unlike the regular, smooth, normally pigmented enamel in the teeth that were grossly normal. This lack of pigmentation is attributed to the degenerative and necrotic changes in the ameloblasts of abnormal incisors. Possible causes of these lesions will be discussed. Other pathological alternations including urinary bladder calcification will be briefly discussed

  7. TRIMETHYLTIN DISRUPTS ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONDING IN ADULT RATS

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    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a limbic-system toxicant which also produces sensory dysfunction in adult animals. In the present experiment, the authors examined the effects of TMT on the acoustic startle response. Adult male, Long-Evans rats (N=12/dose) received a single i.p. injection o...

  8. Prophylactic antibody treatment and intramuscular immunization reduce infectious human rhinovirus 16 load in the lower respiratory tract of challenged cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C.G. Blanco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRV represent the single most important etiological agents of the common cold and are the most frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in humans. Currently the performance of available animal models for immunization studies using HRV challenge is very limited. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus is a well-recognized model for the study of human respiratory viral infections. In this work we show that, without requiring any genetic modification of either the host or the virus, intranasal infection of cotton rats with HRV16 resulted in measurable isolation of infective virus, lower respiratory tract pathology, mucus production, and expression of interferon-activated genes. Intramuscular immunization with live HRV16 generated robust protective immunity that correlated with high serum levels of neutralizing antibodies. In addition, cotton rats treated prophylactically with hyperimmune anti-HRV16 serum were protected against HRV16 intranasal challenge. Finally, protection by immunization was efficiently transferred from mothers to newborn animals resulting in a substantial reduction of infectious virus loads in the lung following intranasal challenge. Overall, our results demonstrate that the cotton rat provides valuable additional model development options for testing vaccines and prophylactic therapies against rhinovirus infection.

  9. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  10. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection

  11. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats.

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    Lee, Heekyung; Kang, Eunchai; GoodSmith, Douglas; Yoon, Do Yeon; Song, Hongjun; Knierim, James J; Ming, Guo-Li; Christian, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, soma hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function. PMID:26161071

  12. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1, the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, somatic hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function.

  13. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  14. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...... studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.......The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and...... in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing...

  15. BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kanna; Mikawa, Sumiko; Sato, Kohji

    2016-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3) is a very unique member of the TGF-β superfamily, because it functions as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and activin pathways and plays important roles in multiple biological events. Although BMP3 expression has been described in the early development of the kidney, intestine and bone, little information is available for BMP3 expression in the central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry. BMP3 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons. Furthermore, we found that astrocytes and ependymal cells also express BMP3 protein. These data indicate that BMP3 is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS, and its abundant expression in the adult brain strongly supports the idea that BMP3 plays important roles in the adult brain. PMID:27130896

  16. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and...... characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution of...... epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  17. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  18. Studying the Risks of Cotton Cooking Oil Fumes on the Lung and Liver of Rats and the Protective Role of (Vitamin E Alphatocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy GAD GAD ELsaid

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumes emitted from edible vegetable cooking oils during stir- and deep-frying are important contributors to indoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution may be increase the lung and liver cancer in Egypt in 2005. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Egyptian cotton cooking oil fumes on rats. The exposed rats for 30 and 60 days to cotton oil fumes showed a significant increase in the lung and liver malondialdehyde levels which accompanied with a significant decrease in glutathione content. Also, there was a significant decrease in lung and liver superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione s-transferase activities. As well as, there was a significant decrease in serum amino acids levels, lung and liver nucleic acids and total proteins. These changes were obviously after 60 days than that of 30 days of exposure. DNA change was clear in the lungs of rats after cotton oil fumes exposed as showed by the differential display technique, P53 primer which used to study the expression of the p35 gene as well as to confirm and amplify these changes after oil fumes exposure. Band with different molecular weights were observed after the exposure and in protected groups but not presented in the control. More characterization for the changes had been carried out in the animal on two levels, one the DNA using RAPD-PCR and the other on the protein level using SDS-PAGE techniques. Also, vitamin E ameliorates these abnormalities to extent limit in all cases in this work.

  19. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  20. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT RAT TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRIMETHYLTIN AND TRIETHYLTIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time course of distribution of tin in the adult rat was determined in brain, liver kidney, heart, and blood following single ip administrations of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) and triethyltin bromide (TET). Adult Long-Evans rats were killed 1 hr, 4 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr, 5 days, 1...

  1. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  2. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2006-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for seven days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or...

  3. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  4. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  5. Influenza-induced tachypnea is prevented in immune cotton rats, but cannot be treated with an anti-inflammatory steroid or a neuraminidase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenza viruses are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality during winter months. Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) is a sign of increasing lower respiratory disease during influenza infection and is frequently observed in hospitalized patients. We investigated this clinical sign in influenza virus-infected cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and the efficacy of antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy in reducing symptomatic disease. Cotton rats infected intranasally with A/Wuhan/359/95 (H3N2) had increased respiratory rates from 1 to 4 days postinfection that correlated with the dose of virus used to inoculate the animal but not the amount of virus recovered from the lung. In addition, evaluation of sequential lung tissue pathology revealed that extensive epithelial cell destruction of small airways correlated with tachypnea. Increased respiratory rate was not observed in immune animals, supporting results that demonstrated a requirement for exposure to, and infection by, large amounts of live virus for induction of tachypnea. A variety of therapeutic approaches proved ineffective in reducing tachypnea, including anti-inflammatory therapy with systemic triamcinolone acetonide, bronchodilatory therapy with levalbuterol, or antiviral therapy with zanamivir. These results, together with the pathologic observations, suggest that early disruption of the lower respiratory tract epithelium is a major component of the pathophysiology of influenza infection. Therapeutic approaches need to be tailored to clear airway obstruction and restore an intact epithelium

  6. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-07-01

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. PMID:27123586

  7. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-meng LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  8. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  9. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  10. High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulthinee Supaporn; Wyss J Michael; Jirakulsomchok Dusit; Roysommuti Sanya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine dep...

  11. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert;

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...

  12. Effects of Transgenic Cry 1 Ac plus CpTI Cotton on the Bioecology of Main Parasitoids in Laboratory Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jin-jie; VANDER Weft Wopke; MA Yah; LUO Jun-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Effects of transgenic CrylAc plus CpTI cotton (double genes cotton) on development of main parasitoids were studied in the laboratory.Compared with the traditional cotton,the differences of the moulting rate and adult weight of cotton aphid-Aphydius from double gene cotton field were not obvious.

  13. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  14. Quantitative microscopical and histochemical changes in the Liver and Testis of adult rabbit under the effect of oral intakeof cotton seeds Gossypol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S. El-Dawi, Ahmed N. Al-Kasaby, Bassem S. Ahmed

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Gossypol is a natural yellowish phenolic compound (dimeric or bis-naphthalene isolated from the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium species. The aim of the present work was to study the possible microscopical and histochemical changes in the liver and testis of adult rabbit under the effect of oral intake of cotton seeds Gossypol. Eighteen 6month age adult male rabbits were subdivided into 3 equal groups (control, experimental and recovery. The experimental and recovery groups were subjected to 1.05mg/day Gossypol suspended in olive oil intubation for 9weeks and the recovery rabbits were left 9weeks after last dose. Liver and testis paraffin sections were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stain for morphological changes. Glycosaminoglycans in the seminiferous tubules were stained by PAS technique. Studying of the nucleic DNA in the spermatogenic cells was done by Feulgen technique. Quantitative study included seminiferous tubules thickness; spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes cell areas. Also the distribution of PAS positive materials analyzed as area percent and nucleic DNA as optical density. All analysis was done by the aid of image analysis System. The study showed that liver was affected by gossypol administration. The changes appeared as distinct pinpoint foci of coagulative necrosis, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes and dilation of the sinusoids with mild perivascular lymphoid aggregation. The testis showed distortion loss of spermatogenic cells, Sertoli and germ organization under the effect of gossypol. Sertoli cells showed an intracellular vacuolization. Also, there were luminal multinucleated giant cells as well as a prominent DNA fragmentation in the spermatogonia nuclei. The quantitative study showed statistically significant decrease in the mean thickness of seminiferous tubules , the mean area of spermatogonia, and primary spermatocyte , mean area percent of distribution of PAS positive materials of

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  16. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  17. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  18. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells in uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatos, Marie A; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin...

  19. Influence of neonatally administered capsaicin on baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes in the adult rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, S. M.; Cervero, F; McQueen, D S

    1982-01-01

    1 Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex activity was studied in anaesthetized adult rats which had been treated neonatally with a single injection of capsaicin (50 mg/kg s.c.). 2 Pressor responses to bilateral carotid artery occlusion were significantly lower in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Pressor responses to intravenously injected noradrenaline were similar in the two groups of rats. 3 Resting respiratory minute volume and tidal volume were lower in anaest...

  20. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). I...

  1. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  2. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  3. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  4. Cotton biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the laboratory to the CRP related to the development of a new crop (Gossypium arboreum) for the USA, and to biotechnological applications for cotton (G. hirsutum) improvement. Within the framework of the CRP, a genotype of G. arboreum suitable for USA production and production strategies shown to be compatible with the existing cotton production and processing infrastructures were developed. In the area of biotechnology, molecular markers closely associated with genes which restore fertility to cytoplasmically male sterile lines of cotton were identified. Gene transcripts possibly associated with restoration were isolated and identified. Gene transcripts putatively associated with semigamy expression were also identified. A gene coding for a membrane-active peptide was constructed and tobacco, as a model system, has been genetically engineered with this gene. New methods for transformation of cotton are under investigation, and a number of new projects are being initiated. For the benefit of readers interested in biotechnology resources, a short list of website addresses are annotated in this report. (author)

  5. Locomotor activity and catecholamine receptor binding in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of 3H-WB 4101, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, the membranes of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lower brainstem was examined in adult spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WK) controls. The specific binding of 3H-WB 4101 (0.33 nM) was significantly higher in homogenates from the cerebral cortex of SH rats as compared to WK rats. No differences were detected between SH and WK rats in the specific binding of 3H-spiroperidol (0.25 nM), a dopamine receptor antagonist, to membranes from the corpus striatum and the limbic forebrain. The locomotor activity was significantly higher in SH rats as compared to WK controls, in all probability due to a lack of habituation to environmental change. It is suggested that the high reactivity of SH rats is related to a disfunction in the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. (author)

  6. Homogeneous Cotton solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño-Louzao, E.; Hervella, L. M.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Left-invariant Cotton solitons on homogeneous manifolds are determined. Moreover, algebraic Cotton solitons are studied providing examples of non-invariant Cotton solitons, both in the Riemannian and Lorentzian homogeneous settings.

  7. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  8. Differentiation of embryonic versus adult rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlong Ke; Baili Chen; Shaolei Guo; Chao Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the conversion of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro can be increased through specific cytokine combinations. Such neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons could be used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the differences in dopaminergic differentiation between neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats.OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of rat adult and embryonic-derived neural stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Surgical Laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-scn University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from June to December 2007. Eight, adult, male,Sprague Dawley rats and eight, pregnant, Sprague Dawley rats (embryonic day 14 or 15) were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University.METHODS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were respectively cultivated in serum-free culture medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. After passaging, neural stem cells were differentiated in medium containing interleukin-1 ct, interleukin-11, human leukemia inhibition factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Six days later, cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alterations in cellular morphology after differentiation of neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats; and percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the differentiated cells.RESULTS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were cultivated in differentiation medium. Six days later, differentiated cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylasc. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons was (5.6 ± 2

  9. The effects of undernutrition on connectivity in the cerebellar cortex of adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, F; Warren, M. A.; Gumusburun, E

    1994-01-01

    The effects of a 30 d period of undernutrition, followed in some animals by nutritional rehabilitation, on neuronal connectivity in adult rat cerebellum were investigated using the disector method. There was no significant difference between well fed (719 +/- 74, mean +/- S.E.) and undernourished (709 +/- 53) synapse-to-neuron ratios in 134-d-old rat cerebellar cortex, nor was there a significant difference in synapse-to-neuron ratios between control animals (941 +/- 71) and previously undern...

  10. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia de Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

  11. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Oboma, Yibala .I; Asuqwo E.E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26) adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6) and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal ...

  12. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to de...

  13. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5μg/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors α and β showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol. PMID:23454116

  14. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  15. Changes of arterial blood ketone body ratio following hypoperfusion in old and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YE; Shiwen WANG; Songtao YU; Wei CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of arterial ketone body ratio as an indicator for multiple organ failure.Materials and methods The experimental model of multiple organ failure was made in adult and old rats by hypoperfusion-induced hemorrhagic shock. After blood sampling, the arterial acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, total ketone body, ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine at 2, 4, 8 hr in hypoperfusion were examined to compare the differences of ketone body ratio and organ failure between adult and old rats. Hepatic and mitochondrial metabolism were assessed by comparing ketone body ratios (AcAc/β-OHB) and free NAD+/NADH ratios. Results Ketone body ratio in old rats at 2, 4, 8 hr after the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased from 0.68 to 0.31, 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. In adult rats, it decreased from 1.12 to 0.17, 0.12 and 0.09, respectively. Changes of ketone body ratio in the adult group were larger than in the elderly group ( P < 0.001). The development of multiple organ failure is associated with the time of hemorrhagic shock development. Conclusions There was a different ketone body ratio between multiple organ failure in the elderly (MOFE) and multiple organ failure (MOF) in general adults. Ketone body ratio is a better indicator than ALT and AST in reflecting hepatic function in the early status of MOF. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :125-128. )

  16. Spontaneous inflammatory pelvic disease in adult non-castrated female rats treated with estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles M G Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response of the genital tract is under the control of sexual steroids; however, the influence of sex hormones on innate immune mechanisms of the genital mucosa are only beginning to be understood. We found that long-term estrogen treatment increases the risk for inflammatory pelvic diseases in adult non-castrated female rats. Female rats (110 g to 130 g received estrogen (10 rats; 17-beta estradiol, 50 mg pellet; 10 rats: subcutaneous weekly injection of estradiol valerate 0.166 mg/kg. Ten rats received a pellet of 17-beta estradiol and were treated with amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg after the 90th day of exposure to estrogen. Three control groups of ten rats were also used. The estrogen-treated rats developed an inflammatory pelvic disease, with abscess formation after the third month of hormonal treatment. All the surviving animals were killed after six months of hormonal exposure. Among 15 survivors of the two groups that received estrogen 13 animals presented tuboovarian abscesses. Among eight survivors of the group treated with amoxicillin, six had tuboovarian abscesses. None of the 30 control rats presented macro or microscopic signs of inflammatory disease in the uterus, tubes or ovaries. We conclude that estrogen impairs the defense mechanisms of the genital tract of non-castrated female rats, enhancing bacterial growth in the vagina and ascending infection to the uterus, tubes and ovaries.

  17. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  18. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  19. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Elliott, Kevin S.; Preston E. Garraghty

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reduction...

  20. Environmental enrichment alters glial antigen expression and neuroimmune function in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Lauren L.; Chao, Agnes; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Environmental enrichment (EE) in rodents increases neurogenesis, enhances cognition, and promotes recovery from injury. However, little is known about the effects of EE on glia (astrocytes and microglia). Given their importance in neural repair, we predicted that EE would modulate glial phenotype and/or function within the hippocampus. Adult male rats were housed either 12 h/day in an enric...

  1. Activation of pancreatic-duct-derived progenitor cells during pancreas regeneration in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wan-Chun; Rukstalis, J. Michael; Nishimura, Wataru; Tchipashvili, Vaja; Habener, Joel F.; Arun SHARMA; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The adult pancreas has considerable capacity to regenerate in response to injury. We hypothesized that after partial pancreatectomy (Px) in adult rats, pancreatic-duct cells serve as a source of regeneration by undergoing a reproducible dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. We support this hypothesis by the detection of an early loss of the ductal differentiation marker Hnf6 in the mature ducts, followed by the transient appearance of areas composed of proliferating ductules, called foci o...

  2. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Feng Tsai; Chia-Yuan Chang; Lung Yu; Yu-Min Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old) and adult (8-week-old) rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the a...

  3. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Saki; Fakher Rahim; Karim Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming s...

  4. Effect of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Abundance of Cotton Spider Mites and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves and their Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Pei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences of the total phenolic content in leaves and percentage of cotton plants infested with cotton spider mites between in transgenic Bt (Ezamian No. 24F1 and in non-transgenic Bt cotton (Ek 9 parental line of Ezamian No. 24F1 plots with and without spraying acaricides were systematically investigated in Tai Lake farm, Hubei Province, China, over the period 26 May and 11 September 2011. In acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton does not result in a change of the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to that in non-transgenic Bt cotton, however, without acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton significantly increases the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to those of non-transgenic Bt cotton. The number of eggs, larva-nymph-adults, egg-larvanymph- adults and the plant damage index are independent of the total phenolic content in leaves. The results are also discussed in relation to integrated pest management. It was very necessary for nontarget cotton spider mites of transgenic Bt cotton fields to control in wetland agricultural area.

  5. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  6. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 μg/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 μg/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  7. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

  8. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  9. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  10. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  11. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  12. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  13. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. PMID:26979050

  14. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  15. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  16. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  17. Cochlear function in young and adult Fischer 344 rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelář, Jiří; Groh, Daniel; Mazelová, Jana; Syka, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 186, - (2003), s. 75-84. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/01/1063; GA MZd NK6454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Fischer 344 rat Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2003

  18. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  19. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  20. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  1. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  2. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  3. Bupropion Attenuates Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Carmela M.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Grant, Kathleen M.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2008-01-01

    Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphe...

  4. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  6. Radiation Sterilization of Green Tea Has No Effect on Its Beneficial Activity in Adult Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effects of drinking green tea (GT) extract (made from non-irradiated or irradiated GT leaves) on certain physiological and biochemical parameters in adult rats were measured. Rats (n = 10 per treatment group) drank either water or GT extract (hot water extract of GT leaves that were either non-irradiated or irradiated at 10, 20 or 30 kGy) ad libitum for 5 week duration of the test. Neither control nor- irradiated GT extract had any effect on body wt, total body wt gain or relative internal organs wt. Both control and irradiated GT extract had beneficial effects on total plasma lipids. Consumption of GT extract (made from leaves irradiated to doses of 0, 10, 20 or 30 kGy) lowered blood glucose level by 24.3 %, 25.7 %, 24.3 % and 24.1 % respectively, compared to the control group that received only water (glucose in water control groups 107 mg dl ). The corresponding values for blood cholesterol were reduced by 23.0 %, 22.6 %, 21.3 % and 21.3 %, respectively, compared to the water control group (= 115.17 mg dl-1). The present study indicates that consumption of GT extract, either control or irradiated, raised the high density lipoprotein cholesterol in adult rats and subsequently lowered the atherogenic index. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that consumption of GT extracts, from either control or irradiated GT leaves, beneficially affects the heart risk factors of disease in adult rats

  7. Evaluating the Effect of Vitamins E and C on Sexual Cell Lineages in Adult Male Rats under Oxidative Stress Induced by Endosulfan Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    yazdan heydari; shirzad hosseini; mojtaba keshavarz; ahmad mozafar; mohammadhasaan meshkibaf; mohammadali takhshid

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Endosulfan is one of the strong insecticides used in agriculture. This toxin is absorbed by inhalation and skin. Endosulfan has side effects such as infertility in men. This study surveys the effect of vitamins E and C on  preventing the harmful effects of Endosulfan on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: Adult male rats (200-250 g) from Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats. Rats in the experimental group...

  8. Effect of Cucurbita pepo L. Fruit Pulp on Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M Mohsen pour; M. Shariati; Esfandiari, A

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: The Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp contains anti-oxidant, vitamins A, C and E, cucurbitacin, β-carotene and α-carotene, B complex vitamins, vitamin B6, pantetonic acid and contains minerals as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pumpkin fruits on spermatogenesis and testicular tissue changes in male rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on forty adult male Wistar rats in four groups of ten. The control group received no drug tre...

  9. The histological effects of Moringa extract on mercury induced hepatotoxicity in adult wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses primarily on the histological effects of aqueous extract of moringa on mercury induced wistar rats. Twenty four adult wistar rats weighing between 190-270g were allocated into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water, group B received 0.5ml of moringa extract, group C received 0.35ml of mercury while group D received 0.35ml of mercury and 0.5ml of moringa extract. The oral administration lasted for twenty eight days...

  10. Induction of abnormal oocyte division under the constant light in the young adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Fangxiong Shi

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of constant light on the ovary, 12 young adult female rats were exposed to constant light for 37 days and their estrous cycles were recorded by daily examination and the ovaries were examined histologically. The results showed that constant light induced in an abnormal and uncontrolled division of oocytes. In these divided-oocyte follicles (DOFs), two or more divided-oocytes shared one zona pellucida and usually floated freely in the follicular antrum. This fantastic phenomenon was discovered for the first time, and it was different from multioocyte follicles (MOFs) and polyovular follicles (POFs) founded in rats, humans, rabbits, mice and dogs.

  11. The histological effects of Annona Muricata (Soursop) on the Adrenal Gland of Adult Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the histological effects of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata on the adrenal gland of adult wistar rats. Twenty wistar rats weighing between 180 – 210g were used for the study. They were divided into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A animals served as the control and received 0.3 ml of distilled water; the experimental groups B, C & D were orally administered 0.2 ml, 0.4 ml and 0.6 ml of ethanolic extract of Annona muricat...

  12. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  13. A Method to Isolate Viable Schwann Cells from Adult Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction Schwann cells (SCs) are the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, which play an important role for repairing nerve injuries and demyelination diseases. The ability to generate large numbers of viable SCs in a short period of time from adult peripheral nerves makes them potential candidates for the clinical application of cell transplantation to enhance remyelination in human demyelinating disease and repair nerve damage. Previously most methods to isolate SCs are not clinically accept...

  14. Self-administration of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellner, Candice A; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-10-01

    Although smoking initiation typically occurs during adolescence, most preclinical studies of tobacco use involve adult animals. Furthermore, their focus is largely on nicotine alone, even though cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether aqueous constituents in cigarette smoke affect acquisition of nicotine self-administration during adolescence in rats. Adolescent and adult male rats, aged postnatal day (P) 25 and 85, respectively, were food trained on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, then allowed to self-administer one of 5 doses of nicotine (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 30 μg/kg) or aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with equivalent nicotine content. Three progressively more difficult schedules of reinforcement, FR1, FR2, and FR5, were used. Both adolescent and adult rats acquired self-administration of nicotine and CSE. Nicotine and CSE similarly increased non-reinforced responding in adolescents, leading to enhanced overall drug intake as compared to adults. When data were corrected for age-dependent alterations in non-reinforced responding, adolescents responded more for low doses of nicotine and CSE than adults at the FR1 reinforcement schedule. No differences in adolescent responding for the two drugs were seen at this schedule, whereas adults had fewer responses for CSE than for nicotine. However, when the reinforcement schedule was increased to FR5, animals dose-dependently self-administered both nicotine and CSE, but no drug or age differences were observed. These data suggest that non-nicotine tobacco smoke constituents do not influence the reinforcing effect of nicotine in adolescents. PMID:27346207

  15. Potential for transport of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to the cotton gin within cotton modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Norman, John W; Knutson, Allen E

    2004-06-01

    There is concern that cotton gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones serving customers in adjacent infested zones may serve as a site for boll weevil reintroductions if weevils are transported alive inside cotton modules. We surveyed fields in three distinct areas of Texas and found that weevils can be present in large numbers in cotton fields that have been defoliated and desiccated in preparation for harvest, both as free adults and as immatures inside unopened bolls. Harvested cotton taken from module builders indicated that approximately = 100-3700 adult boll weevils were packed inside modules constructed at the sampled fields. Marked weevils were forced through a laboratory field cleaner (bur extractor) commonly mounted on stripper-harvesters, and 14% were recovered alive in the seed cotton fraction and lived at least to 24 h. Survival of weevils placed inside modules declined over time up to 7 d, but the magnitude of the decline varied with experimental conditions. In one experiment, 91% of the weevils survived to 7 d, whereas under harsher environmental conditions, only 11% survived that long. Together, our results indicate that when cotton is harvested in an infested area, boll weevils likely will be packed alive into cotton modules, and many will still be alive by the time the module is fed into the gin, at least up to 7 d after the module's construction. PMID:15279274

  16. Differential effects of magnetic field exposure from domestic power supply on loco motor and exploratory behavior of an adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we have examined the low intense magnetic field exposed on adult rats to understand effect of several behavioral parameters. The rats are tested in the open field and spontaneous alternation task after either a single or chronic exposure to the magnetic field. We found that magnetic field exposure had no effect on locomotor behavior in the adult. However, the exploratory behavior of adult rats in the open field was significantly affected. Indeed, we found a consistent increase in behavior performance viz. exploration time and number of exploration events in rats exposed to magnetic field. Our results demonstrate behavioral changes after magnetic field exposure in adult subjects. This also suggests possible deleterious effects of magnetic field exposure in the brain. (author)

  17. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Talita Biude; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; de Oliveira Neves, Flávia Macedo; Simas, Joana Noguères; da Costa Vaz, André; Cabral, Regina Elisabeth L; Vendramini, Vanessa; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of resveratrol against the reproductive damage caused by left-sided experimental varicocele. There was a reduction of testicular major axis in the varicocele group when compared with the other groups; the testicular volume was reduced in varicocele group in comparison to the sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of morphologically abnormal sperm was higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups than in sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of sperm with 100% of mitochondrial activity and normal acrosome integrity were lower in varicocele group than in varicocele treated with resveratrol, sham-control and resveratrol groups. Sperm motility was also reduced in varicocele group than in other groups. The sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in varicocele group than in other groups. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde were higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups. The varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups had a significantly higher frequency of TUNEL-positive cells than sham-control and resveratrol groups; however, immunolabeling of the testes from varicocele treated with resveratrol group showed a lower number of apoptotic germ cells in comparison with the left testis of rats of the varicocele group. Reproductive alterations produced by varicocele from peripuberty were reduced by resveratrol in adulthood. Resveratrol should be better investigated as an adjuvant in the treatment of varicocele. Daily administration of resveratrol to rats with varicocele from peripuberty improves sperm quality in the adulthood. PMID:27069006

  18. Temporal Expression of Mutant LRRK2 in Adult Rats Impairs Dopamine Reuptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Weimin C Hong, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2 gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2G2019S in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  19. Impairment in Spatial Memory in adult Rats following developmental Low Lead Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Rao Barkur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant levels of lead exposure during gestational and early postnatal period on hippocampal dependent spatial memory in rats during adulthood. The pregnant rats were allowed to drink either normal water (control group or 0.2% lead acetate solution (Leadtreated group during pregnancy and lactation. Thus rats pups of lead treated group where exposed to lead indirectly through their mothers during this period. At weaning pups of lead treated group were allowed to drink normal water till they attain the adult hood. Blood lead level was estimated on postnatal day 22 and 120. Birth weight and weight gain of the rat pups as they grew were measured at regular intervals. Both the control and lead treated groups of rats were subjected to water maze test on postnatal day 30 and 120. Results showed that lead treatment had no effect on birth weight or weight gain. Blood lead level on postnatal day 22 was significantly high in treated group compared to the control group and it was normalized by end of four months. The rats born to lead treated mothers showed impaired in spatial memory during water maze test both on postnatal day 36 and 126. These data suggests that exposure to environmentally relevant levels of lead during intrauterine and early postnatal period of brain development causes impairment in spatial memory not only during infancy but also lasts till adulthood.

  20. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T3), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals

  1. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  2. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure induces long-lasting learning impairment, less anxiety-like response and hippocampal injury in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kuo-Ching; Fan, Lir-Wan; Kaizaki, Asuka; Pang, Yi; Cai, Zhengwei; Tien, Lu-Tai

    2013-01-01

    Infection during early neonatal period has been shown to cause lasting neurological disabilities and is associated with the subsequent impairment in development of learning and memory ability and anxiety-related behavior in adults. We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in cognitive deficits in juvenile rats (P21); thus, the goal of the present study was to determine whether neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects in adult rats. After an LP...

  3. Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2011-01-01

    The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (pos...

  4. Lactogenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Adult Male Rats and Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid A. Abbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic and cytogenic effects were studied for Ochratoxin (OTA dosed daily orally throughout lactation period to four groups each consist of newly parturated female rats at doses (0, 60, 120, 180 µg/Kg. BW representing control, T1, T2, T3 group. Micronucleus test results indicated significant increase in number of fragmented and budding nuclei of T1, T2, T3 adult rat bone marrow in dose dependent manner in comparison with control group. The lactating results show no significant change in weekly pup group’s weight gain or length throughout lactating period. Alough there were no changes recorded in viability index of all pups groups, lactating index recorded considerable decline in T1, T2, T3 pups groups according with their adult OTA doses with maximum pups death at the third lactating week. Different histopathological lesions observed in pups liver, kidney and spleen that increase in severity proportionally with their OTA mother doses.

  5. Retrograde Labeling of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells with the Flurogold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiHuang; YannianHui; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To study the densities and distribution of retinal ganglion cells(RGC) in adult rat retinae with flurogold(FG) labeling retogradely.Methods:FG was injected to the superior colliculid(SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei(dLGN) in adult rats and the retinae were examined by fluorescence microscopy at various periods of time.Results:FG-labelled RGC were observed in the retina as early as 3 days after application of FG.The labeled cells gradually increased in density,reached 95% of the maximal number on days 7 and the maximal nuber on days 30.The density of labeled cells was higher in the posterior pole than in the peripheral area.The fluorescence intensity in labeled cells maintained up to 60 days.Conclusion:The FG retrograde labeling method is reliable and effective for quantity of RGC.Eye Science 2000;46:29-33.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of glutamate transporter EAAC1 in the brainstem of adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-xing; LIU Tao; ZHAO Jing-wei; LI Jin-lian; DONG Yu-lin; LI Ji-shuo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the distribution of EAAC1, a subtype of glutamate transporters, in the brainstem of adult rat. Methods: Immunocytochemical staining with avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method was employed. Results:EAAC1 was widely distributed throughout the brainstem. In many regions, the EAAC1-like immunoreactivity was primarily distributed in the neuropil. Cell body staining was observed in the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, external cortex of the inferior colliculus, red nucleus, substantia nigra, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, ventral tegmental nucleus, superior olivary complex, nucleus of the trapezoid body, cochlear nucleus, sensory trigeminal complex, Barrington's nucleus,trigeminal motor nucleus, parabrachial nuclei, dorsal nucleus of vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, locus coeruleus, lateral and superior vestibular nuclei, lateral paragigantocellular nucleus and dorsal paragigantocellular nucleus. Conclusion: Glutamate transporter EAAC 1 is widely distributed throughout the brainstem of adult rat, which may play an important role in excitatory activities of the neurons induced by glutamate.

  7. Reduced body mass, food intake, and testis size in response to short photoperiod in adult F344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Paul D

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although laboratory rats are often considered classic nonseasonal breeders, peripubertal rats of two inbred strains, F344 and BN, have both reproductive and nonreproductive responses to short photoperiods. Unmanipulated adult rats have not been reported to have robust responses to short photoperiod alone, although several treatments can induce photoperiodic responses in adults. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that unmanipulated F344 rats retain responses to short photoperiod as adults and that they have the necessary elements for an endogenous circannual rhythm of sensitivity to short photoperiod. Results Relative to rats kept in long photoperiods (L16:D8, adult F344 rats transferred at 4.5 months of age to short photoperiods (L8:D16 had significantly lower testis size, food intake, and body weight. In a second experiment, newly weaned F344 rats underwent an initial period of inhibition of reproductive maturation, lower food intake, and lower body weight in short photoperiod or intermediate photoperiod (L12:D12 relative to rats in long photoperiod. By 18 weeks of treatment, rats in the two inhibitory photoperiods no longer differed from long photoperiod controls. In short photoperiod, rats underwent a second period of slight reproductive inhibition between weeks 35 and 48, but there was an effect on body weight and slight inhibition of food intake only in an intermediate photoperiod. Conclusion Male F344 rats retain photoresponsiveness as adults, with less reproductive inhibition but equivalent nonreproductive responses. There was only weak evidence for an endogenous timer controlling a circannual cycle of sensitivity to short photoperiod.

  8. Chronic Effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate on Stereological Parameters of Testis in Adult Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIn recent years concerns have been raised regarding the incidence of male reproductive disorders from exposure to endocrine disruptors. So, chronic effects of di(2-ethylhexylphthalate were studied on histological and stereological structure of testis in adult Wistar rats. Materials and MethodsThirty two adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in four equal experiment groups; oil vehicle group and three treated groups which received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day di(2-ethylhexylphthalate by gavage for 90 days, respectively. At the end of exposure period the volume of testes was measured by Cavellieri method, testes weight was recorded and then fixed in Bouin’s solution. Following tissue processing, 5 µm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, relative and total volumes of seminiferous tubules, tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were estimated.ResultsThe results showed that mean weight and volume of testis were decreased significantly (35.2% and 23.9% respectively in rats treated with 500 mg/kg/day DEHP for 90 days. Seminiferous tubules diameter reduced, 4.4% and 13.4% in 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP-treated groups, respectively. Relative volumes of tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were increased significantly in 100 (P< 0.05 and 500 (P< 0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups. Also, testosterone serum levels were significantly higher (P< 0.05 in rats exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. ConclusionPresent study indicated dose-dependent reductions of testicular parameters in adult male rats chronically exposed to di(2-ethylhexylphthalate.

  9. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. ► Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. ► Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. ► Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P 0.05). Upstream of Bax substance parallel to down-regulation of PCNA demonstrate that ghrelin may prevent massive accumulation of germ cells during normal spermatogenesis. These observations also indicate that ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats and could be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors.

  10. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shenouda, Sylvia K.; Varner, Kurt J.; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated administration of MDMA (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown; oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included: al...

  11. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, Lingfa; WEI, Quanwei; FEDAIL, Jaafar Sulieman; Shi, Fangxiong; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-D...

  12. Systemic physiology and neuroapoptotic profiles in young and adult rats exposed to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Rami Mossad; Krammer, Caspar Weel; Hansen, Tom Giedsing;

    2015-01-01

    experimental groups receiving dexmedetomidine, while propofol administration was associated with increased systemic lactate levels and metabolic acidosis. A substantial difference in anaesthesia/surgery-induced neuroapoptosis was found between young and adult rats in several brain regions. Combination of...... one of four anaesthetics regimens: (i) sevoflurane/dexmedetomidine, (ii) sevoflurane/fentanyl; (iii) propofol/dexmedetomidine, and (iv) propofol/fentanyl. Animals underwent a dorsal skin flap procedure while physiologic, metabolic and biochemical parameters were closely monitored. Neuroapoptotic...

  13. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents degeneration of adult rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    T. Hagg; Varon, S

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for injured dopaminergic neurons of the adult rat substantia nigra compacta. Fourteen days after a unilateral transection of the nigrostriatal pathway two-thirds of the neurons (identified by retrograde labeling) had degenerated. In sharp contrast, 73% (a few cases, > 90%) of this cell loss was prevented by continuous infusion of CNTF close to the injured neurons. However, CNTF did not pre...

  14. Isolation of Enteric Ganglia from the Myenteric Plexus of Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Christine B.

    1994-01-01

    Enteric neurons and glia cells were isolated from adult Sprague Dawley rats. A procedure is described using a combination of microdissection and mechanical dissociation after enzyme treatment which yields large numbers of cell clusters suitable for tissue culture and grafting into the injured spinal cord. Differentiated enteric ganglia remained viable for at least 5 days in vitro Cultured neurons expressed histochemical reactivity for acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide...

  15. The intraglandular submandibular ganglion of postnatal and adult rats. I. A light and electron microscope study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Y. K.; Wong, W C; Ling, E A

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the intraglandular submandibular ganglion is described in both postnatal and adult rats. The ganglion is localised mainly at the hilum where the majority of the cell bodies are observed. Ganglia are also present in the intralobular septa of both the submandibular and the sublingual glands. Often they are found along the main salivary ducts with the larger ganglia being encapsulated by connective tissue. On electron microscopy, the submandibular ganglion cells show the usual f...

  16. Alteration of Forebrain Neurogenesis after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    OpenAIRE

    ValeryAMatarazzo; PatrickGauthier

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain), remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neuron...

  17. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  18. Investigation of curcumin effects on liver tissue in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra khodaparast; ali reza yousofi; ameneh khoshvagti

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objective: Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic drug that has many clinical uses in cancer treatment, but it has toxic effects due to creation of free radicals. In this study, the effects of curcumin" as an antioxidant drug” on liver tissue was investigated. Materials & methods: 50 wistar adult male rats were selected randomly and were divided in to five groups including control, sham (receiving normal saline and olive oil), cyclophosp...

  19. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  20. Effects of Neonatal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure on Cognitive, Emotional, and Motor Function in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick A Forcelli; Kozlowski, Ryan; Snyder, Charles; Kondratyev, Alexei; Gale, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potent proapoptotic effect of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in developmental rodent models, little is known about the long-term impact of exposure during brain development. Clinically, this is of growing concern. To determine the behavioral consequences of such exposure, we examined phenobarbital, phenytoin, and lamotrigine for their effects on adult behaviors after administration to neonatal rats throughout the second postnatal week. AED treatment from postnatal days 7 to 13...

  1. Methylmercury chloride damage to the adult rat hippocampus cannot be detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyan Lu; Jinwei Wu; Guangyuan Cheng; Jianying Tian; Zeqing Lu; Yongyi Bi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that methylmercury can damage hippocampal neurons and accord-ingly cause cognitive dysfunction. However, a non-invasive, safe and accurate detection method for detecting hippocampal injury has yet to be developed. This study aimed to detect methylmer-cury-induced damage on hippocampal tissue using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were given a subcutaneous injection of 4 and 2 mg/kg methylmercury into the neck for 50 consecutive days. Water maze and pathology tests confirmed that cognitive function had been impaired and that the ultrastructure of hippocampal tissue was altered after injection. The results of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-acetyl aspartate/creatine, choline complex/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratio in rat hippocampal tissue were unchanged. Therefore, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can not be used to determine structural damage in the adult rat hippocampus caused by methylmercury chloride.

  2. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  3. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  4. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the scia

  5. Effects of 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide on Peripubertal and Adult Sprague–Dawley Rats: Ovarian, Clinical, and Pathologic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, F Salih; Goode, Amanda K; Kock, Nancy D.; Arifin, Esther A; Cline, J. Mark; Adams, Michael R.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Christian, Patricia J.; Isom, Scott; Kaplan, Jay R.; Appt, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Young rats treated daily with intraperitoneal 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) undergo selective destruction of primordial follicles, resulting in gradual ovarian failure resembling the menopausal transition in women. To determine whether VCD has similar effects on ovaries of older rats, adult and peripubertal Sprague–Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally daily for 30 d with vehicle or VCD at 40 or 80 mg/kg. Body weight, food intake, complete blood counts, and markers of liver injury ...

  6. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers’ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  7. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  8. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on thyrotropin secretion in adult and old female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones have been implicated in the modulation of TSH secretion; however, there are few and controversial data regarding the effect of progesterone (Pg on TSH secretion. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA is a synthetic alpha-hydroxyprogesterone analog that has been extensively employed in therapeutics for its Pg-like actions, but that also has some glucocorticoid and androgen activity. Both hormones have been shown to interfere with TSH secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MPA or Pg administration to ovariectomized (OVX rats on in vivo and in vitro TSH release and pituitary TSH content. The treatment of adult OVX rats with MPA (0.25 mg/100 g body weight, sc, daily for 9 days induced a significant (P<0.05 increase in the pituitary TSH content, which was not observed when the same treatment was used with a 10 times higher MPA dose or with Pg doses similar to those of MPA. Serum TSH was similar for all groups. MPA administered to OVX rats at the lower dose also had a stimulatory effect on the in vitro basal and TRH-induced TSH release. The in vitro basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release was not significantly affected by Pg treatment. Conversely, MPA had no effect on old OVX rats. However, in these old rats, ovariectomy alone significantly reduced (P<0.05 basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release in vitro, as well as pituitary TSH content. The results suggest that in adult, but not in old OVX rats, MPA but not Pg has a stimulatory effect on TSH stores and on the response to TRH in vitro.

  9. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  10. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  11. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  12. GABA(A) receptor density is altered by cannabinoid treatment in the hippocampus of adult but not adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurand, Mathieu; Dalton, Victoria Stephanie; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2010-09-10

    Cannabinoids are known to induce transient psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in healthy individuals and contribute to trigger schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals, particularly during adolescence. Converging preclinical evidence suggests important interactions between cannabinoid and GABAergic systems. In the present study, we compared the effects of cannabinoid treatment on GABA(A) receptor binding in the brain of adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (5 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) rats were treated with the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 (25, 50 or 100 microg/kg/day) or vehicle for 1, 4 or 14 days. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection and GABA(A) receptor density was measured in several brain regions using [(35)S]TBPS and in vitro autoradiography. Adolescent rats had higher numbers of GABA(A) receptors compared to adults. A 24% increase of binding in adult rats treated with 100 microg/kg HU210 for 14 days compared to controls was observed in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (16.1 versus 12.9 fmol/mg tissue equivalent, t=2.720, pHU210 did not affect GABA(A) receptors in adolescent rats in any treatment regimen and in adult rats treated with HU210 for 1 or 4 days. These data suggest that long-term, high-dose treatment with HU210 increases GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of adult rats, changes that may interfere with associated hippocampal cognitive functions such as learning and memory. In addition, our results suggest that the adolescent brain does not display the same compensatory mechanisms that are activated in the adult brain following cannabinoid treatment. PMID:20599838

  13. Differential expression of TRPM7 in rat hepatoma and embryonic and adult hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D Hung; Grant, Caroline E; Hill, Ceredwyn E

    2012-04-01

    TRPM7 channels are implicated in cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. However, a profile of TRPM7 activity in a specific cell type has not been determined from embryonic to terminally differentiated state. Here, we characterized TRPM7 expression in a spectrum of rat liver cells at different developmental stages. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, TRPM7-like Na(+) currents were identified in RLC-18 cells, a differentiated, proliferating hepatocellular line derived from day 17 embryonic rat liver. Currents were outwardly rectifying, enhanced in divalent-free solutions, and inhibited by intracellular Mg(2+). Reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that RLC-18 cells express both TRPM6 and TRPM7. However, mean currents were reduced almost 80% by 1 mmol/L 2-aminoethoxyphenylborate (2-APB) and were abolished in RLC-18 cells heterologously expressing a dominant negative TRPM7 construct, suggesting that TRPM7 is the major current carrier in these cells. Functional comparison showed that relative to terminally differentiated adult rat hepatocytes, currents were 1.8 and 3.9 times higher in, respectively, RLC-18 and WIF-B cells, a rat hepatoma - human fibroblast cross. Our results demonstrate that plasma membrane TRPM7 channels are more highly expressed in proliferating cells as compared with terminally differentiated and nondividing rat hepatocytes and suggest that downregulation of this channel is associated with hepatocellular differentiation. PMID:22429021

  14. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  15. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

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    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  16. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (pinfrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:21946944

  17. Influence of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 殷德振; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 程志安; 杨睿; 黄霖

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in adult rats.Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into experimental and control groups, each group having 12 rats. The spinal cord injury was established by transecting the spinal cord at T10 level with microsurgery scissors.OECs were purified from SD rat olfactory bulb and cultured in DMEM ( Dulbecco's minimum essential medium) and cryopreserved (-120℃) for two weeks.OECs suspension[(1-1.4)×105/ul] was transplanted into transected spinal cord, while the DMEM solution was injected instead in the control group. At 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation, the rats were evaluated with climbing test and MEP ( moter evoked potentials) monitoring. The samples of spinal cord were procured and studied with histological and immunohisto chemical stainings.Results: At 6 weeks after transplantation, all of the rats in both transplanted and control groups were paraplegic, and MEPs could not be recorded. Morphology of transplanted OECs was normal, and OECs were interfused with host well. Axons could regrow into gap tissue between the spinal cords. Both OECs and regrown axons were immunoreactive for MBP. No regrown axons were found in the control group. At 12 weeks after transplantation, 2 rats (2/7) had lower extremities muscle contraction, 2 rats (2/7) had hip and/or knee active movement, and MEP of 5 rats (5/7) could be recorded in the calf in the transplantation group. None of the rats (7/ 7) in the control group had functional improvement, and none had MEPs recorded. In the transplanted group,histological and immunohistochemical methods showed the number of transplanted OECs reduced and some regrown axons had reached the end of transected spinal cord.However, no regrown axons could be seen except scar formation in the control group.Conclusions: Cryopreserved OECs could integrated with the host and

  18. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

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    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  19. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

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    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  20. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

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    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  1. Application of Luxol Fast Blue staining in locating the corticospinal tract in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Guangming Lü; Xiaosong Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for myelin staining,mordant,or the special reaction of osmic acid with lipoid is used according to different principles.The commonly used methods are classic Well staining ,classic lithium carbonate-haematine staining,fast green staining,silver staining ,etc.Luxol Fast Blue can brightly stain myelin sheath,and has certain specificity .The background can be very clean if there is proper differentiation,whereas Luxol Fast Blue is cheap and convenient to operate,thus it is an ideal staining reagent for routine myelin sheath.OBJECTIVE: To show the coricospinal tract of normal adult rats with Luxol Fast Blue shaining method.DESIGN:A repetitive measurement design.SETTINGS: Institute of Nuerobiology,Nantong University;Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.MATERIALS: Six healthy adult male SD rats of clean dergree,weighing averagely 300 g.were provided by the experimental animal center of Nantong University.1 g/L Luxol Fast Blue solution was provided by Sigma Company;Leica CM1900 cryostat microtome by Leica Company;Leica DMR microscope by Leica Company.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Staff Room of Human Anatomy,Nantong University in May 2005.The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of combined anesthetic(2 mL/kg),then the chest was open for perfusing saline and phosphate buffer containing formamint via heart. Brain and spinal cord were removed after 1 hour then fixed,then changed to phosphate buffer(pH 7.4)containing 300 g/L saccharu at 4 ℃.and stayed overnight,tissue blocks at pyramid,decussation of pyramid and cervical,thoracic,lumbar and sacral segments of spinal cord were removed to prepare continuous horizontal frozen sections(30 μm) after sedimentation,the sections were dried at room temperature.The corticospinal tract of normal adult rats were shown with Luxol Fast Blue staining method,and observed under Leica DMR microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Positive fibers in

  2. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Arash, E-mail: arashkheradmand@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dezfoulian, Omid [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alirezaei, Masoud [Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulian, Bahram [Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  3. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  4. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

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    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  5. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  6. Thymoquinone supplementation ameliorates lead-induced testis function impairment in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Aymen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-06-01

    This study was realized to investigate the possible beneficial effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active component of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against lead (Pb)-induced inhibition of rat testicular functions. Adult rats were randomized into four groups: a control group receiving no treatment; a Pb group exposed to 2000 parts per million (ppm) of Pb acetate in drinking water; a Pb-TQ group co-treated with Pb (as in Pb group) plus TQ (5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day, per orally (p.o.)); and a TQ group receiving TQ (5 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). All treatments were for 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed for the body weight gain or for relative testes weight among the four groups of animals. Testicular Pb content significantly increased in metal-intoxicated rats compared with that in control rats. TQ supplementation had no effect on this testicular Pb accumulation. Interestingly, when coadministrated with Pb, TQ significantly improved the low plasma testosterone level and the decreased epididymal sperm count caused by Pb. In conclusion, the results suggest, for the first time, that TQ protects against Pb-induced impairment of testicular steroidogenic and spermatogenic functions. This study will open new perspectives for the clinical use of TQ in Pb intoxication. PMID:25216800

  7. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  8. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10, 100mg/kg (S100, and 260 mg/kg (S260 while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  9. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  10. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  11. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  12. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  13. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  14. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  15. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  16. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...... induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell...

  17. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  18. Measurement of Ca channel activity of isolated adult rat heart cells using 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated adult rat heart cells incubated with 5 microM Mn in a medium with 1 mM Ca showed a rapid phase of Mn binding plus a slow phase of Mn uptake. The rapid phase was extracellular binding, as judged by its temperature-insensitive removal by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N'-tetraacetic acid. The slow linear phase represented cellular uptake, as judged by its release with digitonin plus the ionophore A23187. Isoproterenol increased the linear rate of Mn uptake and induced spontaneous beating activity in some cells. Both effects were inhibited by nitrendipine. Electrical stimulation of the cells in suspension increased the linear rate of cellular Mn uptake. The increase was potentiated by isoproterenol, and inhibited by nitrendipine or verapamil. Stimulation-dependent Mn uptake (per milligram protein) was greater for cells from 5- to 6-week-old rats than for 8- to 9-month-old female retired breeder rats, in the presence of isoproterenol. Ryanodine increased the stimulation-dependent Mn uptake in the presence of isoproterenol, but not in its absence. We conclude: (i) that cellular uptake of 54Mn is a good probe of Ca channel function; (ii) that isoproterenol promotes Mn influx by the channel in isolated heart cells; (iii) that cells from young rats (5-6 weeks) have a higher beta-adrenergically induced Ca channel activity than cells from mature rats (8-9 months); and (iv) that ryanodine promotes Ca channel activity (perhaps indirectly) in the presence of isoproterenol

  19. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  20. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  1. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  2. Immunohistochemical distribution of Plexin A4 in the adult rat central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire-Anne Gutekunst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available PlexinA4 is the latest member to be identified of the plexin A subfamily, critical transducers of class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilins 1 and 2. Despite functional information regarding the role of PlexinA4 in development and guidance of specific neuronal pathways, little is known about its distribution in the adult central nervous system (CNS. Here we report an in depth immunohistochemical analysis of PlexinA4 expression in the adult rat CNS. PlexinA4 staining was present in neurons and fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord, including neocortex, hippocampus, lateral hypothalamus, red nucleus, facial nucleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. PlexinA4 antibodies labeled fibers in the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, several thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, pontine reticular region, as well as in several cranial nerve nuclei. This constitutes the first detailed description of the topographic distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult CNS and will set the basis for future studies on the functional implications of PlexinA4 in adult brain physiology.

  3. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-κB expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  4. Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor on retrograde cell reaction after facial nerve crush in young adults rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gispen, W.H.; Ulenkate, H.J.L.M.; Jennekens, F.G.I.

    1996-01-01

    Locally applied ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a powerful effect on retrograde axonal reaction following facial nerve crush in neonatal rats. We examined whether it also exerts a strong effect on retrograde axonal reaction in young adult rats when administered subcutaneously. The dose was 1 mg/kg body weight, three times a week, similar to that used in a previous experiment in which CNTF was reported to have an effect. We studied changes in the morphology of the motor nerve cell bodie...

  5. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB153 or PCB126 impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Erceg, Slaven; Cauli, Omar; Monfort, Pilar; Felipo, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18093177

  6. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, ...

  7. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  8. Special function of nestin+ neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuhong; Guo, Kaihua; Li, Dongpei; Yuan, Qunfang; Yao, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Nestin+ neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin+ neurons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin+ neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin+ neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximate...

  9. THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  10. Radioautographic characterization of a serotonin-accumulating nerve cell group in adult rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensely labeled nerve cell bodies were identified by radioautography within the pars ventralis of nucleus dorsomedialis hypothalami (hdv), following intraventricular perfusion with 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated serotonin [3H]5-HT in adult rats pretreated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. This selective reaction, which involved approximately 1000 neurons on each side of the third ventricle, was unaltered by concomitant administration of 10-3 M non-radioactive norepinephrine, and was absent after intraventricular injection of 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated norepinephrine. The 3H-labeled 5-HT nerve cell bodies were loosely grouped within the inner and caudal half of the hdv, and appeared morphologically similar to the unreactive neurons among which they were interspersed. Within the same region, numerous labeled axonal varicosities were also detected which were never found in synaptic contact with the reactive cells. If the 3H-labeled 5-HT neurons endogenous 5-HT, they might constitute an intrinsic source of 5-HT innervation in the adult rat hypothalamus. (Auth.)

  11. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26416672

  12. Effects of chronic treatment with methylphenidate on oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-04-21

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a central stimulant, prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The long-term behavioral consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. In this study, the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by various doses of MPH were investigated. Forty adult male rats were divided into 5 groups; and treated with different doses of MPH for 21 days. Twenty four hours after drug treatment, Open Field Test (OFT) was performed in all animals. At the end of the study, blood cortisol level (BCL) was measured and hippocampus was isolated and oxidative stress and inflammation parameters and histological changes were analyzed. Chronic MPH at all doses decreased central square entries, number of rearing, ambulation distance and time spent in central square in OFT. BCL increased in doses 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH. Furthermore, MPH in all doses markedly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level, Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampus. MPH (10 and 20mg/kg) treated groups had decreased mitochondrial reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) activities. 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH change cell density and morphology of cells in Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of hippocampus. Chronic treatment with high doses of MPH can cause oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in hippocampus of adult rats. PMID:26687276

  13. Chronic effect of gabapentin on liver function in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GPN is a new antiepileptic agent currently in used as add-on therapy in adult patients suffering from partial seizures. The extent of liver damage at different dosage and long term treatment with GPN is not yet clear. Therefore this study was undertaken to find out the possibility of liver damage by this drug. Adult male (Wistar rats of 180-220 g were administered intraperitoneally with GPN (20 or 100 mg/kg for 45 days. After the experimental period, the liver function tests were carried out in control and experimental groups. The activity of liver enzymes, with 20 mg/kg of GPN were not significantly different from the control group but, the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin were enhanced significantly with 100 mg/kg of GPN. Total protein and albumin decreased in this group as compared with control animals. The histopathology of the liver parenchymal cells also showed minute foci of necrosis in a few rats treated with high dose of GPN, whereas, at therapeutic dose the histopathology and biochemical indices showed almost normal values. At therapeutic dose GPN is a safer drug with regards to liver function and hepatocellular damage as compared with other antiepileptic drugs.

  14. Extracellular space diffusion analysis in the infant and adult rat striatum using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuangfeng; Wang, Yan; Li, Kai; Tang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Kuo; Shi, Chunyan; Han, Hongbin; Peng, Yun

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular space (ECS) in the brain provides an extrasynaptic transfer channel among neurons, axons and glial cells. It is particularly important in the early stage after birth, when angiogenesis is not yet complete and the ECS may provide the main pathway for metabolite transport. However, the characteristics of extracellular transport remain unclear. In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was used to perform real-time visualization and quantification of diffusion in the brain ECS of infant (postnatal day 10 (P10)) and adult rats. Using a modified diffusion equation and the linear relationship between the signal intensity and the gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) concentration, diffusion parameters were obtained; these parameters include the effective diffusion coefficient (D*), clearance rate (k'), tortuosity (λ) and the volume fraction of distribution (Vd%). There were significant differences in the diffusion parameters between P10 and adult rats. This finding provides a reference for future treatment of brain diseases using drugs administered via interstitial pathways. PMID:27296518

  15. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  16. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  18. Reduction of intraspecific aggression in adult rats by neonatal treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhães de Castro R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory control on the aggression process. According to experimental evidence, this amine also influences growth and development of the nervous tissue including serotoninergic neurons. Thus, the possibility exists that increased serotonin availability in young animals facilitates a long-lasting effect on aggressive responses. The present study aimed to investigate the aggressive behavior of adult rats (90-120 days treated from the 1st to the 19th postnatal day with citalopram (CIT, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (20 mg/kg, sc, every 3 days. Aggressive behavior was induced by placing a pair of rats (matched by weight in a box (20 x 20 x 20 cm, and submitting them to a 20-min session of electric footshocks (five 1.6-mA - 2-s current pulses, separated by a 4-min intershock interval. When compared to the control group (rats treated for the same period with equivalent volumes of saline solution, the CIT group presented a 41.4% reduction in the duration of aggressive response. The results indicate that the repeated administration of CIT early in life reduces the aggressive behavior in adulthood and suggest that the increased brain serotoninergic activity could play a role in this effect.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  20. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:23683528

  1. Prenatal Rosiglitazone Administration to Neonatal Rat Pups Does Not Alter the Adult Metabolic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatally administered rosiglitazone (RGZ is effective in enhancing lung maturity; however, its long-term safety remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of prenatally administered RGZ on the metabolic phenotype of adult rats. Methods. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams were administered either placebo or RGZ at embryonic days 18 and 19. Between 12 and 20 weeks of age, the rats underwent glucose and insulin tolerance tests and de novo fatty acid synthesis assays. The lungs, liver, skeletal muscle, and fat tissue were processed by Western hybridization for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP, and surfactant proteins B (SPB and C (SPC. Plasma was assayed for triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, and troponin-I levels. Lungs were also morphometrically analyzed. Results. Insulin and glucose challenges, de novo fatty acid synthesis, and all serum assays revealed no differences among all groups. Western hybridization for PPARγ, ADRP, SPB, and SPC in lung, liver, muscle, and fat tissue showed equal levels. Histologic analyses showed a similar number of alveoli and septal thickness in all experimental groups. Conclusions. When administered prenatally, RGZ does not affect long-term fetal programming and may be safe for enhancing fetal lung maturation.

  2. The effect of omega-3 on cognition in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Sayed, Manal M

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:25183510

  3. Constraint-induced movement therapy enhanced neurogenesis and behavioral recovery after stroke in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuansheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Shanshan; Nie, Yingxue

    2009-08-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) has been extensively used for stroke rehabilitation. CIMT encourages use of the impaired limb along with restraint of the ipsilesional limb in daily life, and may promote behavioral recovery and induce structural changes in brain after stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CIMT enhances neurogenesis in rat brain after stroke that was generated by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult rats were divided into sham group, ischemia group and ischemia treated with CIMT group. Rats of CIMT group were treated with a plaster cast to restrain the healthy forelimb for 14 days beginning 1 week after ischemia. The proliferation of neuronal cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and behavioral recovery were analyzed at day 29 after ischemia. We also measured the tissue level of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) by ELISA. SDF-1 might be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis following stroke. In the subventricular zone of the animals treated with CIMT, there was a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells (135 +/- 18, P behavioral performances and increased the SDF-1 protein levels in the cortex and dentate gyrus. In conclusion, CIMT treatment enhances neurogenesis and functional recovery after stroke. PMID:19638734

  4. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 μg/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  5. Differential Mechanisms of Ang (1-7)-Mediated Vasodepressor Effect in Adult and Aged Candesartan-Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, E S; K. M. Denton; Widdop, R. E.; Bosnyak, S.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)) causes vasodilator effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) via angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT2R). However, the role of vascular AT2R in aging is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of aging on Ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effects and vascular angiotensin receptor localization in aging. Blood pressure was measured in conscious adult (~17 weeks) and aged (~19 months) normotensive rats that received drug combinati...

  6. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100.......3% lower), this difference was not found to be statistically significant. In conclusion, a combination of PHA and AKG treatment (AKG+PHA 100%) stimulates proliferation of GI-tract crypt depth and tunica mucosa thickness cf. that of Control rats, findings that would be of benefit to the elderly and to...

  7. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...

  8. Hormone responsiveness of cultured Sertoli cells obtained from adult rats after their rapid isolation under less harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M; Bhattacharya, I; Devi, Y S; Arya, S P; Majumdar, S S

    2016-05-01

    During adulthood, testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) coordinate all stages of germ cell (Gc) development involved in sperm production. However, our understanding about the functions of adult Sc is limited because of the difficulties involved in the process of isolating these cells from the adult testis, mainly because of the presence of large number of advanced Gc which interfere with Sc isolation at this age. Most of our knowledge about Sc function are derived from studies which used pre-pubertal rat Sc (18 ± 2-day old) as it is easy to isolate and culture Sc at this age. To this end, we established a less time consuming and less harsh procedure of isolating Sc from adult (60 days of age) rat testis for facilitating research on Sc-mediated regulation of spermatogenesis during adulthood. The cells were isolated using collagenase digestion at higher temperature, reducing the exposure time of cells to the enzyme. Step-wise digestion with intermittent removal of small clusters of tissue helped in increasing the yield of Sc. Isolated Sc were cultured and treated with FSH and testosterone (T) to evaluate their hormone responsiveness in terms of lactate, E2 , cAMP production. Adult Sc were found to be active and produced high amounts of lactate in a FSH-independent manner. FSH-mediated augmentation of cAMP and E2 production by adult Sc was less as compared with that by pre-pubertal Sc obtained from 18-day-old rats. Androgen-binding ability of adult Sc was significantly higher than pre-pubertal Sc. Although T treatment remarkably augmented expression of Claudin 11, it failed to augment lactate production by adult Sc. This efficient and rapid procedure for isolation and culture of functionally viable adult rat Sertoli cells may pave the way for determining their role in regulation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. PMID:26991307

  9. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  10. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood. PMID:26620193

  11. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  12. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  13. Parenteral magnesium load testing with 28Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency

  14. Antenatal Antioxidant Prevents Nicotine-Mediated Hypertensive Response in Rat Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perinatal nicotine exposure increased blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms were unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of hypertensive response is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps from Day 4 of gestation to Day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in the drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8-mo-old male offspring. Perinatal nicotine treatment resulted in a significant increase in arterial ROS production in offspring, which was abrogated by NAC. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced BP responses were significantly higher in nicotine-treated group than in saline-treated control group, and NAC treatment blocked the nicotine-induced increase in BP response. Consistent with that, the nicotine treatment significantly increased both Ang II-induced and phorbol [12, 13]-dibutyrate (PDBu, a Prkc activator)-induced arterial contractions in adult offspring, which were blocked by NAC treatment. In addition, perinatal nicotine treatment significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced arterial relaxation in offspring, which was also inhibited by NAC treatment. Results demonstrate that inhibition of ROS blocks the nicotine-induced increase in arterial reactivity and BP response to vasoconstrictors in adult offspring, suggesting a key role for increased oxidative stress in nicotine-induced developmental programming of hypertensive phenotype in male offspring. PMID:26224008

  15. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  16. Reorganization of auditory map and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal’s survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment.

  17. Interaction Between Bt-Transgenic Cotton and the Whitefly’s Parasitoid, Encarsia Formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi Solmaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt cotton developed against lepidopteran pests may not be compatible with parasitoid of secondary pests such as Bemisia tabaci which attack many plants such as cotton. In this study, the effects of Bt cotton on the demographic parameters of Encarsia formosa, parasitoid of B. tabaci were assessed. The data were analysed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. The results indicated that pre-adult developmental time, the total preoviposition period (TPOP and the adult preoviposition period (APOP in the Bt cotton were significantly longer than in the non-Bt cotton. Also, fecundity and body size in both lines were significantly different. The fecundity was 23.64±0.73 and 43.75±0.89 eggs/females in the Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. All the population parameters were affected by the Bt cotton. The intrinsic rate of increase (r was 0.15 day-1 in the non-Bt cotton but it was 0.10 day-1 in the Bt cotton. The finite rate of increase (λ was 1.11 day-1 in the non-Bt cotton whilst it was 1.08 in the Bt cotton. The net reproductive rate (R0 in the non-Bt cotton was 36.75 but in the Bt cotton these parameters showed 19.62 offspring/individual. Also, the mean generation time (T in the non-Bt and Bt cotton was 22.69 and 27.79 days, respectively. The results illustrated, that although transgenic crops are effective tools for management of the target pests, they can adversely affect, either directly or indirectly, the natural enemies dependent on these plants.

  18. Effects of adolescent social defeat on adult amphetamine-induced locomotion and corticoaccumbal dopamine release in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Forster, Gina L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Roberts, Christina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress during this period results in behavioral dysfunction including substance abuse disorders. Adult male rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit reduced basal dopamine tissue content in the medial prefrontal cortex, altered dopamine tissue content in corticoaccumbal dopamine regions following acute amphetamine, and increased amphetamine conditioned place preference follo...

  19. PRENATAL COCAINE ELIMINATES THE SEX-DEPENDENT DIFFERENCES IN ACTIVATION OBSERVED IN ADULT RATS AFTER COCAINE CHALLENGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the adult rat, acute administration of cocaine results in enhanced expression of certain behaviors. his activation is often referred to as "stereotypy" because of its repetitive nature. epeated exposure to the same dose of cocaine does not result in tolerance or a diminution o...

  20. EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE. 1. THE PROXIMAL ALVEOLAR REGION OF JUVENILE AND ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques were devised to isolate tissue from the epithelium of terminal airways and the alveoli proximal to the airways. One day old juveniles and six week old adult rats were exposed to either room air or 0.5 ppm NO2 for 23 hrs per day seven days per week. An additional group ...

  1. ALKYLTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of ATPase activities by triethyltin (TET), diethyltin (DET), monoethyltin (MET) and trimethyltin (TMT) was studied in homogenates of brain and liver from adult rats. MET did not produce significant inhibition. ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates from TET-t...

  2. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  3. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  4. Expression of nestin by neural cells in the adult rat and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Neurons and glial cells in the developing brain arise from neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is thought to be expressed exclusively by NPCs in the normal brain, and is replaced by the expression of proteins specific for neurons or glia in differentiated cells. Nestin expressing NPCs are found in the adult brain in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus. While significant attention has been paid to studying NPCs in the SVZ and SGZ in the adult brain, relatively little attention has been paid to determining whether nestin-expressing neural cells (NECs exist outside of the SVZ and SGZ. We therefore stained sections immunocytochemically from the adult rat and human brain for NECs, observed four distinct classes of these cells, and present here the first comprehensive report on these cells. Class I cells are among the smallest neural cells in the brain and are widely distributed. Class II cells are located in the walls of the aqueduct and third ventricle. Class IV cells are found throughout the forebrain and typically reside immediately adjacent to a neuron. Class III cells are observed only in the basal forebrain and closely related areas such as the hippocampus and corpus striatum. Class III cells resemble neurons structurally and co-express markers associated exclusively with neurons. Cell proliferation experiments demonstrate that Class III cells are not recently born. Instead, these cells appear to be mature neurons in the adult brain that express nestin. Neurons that express nestin are not supposed to exist in the brain at any stage of development. That these unique neurons are found only in brain regions involved in higher order cognitive function suggests that they may be remodeling their cytoskeleton in supporting the neural plasticity required for these functions.

  5. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Ch. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: meinecke@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 {mu}m thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 {mu}m) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques.

  6. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 μm thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 μm) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques

  7. Dispase rapidly and effectively purifies Schwann cells from newborn mice and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxue Zhu; Jinbao Qin; Zunli Shen; James D. Kretlow; Xiaopan Wang; Zhangyin Liu; Yuqing Jin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerve of neonatal mice and purified using dispase and collagenase. Results showed that after the first round of purification with dispase, most of the Schwann cells appeared round in shape and floated in culture solution after 15 minutes. In addition, cell yield and cell purity were higher when compared to the collagenase group. After the second round of purification, the final cell yield for the dispase group was higher than that for the collagenase group, but no significant difference was found in cell purity. Moreover, similar results in cell quantity and purity were observed in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. These findings indicate that purification with dispase can result in the rapid isolation of Schwann cells with a high yield and purity.

  8. Roles of mitochondria and temperature in the control of intracellular calcium in adult rat sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, S. H.; Carl, A; McHugh, J.M.; Goff, H.R.; Kenyon, J L

    2007-01-01

    We recorded Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in isolated adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at 20 and 30 °C. In neurons bathed in tetraethylammonium and dialyzed with cesium, warming reduced resting average [Ca2+]i from 87 to 49 nM and the time constant of the decay of [Ca2+]i transients (τr) from 1.3 s to 0.99 s (Q10 = 1.4). The Buffer Index, the ratio between Ca2+ influx and Δ[Ca2+]i (∫ICa·dt/Δ[Ca2+]i), increased 2- to 3-fold with warming. Neither inhibition of the pl...

  9. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine processing in the cerebellum: Autoradiographic studies in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well confirmed evidence has demonstrated that the cerebellum is an important target of thyroid hormone action during development. Moreover, the presence of nuclear receptors and strong 5'-deiodinase activity in cerebella of adult rats have suggested that this region may continue to respond to thyroid hormones during maturity. Recent autoradiographic observations have focused attention on the cerebellar granular layer, in that [125I]T3 administered iv to adult rats was found to be selectively and saturably concentrated there. To determine the specificity of iodothyronine localization in the granular layer, we have now compared film autoradiographic observations made after iv [125I]T4 and iv [125I]rT3 with those found after iv [125I]T3. The results demonstrated that, as in the case of the latter hormone, labeling within the cerebellar cortex after iv [125I]T4 was both selective and saturable. Moreover, except for a lag in time to resolution and a longer retention time, the distribution of cerebellar radioactivity after iv labeled T4 was qualitatively similar to that seen after iv [125I]T3. However, the ability of T4 to become differentially concentrated in the granular layer of cerebellum was absolutely dependent on its ability to be converted intracerebrally to T3. Thus, pretreatment with ipodate, which blocks brain 5'-deiodinase activity and, therefore, the intracerebral formation of T3 from T4, completely prevented cerebellar granular layer labeling after iv [125I]T4 even though it did not interfere with differential labeling of this region by iv delivered [125I]T3. In the same experiments, propylthiouracil, a potent peripheral, but not central, 5'-deiodinase inhibitor, had no qualitative effect on the distribution of either T4 or T3 in cerebellum

  10. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis

  11. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  12. Hyparrhenia hirta: A potential protective agent against hematotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz-Ketata, Hanen; Salah, Ghada Ben; Mahjoubi, Amira; Aidi, Zied; Kallel, Choumous; Kammoun, Hassen; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the adverse hematotoxic and genotoxic effects of water nitrate pollution on male adult rats and the use of hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract in alleviating these effects. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) was administered to adult rats by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) bw daily for 50 days, while hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract was given by drinking water at a dose of 1.5 mg mL(-1) (200 mg kg(-1) bw). The NaNO3 -treated group showed a significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and a significant increase in total white blood cell, in neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained unchanged in treated groups compared to those of controls. Meanwhile, the results showed a marked reduction in the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, along with an elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and a reduction in the total glutathione content, indicating the induction of oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of NaNO3 -treated group. Interestingly, NaNO3 treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, aberrant metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. The oxidative stress induced by nitrate treatment might be the major cause for chromosomal rearrangements as free radicals leading to DNA damage. Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract appeared to be effective against hematotoxic and genotoxic changes induced by nitrate, as evidenced by the improvement of the markers cited above. PMID:24740966

  13. In vitro transformation of adult rat liver cells by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid,Syarifuddin

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary cultures of liver cells from normal adult rats were treated with 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB at various concentrations for 6 days. 3'-Me-DAB treatment induced rapid proliferation of epithelial clear cells with chromosomal abnormalities and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. In early culture, marker chromosomes were detected in 13 of 44 3'-Me-DAB-treated cultures but not in control cultures. GGT activity was not detected in the epithelial clear cells in either 3'-Me-DAB-treated or control cultures. In late culture, 21 cell lines established from 39 carcinogen-treated cultures consisted of 3 diploid cell lines, 5 pseudodiploid cell lines and 13 aneuploid cell lines. Eighteen of these 21 cell lines had marker chromosomes. Of the 2 cell lines established from 15 control cultures both were aneuploid, but a marker chromosome was detected in only one of these. GGT activity was detected in 11 of 21 cell lines established from the carcinogen-treated cultures but not in those from control cultures. Morphological features of the cell lines which varied from normal to cancerous included polymorphism, increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and prominent nucleoli. No cell line established in this study developed tumors in host rats during a 1-year observation period.

  14. Effect of Cucurbita pepo L. Fruit Pulp on Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

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    M Mohsen pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp contains anti-oxidant, vitamins A, C and E, cucurbitacin, β-carotene and α-carotene, B complex vitamins, vitamin B6, pantetonic acid and contains minerals as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pumpkin fruits on spermatogenesis and testicular tissue changes in male rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on forty adult male Wistar rats in four groups of ten. The control group received no drug treatment whereas the experimental groups were treated with 20, 40 and 80 percent of Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp orally for 28 days. At the end of the twenty-eighth day, the animals were operated and tissue sections were prepared after testes were removed. Histological changes between the experimental and control groups were examined by light microscopy. Using t-test, ANOVA and Tukey test data were analyzed. . Results: The consumption of pumpkin fruit at amounts of 40 and 80 percent increase in the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatids were (p <0.05. It also showed that at 80% increase in the concentration of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules was observed. Conclusion: The results indicated that the pumpkin fruits containing ingredients such as cucurbitacin, pantothenic acid, vitamins and minerals that can increase testosterone level and improve the process of spermatogenesis.

  15. Recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing angiostatin inhibits preretinal neovascularization in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Chun; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Show-Li; Sun, Ming-Hui; Xiao, Xiao; Ma, Lih; Lin, Keng-Kuo; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Clinically, preretinal neovascularization (PNV) induced by vessel occlusion is one of the leading causes to induce blindness. The present study was designed to determine if a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing mouse angiostatin (rAAV-angiostatin) can inhibit experimental PNV in an adult Sprague-Dawley rat model. rAAV-angiostatin and rAAV-lacZ were delivered by intravitreal injections to the right and left eyes of rats. Transgenetic expression of angiostatin in the retina was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PNV was established by rose-bengal-assisted laser-induced retinal vein occlusion 21 days after the viral injections. The total number and sizes of the neovascular tufts were analyzed 14 days after venous occlusion using retinal flat mount by fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran angiography. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to study any possibility of retinal toxicity of rAAV-angiostatin 3 months after the injections. Angiostatin gene expression in the retina was detectable by RT-PCR, and ERG analysis showed no reduction of b-waves in the rAAV-angiostatin-injected eyes. The number and size of neovascular tufts were significantly lower in rAAV-angiostatin-injected eyes (p = 0.001) than controls. These findings indicated that rAAV-angiostatin successfully suppressed experimental PNV, and no retinal toxicity of the rAAV-angiostatin injection was observed according to ERG recordings. PMID:15637422

  16. Fenugreek potent activity against nitrate-induced diabetes in young and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakf, Azza M; Hassan, Hanaa A; Mahmoud, Ashraf Z; Habza, Marwa N

    2015-05-01

    Nitrate has described as an endocrine disruptor that promotes onset of diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate diabetic effect of high nitrate intake in young and adult male rats and its amelioration by fenugreek administration. The study revealed significant increase in serum glucose and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), while serum insulin and liver glycogen were decreased among nitrate exposed animals, in particular the young group. A significant reduction in the body weight gain and serum thyroid hormones (T4 & T3) was also recorded. Further reduction in serum levels of urea and creatinine, as well as total protein in serum, liver and pancreas was demonstrated, with elevation in their levels in the urine of all nitrate exposed groups. Meanwhile, the activity of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) was increased, with decline in their activity in the liver tissue. In addition, an elevation in serum total bilirubin, tissues (liver and pancreas) nitric oxide and lipid profile, as well as liver activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was recorded. Fenugreek administration to nitrate exposed rats was found to be effective in alleviating hyperglycemia and other biochemical changes characterizing nitrate-induced diabetes. So, fenugreek can be considered to possess potent activity against onset of nitrate induced-diabetes. PMID:24615531

  17. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  18. Reutilization of surfactant phosphatidylcholine by isolated adult rat type II cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reutilization of surfactant phospholipids by the mammalian lung has been demonstrated in vivo by other laboratories. The authors have reported the uptake of native surfactant labeled with radioisotopes or fluorescent fatty acids previously. This work has been extended to determine if surfactant lipids are utilized intact or metabolized and resynthesized. Adult rat type II cells were prepared by trypsin treatment and purified by albumin gradient centrifugation and differential adherence. After 22 hrs in culture the cells were incubated in serum-free medium containing 3% bovine serum albumin, rat lung surfactant (20 μM phosphatidylcholine), 1,2[1-14C]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and [3H-methyl-choline]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. After a 90 min incubation the cells were scraped from the culture dishes, disrupted by homogenization and lamellar bodies isolated from other cellular fractions. The ratio of the labeled lipids in the medium was compared to that in the lamellar body fractions and in the combined residual fractions. These experiments showed that the ratio of the lamellar body label to the medium label is 0.87 and that for the combined residual fractions the ratio is 1.05 suggesting that the phosphatidylcholine is taken up and reutilized as an intact molecule by the type II cells

  19. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  20. PDX-1 Expression in Pancreatic Ductal Cells after Partial Pancreatectomy in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 王春友; 万赤丹; 熊炯忻; 许逸卿; 周峰

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the protein and mRNA expression of pancreas/duodenal homeobox-1(PDX-1), a transcription factor as a marker for pancreatic stem cells, in pancreatic ductal cells of rats after partial (90 %) pancreatectomy and evaluated the significance of the PDX-1 expression.Western blot and Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of PDX-1 protein and mRNA respectively. PDX-1 protein was only faintly detected in pancreatic ductal cells on the day 1 after partial pancreatectomy. On the day 2 and 3 after operation in operation group, a 2-3 fold increased PDX-1 protein was observed, corresponding to the characteristic 42-kD protein in Western blot. There was significant difference between operation group and sham-operation group (P<0.05). PDX-1 protein expression on the day 5 and 7 after operation had already been no difference from control group (P>0.05). RT-PCR revealed the PDX-1mRNA expression showed no significant difference between operation group at various time points and sham-operation group (P>0.05). These results indicate that there was overexpression of PDX-1 in the cells of pancreatic epithelium during the regeneration of remnant pancreas after partial pancreatectomy in adult rats, suggesting the pancreatic stem cells in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells are involved in the regeneration of remnant pancreas and the expression of PDX-1 in ductal cells was regulated posttranscription.

  1. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  2. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  3. Expression and role of PAK6 after spinal cord injury in adult rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6 expression and its possible role after spinal cord injury (SCI in adult rat. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord injury. To explore the pathological and physiological significance of PAK6, the expression patterns and distribution of PAK6 were observed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Western blot analysis showed PAK6 protein level was significantly up-regulated on day 2 and day 4, then reduced and had no up-regulation till day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the expression of PAK6 was significantly increased on day 4 compared with the control group. Besides, double immunofluorescence staining showed PAK6 was primarily expressed in the neurons and astrocytes in the control group. While after injury, the expression of PAK6 was increased significantly in the astrocytes and neurons, and the astrocytes were largely proliferated. We also examined the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and found its change was correlated with the expression of PAK6. Importantly, double immunofluorescence staining revealed that cell proliferation evaluated by PCNA appeared in many PAK6-expressing cells on day 4 after injury. Conclusion: The up-regulation of PAK6 in the injured spinal cord may be associated with glial proliferation. Key words: PAK6 protein, human; p21-activated kinases; Spinal cord injury; Astrocytes

  4. The neurotoxic effects of artemether on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum of adult male wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 70kg adult man, artemether is given at a total dosage of 480mg for five days in the treatment of malarial. Using t-test analysis technique at 95% confidence interval i.e t < 0.05 and P - value = 2.26, no significant difference was observed between the average brain and cerebellar weight, the average width of cerebellar cortical layers, the density and the average size of Purkinje Cells in the control groups C1 and C2 and the experimental group E. In the present study, there were no gross or morphological differences between the two groups of animals (control and experimental groups) on day 7 at the completion of experimental procedure. A significant statistical increase in average body weight was observed in the control groups C1 (which received only standard diet and water) and C2 (which received 1.23mg/kg body weight of normal saline intramuscularly in addition to standard diet and water) from 140 + 19.65g on day 1 to 146 + 19.90g on day 7 and 151 + 12.0g on day 1 to 156.2 + 12.2g on Day 7 respectively. There was a non-statistically significant apparent reduction in body weight in the experimental group E, (which received intramuscular injection of 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether), from 160 + 9.0g on day 1 to 157.4 + 8.0g on day 7. The rats in the control groups CI and C2 displayed normal balance and co-ordination, while rats in the experimental group E, showed abnormalities of balance and co-ordination. This study investigated the effects of corresponding 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether for a period of seven days on the functions of rats after drug administration. (author)

  5. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  6. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver. PMID:26349937

  7. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  8. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  9. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  10. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  11. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats produces limited effects on endocrine, behavioral, or gene expression measures in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Olson, Darin E.; Owens, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Stress and/or antidepressants during pregnancy have been implicated in a wide range of long-term effects in the offspring. We investigated the long-term effects of prenatal stress and/or clinically relevant antidepressant exposure on male adult offspring in a model of the pharmacotherapy of maternal depression. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that delivered clinically relevant exposure to the antidepressant escitalopram throughout gestation. Subsequently, preg...

  12. Functional capacity and cryopreservation of fetal rat pancreas in streptozotocin-diabetes. [Effectiveness of transplantation of fetal pancreas for control of diabetes in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Clark, W.; Molnar, I.G.; Kemp, J.; Mazur, P.; Mullen, Y.S.

    1976-01-01

    The fetal rat pancreas has a marked capacity for growth and maturation in glucose responsivity after transplantation under the kidney capsules of adult rats. The optimal conditions for function of the organ are a 3-week period of growth in a normal rat before transfer to a diabetic animal. Under these conditions diabetes is completely reversed by one fetal pancreas, and glucose disappearance rate and plasma insulin response to glucose are normal. Shunting of the venous drainage into the liver from fetal pancreases placed beneath the kidney capsule results in a marked improvement in diabetes control, and this technique may prove useful in experimental or human applications. Cryopreservation of the fetal pancreas has been successfully accomplished and will serve as a useful adjuvant to this method of reversing experimental diabetes.

  13. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  14. Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Hansel, Gisele; Arús, Bernardo Assein; Bellaver, Gabriela; Longoni, Aline; Kolling, Janaina; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT 1 proteins in cells by immunofluorescence. Next, we determined the concentrations of thirteen amino acids, ATP, ADP, adenosine and calcium in astrocyte cultures, as well as the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase. Furthermore, we assessed the presence of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1) in the astrocytes. Cells demonstrated the presence of glutamine, consistent with their role in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as glutamate and D-serine, amino acids classically known to act as gliotransmitters. ATP was produced and released by the cells and ADP was consumed. Calcium levels were in agreement with those reported in the literature, as were the enzymatic activities measured. The presence of GAT 1 was detected, but the presence of CB 1 was not, suggesting a decreased neuroprotective capacity in adult astrocytes under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our results show cellular functionality regarding the astrocytic role in gliotransmission and neurotransmitter management since they are able to produce and release gliotransmitters and to modulate the cholinergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:26915106

  15. Response of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growth, development and consumption of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2 (double-ambient vs. ambient) in open-top chambers were examined. Significant decreases in protein, total amino acid, water and nitrogen content and increases in free fatty acid were observed in cotton bolls. Changes in quality of cotton bolls affected the growth, development and food utilization of H. armigera. Significantly longer larval development duration in three successive generations and lower pupal weight of the second and third generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower fecundity was also found in successive three generations of H. armigera fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The consumption per larva occurred significant increase in successive three generations and frass per larva were also significantly increased during the second and third generations under elevated CO2. Significantly lower relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and significant higher relative consumption rate in successive three generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower potential female fecundity, larval numbers and population consumption were found in the second and third generations of cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The integrative effect of higher larval mortality rate and lower adult fecundity resulted in significant decreases in potential population consumption in the latter two generations. The results show that elevated CO2 adversely affects cotton bolls quality, which indicates the potential population dynamics and potential population consumption of cotton bollworm will alleviate the harm to the plants in the future rising CO2 atmosphere.

  16. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. PMID:26238258

  17. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Reduction of Testicular Tissue Alteration Following Induction of Diabetes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various types of infertility are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetes. Development of oxidative stress is one the most important factors in the alteration of spermatogenesis in diabetic conditions. Consequently, the reduction of oxidative stress with antioxidant compounds can be effective in the reduction of tissue alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in improvement of spermatogenesis in adult diabetic rats. Material and Methods: 32 adult rats were divided into four groups of control and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg body weight - b.w. was administrated to one control and one diabetic (intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of Streptozotocin groups. Blood concentrations of FSH, LH and Testosterone were measured. Histology of testicular tissue and sperm analysis were considered for evaluation of spermatogenesis. Results: Administration of Coenzyme Q10 led to increase of pituitary gonadotropins levels in diabetic rats. Testosterone levels were not changed significantly. Testicular morphology, spermatogenic indices and sperm analysis were improved in treated diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the use of Coenzyme Q10 has positive effects in reduction of spermatogenic alterations following induction of experimental diabetes in rats.

  18. The protective effect of vitamin E against oxidative damage caused by formaldehyde in the testes of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dang-Xia Zhou; Shu-Dong Qiu; Jie Zhang; Hong Tian; Hai-Xue Wang

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of formaldehyde (FA) on testes and the protective effect of vitamin E (VE) against oxidative damage by FA in the testes of adult rats. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1)control; (2) FA treatment group (Fat); and (3) Fat + VE group. Fat and Fat + VE groups were exposed to FA by inhalation at a concentration of 10 mg/m3 for 2 weeks. In addition, Fat + VE group were orally administered VE during the 2-week FA treatment. After the treatment, the histopathological and biochemical changes in testes, as well as the quantity and quality of sperm, were observed. Results: The testicular weight, the quantity and quality of sperm, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione (GSH) were significantly decreased whereas the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased in testes of rats in Fat group compared with those in the control group. VE treatment restored these parameters in Fat + VE group. In addition,microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed that seminiferous tubules atrophied, seminiferous epithelial cells disintegrated and shed in rats in Fat group and VE treatment significantly improved the testicular structure in Fat + VE group. Conclusion: FA destroys the testicular structure and function in adult rats by inducing oxidative stress,and this damage could be partially reversed by VE.

  19. Whole-body retetion of 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body retention of 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin after oral and intravenous administration was investigated in young and adult rats. Whole-body retention of 58Co-cyanocobalamin was considerably higher than that of 60CoCl2 in rats of all age groups. Younger rats showed higher retention of both CoCl2 and cyanocobalamin than did the adult rats. The biological half life in the slowly decreasing phase after oral administration of 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin was approximately equal in all age groups and was estimated to be about 10 and 25 days, respectively. These results suggested that the whole-body retention of orally administered 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin in rats of various ages depends mainly on intestinal absorption rather than endogenous excretion rate. The excretion pattern of 58Co-cyanocobalamin, i.e., F/U ratio etc., is very different from that of inorganic cobalt, and it is therefore assumed that 58Co-cyanocobalamin is rather stable in the body. (auth.)

  20. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  1. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through the seed cotton cleaning process in the cotton gin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-08-01

    There is concern that gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones may become points of reintroduction when they process cotton grown in a neighboring infested area. We estimated boll weevil survival through two typical machine sequences used in commercial cotton gins to clean and dry the seed cotton in advance of the gin stand, as well as separately through two incline cylinder cleaners or one or two tower dryers operating at different temperatures. Large numbers of laboratory-reared adult boll weevils were marked with fluorescent powder, fed into the test system, and recovered with the assistance of blacklights. We found no evidence of survival through the seed cotton cleaning systems even when the dryers were not heated, or when passed separately through the two incline cleaners alone. Upper confidence limits (95%) were calculated for the observed zero recoveries based on sample size and the binomial distribution, and these represent the statistical worst-case (i.e., highest) survival potential. Survival through heated tower dryers declined rapidly to zero at higher temperatures, especially when two dryers were running. Although we conclude that the potential for survival of weevils in the seed cotton to the gin stand is zero or close to zero, a small percentage of live weevils was recovered in the green boll/rock trap, which may represent the greatest threat of reintroduction at the gin. Escape of live weevils with the gin trash is also possible, and studies addressing this issue will be presented elsewhere. PMID:15384344

  2. Influence of maize and pigweed on tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations infesting cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of maize, lea mays L., and pigweed, Amaranthus spp., on populations of tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), adults infesting cotton, Gossypium hirsucum L., in the Mississippi Delta was studied using stable isotope analyses. Cotton fields adjacent to maize and th...

  3. Relationship between population estimates of cotton fleahoppers (Hemiptera: Miridae) obtained by terminal and whole plant examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard sampling technique used to quantify cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), abundance in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., involves direct counts of adults and nymphs on plants. This method, however, becomes increasingly laborious and time consuming as plants increase in si...

  4. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi; Farhad Soltanalinejad; Gholamreza Najafi; Leila Roshangar

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin ...

  5. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  6. Peripheral inflammation facilitates Abeta fiber-mediated synaptic input to the substantia gelatinosa of the adult rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H; Doubell, T P; Woolf, C J

    1999-01-15

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in thick adult rat transverse spinal cord slices with attached dorsal roots to study changes in fast synaptic transmission induced by peripheral inflammation. In slices from naive rats, primary afferent stimulation at Abeta fiber intensity elicited polysynaptic EPSCs in only 14 of 57 (25%) SG neurons. In contrast, Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic EPSCs in 39 of 62 (63%) SG neurons recorded in slices from rats inflamed by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) 48 hr earlier (p < 0.001). Although the peripheral inflammation had no significant effect on the threshold and conduction velocities of Abeta, Adelta, and C fibers recorded in dorsal roots, the mean threshold intensity for eliciting EPSCs was significantly lower in cells recorded from rats with inflammation (naive: 33.2 +/- 15.1 microA, n = 57; inflamed: 22.8 +/- 11.3 microA, n = 62, p < 0.001), and the mean latency of EPSCs elicited by Abeta fiber stimulation in CFA-treated rats was significantly shorter than that recorded from naive rats (3.3 +/- 1.8 msec, n = 36 vs 6.0 +/- 3.5 msec, n = 12; p = 0.010). Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic IPSCs in 4 of 25 (16%) cells recorded from naive rat preparations and 14 of 26 (54%) SG neurons from CFA-treated rats (p < 0.001). The mean threshold intensity for IPSCs was also significantly lower in CFA-treated rats (naive: 32.5 +/- 15.7 microA, n = 25; inflamed: 21. 9 +/- 9.9 microA, n = 26, p = 0.013). The facilitation of Abeta fiber-mediated input into the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral inflammation may contribute to altered sensory processing. PMID:9880605

  7. Evaluation of some hormonal levels related to age in adult and aged male rats exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we grow older, the ability to produce most hormones in adequate amounts declined. This decline in natural hormones production coincides with nearly every age-related health problems. The present work aims to evaluate the levels of some hormones related to age namely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) and melatonin and also the alteration in lipid fractions using male rats subjected to acute sublethal dose of gamma radiation. This study included thirty two male albino rats divided into two main groups; adult group (four months old) and aged group (20 months old). Each group was divided into two subgroups; control group and group irradiated at a dose level of 5 Gray whole body gamma irradiation. Blood samples were collected from both adult and aged groups 3 days post-irradiation after 16 hours fasting. As related to age, the aged group showed significant decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels and significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and cholesterol/HDL ratio when compared to adult group. Concerning the effect of gamma radiation, the irradiated adult group showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels by values equal to -32.2%, - 39.8% and -67.9%, respectively, and nonsignificant changes in lipids concentrations except for LDL-c level, which showed significant (P<0.05) increase at +58.2 % in irradiated adult group as compared to adult controls. On the other hand, exposure to irradiation of aged rats did not affect the hormonal levels assayed except for the level of DHEA-s which was decreased significantly (P<0.05) by -26.4% as compared to control aged rats. Also, total cholesterol and LDL-c levels were increased significantly (P<0.01) by +17.1% and +27.4 %, respectively in irradiated rats as compared to control aged group. It could be concluded that y-radiation obviously accelerates the aging process in adults suggesting the need for protective agents to overcome the

  8. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  9. Altered dendritic arborization of amygdala neurons in young adult rats orally intubated with Clitorea ternatea aqueous root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kiranmai S; Murthy, K Dilip; Rao, Muddanna S; Karanth, K Sudhakar

    2005-07-01

    Young adult (60 day old) Wistar rats of either sex were orally intubated with 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days, along with age-matched saline controls. These rats were then subjected to passive avoidance tests and the results from these studies showed a significant increase in passive avoidance learning and retention. Subsequent to the passive avoidance tests, these rats were killed by decapitation. The amygdala was processed for Golgi staining and the stained neurons were traced using a camera lucida and analysed. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic intersections, branching points and dendritic processes arising from the soma of amygdaloid neurons in CTR treated rats especially in the 100 mg/kg group of rats, compared with age-matched saline controls. This improved dendritic arborization of amygdaloid neurons correlates with the increased passive avoidance learning and memory in the CTR treated rats as reported earlier. The results suggest that Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract enhances memory by increasing the functional growth of neurons of the amygdala. PMID:16161034

  10. Effects of chronic isoproterenol administration of β1-adrenoceptors and growth of pancreas of young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]Dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding of membranes of adult pancreas differed from that of pancreas of young rats, and the DHA binding in the presence of atenolol or butoxamine also was different in the two age groups. The adult pancreas had 93% β2- and 7% β1-adrenoceptors and did not exhibit an increased incorporation of [3H]thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) following 2 days of DL-isoproterenol (ISO) administration; in contrast, pancreas of the 20-day-old rat had 71% β2-adrenoceptors and 27% β1-adrenoceptors and exhibited a 34-fold increase over that of adult, and a 6-fold increase over that of the control 20-day-old pancreas. Acinar cell differentiation was also accelerated by a 7-day regimen of ISO administration from 13 to 20 days of age. These growth responses to ISO appear to be β1 mediated. The lack of β1-adrenoceptors in the adult may account for the failure of the adult pancreas to exhibit a growth response to ISO

  11. Exposure to Hyperoxia Decreases the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptors in Adult Rat Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Klekamp, Jessica G.; Jarzecka, Kasia; Perkett, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of inspired oxygen leads to respiratory failure and death in many animal models. Endothelial cell death is an early finding, before the onset of respiratory failure. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in the lungs of adult animals. In the present study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to >95% FiO2 for 24 or 48 hours. Northern blot analysis revealed a marked reduction in VEGF mRNA abundance by 24 hours, which decreased to less than 50% ...

  12. Interaction Between Vitamin D Receptor and Caveolin-3 and Regulation by 1, 25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Adult Rat Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guisheng; Simpson, Robert U.

    2010-01-01

    We show that 1alpha, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and a synthetic non-genotropic vitamin D analog agonist, 1a,25(OH)2-lumisterol (JN), exhibit similar rapid effects on sarcomere shortening (contraction) of isolated adult cardiomyocyte. We also report that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) specifically interacts with Caveolin-3 in the t-tubules and sarcolemma of isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed co-localization of VDR and Caveolin-3 ...

  13. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas Del Rio, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200-300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0-5, 5-24, 24-48, and 48-72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5-24, 24-48, and 48-72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  14. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  15. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  16. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  17. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  18. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F0) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F1) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  19. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nozhat; Sanaz Alaee; Khodabakhsh Behzadi; Najmeh Azadi Chegini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility an...

  20. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  1. A 9-wk docosahexaenoic acid-enriched supplementation improves endurance exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Marie; Chaté, Valérie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Morio, Béatrice; Pieroni, Gérard; Schlattner, Uwe; Pison, Christophe; Dubouchaud, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Decline in skeletal muscle mass and function starts during adulthood. Among the causes, modifications of the mitochondrial function could be of major importance. Polyunsaturated fatty (ω-3) acids have been shown to play a role in intracellular functions. We hypothesize that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation could improve muscle mitochondrial function that could contribute to limit the early consequences of aging on adult muscle. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-polyunsaturated fat diet and were given DHA (DHA group) or placebo (control group) for 9 wk. Rats from the DHA group showed a higher endurance capacity (+56%, P supplementation could be of potential interest for the muscle function in adults and for fighting the decline in exercise tolerance with age that could imply energy-sensing pathway, as suggested by changes in phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio. PMID:26646102

  2. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  3. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  4. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  5. ERK Is Involved in the Reorganization of Somatosensory Cortical Maps in Adult Rats Submitted to Hindlimb Unloading

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Dupont; Laurence Stevens; Laetitia Cochon; Maurice Falempin; Bruno Bastide; Marie-Hélène Canu

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU) in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical ...

  6. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zago, A.; R.M. Leão; P.E. Carneiro-de-Oliveira; Marin, M.T.; F.C. Cruz; C.S. Planeta

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have eva...

  7. Effect of Pistacia Vera Oil on Pituitary Gonad Axis and Histological Testis Changes in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    f Porhemmat; M Shariati; L Sepehrara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Pistachio oil contains the chemical compounds such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids can inhibit 5-α- reductase enzyme and unsaturated fatty acids increase cholesterol levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of pistachio oil on adult male rats’ reproductive status. Methods: In the present experimental study, 40 male Wistar rat were divided into five groups of eight. The control group received ...

  8. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,29,3,4,49,5,59- Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 ...

  9. Destruction and regeneration of seminiferous tubules after local x-irradiation of testes of the adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that the local X-irradiation (1000 R) of testes of the adult rats results in a total destruction of seminiferous tubules. The restitution of the organ structure proceeds via formation of new seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenic epithelium later develops. Rete testis and germ cells preserved in its epithelium from embryogenesis are a source of regeneration material. The results obtained favour the suggestion about the dynamic structure of mammalian testis

  10. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  11. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  12. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-jing Chen; Bing-qing Shen; Dan-dan Liu; Sheng-tian Li

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spont...

  13. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  14. Gender-Related Differences in Sensitivity to Diazinon in Gonads of Adult Rats and the Protective Effect of Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Sargazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate pesticide which is known to induce oxidative stress in the target tissues such as the reproductive system. The aim of present study was to compare and evaluate the effects of DZN on Malondialdehyde (MDA and Glutathione (GSH levels in testis and ovary of rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 adult Wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats. Each of male and female groups included 30 rats and were divided into 5 groups: control (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, treatment group 1 (received DZN+olive oil daily, 60 mg/kg, treatment group 2 (received DZN, 60 mg/kg + vitamin E, 200 mg/kg daily and treatment group 3 (received vitamin E daily, 200 mg/kg. MDA and GSH levels were determined in gonads. Results: In both genders, due to administration of DZN, we found significant reduction in GSH content and increase in MDA level. The use of vitamin E plus DZN increased GSH content while decreased MDA level of ovary and testis compared with DZN treated rats. Gonad of female rats compared with male rats showed more increase in MDA level and further decline in GSH content in treatment groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: Oxidative stress contributes to DZN-induced sexual organ toxicity. Our results concluded that vitamin E may have a protective role in this toxicity. Female rats are likely more vulnerable to oxidative stress and its damages.

  15. Fetal programming of colon cancer in adult rats: correlations with altered neonatal trajectory, circulating IGF-I and IGFPBs, and testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifelong consumption of soy protein isolate (SPI) reduces the incidence of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We determined if a maternal SPI diet during pregnancy could protect against colon cancer in progeny. Four groups of male rats were used: a lifetime ...

  16. Microarray analysis of thyroid hormone-induced changes in mRNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Mreyoud, Amjad; Fishman, Miriam; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2004-07-15

    To determine which genes in the adult rat brain are regulated by thyroid hormone (TH), we used microarrays to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on neuron-specific gene expression. Four-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were rendered hyperthyroid by intraperitoneal injection of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3, 15 microg/100 g body weight) for 10 consecutive days. To minimize interindividual variability, pooled cerebral tissue RNA from four-control and five-hyperthyroid rats was hybridized in duplicates to the Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) U34N rat neurobiology microarray, which contains probes for 1224 neural-specific genes. Changes in gene expression were considered significant only if they were observed in both pair-wise comparisons as well as by Northern blot analysis. Hyperthyroidism was associated with modest changes in the expression of only 11 genes. The expression of the phosphodiesterase Enpp2, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth hormone (GH), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase beta-subunit (Camk2b), neuron-specific protein PEP-19 (Pcp4), a sodium-dependent neurotransmitter, and the myelin-associated glycoprotein (S-MAG) was significantly increased. Three genes were suppressed by hyperthyroidism, including the activity and neurotransmitter-induced early genes-1 and -7 (ANIA-1 and ANIA-7) and the guanine nucleotide-binding protein one (Gnb1). The present study underscores the paucity of TH responsive genes in adult cerebral tissue. PMID:15234464

  17. Environmental Circadian Disruption Worsens Neurologic Impairment and Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpeng; Ma, Shanshan; Guo, Dewei; Cheng, Tian; Li, Hongwei; Tian, Yi; Li, Jianbin; Guan, Fangxia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Circadian rhythms modulate many physiologic processes and behaviors. Therefore, their disruption causes a variety of potential adverse effects in humans and animals. Circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure has been discovered to produce pathophysiologic consequences after brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to more severe impairment and disruption of neurophysiologic processes are not well understood. Here, we evaluated the effect of constant light exposure on the neurobehavioral impairment and survival of neurons in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a weight-drop model of TBI and then exposed to either a standard 12-/12-h light/dark cycle or a constant 24-h light/light cycle for 14 days. Our results showed that 14 days of constant light exposure after TBI significantly worsened the sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which were associated with decreased body weight, impaired water and food intake, increased cortical lesion volume, and decreased neuronal survival. Furthermore, environmental circadian disruption inhibited cell proliferation and newborn cell survival and decreased immature cell production in rats subjected to the TBI model. We conclude that circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure worsens histologic and neurobehavioral impairment and inhibits neurogenesis in adult TBI rats. Our novel findings suggest that light exposure should be decreased and circadian rhythm reestablished in hospitalized TBI patients and that drugs and strategies that maintain circadian rhythm would offer a novel therapeutic option. PMID:26886755

  18. ERK is involved in the reorganization of somatosensory cortical maps in adult rats submitted to hindlimb unloading.

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    Erwan Dupont

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity in adult rats submitted to a sensorimotor restriction, we analyzed the time-course of ERK1/2 activation by immunoblot and of cortical reorganization by electrophysiological recordings, on rats submitted to hindlimb unloading over four weeks. Immunohistochemistry analysis provided evidence that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in layer III neurons of the somatosensory cortex. This increase was transient, and parallel to the changes in hindpaw cortical map area (layer IV. By contrast, receptive fields were progressively enlarged from 7 to 28 days of hindlimb unloading. To determine whether ERK1/2 was involved in cortical remapping, we administered a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD-98059 through osmotic mini-pump in rats hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Results demonstrate that focal inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway prevents cortical reorganization, but had no effect on receptive fields. These results suggest that ERK1/2 plays a role in the induction of cortical plasticity during hindlimb unloading.

  19. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Expression of a Novel Intergenic Long Noncoding RNA in Adult rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-02-01

    Around 90% of the mammalian genome undergoes pervasive transcription into various types of small and long regulatory noncoding RNAs, whereas only ∼ 1.5% codes for proteins. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute diverse classes of sense- and antisense transcripts that are abundantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) in cell type- and developmental stage-specific manners. They are implicated in brain development, differentiation, neuronal plasticity, and other cognitive functions. Mammalian brain requires the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) for its normal development, differentiation, and cell-fate determination. However, its role in adult brain function is less understood. Here, we report atRA-mediated transcriptional upregulation of endogenous expression of a novel long intergenic noncoding RNA-rat brain expressed (LINC-RBE) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons from adult rat. We have previously reported LINC-RBE as an intergenic, simple repeat sequence containing lncRNA highly expressed in the rat brain. This is a first-time report of involvement of atRA in transcriptional upregulation of lncRNA expression in rat hippocampal neurons. Therefore, it may be involved in regulation of brain function and disease. PMID:26572536

  20. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  1. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  2. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

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    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  3. Characterization of Fiber Types in Different Muscles of the Hindlimb in Female Weanling and Adult Wistar Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed lesser diameter and distribution of fiber types in different skeletal muscles from female Wistar rats using a histoenzymology Myofibrillar Adenosine Tri-phosphatase (mATPase) method. Fragments from muscles were frozen and processed by mATPase in different pH. Adult and weanling rat soleus muscles presented a predominance of type I fibers and larger fiber diameters. In the plantar muscle in adult rats, the type IIB fibers demonstrated greater lesser diameter while in the weanling animals, types I and IIB fibers were larger. The plantar muscle of animals of both ages was composed predominantly of the type IID fibers. The type IID fibers were observed in similar amounts in the lateral gastrocnemius and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. Type IIB fibers showed predominance and presented higher size in comparison with other types in the EDL muscle. The present study shows that data on fiber type distribution and fiber lesser diameter obtained in adult animals cannot always be applied to weanling animals of the same species. Using the mATPase, despite the difficult handling, is an important tool to determine the different characteristics of the specific fibers in the skeletal muscle tissue

  4. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

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    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  5. ECONOMICS OF COTTON CULTIVATION IN GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaysinh Dhandhukiya

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is a part of our daily lives from the time, we dry our faces on a soft cotton towel in the morning till we slide between fresh cotton sheets at night. It has hundreds of uses. Cotton is vital textile raw material, has an important role in the industry and trade of both, own country and the world with various areas for usage. This paper focuses on the growth economics of cotton cultivation in Gujarat. Key words: economics, cotton, cotton cultivation

  6. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  7. Impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONGBI; DONG-MEILIN; KEH-SHENLII; NICKC.TOSCANO

    2005-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) is a widely distributed pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the population levels may be affected by rates of nitrogen fertilization and planting date. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly population dynamics. Cotton was planted on 26 April and 8 June, for the early and late plantings, respectively. Nitrogen treatments consisted of soil applications of 0, 112, 168 and 224 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The population levels of adult whiteflies were much higher on early-planted cotton than on late planting. Also, increased numbers of adult whiteflies on both early and late plantings occurred with increasing amounts of applied nitrogen.Applied nitrogen increased seed cotton yields of early plantings but had no effect on the yields of late plantings.

  8. Effect of Obstructive Cholestasis on Sperm Parameters in the Adult Male Rats

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    E. Nasiri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids , nitric oxide and cytokins in the blood streams. These consequences may affect sex hormones since proper fertility will be resulted from physiological balance of sex hormones, we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and gonadotropins and sperm parameters in adult male rats.Materials & Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: control (No-surgery, Sham (surgical control, and cholestatic (surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animals were killed by ether, and serum concentrations of FSH and LH were determined by radioimmunoassay, sperm parameters were evaluated by light microscop.Results: The findings of this study showed that LH and FSH levels decreased significantly in cholestatic compared to control and sham groups (p0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicated that obstructive cholestasis lead to decrease in the levels of serum gonadotropins, but it has no significant effect on sperm parameters. We speculated that spermatogenesis, and sperm parameters were not dependent on gonadotropin hormones but other factors may involved.

  9. Expression of CDc6 after acute spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Lu, Jian; Yu, Qin; Xiao, Jian-Ru; Wei, Hai-Feng; Song, Xin-Jian; Ge, Jian-Bing; Tao, Wei-Dong; Qian, Rong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Jian

    2016-04-01

    The cell division cycle 6 (CDc6) protein has been primarily investigated as a component of the pre-replicative complex for the initiation of DNA replication. Some studies have shown that CDc6 played a critical role in the development of human carcinoma. However, the expression and roles of CDc6 in the central nervous system remain unknown. We have performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of CDc6 expression in spinal cord. Western blot have found that CDc6 protein levels first significantly increase, reach a peak at day 3, and then gradually return to normal level at day 14 after SCI. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that CDc6 immunoreactivity was found in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Additionally, colocalization of CDc6/active caspase-3 has been detected in neurons and colocalization of CDc6/proliferating cell nuclear antigen has been detected in astrocytes and microglial. In vitro, CDc6 depletion by short interfering RNA inhibits astrocyte proliferation and reduces cyclin A and cyclin D1 protein levels. CDc6 knockdown also decreases neuronal apoptosis. We speculate that CDc6 might play crucial roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI. PMID:26899166

  10. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on sexual motivation in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Mara Aparecida P; Marthos, Gabriela Cristina P; Oliveira, Liliane Gibram M; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet. The sexual motivation of offspring was evaluated during adulthood. The results revealed that the male and female pups of dams treated with alcohol exhibited reduced weight gain, which persisted until adulthood. Both male and female adult animals from dams that were exposed to alcohol showed a reduction in the preference score in the sexual motivation test. Taken together, these results provide evidence of the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sexual motivation responses in adulthood. PMID:27565750

  11. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of [125I]EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of [125I]EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of [125I]EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland

  12. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  13. Sensitization of capsaicin and icilin responses in oxaliplatin treated adult rat DRG neurons

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    Anand Praveen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin chemotherapy induced neuropathy is a dose related cumulative toxicity that manifests as tingling, numbness, and chronic pain, compromising the quality of life and leading to discontinued chemotherapy. Patients report marked hypersensitivity to cold stimuli at early stages of treatment, when sensory testing reveals cold and heat hyperalgesia. This study examined the morphological and functional effects of oxaliplatin treatment in cultured adult rat DRG neurons. Results 48 hour exposure to oxaliplatin resulted in dose related reduction in neurite length, density, and number of neurons compared to vehicle treated controls, using Gap43 immunostaining. Neurons treated acutely with 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin showed significantly higher signal intensity for cyclic AMP immunofluorescence (160.5 ± 13 a.u., n = 3, P Conclusions Oxaliplatin treatment induces TRP sensitization mediated by increased intracellular cAMP, which may cause neuronal damage. These effects may be mitigated by co-treatment with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, like CB2 agonists, to alleviate the neurotoxic effects of oxaliplatin.

  14. Ontogeny of rat chondrocyte proliferation: studies in embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madaí A GóMEZ-CAMARILLO; Juan B.KOURI

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ontogeny of chondrocyte cell division using embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. We searched for mitosis phases and performed a comparative evaluation of mitotic index, basic fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) receptors, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK1)and Cyclin-B expression in fetal, neonate, 3, 5, 8 weeks old rats and experimental OA. Our results showed that mitosis phases were observed in all normal cartilage studied, although, we found a decrease in mitotic index in relation to tissue development. No mitosis was detected in OA cartilage. We also found a statistical significant reduction in cell number in OA cartilage, compared with the normal tissue. Furthermore, FGFb and TGF-β1 receptors diminished in relation to tissue development, and were very scarce in experimental OA. Western blot assays showed CDK-1 expression in all cases, including human-OA cartilage. Similar results were observed for Cyclin-B, except for 8 weeks, when it was not expressed. Our results suggest that cell division seems to be scarce, if not absent within the OA cartilage studied.Nevertheless, the existence of factors essential for cell division leaves open the question concerning chondrocyte proliferation in OA cartilage, which is likely to be present in the early stages of the disease.

  15. Reversibility of electrophysiological changes induced by chronic high-altitude hypoxia in adult rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouabe, C; Amsellem, J; Espinosa, L; Ribaux, P; Blaineau, S; Mégas, P; Bonvallet, R

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that regression of left ventricular hypertrophy normalizes membrane ionic current abnormalities. This work was designed to determine whether regression of right ventricular hypertrophy induced by permanent high-altitude exposure (4,500 m, 20 days) in adult rats also normalizes changes of ventricular myocyte electrophysiology. According to the current data, prolonged action potential, decreased transient outward current density, and increased inward sodium/calcium exchange current density normalized 20 days after the end of altitude exposure, whereas right ventricular hypertrophy evidenced by both the right ventricular weight-to-heart weight ratio and the right ventricular free wall thickness measurement normalized 40 days after the end of altitude exposure. This morphological normalization occurred at both the level of muscular tissue, as shown by the decrease toward control values of some myocyte parameters (perimeter, capacitance, and width), and the level of the interstitial collagenous connective tissue. In the chronic high-altitude hypoxia model, the regression of right ventricular hypertrophy would not be a prerequisite for normalization of ventricular electrophysiological abnormalities. PMID:11893582

  16. Alteration of forebrain neurogenesis after cervical spinal cord injury in the adult rat.

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    Marie-Solenne eFELIX

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain, remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neurons, astrocytes, or microglia during the subchronic and chronic phases of injury. We find that subchronic SCI leads to a reduction of BrdU incorporation and neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. By contrast, subchronic SCI triggers an increased BrdU incorporation in the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain, where most of the newly generated cells are identified as microglia. In chronic condition 90 days after SCI, BrdU incorporation returns to control levels in all regions examined, except in the hippocampus, where SCI produces a long-term reduction of neurogenesis, indicating that this structure is particularly sensitive to SCI. Finally, we observe that SCI triggers an acute inflammatory response in all brain regions examined, as well as a hippocampal-specific decline in BDNF levels, which could explain the SCI-mediated distant effects on forebrain neurogenesis. This study provides the first demonstration that forebrain neurogenesis is vulnerable to a distal SCI.

  17. Attachment of adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) on laminin and two laminin fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Schneidemann, S; Gehr, P; Rutishauser, B; Eppenberger, H M

    1994-01-01

    Adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) were cultivated on five different substrates: gelatin, fibronectin, laminin-nidogen complex (laminin), the E8 laminin fragment, and the E1 laminin fragment. Comparative cell attachment assays have shown that ARC prefer adhesion to E8 laminin fragment and laminin. It were shown by video time-lapse (VTL) studies that, during the redifferentiation process of ARC in culture, the morphology of ARC grown on laminin, fibronectin, and gelatin is indistinguishable, whereas the size of ARC grown on the E8 fragment is larger, and when grown on the E1 fragment definitely smaller than ARC on the whole laminin protein. Immunostaining for vinculin combined with reflection contrast microscopy were used to visualize the focal contacts of ARC on these substrates. Quantitative measurements, done with the help of a test line system, show that the lengths of adhesion plaques/micron2 on gelatin, fibronectin, and laminin are about the same. On the E8 fragment more attachment sites/micron2 and on the E1 fragment fewer attachment sites/micron2 were counted than on whole laminin protein. This suggests that substrates influence the number of focal contacts. Correlating these results with the observations made in the VTL recording system, one can suggest that the length of adhesion sites/micron2 increases in very flat and large cells. PMID:7718361

  18. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

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    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  19. Adult rat retinal ganglion cells and glia can be printed by piezoelectric inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated whether inkjet printing technology can be extended to print cells of the adult rat central nervous system (CNS), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and glia, and the effects on survival and growth of these cells in culture, which is an important step in the development of tissue grafts for regenerative medicine, and may aid in the cure of blindness. We observed that RGC and glia can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric printer. Whilst inkjet printing reduced the cell population due to sedimentation within the printing system, imaging of the printhead nozzle, which is the area where the cells experience the greatest shear stress and rate, confirmed that there was no evidence of destruction or even significant distortion of the cells during jet ejection and drop formation. Importantly, the viability of the cells was not affected by the printing process. When we cultured the same number of printed and non-printed RGC/glial cells, there was no significant difference in cell survival and RGC neurite outgrowth. In addition, use of a glial substrate significantly increased RGC neurite outgrowth, and this effect was retained when the cells had been printed. In conclusion, printing of RGC and glia using a piezoelectric printhead does not adversely affect viability and survival/growth of the cells in culture. Importantly, printed glial cells retain their growth-promoting properties when used as a substrate, opening new avenues for printed CNS grafts in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  20. Retinoic acid restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial memory deficit in vitamin A deprived rats.

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    Emilie Bonnet

    Full Text Available A dysfunction of retinoid hippocampal signaling pathway has been involved in the appearance of affective and cognitive disorders. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Hippocampal granule neurons are generated throughout life and are involved in emotion and memory. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin A deficiency (VAD on neurogenesis and memory and the ability of retinoic acid (RA treatment to prevent VAD-induced impairments. Adult retinoid-deficient rats were generated by a vitamin A-free diet from weaning in order to allow a normal development. The effects of VAD and/or RA administration were examined on hippocampal neurogenesis, retinoid target genes such as neurotrophin receptors and spatial reference memory measured in the water maze. Long-term VAD decreased neurogenesis and led to memory deficits. More importantly, these effects were reversed by 4 weeks of RA treatment. These beneficial effects may be in part related to an up-regulation of retinoid-mediated molecular events, such as the expression of the neurotrophin receptor TrkA. We have demonstrated for the first time that the effect of vitamin A deficient diet on the level of hippoccampal neurogenesis is reversible and that RA treatment is important for the maintenance of the hippocampal plasticity and function.

  1. Effect of Caffeine and Folic Acid on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Disorders In Adult Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of caffeine-rich drinks on human health indicate that certain controversial issues are still unresolved. On the other hand, folic acid has similar effect as beta-carotene, which exerted a beneficial radioprotective role as natural antioxidant agent. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant and protective roles of caffeine, folic acid or their combination orally administrated four weeks before exposure of adult male Spraque Dawely rats to whole body irradiation (4.5 Gy). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), malondialdhyde (MDA), total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G) and A/G ratio were investigated 1,3 and 7 days post irradiation. The results revealed significant decrease in T3, T4 total protein and globulin due to radiation exposure. While, the levels of MDA, albumin and A/G ratio were significantly increased. Administration of caffeine and /or folic before irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration of the radiation induced changes in thyroid hormones, T3 T4, lipid peroxides (MDA), total protein, albumin (A) and globulin (G)

  2. Up-Regulation of KPNB1 Involves in Neuronal Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Aihua; Liu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yu; Han, Lijian; Zhu, Liang; Ni, Haidan; Chen, Rongrong; Cao, Maohong

    2015-11-01

    Kpnb1, also known as Importin β1, is a member of the Karyopherin protein family which plays a important role in nuclear import and export pathways. Its expression has been shown to be responsive to stress, such as heat shock, ethanol and oxidative stress. Previous studies demonstrated that Kpnb1 had anti-apoptotic in cervical cancer. These together prompted us to explore whether Kpnb1 has some association with neuron apoptosis in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In our study, an ICH model was established by injecting into the right basal ganglia of adult rats with their autologous whole blood and assessed by behavioral tests. We found Kpnb1 were significantly up-regulated adjacent to the hematoma following ICH by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorenscence manifested Kpnb1 was strikingly increased in neurons, not astrocytes or microglia. Furthermore, we also found that kpnb1 had co-localizations with active-caspase-3 which is a neuronal apoptosis marker suggesting its role in neuronal apoptosis. What's more, our in vitro study, using Kpnb1 RNA interference in PC12 cells, further indicated that Kpnb1 might exert its pro-apoptotic function on neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, Kpnb1 may play a role in the neuronal apoptosis following ICH. PMID:26303509

  3. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  4. Flux control exerted by overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase over palmitoyl-CoA oxidation and ketogenesis is lower in suckling than in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, S; Lascelles, C V; Zammit, V A; Quant, P A

    1996-01-01

    We examined the potential of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to control the hepatic catabolism of palmitoyl-CoA in suckling and adult rats, using a conceptually simplified model of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. By applying top-down control analysis, we quantified the control exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux from palmitoyl-CoA to ketone bodies and carbon dioxide. Our results show that in both suckling and adult rat, CPT I exerts very significant control over the pathways under investigation. However, under the sets of conditions we studied, less control is exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux in mitochondria isolated from suckling rats than in those isolated from adult rats. Furthermore the flux control coefficient of CPT I changes with malonyl-CoA concentration and ATP turnover rate. PMID:8912677

  5. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  6. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  7. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  8. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  9. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32°C daily for 50 days. Then, all male rats were sacrificed, the right epididymides were removed and sperm concentration and motility were determined. The sperm suspension was added to the ova. Fertilization capacity was assessed by counting two-cell embryos 24-26 h after completion of fertilization in vitro. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of sperm concentration in the control and experimental groups were 60.8 ± 9.3 10 6 /ml and 20.4 ± 5.3 10 6 /ml, respectively. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the two groups in terms of sperm concentration. The percentage of motility in the experimental group was significantly different ( P < 0.05. The same results were obtained in case of fertility ( P < 0.05. Stress caused by forced swimming was observed by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: These results suggest that forced swimming stress in time course equal or more than spermatogenesis period, i.e. 48-50 days in the rat will be significantly effective to reduce the number and motility of sperms as well as the fertilization capacity.

  10. Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract on adult wistar rats in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an assessment of the dominant lethality of Mikania glomerata in male Wistar rats. Adult male received 1 mL of M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose level of 3.3 g/kg body weight for 52 days and were mated with untreated females for seven weeks (group 1 or one week prior to the beginning of treatment and on the week following the end of treatment (group 2. The parameters analyzed were: number of implanted embryos, resorptions and corpora lutea; mating, gestation, preimplantation loss, implantation and resorption indexes (group 1; number of offspring and weaning animals (group 2. The administration of M. glomerata did not show any impairment of fertility and no significant difference in the parameters analyzed, suggesting an absence of mutagenic effect on Wistar rats.Mikania glomerata é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular, cujas folhas possuem flavonóides e cumarina. Essas substâncias, segundo a literatura, interferem na fertilidade de cães e ratas, respectivamente. O presente trabalho faz um estudo do teste do letal dominante com M. glomerata em ratos Wistar. Animals adultos foram tratados com 1 mL de extrato hidroalcoólico de M. glomerata na dose de 3.3 g/kg de peso corporal durante 52 dias. Os animais foram acasalados com fêmeas não tratadas por sete semanas (grupo 1 ou uma semana antes do início do tratamento e na semana seguinte ao término do mesmo (grupo 2. As variáveis analisadas foram: números de embriões implantados, reabsorções e corpos lúteos, índices de acasalamento, gestação, perda pré-implantação, implantação e reabsorção (grupo 1; número de filhotes nascidos e de animais desmamados (grupo 2. A administração de M. glomerata não interferiu com a fertilidade dos animais e não foram observadas alterações significativas das variáveis analisadas, o que sugere a ausência de efeito mutagênico em ratos Wistar por parte dessa planta.

  11. Evaluation Of Gonadotropin And Testosterone Hormons In Adult Male Cholestatic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiri E

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids (EOP, nitric oxide (NO, and cytokins in the blood streams. Therefore we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and function of germ cells in adult male rats."nMaterial and Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: No-surgery, Sham-surgery, and surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animal were killed by ether, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by Radioimmunoassay, apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by in situ terminal deoxynucloetidyl Transfrase-mediated dUTP nike end labeling (TUNEL."nResults: The mean of FSH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 13.22+ 1.038, 18.14+ 1.276, and 16.92+ 1.072 ng/ml, respectively. The mean of LH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 0.83 + 0.21, 2.058 ± 0.26, and 1.84 + 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the mean of testosterone level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 1.52 ± 0.16, 2.41 ± 0.18, and 2.31 + 0.14 ng/ml, respectively. The results of this study were indicated that serum FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly lower in cholestatic than control and sham groups (p=0.0195, P= 0.0029, and P=0.0023, respectively. However there was no significant difference in apoptotic index between all of groups (P=0.195. The apoptotic index in cholestatic, control and sham rats were 9.897± 1.374, 7.086 + 0.91, and 7.729 + 1.101, respectively. "nConclusion: These findings have been shown which as obstructive cholestasis was decreased the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone but it has no significant effector testicular germinal cells apoptosis."n"n"n"n 

  12. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability. PMID:26657171

  13. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N

    2013-12-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33-P40) and adult (P100-P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol, and for 3 h at 20 h post ethanol, during the rats' next sleep cycle. Significantly higher overall frontal and parietal cortical power was seen in a wide range of EEG frequencies in adolescent rats as compared to adult rats in their waking EEG. Acute administration of ethanol did not produce differences between adolescents and adults on behavioral measures of acute intoxication. However, it did produce a significantly less intense acute EEG response to ethanol in the theta frequencies in parietal cortex in the adolescents as compared to the adults. At 20 h following acute ethanol administration, during the rats' next sleep cycle, a decrease in slow-wave frequencies (1-4 Hz) was seen and the adolescent rats were found to display more reduction in the slow-wave frequencies than the adults did. The present study found that adolescent rats, as compared to adults, demonstrate low sensitivity to acute ethanol administration in the theta frequencies and more susceptibility to disruption of slow-wave sleep during hangover. These studies may lend support to the idea that these traits may contribute to increased risk for alcohol use disorders seen in adults who begin drinking in their early teenage years. PMID:24169089

  14. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  15. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  16. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices drifted sideways last month. A Index values ranged between 80 and 86 cents/lb. In the New York futures market, there was some volatility associated with the expiration of the July contract. However, prices for the most actively traded December contract were range-bound, generally holding to levels between 68 and 74 cents/lb.

  17. Metal analysis of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  18. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of β-adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe 3H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the β-adrenergic probe 3H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 μm sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of β-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific β-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of β-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells

  19. The Effect of Disulfiram on Serum Levels of Hormones in the Pituitary-Thyroid in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Disulfiram is used for treatment of alcohol intoxication.Based on the results of different studies, excessive amounts of the drug can affect the body's endocrine function. This study investigated the effect of disulfiram on the activity of the pituitary - thy-roid in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: In this study 50 adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 to 220 g were used in the experimental, control and intact groups. Experimental groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses of disulfiram for 10 days and control group received 1 ml saline for 10 days and intact groups did not receive any thing. At the end of the tenth day ,the rats were bled from the heart and T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by commercial kits Gama Counter and the results were analyzed using one-way (ANOVA with SPSS ver-sion 18. Results: Results show that there was no significant changes in T4 plasma level, but T3 and TSH level increased significantly when the control and intact groups were compared. Conclusion: Disulfiram had no significant effect in T4 plasma level but T3 and TSH level in-creased significantly. It probably happened due to increasing serotonin and reducing soma-tostatine and also enhancing the activity of 5-Deiodinase enzymes following the entry of cal-cium ions into the cells.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:43-47

  20. Differential effects of long-term exposure to Aroclor 1254 on lipid secretion by primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    1992-06-01

    PCBs produce hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation (fatty liver) in experimental animals and humans exposed accidentally and occupationally. It has been suggested that this effect could be due to a block in TG secretion. On the other hand, increased levels of plasmatic TG and cholesterol have been described in rats after dietary exposure to Aroclor 1254 (Aro) and other PCBs; hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension have been also described in humans exposed for long periods to low concentrations of PCBs. Since the study of hepatic lipid metabolism and its alteration by toxic chemicals is complicated in the whole animal, short term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes have been used. We have described a system for the long term culture of adult rat hepatocytes which for several weeks maintain differentiated functions, like fatty acid and TG synthesis and their export to the culture medium. In this paper we used this culture system to study the effect of long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aro on the secretion of lipids by cultured hepatocytes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  2. Cerebral metabolism of plasma [14C]palmitate in awake, adult rat: subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following intravenous injection of [U-14C]palmitate in awake adult rats, whole brain radioactivity reached a broad maximum between 15-60 min, then declined rapidly to reach a relatively stable level between 4 hr and 20 hr. At 44 hr total radioactivity was 57% of the 4 hr value (p less than 0.05). About 50% of palmitate which entered the brain from the blood was oxidized rapidly, producing 14C-labeled water-soluble components which later left the cytosol. Radioactivity in the cytosolic fraction peaked at 45 min and then declined, coincident with the decline in total brain radioactivity. Membrane fractions were rapidly labeled to levels which remained relatively stable from 1 to 44 hr. Increases in the relative distributions of radioactivity were seen between 1 and 4 hr for the microsomal and mitochondrial fractions, and beyond 4 hr for the synaptic and myelin membrane fractions (p less than 0.05). Radioactivity in membrane fractions was 80-90% lipid, 5-13% water-soluble components and 3-17% protein. The proportion of label in membrane-associated protein increased with time. Proportions of radioactivity in the combined membrane fractions increased from 65% to 76% to 80% at 4, 20 and 44 hr, respectively. The results show that plasma-derived palmitate enters oxidative and synthetic pathways to an equal extent, immediately after entry into the brain. At and after 4 hr, the radiolabel resides predominantly in stable membrane lipids and protein. Brain radioactivity at 4 hr can be used therefore, to examine incorporation of palmitate into lipids in vivo, in different experimental conditions

  3. Enhancement by citral of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lan; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2016-02-10

    Although citral, which is abundantly present in lemongrass, has various actions including antinociception, how citral affects synaptic transmission has not been examined as yet. Citral activates in heterologous cells transient receptor potential vanilloid-1, ankyrin-1, and melastatin-8 (TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, respectively) channels, the activation of which in the spinal lamina II [substantia gelatinosa (SG)] increases the spontaneous release of L-glutamate from nerve terminals. It remains to be examined what types of transient receptor potential channel in native neurons are activated by citral. With a focus on transient receptor potential activation, we examined the effect of citral on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to SG neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices. Bath-applied citral for 3 min increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current in a concentration-dependent manner (half-maximal effective concentration=0.58 mM), with a small increase in its amplitude. The spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency increase produced by citral was repeated at a time interval of 30 min, albeit this action recovered with a slow time course after washout. The presynaptic effect of citral was inhibited by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, but not by voltage-gated Na-channel blocker tetrodotoxin, TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, and TRPM8 antagonist BCTC. It is concluded that citral increases spontaneous L-glutamate release in SG neurons by activating TRPA1 channels. Considering that the SG plays a pivotal role in modulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery, the citral activity could contribute toward at least a part of the modulation. PMID:26720890

  4. Quantified distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the hippocampus of adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed radioautographic technique, based on the uptake labeling of monoamine terminals in vitro, was used to quantify the noradrenaline (NA) innervation in adult rat hippocampus. After incubation of brain slices with 1 microM 3H-NA, the NA varicosities were visualized as small aggregates of silver grains, in light microscope radioautographs prepared at 3 equidistant horizontal levels across the ventral 2/3 of the hippocampus. Using a computer-assisted image analyzer, counts were obtained from the subiculum (SUB), 3 sectors of Ammon's horn (CA1, CA3-a, CA3-b) and 3 sectors of the dentate gyrus (DG-medial blade, crest, and lateral blade), every lamina being sampled in each region. After a double correction for duration of radioautographic exposure and section thickness, and following measurement of varicosity diameter in electron microscope radioautographs, it was possible to express these results in number of terminals per volumetric unit of tissue. It was thus found that the overall density of hippocampal NA innervation averages 2.1 million varicosities/mm3 of tissue, a value almost twice as high as that in cerebral cortex. This innervation is 20% denser ventrally than dorsally and is heterogeneous both in terms of regional and laminar distribution. SUB and DG are more strongly innervated than Ammon's horn, wherein CA1 has the lowest overall density. In SUB and CA1, there is a clear predilection of NA varicosities for the stratum moleculare. In CA3, there is a narrow band of even stronger innervation in the stratum radiatum, near the apical border of the stratum pyramidale, contrasting with a 3 times lower density in this cell layer and the stratum oriens. In DG, the NA innervation is again the weakest in the cell body layer and exhibits an almost 3-fold greater density in the polymorph layer, the highest of all hippocampus

  5. Neonatal androgenization exacerbates alcohol-induced liver injury in adult rats, an effect abrogated by estrogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney M Ellefson

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD affects millions of people worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, fewer than 10% of heavy drinkers progress to later stages of injury, suggesting other factors in ALD development, including environmental exposures and genetics. Females display greater susceptibility to the early damaging effects of ethanol. Estrogen (E2 and ethanol metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, CYP450 are implicated in sex differences of ALD. Sex steroid hormones are developmentally regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, which controls sex-specific cycling of gonadal steroid production and expression of hepatic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine if early postnatal inhibition of adult cyclic E2 alters ethanol metabolizing enzyme expression contributing to the development of ALD in adulthood. An androgenized rat model was used to inhibit cyclic E2 production. Control females (Ctrl, androgenized females (Andro and Andro females with E2 implants were administered either an ethanol or isocalorically-matched control Lieber-DeCarli diet for four weeks and liver injury and CYP450 expression assessed. Androgenization exacerbated the deleterious effects of ethanol demonstrated by increased steatosis, lipid peroxidation, profibrotic gene expression and decreased antioxidant defenses compared to Ctrl. Additionally, CYP2E1 expression was down-regulated in Andro animals on both diets. No change was observed in CYP1A2 protein expression. Further, continuous exogenous administration of E2 to Andro in adulthood attenuated these effects, suggesting that E2 has protective effects in the androgenized animal. Therefore, early postnatal inhibition of cyclic E2 modulates development and progression of ALD in adulthood.

  6. Roles of mitochondria and temperature in the control of intracellular calcium in adult rat sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S H; Carl, A; McHugh, J M; Goff, H R; Kenyon, J L

    2008-04-01

    We recorded Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+](i)) in isolated adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at 20 and 30 degrees C. In neurons bathed in tetraethylammonium and dialyzed with cesium, warming reduced resting [Ca2+](i) from 87 to 49 nM and the time constant of the decay of [Ca2+](i) transients (tau(r)) from 1.3 to 0.99s (Q(10)=1.4). The Buffer Index, the ratio between Ca2+ influx and Delta[Ca2+](i) (f I(ca)d(t)/Delta[Ca2+]i) , increased two- to threefold with warming. Neither inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase by intracellular sodium orthovanadate nor inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by the endoplasmic reticulum by thapsigargin plus ryanodine were necessary for the effects of warming on these parameters. In contrast, inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter by intracellular ruthenium red largely reversed the effects of warming. Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP, 500 nM) increased resting [Ca2+](i) at 30 degrees C. Ten millimolar intracellular sodium prolonged the recovery of [Ca2+](i) transients to 10-40s. This effect was reversed by an inhibitor of mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca2+ -exchange (CGP 37157, 10 microM). Thus, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is necessary for the temperature-dependent increase in Ca2+ buffering and mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes contribute to the control of [Ca2+](i) between 50 and 150 nM at 30 degrees C. PMID:17716728

  7. Elucidation of thrifty features in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2012-03-20

    Since the introduction of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the potential traits of thrift have been described in increasingly broad terms but biochemical and behavioral evidence of thrift has not been well demonstrated. The objective of our studies was to use a rodent model to identify features of thrift programmed by early life protein restriction. Robust programming of thrifty features requires a thrifty nutritional environment during the entire window of developmental plasticity. Therefore, pregnant rats were exposed to a low protein diet throughout the window of developmental plasticity spanning the period of gestation and lactation and its effects on energy acquisition, storage and expenditure in the adult offspring were examined. Maternal protein restriction reduced birth weight and produced long term reductions in body and organ weights in the offspring. Low protein offspring demonstrated an increased drive to seek food as evidenced by hyperphagia that was mediated by changes in plasma leptin and ghrelin levels. Hyperphagia was accompanied by increased efficiency in converting caloric intake into body mass. The higher feed efficiency was mediated by greater insulin sensitivity. Energy expenditure of low protein offspring in locomotion was not affected either in the light or dark phase. However, low protein offspring exhibited higher resting and basal metabolic rates as evidenced by higher core body temperature in the fed and fasted states. The increased thermogenesis was not mediated by thyroid hormones but by an increased sympathetic nervous system drive as reflected by a lower areal bone mineral density and bone mineral content and lower plasma adiponectin and triglyceride levels. Elevated thermogenesis in the low protein offspring possibly offsets the effects of hyperphagia, minimizes their chances of weight gain, and improves survivability. This constellation of metabolic features in the low protein offspring will maximize survival potential in a post

  8. Histological effects of long term consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol. The effect of chronic consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Aim: The objective is to observe any possible histological changes. Materials and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were equally and randomly assigned into two treatment groups [A] and [B]; and untreated Control group [C] of (n = 8 per group. The rats in the treatment groups [A] and [B] were respectively given 1g and 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for the thirty-two days period. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on day thirty-three of the experiment, medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out from the brain and quickly fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A & B showed some cellular degenerative changes like hypertrophy, sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, and vacuolation in the stroma of the treated medial geniculate body relative to those in the control group. Conclusion: Long term consumption of nutmeg may have adverse effect on microanatomy of medial geniculate body, which could negatively impact on the auditory sensibilities. Further research, including human observational studies, aimed at corroborating these observations is recommended.

  9. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  10. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  11. Effects of adult exposure to bisphenol a on genes involved in the physiopathology of rat prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Castro

    Full Text Available Several neurological and behavioral dysfunctions have been reported in animals exposed to bisphenol A (BPA. However, little is known about the impact of adult exposure to BPA on brain physiopathology. Here, we focused on prefrontal cortex (PFC of rats, because it is an important area for cognitive control, complex behaviors and is altered in many psychopathologies. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and serotonin (5-HT systems are essential for PFC function. Therefore, we examined the effects of adult exposure to BPA on 5α-Reductase (5α-R and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom, enzymes that synthesize GABAA receptor modulators, and tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph, the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis. To gain better understanding of BPA's action in the adult PFC, 84 genes involved in neurotoxicity were also analysed. Adult male and female rats were subcutaneously injected for 4 days with 50 µg/kg/day, the current reference safe dose for BPA. mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R, P450arom and Tph were quantified by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Genes linked to neurotoxicity were analyzed by PCR-Array technology. Adult exposure to BPA increased both P450arom and Tph2 expression in PFC of male and female, but decreased 5α-R1 expression in female. Moreover, we identified 17 genes related to PFC functions such as synaptic plasticity and memory, as potential targets of BPA. Our results provided new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA action in the physiopathology of PFC, but also raise the question about the safety of short-term exposure to it in the adulthood.

  12. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  13. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  14. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  15. Suppression of spermatogenesis by testosterone undecanoate-loaded injectable in situ-forming implants in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dan; Meng, Shu; Wang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Dan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of administration of testosterone undecanoate (TU)-loaded injectable in situ-forming implant (ISFI) for contraception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with vehicle, TU-loaded ISFIs (540, 270 and 135 mg TU kg-1 ) or TU injections (45 mg TU kg-1 every 30 days) for 120 days. Fertility tests served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Serum testosterone concentration, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, and histology of the testis were monitored. The TU-loaded ISFIs increased serum testosterone levels in rats steadily without fluctuation over 3 months. One month after TU administration, the epididymal sperm count decreased significantly in all experimental groups. After 3 months, the animals treated with 270 and 135 mg kg-1 TU-loaded ISFIs were 100% infertile, and no implantation sites were produced in the mated females. However, some of males treated with 540 mg kg-1 ISFI or TU injections were still fertile but numbers of implantation sites were also significantly lower than control values. TU-loaded ISFI at an appropriate dose has potential as a long-acting male contraceptive drug that suppresses spermatogenesis consistently over a period of 3 months. PMID:26459781

  16. Purification of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells containing all the repopulation potential for normal adult rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oertel, Michael; Menthena, Anuradha; Chen, Yuan-Qing;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previously, we showed high-level, long-term liver replacement after transplantation of unfractionated embryonic day (ED) 14 fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPC). However, for clinical applications, it will be essential to transplant highly enriched cells, while maintaining...... high repopulation potential. METHODS: Dlk-1, a member of the delta-like family of cell surface transmembrane proteins, is highly expressed in human and rodent fetal liver. Dlk-1(+) cells, isolated from ED14 fetal liver using immunomagnetic beads, were examined for their hepatic gene expression profile...... and characteristic properties in vitro and their proliferative and differentiation potential in vivo after transplantation into normal adult rat liver. RESULTS: Rat ED14 FLSPC were purified to 95% homogeneity and exhibited cell culture and gene expression characteristics expected for hepatic stem/progenitor cells...

  17. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  18. Organic Cotton: An Opportunity for Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ton, P.

    2007-01-01

    Report analysing the global market for organic cotton fibre, textiles and clothing - gives a definition of organic cotton and ‘fair trade’ cotton; provides detailed figures for organic cotton production, trade, and consumption; presents the geographical markets for organic cotton fibre, textiles; describes the involvement of many large brands and retailers, and reviews organic cotton markets in the United States, Switzerland, Germany, United Kingdom and France; provides a SWOT (Strengths, Wea...

  19. The food-conditioned place preference task in adolescent, adult and aged rats of both sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Marisa J.; Hagerbaumer, Diana A.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    The rat basolateral amygdala shows neuroanatomical sex differences, continuing development after puberty and aging-related alterations. Implications for amygdala-dependent memory processes were explored here by testing male and female hooded rats in adolescence, adulthood and old age on the food-conditioned place preference task. While aged rats were unimpaired, adolescents failed to learn the task. This finding may be related to ongoing development of the basolateral amygdala and related mem...

  20. Penetration of Treosulfan and its Active Monoepoxide Transformation Product into Central Nervous System of Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Baumgart, Joachim; Böhm, Sonja; Główka, Franciszek K

    2015-12-01

    Treosulfan (TREO) is currently investigated as an alternative treatment of busulfan in conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The knowledge of the blood-brain barrier penetration of the drug is still scarce. In this paper, penetration of TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into the CNS was studied in juvenile (JR) and young adult rats (YAR) for the first time. CD rats of both sexes (n = 96) received an intravenous dose of TREO 500 mg/kg b.wt. Concentrations of TREO, S,S-EBDM, and S,S-DEB in rat plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in YAR only) were determined by validated bioanalytical methods. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed in WinNonlin using a noncompartmental analysis and statistical evaluation was done in Statistica software. In male JR, female JR, male YAR, and female YAR, the brain/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratio for unbound TREO was 0.14, 0.17, 0.10, and 0.07 and for unbound S,S-EBDM, it was 0.52, 0.48, 0.28, and 0.22, respectively. The CSF/plasma AUC ratio in male and female YAR was 0.12 and 0.11 for TREO and 0.66 and 0.64 for S,S-EBDM, respectively. Elimination rate constants of TREO and S,S-EBDM in all the matrices were sex-independent with a tendency to be lower in the JR. No quantifiable levels of S,S-DEB were found in the studied samples. TREO and S,S-EBDM demonstrated poor and sex-independent penetration into CNS. However, the brain exposure was greater in juvenile rats, so very young children might potentially be more susceptible to high-dose TREO-related CNS exposure than young adults. PMID:26428246

  1. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  2. A method for the isolation and culture of adult rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells to study retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch Peter Heller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD affect the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and lead to the death of the epithelial cells and ultimately blindness. RPE transplantation is currently a major focus of eye research and clinical trials using human stem cell-derived RPE cells are ongoing. However, it remains to be established to which extent the source of RPE cells for transplantation affects their therapeutic efficacy and this needs to be explored in animal models. Autotransplantation of RPE cells has attractions as a therapy, but existing protocols to isolate adult RPE cells from rodents are technically difficult, time-consuming, have a low yield and are not optimized for long-term cell culturing. Here, we report a newly devised protocol which facilitates reliable and simple isolation and culture of RPE cells from adult rats. Incubation of a whole rat eyeball in 20 U/ml papain solution for 50 minutes yielded 4 x 104 viable RPE cells. These cells were hexagonal and pigmented upon culture. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that the cells expressed RPE cell-specific marker proteins including cytokeratin 18 and RPE65, similar to RPE cells in vivo. Additionally, the cells were able to produce and secrete Bruch’s membrane matrix components similar to in vivo situation. Similarly, the cultured RPE cells adhered to isolated Bruch’s membrane as has previously been reported. Therefore, the protocol described in this article provides an efficient method for the rapid and easy isolation of high quantities of adult rat RPE cells. This provides a reliable platform for studying the therapeutic targets, testing the effects of drugs in a preclinical setup and to perform in vitro and in vivo transplantation experiments to study retinal diseases.

  3. Energy from cotton gin waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodin, P.L.

    1977-04-01

    The US Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory installed a small, multi-chamber incinerator to study its ability to convert cotton gin waste into useable on-site energy. The incinerator operates on a controlled or starved air principle with a maximum capacity of 350-400 lbs of trash/hr. Tests indicate that 31.4% of the heat from combustion of the gin trash can be recovered and efficiently delivered to the seed-cotton drying system.

  4. The effects of buthionine sulfoximine treatment on diaphragm contractility and SERCA pump function in adult and middle aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ian C; Vigna, Chris; Levy, Andrew S; Steven G Denniss; Rush, James W E; Tupling, A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 10 days of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment on in vitro contractility and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) expression and function in adult (AD; 6–8 months old) and middle aged (MA; 14–17 months old) rat diaphragm in both the basal state and following fatiguing stimulation. BSO treatment reduced the cellular concentrations of free glutathione (GSH) by >95% and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by >80% in both age cohorts. GSH content in AD Control...

  5. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,2 ',3,4,4 ',5,5 '-Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viluksela; Päivi Heikkinen; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Filip Rendel; Robert Roos; Javier Esteban; Merja Korkalainen; Sanna Lensu; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Kari Savolainen; Satu Sankari; Hellmuth Lilienthal; Annika Adamsson; Jorma Toppari; Maria Herlin

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN DIFFERENT EXPRESSION AND ORGANIZATION OF COLLAGEN IN SKIN WOUNDS OF ADULT AND FETAL RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔磊; 张群; 钱云良

    2000-01-01

    ReSllm6 Objectif Observer la distribution en espece et dans ie temps du collag&ne dans ies plaies cutals chez ies ratsfretaux et ies rats adultes. methaeS In coloration de van Gieson, moyen stwifique pour ie collagsne, a ate utiliSde pour examiner l' expreSsion et i' organimtion de la dispeition du collagsne. ho matches d' immu~histChchimie et d' hybridetion insitu furent aPPliqudes pour observer la localimtion du mptide et de "tARN dans ie suivi temporal durant la gUdrison des Plaies.Anultats COllagbne de ...

  7. Vascular reactivity of arteria femoralis in adult and aged spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, M.; Líšková, Silvia; Vojtko, R.; Villaris, R.; Varga, Z.; Zicha, Josef; Kristová, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 10 (2013), s. 553-555. ISSN 0006-9248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rats * Wistar-Kyoto rats * acetylcholine * norepinephrine Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2013

  8. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats ...

  9. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  10. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  11. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices remained range-bound over the last month. Prices for the March futures contract on the New York exchange traded between 93 and 100 cents/lb. Over the same time period, values for the A Index ranged between 99 and 104 cents/lb. After the release of this month's USDA report, March futures moved lower, closing near 90 cents/lb.

  12. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  13. Gossypol: phytoalexin of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiu; Ruan, Juxin; Huang, Jinquan; Fang, Xin; Mao, Yingbo; Wang, Lingjian; Chen, Xiaoya; Yang, Changqing

    2016-02-01

    Sesquiterpenoids are a class of 15-carbon secondary metabolites that play diverse roles in plant adaptation to environment. Cotton plants accumulate a large amount of sesquiterpene aldehydes (including gossypol) as phytoalexins against pathogens and herbivores. They are stored in pigment glands of aerial organs and in epidermal layers of roots. Several enzymes of gossypol biosynthesis pathway have been characterized, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) that catalyze the formation of the precursor farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), (+)-δ-cadinene synthase (CDN) which is the first enzyme committed to gossypol biosynthesis, and the downstream enzymes of CYP706B1 and methyltransferase. Expressions of these genes are tightly regulated during cotton plants development and induced by jasmonate and fungi elicitors. The transcription factor GaWRKY1 has been shown to be involved in gossypol pathway regulation. Recent development of new genomic platforms and methods and releases of diploid and tetraploid cotton genome sequences will greatly facilitate the elucidation of gossypol biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. PMID:26803304

  14. Expression of polysialyltransferases (STX and PST) in adult rat olfactory bulb after an olfactory associative discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, J; Manrique, C; Duhoo, Y; Roman, F S; Guiraudie-Capraz, G

    2016-04-01

    Neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis occur in the adult hippocampus and in other brain structures such as the olfactory bulb and often involve the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. During an olfactory associative discrimination learning task, NCAM polysialylation triggers neuronal plasticity in the adult hippocampus. The PST enzyme likely modulates this polysialylation, but not STX, a second sialyltransferase. How the two polysialyltransferases are involved in the adult olfactory bulb remains unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of olfactory associative learning on plasticity and neurogenesis. After a hippocampo-dependent olfactory associative task learning, we measured the expression of both PST and STX polysialyltransferases in the olfactory bulbs of adult rats using quantitative PCR. In parallel, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate both NCAM polysialylation level and newly-born cells, with or without learning. After learning, no changes were observed neither in the expression level of PST and NCAM polysialylation, nor in STX gene expression level and newly-born cells number in the olfactory bulb. PMID:26844880

  15. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  16. Effects of Calendula officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood sugar, LDL, HDL and Total cholesterol in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Adult male wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahmoodi; A. Azimi; Shahidi, S

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: It’s very important to decrease the glucose level and lipid’s serum in diabetes patients by using medicinal plants. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis on blood glucose, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol in diabetic rats was examined. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, diabetic and diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis (100, 150...

  17. Eating High Fat Chow Decreases Dopamine Clearance in Adolescent and Adult Male Rats but Selectively Enhances the Locomotor Stimulating Effects of Cocaine in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Horton, Rebecca E.; Owens, William A.; Lynette C Daws; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Feeding conditions can influence dopamine neurotransmission and impact behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters the locomotor effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter activity in adolescent (postnatal day 25) and adult (postnatal day 75) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Dose-response curves for cocaine-induced locomotor activity were generated in rats with free access to either standard o...

  18. A Novel Rodent Model of Autism: Intraventricular Infusions of Propionic Acid Increase Locomotor Activity and Induce Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Discrete Regions of Adult Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick F. MacFabe; Karina Rodríguez-Capote; Jennifer E.  Franklin; Martin Kavaliers; Fred Possmayer; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp; Andrew E. Franklin

    2008-01-01

    Innate neuroinflammatory changes, increased oxidative stress and disorders of glutathione metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a dietary and gut bacterial short chain fatty acid which can produce brain and behavioral changes reminiscent of ASD following intraventricular infusion in rats. Adult Long-Evans rats were given intraventricular infusions of either PPA (500ug uL-1, 4µl anima-1) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) ...

  19. Novelty-induced conditioned place preference, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior in adult rats after repeated exposure to methylphenidate during the preweanling period

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Britt, Cynthia E.; Varela, Fausto A.; Kozanian, Olga O.

    2013-01-01

    Early treatment with methylphenidate has a persistent effect on the affective (i.e., anxiety- and depressive-like) behaviors of adult rats and mice. Interestingly, age at methylphenidate exposure appears to be a critical determinant influencing the expression of affective behaviors. In the present study, we exposed rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period (i.e., PD 11-PD 20) because this ontogenetic period is analogous to early childhood in humans (an age associated with increasi...

  20. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  1. Enhancement of basolateral amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization following Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Vollala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 2¹/2-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were further divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n = 8 for each dose. After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze and passive avoidance tests. Subsequently, these rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed, and the amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining. Basolateral amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length were quantified. These data were compared with the data from the age-matched control rats. RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. Furthermore, a significant increase in dendritic length and the number of dendritic branching points was observed along the length of the dendrites of the basolateral amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Bacopa monniera (BM for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: We conclude that constituents present in Bacopa monniera extract have neuronal dendritic growth-stimulating properties.

  2. Actin related protein complex subunit 1b controls sperm release, barrier integrity and cell division during adult rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anita; Dumasia, Kushaan; Deshpande, Sharvari; Gaonkar, Reshma; Balasinor, N H

    2016-08-01

    Actin remodeling is a vital process for signaling, movement and survival in all cells. In the testes, extensive actin reorganization occurs at spermatid-Sertoli cell junctions during sperm release (spermiation) and at inter Sertoli cell junctions during restructuring of the blood testis barrier (BTB). During spermiation, tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs), rich in branched actin networks, ensure recycling of spermatid-Sertoli cell junctional molecules. Similar recycling occurs during BTB restructuring around the same time as spermiation occurs. Actin related protein 2/3 complex is an essential actin nucleation and branching protein. One of its subunits, Arpc1b, was earlier found to be down-regulated in an estrogen-induced rat model of spermiation failure. Also, Arpc1b was found to be estrogen responsive through estrogen receptor beta in seminiferous tubule culture. Here, knockdown of Arpc1b by siRNA in adult rat testis led to defects in spermiation caused by failure in TBC formation. Knockdown also compromised BTB integrity and caused polarity defects of mature spermatids. Apart from these effects pertaining to Sertoli cells, Arpc1b reduction perturbed ability of germ cells to enter G2/M phase thus hindering cell division. In summary, Arpc1b, an estrogen responsive gene, is a regulator of spermiation, mature spermatid polarity, BTB integrity and cell division during adult spermatogenesis. PMID:27113856

  3. Special function of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Zhao; Kaihua Guo; Dongpei Li; Qunfang Yuan; Zhibin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Nestin+neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin+neu-rons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin+neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximately 53.6%of nestin+neurons were projected to the olfactory bulb and co-labeled with fast blue. A large number of nestin+neurons were not present in each region of the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Nestin+neurons in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca showed obvious compensatory function. The number of nestin+neurons decreased to a minimum later than nestin-/ChAT+neurons in the medial sep-tum-diagonal band of Broca. The results suggest that nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a closer connection to olfactory bulb neurons. Nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a stronger tolerance to injury than Nestin-/ChAT+neurons. The difference between nestin+and nestin-/ChAT+neurons during the recovery process requires further investigations.

  4. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  5. Evidence that the periaqueductal gray matter mediates the facilitation of panic-like reactions in neonatally-isolated adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino-dos-Santos, Jeyce Willig; Müller, Cláudia Janaína Torres; Bernabé, Cristie Setúbal; Rosa, Caroline Azevedo; Tufik, Sérgio; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Plenty of evidence suggests that childhood separation anxiety (CSA) predisposes the subject to adult-onset panic disorder (PD). As well, panic is frequently comorbid with both anxiety and depression. The brain mechanisms whereby CSA predisposes to PD are but completely unknown in spite of the increasing evidence that panic attacks are mediated at midbrain's dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG). Accordingly, here we examined whether the neonatal social isolation (NSI), a model of CSA, facilitates panic-like behaviors produced by electrical stimulations of DPAG of rats as adults. Eventual changes in anxiety and depression were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swimming test (FST) respectively. Male pups were subjected to 3-h daily isolations from post-natal day 2 (PN2) until weaning (PN21) allotting half of litters in individual boxes inside a sound-attenuated chamber (NSI, n = 26) whilst siblings (sham-isolated rats, SHAM, n = 27) and dam were moved to another box in a separate room. Non-handled controls (CTRL, n = 18) remained undisturbed with dams until weaning. As adults, rats were implanted with electrodes into the DPAG (PN60) and subjected to sessions of intracranial stimulation (PN65), EPM (PN66) and FST (PN67-PN68). Groups were compared by Fisher's exact test (stimulation sites), likelihood ratio chi-square tests (stimulus-response threshold curves) and Bonferroni's post hoc t-tests (EPM and FST), for Ptrotting, galloping and jumping were markedly facilitated in NSI rats relative to both SHAM and CTRL groups. Conversely, anxiety and depression scores either did not change or were even reduced in neonatally-handled groups relative to CTRL, respectively. Data are the first behavioral evidence in animals that early-life separation stress produces the selective facilitation of panic-like behaviors in adulthood. Most importantly, results implicate the DPAG not only in panic attacks but also in separation-anxious children

  6. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  7. Severe instead of mild hyperglycemia inhibits neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Zhi, P K; Luo, Z K; Shi, J

    2015-09-10

    Accumulated evidence suggests that enhanced neurogenesis stimulated by ischemic injury contributes to stroke outcome. However, it is unclear whether hyperglycemia, which is frequently tested positive in patients with acute ischemic stroke, influences stroke-induced neurogenesis. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on stroke-induced neurogenesis in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Glucose was administered during ischemia to produce target blood levels ranging from 4.83 ± 0.94 mM (normoglycemia) to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM. To label proliferating cells in ischemic ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 24h after MCAO. Brains were harvested 2h post-BrdU to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on infarct volume and SVZ cell proliferation. Rats that were severely hyperglycemic (19.26 ± 1.48 mM to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM) during ischemia had 24.26% increase in infarct volume (Pneurogenesis by a mechanism involving suppression of CREB and BDNF signaling. PMID:26126927

  8. Effect of ormeloxifene, a nonsteroidal once-a-week oral contraceptive, on systemic hemodynamics in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiralal Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the short-term effects of ormeloxifene on systemic hemodynamics, coagulation profile, and serum antioxidant activity in vivo in comparison with raloxifene. Materials and Methods: Colony-bred adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 19 groups of 10 each and received either ormeloxifene or raloxifene (0.25, 1.25, or 3 mg/kg/day for 7, 15, or 30 days by the oral route. Animals of control group received vehicle (gum-acacia in distilled water alone in a similar manner. Systemic hemodynamics and serum total antioxidant activity were assessed 24 h after the last treatment. Results: There was no significant effect of ormeloxifene administered at these doses and schedules on hemodynamic parameters or antioxidant activity, except for increase in amplitude of R wave in rats treated with 3 mg/kg/day dose for 30 days. This effect with raloxifene was evident only 7 days after treatment at this dose. Overall response was, however, almost similar with both the agents. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate comparable pharmacological profile of ormeloxifene and raloxifene on short-term administration to rats. Based on changes observed in the ECG (R wave, long-term studies may lead to justifiable comparison of beneficial and harmful effects of ormeloxifene and raloxifene in relation to cardiovascular effects.

  9. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  10. Zhengzhou Cotton Trading Market opened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On November 8th, Zhengzhou cotton trading market Co., Ltd. in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province held a grand opening ceremony. It marked the formal operations of the spot cotton Electronic Trading Center. The trading center basing on the central plain area and radiating its profound influence across the whole country.

  11. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  12. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  13. Protective effects of pomegranate peel against hematotoxicity, chromosomal aberrations, and genotoxicity induced by barium chloride in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwej, Awatef; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kallel, Choumous; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Zeghal, Najiba; Ben Amara, Ibtissem

    2016-06-01

    Context Pomegranate peel (PP) has health benefits including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic properties. Objective This study investigated the biochemical composition and protective effects of PP against hematotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by barium chloride (BaCl2) in adult rats. Materials and methods Adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six each: control, barium (67 ppm via drinking water), PP (5% via diet), and their combination during 21 d. Oxidative stress was determined by MDA, AOPP, and antioxidant status: CAT, GPx, GSH, Vit C. Osmotic fragility (OF), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and micronucleus (MN) assays were also studied. Results PP showed a rich composition of antioxidant compounds. DPPH test found IC50 value= 5.3 μg/mL and a high polysaccharides content (315 ± 5 mg/g of extract). In vivo study showed a decrease in red blood cells (70%) and platelet counts (46%), hemoglobin content (8%), hematocrit percent (7%), and an 80% increase of white blood cells in Ba-treated rats. A reduction in antioxidant status: catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities, glutathione, and vitamin C levels by 31, 21, 28, and 29%, respectively, and an increase in MDA (46%) and AOPP levels (72%) were also observed compared with controls. BaCl2-treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations with abnormal metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Oxidative stress induced by BaCl2 might be the major cause for chromosomal abnormalities leading to DNA damage. Discussion and conclusion A decrease in hematotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by PP is due to its powerful antioxidant capacity. PMID:26971618

  14. Distinct effects of repeated restraint stress on basolateral amygdala neuronal membrane properties in resilient adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Andrea; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2014-08-01

    Severe and repeated stress has damaging effects on health, including initiation of depression and anxiety. Stress that occurs during development has long-lasting and particularly damaging effects on emotion. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in many affective behaviors, and repeated stress causes different forms of BLA hyperactivity in adolescent and adult rats. However, the mechanism is not known. Furthermore, not every individual is susceptible to the negative consequences of stress. Differences in the effects of stress on the BLA might contribute to determine whether an individual will be vulnerable or resilient to the effects of stress on emotion. The purpose of this study is to test the cellular underpinnings for age dependency of BLA hyperactivity after stress, and whether protective changes occur in resilient individuals. To test this, the effects of repeated stress on membrane excitability and other membrane properties of BLA principal neurons were compared between adult and adolescent rats, and between vulnerable and resilient rats, using in vitro whole-cell recordings. Vulnerability was defined by adrenal gland weight, and verified by body weight gain after repeated restraint stress, and fecal pellet production during repeated restraint sessions. We found that repeated stress increased the excitability of BLA neurons, but in a manner that depended on age and BLA subnucleus. Furthermore, stress resilience was associated with an opposite pattern of change, with increased slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) potential, whereas vulnerability was associated with decreased medium AHP. The opposite outcomes in these two populations were further distinguished by differences of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze that were correlated with BLA neuronal excitability and AHP. These results demonstrate a substrate for BLA hyperactivity after repeated stress, with distinct membrane properties to target, as well as age-dependent factors that

  15. Nerve growth factor antibody exacerbates neuropathological signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in adult lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, A; Properzi, F; Triaca, V; Aloe, L

    2000-05-01

    In this study, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats and rats exhibiting EAE expressing high circulating anti-nerve growth factor antibody were daily monitored for clinical signs and chronic relapses. Eighty-five days after EAE induction, blood, spinal cord and brain stem were used for histological examination, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) evaluation. The results showed that NGF-deprived rats display more severe clinical signs of disease. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of NGF in the brain stem and spinal cord but not of BDNF, which decreased only in spinal cord. These observations provide additional support to the hypothesis of a protective NGF role in rats exhibiting EAE. PMID:10713350

  16. The Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Changes of Testicular Tissue in the Metformin Treated and Untreated Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kianifard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, diabetes was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg kg-1 of body weight. A group comprised of 8 diabetic rats was treated with metformin at 100 mg kg-1 of body weight for reducing the elevated blood glucose level. The results revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the body and testicular weight reduced in comparison with the control rats (P < 0.05 , the metformin treated diabetic rats showed body weight loss in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. In the untreated diabetic rats, the blood glucose level significantly increased in comparison with control and metformin treated diabetic rats. Histomorphological examinations revealed a reduction in testicular capsule diameter, seminiferous tubules (STs and germinal epithelium height, increase of amorphous material of interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity and disruption of spermatogenesis in the untreated diabetic rats in comparison with control group. In metformin treated diabetic rats, the histomorphological alterations were seen in lesser part in comparison with untreated diabetic group. The results from this study proved that, there was a direct relationship between increased levels of blood glucose as a result of STZ-induced diabetes and the histomorphological changes of testicular tissue.

  17. Cocaine Increases Stimulated Dopamine Release more in Periadolescent than Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Q. David; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    The neural mechanisms responsible for the enhanced adolescent vulnerability for initiating drug abuse are unclear. We investigated whether age differences in dopamine neurotransmission could explain cocaine’s enhanced psychomotor effects in the periadolescent rat. Electrical stimulation the medial forebrain bundle of anesthetized post-natal age 28 days (PN28) and PN65 rats elicited dopamine release in caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens core before and after 15 mg/kg cocaine i.p. Extracellu...

  18. Perinatal taurine depletion increases susceptibility to adult sugar-induced hypertension in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Suwanich, Atchariya; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine depletion produces autonomic nervous system dysregulation and increases arterial pressure in young male rats on a high sugar diet. Sprague-Dawley dams were taurine depleted (beta-alanine 3% in water) or untreated from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow with or without 5% glucose. At 7–8 weeks of age, male offspring were tested in a conscious, unrestrained or an anesthetic state. Body weight was slightly l...

  19. Transgenic Cotton-Fed Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Affects the Parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, R; Rossi, G D; Busoli, A C

    2016-02-01

    Cotton cultivars expressing Cry proteins are widely used to control lepidopteran pests. The effects of transgenic plants containing insecticidal Cry proteins on non-target species must be comprehended for a better and rational use of this technology for pest management. We investigated the influence of the Bt cotton cultivars NuOPAL and FM 975 on biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a non-target pest of Bt cotton cultivars and on its parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The experiments were conducted in a climatized room, and the non-transgenic near isolines were used for rearing whiteflies as control hosts. The effects of the Bt cotton cultivars on the period of embryonic and larval development and the percentage of adult emergence of B. tabaci were assessed. The period required for embryonic, larval, and pupal development and the percentage of emergence and longevity of E. desantisi females were determined using Bt cotton-fed and non-Bt cotton-fed B. tabaci as hosts. Both Bt cotton cultivars resulted in a decrease of approximately 20% of adult emergence of B. tabaci. Differently, an increase of approximately 10% of adult emergence of E. desantisi was observed for parasitoids that used hosts fed with both Bt cotton cultivars. However, female parasitoid longevity decreased when their hosts were fed on Bt cotton cultivars. Our data suggest that the use of Bt cotton cultivars in association with the biological control agent E. desantisi could be functional for the management of B. tabaci in Bt cotton crops. PMID:26431703

  20. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  1. Effects of early postnatal X-irradiation of the hippocampus on discrimination learning in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats with x-irradiation-produced degranulation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were trained in the acquisition and reversal of simultaneous visual and tactile discriminations in a T-maze. These experiments employed the same treatment, apparatus, and procedure, but varied in task difficulty. In the brightness and roughness discriminations, the irradiated rats were not handicapped in acquiring or reversing discriminations of low or low-moderate task-difficulty. However, these rats were handicapped in acquiring and reversing discriminations of moderate and high task-difficulty. In a Black/White discrimination, in which the stimuli were restricted to the goal-arm walls, the irradiated rats were handicapped in the acquisition (low task-difficulty) and reversal (moderate task-difficulty) phases of the task. These results suggest that the irradiated rats were not handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was high, irrespective of modality used, but were handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was low. In addition, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that hippocampal-damaged rats are inattentive due to hyperactivity

  2. Early postnatal x-irradiation of the hippocampus and discrimination learning in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats with X-irradiation-produced degranulation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were trained in the acquisition and reversal of simultaneous visual and tactile discriminations in a T-maze. These experiments employed the same treatment, apparatus, and procedure but varied in task difficulty. In the brightness and roughness discriminations, the irradiated rats were not handicapped in acquiring or reversing discriminations of low or low-moderate task difficulty. However, these rats were handicapped in acquiring and reversing discriminations of moderate and high task difficulty. In a Black/White discrimination, in which the stimuli were restricted to the goal-arm walls, the irradiated rats were handicapped in the acquisition (low task difficulty) and reversal (moderate task difficulty) phases of the task. These results suggest that the irradiated rats were not handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was high, irrespective of modality used, but were handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was low. In addition, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rats with hippocampal damage are inattentive due to hyperactivity

  3. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  5. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  6. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY QUALITY INDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  7. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: lostrow1@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  8. Decreased duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis in immature and adult female rats prenatally exposed to cimetidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of prenatal cimetidine exposure (PreCM) on the duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis (DPN) was assessed in immature (14- and 28-day old) and adult (50-60-day old) male and female rats. PreCM exposure was accomplished by treating mothers with cimetidine (CM) (20 mg/kg, ip) daily for the last two days of gestation and then (0.01% in drinking water) throughout lactation. Pregnant mothers of untreated offspring (Con) received saline. PreCM decreased DPN to 505 +/- 33 min (from 611 +/- 23 min in Con) and 393 +/- 190 min (from 686 +/- 44 min in Con) in 14-day old male and female rats, respectively. Similarly, PreCM decreased DPN to 88 +/- 15 min (from 134 +/- 3 min in Con) and 102 +/- 19 min (from 171 +/- 44 min in Con) in 28-day old male and female rats, respectively. At 21 days, PreCM did not alter DPN in either sex. At 50-60 days, however, it decreased DPN to 144 +/- 41 min (from 238 +/- 7 min in Con) in females but had no effect in males; PreCM also increased the plasma clearance of administered 14C-pentobarbital more in females than in males. The effects of PreCM, particularly the long-term effects, were most prominent in female rats and were the opposite of those of postnatal treatment with CM. The results together with those of studies with hepatic microsomes suggest that PreCM may have resulted in the induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes during the perinatal period

  9. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Reisig, Dominic D.; Reay-Jones, F. P. F.; Meijer, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) val...

  10. THE EFFECT OF TRANSIENT AND PERSISTENT NEONATAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ON THE ADULT ALBINO RAT TESTIS (LIGHT ANDELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Elshall

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim of work: thyroid hormone is known to play a critical role in the development and growth of the testis. So, this study was designed to compare between the effect of transient and persistent neonatal hypothyroidism on the testis of adult rats. Material and Methods: Thirty newborn rats (1 day old were classified equally into control group and two experimental groups. In experimental group I, the transient hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by giving their lactating mothers 0.05%, 6-propyl-2 thiouracil (PTU through drinking water for 30 days after birth then the treatment was withdrawal for 60 days. In experimental group II, the persistent hypothyroidism was induced by giving the neonates 0.05% PTU through their mother milk until weaning then directly through drinking water for 90 days after birth. After 90 days postpartum, all animals were anaesthetized and their testes were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscope examination. Results: In experimental group I, the testes of transient hypothyroid rats appeared with large seminiferous tubules (ST that the length of their diameters and the height of their lining epithelium were significantly increased as compared to those of control rats. They were lined by many Sertoli cells, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatides and late spermatids. The interstitial spaces contained some Leydig cells and few fluid. In experimental group II, the testes of persistent hypothyroid rats appeared with small ST that the length of their diameters and the height of their lining epithelium were significantly decreased as compared to those of control rats. They were lined by thin disorganized germinal epithelium containing many Sertoli cells and few germ cells. Many sloughed degenerating cells and large multinucleated giant cells were seen in the lumen of ST. The interstitial spaces contained many connective tissue cells, congested blood vessels

  11. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nozhat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C and three experimental groups (I, II and III received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration were measured, and reproductive tissues were examined histopathologically. To evaluate the effects of spearmint on fertility of male rats and growth of their offspring, male rats of the control and experimental groups mated with untreated female rats. Results: Results showed that spearmint did not affect the rats’ body and reproductive tissue weights. The sperm count, fast and slow progressive motility of sperm and serum testosterone concentration decreased while number of non-progressive sperm and immotile sperm increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group, but none of these changes were statistically significant. Histopathological studies showed no severe changes in reproductive tissues between control and experimental groups. Number and growth of offspring born from mating of male rats with untreated female rats showed no difference. Conclusion: We concluded that spearmint has no significant toxic effect on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats at the above  mentioned dose levels. However high levels of this extract may have adverse effects on male fertility.

  12. Prenatal stress alters diazepam withdrawal syndrome and 5HT1A receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakehayli, S; Said, N; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2016-08-25

    Early-life events have long-term effects on brain structures and cause behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on diazepam-induced withdrawal syndrome and serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. The results of the present study reveal that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress increased the anxiety-like behavior in the prenatally stressed (PS) animals withdrawn from chronic diazepam (2.5mg/kg/day i.p for 1week). Moreover, prenatal stress induced a down-regulation of 5HT1A mRNA in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress enhances diazepam withdrawal symptoms and alters 5HT1A receptor gene expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. Thus, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the decrease of 5HT1A receptors expression in the raphe nuclei of PS rats. PMID:27235743

  13. Effect of thyroxine on munc-18 and syntaxin-1 expression in dorsal hippocampus of adult-onset hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset hypothyroidism induces a variety of impairments on hippocampus- dependent neurocognitive functioningin which many synaptic proteins in hippocampus neurons are involved. Here, we observed the effect of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the expression of syntaxin-1 and munc-18 in the dorsal hippocampus and whether the altered proteins could be restored by levothyroxine (T4 treatment. All rats were separated into 4 groups randomly: hypothyroid group, 5μg T4/100 g body weight (BW treated group, 20 μg T4/100g BW treated group and control group. The radioimmunoassay kits were applied to assay the levels of serum T3 and T4, and the levels of syntaxin-1 and munc-18 in hippocampus were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Both analysis corroborated that syntaxin-1 in the hypothyroid group was significantly higher. Munc-18 was lower in four layers of CA3 and dentate gyrus by immunohistochemistry. After two weeks of treatment with 5 μg T4/100g BW for hypothyroidism, syntaxin-1 levels were completely restored, whereas the recovery of munc-18 only located in two of the four impaired layers. Twenty μg T4/100g BW treatment normalized munc-18 levels. These data suggested that adult-onset hypothyroidism induced increment of syntaxin-1 and decrement of munc-18 in the dorsal hippocampus, which could be restored by T4 treatment. Larger dosage of T4 caused more effective restorations.

  14. Adult rat motor neurons do not re-establish electrical coupling during axonal regeneration and muscle reinnervation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Favero

    Full Text Available Gap junctions (GJs between neurons are present in both the newborn and the adult nervous system, and although important roles have been suggested or demonstrated in a number of instances, in many other cases a full understanding of their physiological role is still missing. GJs are expressed in the rodent lumbar cord at birth and mediate both dye and electrical coupling between motor neurons. This expression has been proposed to mediate: (i fast synchronization of motoneuronal spike activity, in turn linked to the process of refinement of neuromuscular connections, and (ii slow synchronization of locomotor-like oscillatory activity. Soon after birth this coupling disappears. Since in the adult rat regeneration of motor fibers after peripheral nerve injury leads to a recapitulation of synaptic refinement at the target muscles, we tested whether GJs between motor neurons are transiently re-expressed. We found that in conditions of maximal responsiveness of lumbar motor neurons (such as no depression by anesthetics, decerebrate release of activity of subsets of motor neurons, use of temporal and spatial summation by antidromic and orthodromic stimulations, testing of large ensembles of motor neurons no firing is observed in ventral root axons in response to antidromic spike invasion of nearby counterparts. We conclude that junctional coupling between motor neurons is not required for the refinement of neuromuscular innervation in the adult.

  15. Monthly Cotton Economic Leffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After attempting to move higher in mid-March, cotton prices !Lave since retreated, The mostactively traded May New York futures contract increased from levels near 87 cents/tb to those near 94 cents/lb. In more recent trading, prices fell back to a range between 88 and 91 cents/lb. Values for the A Index followed those in the futures market, climbing to a level above 103 cents/Ib before decreasing to levels near 100 cents/lb. Over the past month, the general pattern in daily price movement has been inverse to that of the U.S. dollar.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF A COTTON FIBRE SORTING COTTON SEGMENTS IN THE ELECTRIC DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Yusubaliev, Ashirbay; Yusupalieva, Umida

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the increase of cotton fiber quality by sorting cotton segments source of raw cotton in the electric device. The data of the study results in the techno-logical properties of the fibers division of fractions.

  17. US Economy and Cotton Industry Developmenf Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    2012 China Cotton Development Summit Forum, oriented with the theme of "sustainable cotton industrial development under globalization", was held in the city of Chengdu, China, from May 17th to May 18, 2012. During the forum, Kevin Latner, Director of Overseas Operations, National Cotton Council of America as well as the Executive Director, Cotton Council International, presented a speech featuring the economic and cotton industrial development trend in US.

  18. IGF-1 mRNA expression of adult rat thyroid cell cultured in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng-ping(何凤屏); YIN Rui-xing(尹瑞兴); XUAN Su(冼苏); JEAN Joss

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the law of age-related changes of insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1)expression of rat thyroid cells cultured in vitro.Methods:Rat thyroid of different age(10,45,65,100,150 weeks)was isolated and thyrocytes cultured.Total RNA was extracted in different rat age group when thyroid cells had been cultured for two weeks,mRNA IGF-1 expression was measured with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)in each group and compared.Results:Quantity of total RNA in thyroid cells decreased with ageing when the rat thyroid cells had been cultured for 2 weeks.There is significant difference among groups(P < 0.05).Expression of IGF-1 mRNA could be detected in thyroid cells of different age cultured in vitro.Quantity of IGF-1 mRNA expression by RTPCR analysis increased from 10 to 45 weeks old,and then decreased with ageing.Conclusion:Rat thyroid cells from different age cultured in vitro can express IGF-1 mRNA.Quantity of total RNA in thyroid cells cultured in vitro decreased with aging.IGF-1 mRNA expression was correlated to age(r =0.401,P <0.05).

  19. The cotton bolloworms Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner) control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cotton bollworms, Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner) were reared on an artificial medium consisting of mungbeans, brewer's yeast, vitamins, water, preservatives and antibiotic (Tetracycline hydrochloride) at 26 +- 1 deg C, 70-75% R.H., and 8-hr light duration. The development of this species were not significantly different (p = 0.05) in percent egg hatch, pupal recovery, adult eclosion, and pupal weight in each of 4 successive generations. Effects of gamma irradiation, obtained from Cesium-137 source, on eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of the cotton bollworm were also studied. All sterilizing doses, for various stages of the cotton bollworm, did not reduce the longevity both sexes of the insect. However, sterilized males emerged from eggs, larvae, pupae appeared to mate less frequently than normal males did. In contrast, males sterilized as adults mated as frequently as normal males. The sperms of sterilized males emerged from various stages were probably less motile and possibly less numerous than sperms from normal males. The results of this experiment can be concluded that, it is more effective to control this insect by sterilization in both pupal and adult stages with 150 and 200 gray respectively

  20. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Histology and DNA Content of the Brain Cortex and Hypothalamus of Young and Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function

  1. Repeated stimuli for axonal growth causes motoneuron death in adult rats: the effect of botulinum toxin followed by partial denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C M; Greensmith, L; Vrbová, G

    2000-01-01

    Axons of motoneurons to tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles of adult rats were induced to sprout by injecting botulinum toxin into them, by partial denervation or by a combination of the two procedures. Ten weeks later, the number of motoneurons innervating the control and operated tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles was established by retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. In the same preparations, the motoneurons were also stained with a Nissl stain (gallocyanin) to reveal motoneurons in the sciatic pool. Examination of the spinal cords from animals treated with botulinum toxin showed that the number of retrogradely labelled cells and those stained with gallocyanin in the ventral horn on the treated compared to the control side was unchanged. In rats that had their L4 spinal nerve sectioned on one side, the number of retrogradely labelled cells on the operated side was 48+/-3% (n = 5) of that present in the control unoperated ventral horn. Thus, just over half the innervation was removed by cutting the L4 spinal nerve. Counts made from gallocyanin-stained sections showed that 94+/-4% (n = 5) of motoneurons were present in the ventral horn on the operated side. Thus, section of the L4 spinal nerve did not lead to any death of motoneurons. In rats that had their muscles injected with botulinum toxin three weeks prior to partial denervation, the number of retrogradely labelled cells was reduced from 48+/-3% (n = 5) to 35+/-4% (n = 5). Moreover, only 67+/-5% (n = 5) of motoneurons stained with gallocyanin, suggesting that a proportion of motoneurons died after this combined procedure. This result was supported by experiments in which motor unit numbers in extensor digitorum longus muscles were determined by measurements of stepwise increments of force in response to stimulation of the motor nerve with increasing stimulus intensity. In partially denervated extensor digitorum longus muscles, 16.6+/-0.7 (n = 5) motor

  2. EFFECT OF SINGLE VERSUS SPLIT DOSES OF DIETHYINITROSAMINE ON THE INDUCTION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSPEPTIDASE-FOCI IN THE LIVERS OF ADULT AND JUVENILE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The induction of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-foci by single and by split doses of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) was evaluated in the livers of juvenile and young adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats. A single dose of DENA was administered at either 32, 41 or 52 days of age and foll...

  3. Bone marrow stromal cells elicit tissue sparing after acute but not delayed transplantation into the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tewarie, R.D.; Hurtado, A.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Wendell, D.F.; Barroso, M.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Oudega, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted into the contused spinal cord may support repair by improving tissue sparing. We injected allogeneic BMSC into the moderately contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord at 15 min (acute) and at 3, 7, and 21 days (delayed) post-injury and quantified tissue s

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J;

    1993-01-01

    -CSPG stained alveolar, airway, and vascular BMs, in addition to smooth muscle external laminae (EL), in the adult and developing rat. Immunostaining for CSPG required hyaluronidase digestion, whereas CS staining was lost with the same treatment. A polyclonal antibody to the core protein of HSPG was found to be...

  5. Membrane-bound and cytosolic forms of heterotrimeric G proteins in young and adult rat myocardium: influence of neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Jiří; Bouřová, Lenka; Kolář, František; Svoboda, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2001), s. 215-224. ISSN 0730-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1660; GA MŠk VS97099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : development * G proteins * young and adult rat myocardium Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2001

  6. Increased anxiety and impaired spatial memory in young adult rats following adolescent exposure to methylone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jollee J; Hughes, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that treatment of adolescent rats with the substituted cathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), might result in heightened anxiety and/or impaired memory during early adulthood, as has been shown for other designer drugs. For 10 consecutive days from 35days after birth (PND35-44, early adolescence) or 45days after birth (PND45-54, late adolescence), male and female PVG/c rats were administered saline or 8.0mg/kg methylone via intraperitoneal injection. When 90days old (early adulthood), their anxiety-related behavior was recorded in an open field and a light/dark box. Acoustic startle amplitude was also measured as well as their spatial memory which was determined by their ability to detect which arm of a Y maze had changed in brightness between an acquisition and a retention trial. Previously methylone-treated rats showed increased anxiety-related behavior only in the open field as reflected in decreased ambulation, and increased corner occupancy and defecation. In the latter two cases, the increases depended on the age of treatment. Also, for defecation, only male rats were affected. In addition, methylone-treated rats displayed signs of impaired spatial memory, independent of anxiety, through their reduced ability to detect a novel changed Y-maze arm. The results of the study suggested some possible consequences in adulthood of methylone use during adolescence. There were also several examples of female rats exhibiting higher overall frequencies of activity and anxiety-related responding than males that were consistent with them being the more active and less anxious of the two sexes. PMID:27178814

  7. Pancreatic islet insulin secretion and metabolism in adult rats malnourished during neonatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Francisco B; Capito, Kirsten; Kofod, Hans; Thams, Peter

    2002-01-01

    , whereas the pancreatic insulin content was reduced by 30 % in the rats fed 8.7 % protein. In order to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the attenuation of insulin secretion, measurements were performed of the activity of several islet enzymes that had previously been supposed to be involved in the......Pancreatic islets were isolated from rats that had been nursed by dams fed with a control or an 8.7% protein diet during the first 12 d of the lactation period. Glucose-induced insulin secretion from islets in the 8.7% protein group was reduced 50%. The islet insulin and DNA content were similar...

  8. The lack of protective effects of tea supplementation on liver and jejunal epithelium in adult rats exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Adult rats at the age of 12 weeks were divided into the control group and groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. The diet (except that for the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50 mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. Basal haematology and plasma biochemical parameters as well as the histomorphometrical parameters of jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The lowest body mass was found in the RT and WT groups. Some functional (increased plasma ALT and AST, and the de Ritis coefficient) and structural changes in the liver (slight fatty degenerative changes, an increase in the intercellular space) were evident irrespective of the type of tea in the Cd and Pb poisoned rats. This toxic effect was visible especially in rats drinking black or red tea. However, the rats had no elevated LDH and ALT activities. The highest content of Cd and Pb in the liver and blood plasma was found in rats drinking red tea. Based on the results obtained, it is clear that long-term exposure of adult rats with a mature intestinal barrier to Cd and Pb contamination, under higher exposure conditions than the current estimates of weekly exposure of the general population to Cd and Pb through diet, causes a toxic effect, especially in the liver, and can change the structure of intestinal mucosa, irrespective of tea administration. PMID:26410089

  9. Radiosensitivity of glial progenitor cells of the perinatal and adult rat optic nerve studied by an in vitro clonogenic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS), is poorly understood. Glial cells responsible for myelination in the CNS might be the target cells of this type of damage. Glial cells with stem cell properties derived from the perinatal and adult rat CNS can be cultured in vitro. These cells are able to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes (O-2A) depending on the culture conditions. Growth factors produced by monolayers of type-1 astrocytes inhibit premature differentiation of O-2A progenitor cells and allow colony formation. A method which employs these monolayers of type-1 astrocytes to culture O-2A progenitor cells has been adapted to allow the analysis of colonies of surviving cells after X-irradiation. In vitro survival curves were obtained for glial progenitor cells derived from perinatal and adult optic nerves. The intrinsic radiosensitivity of perinatal and adult O-2A progenitor cells showed a large difference. Perinatal O-2A progenitor cells are quite radiosensitive, in contrast to adult O-2A progenitor cells. For both cell types an inverse relationship was found between the dose and the size of colonies derived from surviving cells. Surviving O-2A progenitor cells maintain their ability to differentiate into oligo-dendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes. This system to assess radiation-induced damage to glial progenitor cells in vitro systems to have a great potential in unraveling the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelinating syndromes of the CNS. (author). 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Fast, potent pharmacological expansion of endogenous hes3+/sox2+ cells in the adult mouse and rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pacioni

    Full Text Available The adult hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. As a consequence, it is a brain region of remarkable plasticity. This plasticity exhibits itself both as cellular changes and neurogenesis. For neurogenesis to occur, a population of local stem cells and progenitor cells is maintained in the adult brain and these are able to proliferate and differentiate into neurons which contribute to the hippocampal circuitry. There is much interest in understanding the role of immature cells in the hippocampus, in relation to learning and memory. Methods and mechanisms that increase the numbers of these cells will be valuable in this research field. We show here that single injections of soluble factors into the lateral ventricle of adult rats and mice induces the rapid (within one week increase in the number of putative stem cells/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. The established progenitor marker Sox2 together with the more recently established marker Hes3, were used to quantify the manipulation of the Sox2/Hes3 double-positive cell population. We report that in both adult rodent species, Sox2+/Hes3+ cell numbers can be increased within one week. The most prominent increase was observed in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. This study presents a fast, pharmacological method to manipulate the numbers of endogenous putative stem cells/progenitor cells. This method may be easily modified to alter the degree of activation (e.g. by the use of osmotic pumps for delivery, or by repeat injections through implanted cannulas, in order to be best adapted to different paradigms of research (neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotection, learning, memory, plasticity, etc.

  11. Fetal irradiation of rats induces persistent translocations in mammary epithelial cells similar to the level after adult irradiation, but not in hematolymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mimako; Nishimura, Mayumi; Hamasaki, Kanya; Mishima, Shuji; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Nakata, Akifumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Noda, Asao; Nakamura, Nori; Kodama, Yoshiaki

    2014-02-01

    In both humans and mice, fetal exposure to radiation fails to induce a persistent increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Such a low-level response to radiation exposure is counterintuitive in view of the generally accepted belief that a fetus is sensitive to radiation. To determine if this is a general phenomenon, both mammary epithelial cells and spleen cells were studied in rats. Fetuses of 17.5 days postcoitus were irradiated with 2 Gy of gamma rays, and mammary tissues were removed 6-45 weeks later. Subsequently, short-term cultures were established to detect translocations using the two-color FISH method. The results showed that translocation frequencies were not only elevated in rats irradiated as fetuses, but were also almost as high as those in rats that were irradiated as adults (12 weeks old, pregnant mothers or young virgins) and examined 6-45 weeks later. There was no evidence of higher sensitivity in fetal cells with respect to the induction of translocations. In contrast, translocation frequencies in spleen cells were not elevated in adult rats irradiated as fetuses but were increased after irradiation of adults as previously seen in mouse spleen cells and human T lymphocytes. In the case of irradiation of adult rats, the induced translocation frequencies were similar between spleen cells and mammary epithelial cells. If we take translocation frequency as a surrogate marker of potential carcinogenic effect of radiation, the current results suggest that fetal irradiation can induce persistent potential carcinogenic damage in mammary stem/progenitor cells but this does not contribute to the increased risk of cancer since it has been reported that irradiation of fetal rats of the SD strain does not increase the risk of mammary cancers. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:24512615

  12. Differential treatment regimen-related effects of cannabinoids on D1 and D2 receptors in adolescent and adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Victoria S; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2010-12-01

    Animal studies suggest differential effects of cannabinoids on dopamine-related behaviours in adolescence and adulthood however few studies have investigated the underlying neurochemical effects of cannabinoids during adolescence. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid, HU210, on dopamine receptor density in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 35) and adult (PND 70) rats received a single dose of 100μg/kg HU210 or 25, 50 or 100μg/kg HU210 for 4 or 14 days. Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) or D2 receptor (D2R) density was measured in the medial and lateral (CPUL) caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle (TU) and substantia nigra (D1R only) using in vitro autoradiography. D1R and D2R densities were 1.6-1.7- and 1.1-1.4-fold higher respectively in adolescent control rats compared to adults. In adult rats, D1R density was increased by 1.2- and 1.3-fold (pHU210 treatment. A significant overall effect of treatment (pHU210. In adolescents, an overall effect of treatment on D1R density after a single exposure to HU210 was seen (p=0.0026) but no changes in D1R or D2R densities were observed in other treatment groups. These results suggest that the adolescent rat brain does not display the same compensatory mechanisms activated in the adult brain following cannabinoid treatment. PMID:20673846

  13. The gastrointestinal absorption of 63Ni and 95Nb in adult and neonatal rats: effect of the chemical form administered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gastrointestinal absorption of 63Ni and 95Nb has been determined in adult and neonatal rats after administration as various chemical forms. For 63Ni, f1 was determined as (4.3 ± 1.4) x 10-2, (5.1 ± 2.1) x 10-2 and (3.3 ± 1.5) x 10-2, for the citrate, oxalate and chloride forms, respectively. For 95Nb, the corresponding f1 values were (1.25 ± 0.37) x 10-2, (0.37 ± 0.15) x 10-2 and (0.24 ± 0.07) x 10-2, respectively. When radionuclides were administered to 1 day old animals, the retention increased by factors of up to 40 and 200 for 63Ni-chloride and 95Nb-oxalate, respectively. All these results are discussed with respect to the ICRP recommendations. (author)

  14. Does Neonatal Brain Ischemia Induce Schizophrenia-Like Behavior in Young Adult Rats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejkalová, H.; Kaiser, M.; Klaschka, Jan; Šťastný, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2007), s. 815-823. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neonatal ischemia * schizophrenia * rat * prepulse inhibition Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  15. The effects of pomegranate extract on normal adult rat kidney: A stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Basgen, John; Saremy, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used widely in the traditional medicine of various civilizations for more than 5000 years. The pomegranate tree has several parts; each part has useful medicinal effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether administration of pomegranate extract could result in morphometric changes in the kidneys of rats. Eighteen male rats (180-200 g) were divided into three groups that received either: G1, distilled water; G2, 250 mg kg(-1) pomegranate extract; and G3, 500 mg kg(-1) pomegranate extract via oral gavages daily for eight weeks. At the end of eight weeks, the rats were euthanized and their kidneys were removed and processed for morphometric analyses. In rats received pomegranate extract, the kidney weight, kidney weight/body weight ratio, cortex v/lume and glomerular volume were increased (p < 0.05), while, medulla volume and the number of glomeruli per kidney did not change. No pathological lesions were observed in the kidney. Therefore, pomegranate hydro-alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 (mg kg(-1)) increased the volume of some parts of the kidney; however, it did not cause any pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27226880

  16. Renal Na,K-ATPase during experimental NO-deficient hypertension in young and adults rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javorková, V.; Vlkovičová, J.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pecháňová, Olga; Zicha, Josef; Vrbjar, N.

    Bratislava : Advent- Orion , 2007 - (Pecháňová, O.), s. 246-251 ISBN 978-80-8071-094-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : maturation of rats * Na,K-ATPase * NO-deficient hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  17. The effects of pomegranate extract on normal adult rat kidney: A stereological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Basgen, John; Saremy, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used widely in the traditional medicine of various civilizations for more than 5000 years. The pomegranate tree has several parts; each part has useful medicinal effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether administration of pomegranate extract could result in morphometric changes in the kidneys of rats. Eighteen male rats (180-200 g) were divided into three groups that received either: G1, distilled water; G2, 250 mg kg-1 pomegranate extract; and G3, 500 mg kg-1 pomegranate extract via oral gavages daily for eight weeks. At the end of eight weeks, the rats were euthanized and their kidneys were removed and processed for morphometric analyses. In rats received pomegranate extract, the kidney weight, kidney weight/body weight ratio, cortex v/lume and glomerular volume were increased (p pomegranate hydro-alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 (mg kg-1) increased the volume of some parts of the kidney; however, it did not cause any pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27226880

  18. Antihypertensive effects of high potassium intake in young and adult salt hypertensive Dahl rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef; Dobešová, Zdenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    Elsevier. Roč. 2, Suppl. (2008), S188-S188. ISSN 1933-2874. [International Symposium on Multiple risk factors in cardiovascular diseases /7./. 22.10.2008-25.10.2008, Venice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * high potassium * salt hypertension * Dahl rats Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  19. Impacts of perinatal induced photothrombotic stroke on sensorimotor performance in adult rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brima, Tufikameni; Mikulecká, Anna; Otáhal, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2013), s. 85-94. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : photothrombosis * perinatal ischemic stroke * sensorimotor performance * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  20. Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Cahová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Berková, Z.; Smětáková, M.; Saudek, F.; Matěj, R.; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 2015 (2015), s. 385395. ISSN 2314-6745 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06666S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Goto Kakizaki rats * diabetes * delta cell hyperplasia * somatostatin * pancreatic polypeptide deficiency Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.164, year: 2014

  1. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  2. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  3. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN SPINNING COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Barbu; Alexandru Popa; Adina Bucevschi

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented the latest achievements in the field of cotton spinning. All in preparation forspinning cotton equipment are aspects of automation, robotics and aggregatisation which led to increased qualityof products and increasing labor productivity. This paper is a continuation of other works in which we presentedthe preparation of spinning machines. We present only this time spinning machines, namely the modernization ofroving frame and ring spinning machine.

  4. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  5. A comparison of different models with motor dysfunction after traumatic brain injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Pu, Hongjian; Liu, Yingchao; Wang, Zengtao; Wang, Bomin; Xu, Wendong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the model that could produce reproducible and persistent motor weakness and define the accurate tasks and testing parameters for longitudinal assessment of neurological deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We compared the effects of two rat models that suffered different controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, as well as extensive motor cortex resection model, on behavior recovery and brain morphology. Behavioral tests including the skilled reaching task, limb-use asymmetry test and the grasping test were employed to evaluate neurofunctional recovery from pre- to 12 weeks after the injury. The results demonstrated that all the rats in four groups showed spontaneous functional improvement with the past of time after surgery, especially in rats with mild and moderate CCI injury. At the end of the experiment, the animals' performance reached preoperative base lines on reaching task and limb-use asymmetry test in mild and moderate groups, while severe motor weakness could be observed in rats with severe CCI injury, as well as rats with extended motor cortex resection. Overall, the results of this study indicated that both models with severe CCI injury and extended resection of the motor cortex developed reproducible and long-lasting motor weakness, comparable in severity and duration and identified skilled reaching task, as well as limb-use asymmetry test, as sensitive assessments for slight neurological deficits after brain injury. This will help to provide the basis for further research of the processes after the TBI and development of novel therapies. PMID:25385190

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  7. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Michael P; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  8. Prenatal Stress Down-Regulates Reelin Expression by Methylation of Its Promoter and Induces Adult Behavioral Impairments in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-García, Ismael; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Montiel, Juan F.; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela F.; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Utreras, Elías; Montecino, Martín; González-Billault, Christian; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS) upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that can yield new

  9. Assessing the effects of model Maillard compound intake on iron, copper and zinc retention and tissue delivery in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Pastoriza, Silvia; Navarro, M Pilar; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of dietary Maillard reaction compounds (MRP) as metal chelating polymers can alter mineral absorption and/or retention. Our aim in this study was to analyse the long-term effects of the consumption of model MRP from glucose-lysine heated for 90 min at 150 °C (GL) on iron, copper and zinc whole-body retention and tissue delivery. For 88 days, weaning rats were fed a Control diet or one containing 3% GL, until reaching the adult stage. During the experimental period a mineral balance was conducted to investigate the mineral retention. At day 88, the animals were sacrificed, blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination and some organs were removed. Copper and zinc balances were unaffected (Cu: 450 vs. 375 μg; Zn: 6.7 vs. 6.2 mg for Control and GL groups, respectively) and no change was observed in whole-body delivery. Iron retention, too, was unaltered (11.2 mg for Control and GL groups) but due to the tendency toward decreased body weight in the GL group (248 vs. 233 g for the Control and GL groups), whole-body iron concentration was 13% higher in the GL group than in the Control group. Absorbed iron accumulated particularly in the liver (144 vs. 190 μg g(-1) for the Control and GL groups), thus reducing haemoglobin levels. The long-term intake of MRP induced iron accumulation in the body but this did not result in enhanced iron functionality, since the haemoglobin concentration declined. Taking into account the findings of our research group's studies of young and adult rats, we now corroborate the hypothesis that the negative effect of GL MRP consumption on iron functionality takes place regardless of the animals' stage of life. PMID:26593232

  10. The Effect of Hydrochloric Extraction of Valerian on Number and Size of Raphe Magnus Neurons in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Effective materials from Valerian officinalis L. have too much usage in the pharmacological industry. It is used as a sedative, anticonvulsion, and antidepressant drug. Serotonin has a widespread role in vital function such as sleep, awareness and calmness. In this study we evaluated the effect of hydrochloric extract of valerian on number and size of raphe magnus neurons in adult rat. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009, forty adult Wistar rats, each 170-250 gr, were divided randomly into four groups (one control group and three experimental groups. The animals were injected daily for one month with doses of 300, 400 and 600 mg/kg of the extract. The control group just received distilled water. After transcardial perfusion, the whole brain was separated, then 10 μm sections of the brain stem were prepared, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining were done. Number and size of raphe magna neurons were observed under light microscope. The gathered data were analyzed by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA and LSD. Results: The control group did not statistically show significant changes in number of raphe magna neurons. Comparison of the means of long and short diameter neurons showed significant increases in experimental groups with control group (P<0.05. In experimental groups the neuron nucleuses were more euchromatic than the control group. Conclusion: Hydrochloric extract of valerian has no effect on raphe magnus neurons, but it is effective on neurons' size. It can be concluded that the extract increases both neurons activity and serotonin secretion.

  11. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Duarte-Guterman

    Full Text Available Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg, G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg, G15 (40 μg, G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO. After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus.

  12. Protective role of garlic oil against oxidative damage induced by furan exposure from weaning through adulthood in adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2016-06-01

    Furan is produced in a wide variety of heat-treated foods via thermal degradation. Furan contamination is found to be relatively high in processed baby foods, cereal products, fruits juices, and canned vegetables. Several studies have demonstrated that furan is a potent hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen in rodents. However, few studies have investigated the toxic effects of furan in the testis. In addition, the exact mechanism(s) by which furan exerts toxicity in the testis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of furan exposure from weaning through adulthood to induce oxidative stress in adult rat testis, as well as the potential of garlic oil (GO) to ameliorate the induced toxicity. Our results reveal that furan administration significantly reduced serum testosterone levels and increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); furthermore, furan administration decreased significantly the enzymatic activity of testicular antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and induced histopathological alterations in the testis. GO co-administration ameliorated the reduction in testosterone levels and dramatically attenuated the furan-induced oxidative and histopathological changes. In addition, Go significantly down-regulated the increased caspase-3 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression in the furan-treated testis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the furan-induced oxidative changes in the adult rat testis and the protective role of GO to ameliorate these changes through its antioxidant effects and its ability to inhibit CYP2E1 production. PMID:27130490

  13. Alcohol intoxications during adolescence increase motivation for alcohol in adult rats and induce neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Warnault, Vincent; Legastelois, Rémi; Botia, Béatrice; Pierrefiche, Olivier; Vilpoux, Catherine; Naassila, Mickaël

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent alcohol binge drinking constitutes a major vulnerability factor to develop alcoholism. However, mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. We evaluated the effect of adolescent binge-like ethanol intoxication on vulnerability to alcohol abuse in Sprague-Dawley rats. To model binge-like ethanol intoxication, every 2 days, rats received an ethanol injection (3.0 g/kg) for 2 consecutive days across 14 days either from postnatal day 30 (PND30) to 43 (early adolescence) or from PND 45 to PND 58 (late adolescence). In young adult animals, we measured free ethanol consumption in the two-bottle choice paradigm, motivation for ethanol in the operant self-administration task and both ethanol's rewarding and aversive properties in the conditioned place preference (CPP) and taste aversion (CTA) paradigms. While intermittent ethanol intoxications (IEI) during late adolescence had no effect on free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, we found that IEI during early adolescence promoted free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, enhanced motivation for ethanol in the self-administration paradigm and induced a loss of both ethanol-induced CPP and CTA in young adults. No modification in either sucrose self-administration or amphetamine-induced CPP was observed. As the nucleus accumbens (Nac) is particularly involved in addictive behavior, we analyzed IEI-induced long-term neuroadaptations in the Nac using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and an array of neurotransmission-related genes. This vulnerability to ethanol abuse was associated with a lower c-Fos immunoreactivity in the Nac and enduring alterations of the expression of Penk and Slc6a4, 2 neurotransmission-related genes that have been shown to play critical roles in the behavioral effects of ethanol and alcoholism. PMID:23287538

  14. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Palacios-García

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that

  15. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  17. Effects of fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation on lateral ventricle nestin expression after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Huang; Yong Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed that fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation can induce endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms and produce wide and long-lasting neuroprotective effects. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe the effects of fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation on nestin-positive cell expression in adult rat lateral ventricle after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, as well as neurological functional changes as a function of time.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology.MATERIALS: This study was performed in the Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University and Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology from September 2004 to February 2006. A total of 180 healthy, adult, male Wistar rats, aged 8 weeks old, were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Chongqing Medical University. The main reagents and equipments were as follows: rabbit anti-rat nestin monoclonal antibody (Wuhan Boster Company, China).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nestin-positive cells were detected by immunohistochemical staining in the rat ischemic lateral cerebral ventricle at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-reperfusion. RESULTS: Morphological changes of nestin-positive cells in the ischemic lateral ventricle: in the normal control group, very few nestin-positive cells were detected in the choroid plexus, ependyma, and subependymal region of the lateral ventricle. In the model group, the number of nestin-positive cells exhibited a tendency towards a single peak, i.e., cells increased at day 1, reached peak levels by day 7, and then decreased sharply. Fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation was administered following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and results revealed that nestin-positive cell morphology was similar to

  18. [Nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA in visual cortex neurons of adult rats following visual deprivation and photic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskaite, L D

    1980-10-01

    It has been shown by two-wavelength cytospectrophotometry of gallocyanin-chrome alum-stained sections that visual deprivation in adult rats kept in a complete darkness for 30 days resulted in an accumulation of cytoplasmic RNA by layer V neurons of the visual cerebral cortex and by the cells of the perineuronal neuroglia of this layer. The nuclear RNA content remained unchanged. Stimulation of intact rats with a flickering or constant light induced an increase in the cytoplasmic RNA in these neurons rather than in the nuclear RNA as well as in RNA in their glial satellite cells. Similar light stimulation of the deprived animals gave rise to a complete return of the neuronal RNA to normal with only a slight decrease in the deprivation-induced RNA accumulation by the neuroglial cells. Neither visual deprivation nor light stimulation affected the RNA content in the neurons and neuroglia of layer V of the motor cerebral cortex. Compartmentation of RNA metabolism within the neuronal-neuroglial unit is discussed. PMID:6159015

  19. ZP2307, a novel cyclic PTH(1-17) analog, reversed established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vääräniemi, Jukka; Morko, Jukka; Peng, ZhiQi;

    -17) analog, ZP2307, with a high efficacy and potency on the human PTH receptor in vitro. This study characterized the effects of intermittent treatment with ZP2307 on established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized at 6 months of age. After 6 weeks...... treated with vehicle. Treatment with ZP2307 reversed the OVX-induced reduction in Tb.BMD and bone volume (BV/TV) in tibial metaphysis and lumbar vertebra at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. ZP2307 enhanced an OVX-induced increase in bone formation rate (BFR/BS) at 200 µg/kg/d and reversed an OVX......-induced increase in the number of osteoclasts (N.Oc/B.Pm) at 2-200 µg/kg/d. As a functional consequence in lumbar vertebra, ZP2307 reversed an OVX-induced reduction in maximal load at 6-200 µg/kg/d and increased modulus at 20-200 µg/kg/d. Furthermore, ZP2307 increased cortical thickness and enhanced endocortical...

  20. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  1. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  2. Evaluation of the areas of neuronal cell bodies and nuclei in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA-NETO MARCILÍO H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the areas of cell body and nucleus profiles of the myenteric neurons in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the duodenum of adult rats. Five male rats were used. The duodenum was removed and dissected to whole-mount preparations, which were stained by the Giemsa technique. The areas of cell body and nucleus profiles of 100 neurons, 50 from each region, of each animal, were assessed with image analyser. Based on the global mean±SD of the areas of cell body profiles, neurons were labelled as small, medium or large. It was observed that the neurons did not differ significantly in size or incidence between the antimesenteric and intermediate regions. However, the nuclei of the small and medium neurons were significantly smaller in the latter region. It is discussed that the smaller nuclear size could be related to the cell bodies being slightly smaller on this region and to a possible smaller biosynthetic activity which would influence nuclear size.

  3. Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in adult rats under chronic treatment with paracetamol when glutathione-dependent detoxification is highly activated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, C; Joly, C; Savary-Auzeloux, I; Remond, D; Dardevet, D; Papet, I

    2014-10-01

    The use of glutathione (GSH) and sulfate for the detoxification of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) could occur at the expense of the physiological uses of cysteine (Cys). Indeed GSH and sulfate both originate from Cys. Significant APAP-induced Cys loss could generate alterations in GSH and protein metabolisms leading to muscle wasting. The study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with APAP on whole-body and tissue homeostasis (mass, GSH, proteins, and nitrogen balance) in relation to sulfur losses through APAP-detoxification pathways. Adult male Wistar rats were fed 0% APAP, 0.5% APAP or 1% APAP diets for 17 days. APAP doses were respectively around and largely above the threshold of sulfation saturation for rats. During the last days, the rats were placed in metabolic cages in order to quantify N balance and urinary APAP metabolites. Gastrocnemius muscle mass, protein and GSH contents, N balance and plasma free cyst(e)ine were 8% (P=0.02), 7% (P=0.03), 26% (P=0.01), 37% (P=0.01), and 33% (P=0.003) lower in the 1% APAP group than in the 0% APAP group, respectively. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the 0.5% APAP group and the 0% APAP group. Muscle wasting occurred when the detoxification of APAP through the GSH-dependent pathway was highly activated. Muscle protein synthesis could have been reduced due to a shortage in Cys and/or an increase in protein degradation in response to intra-muscular oxidative stress. Hence, without dietary sulphur amino acid increase, peripheral bioavailability of Cys and muscle GSH are potential players in the control of muscle mass under chronic treatment with APAP, an analgesic medication of widespread use, especially in the elderly. PMID:25371521

  4. The incidence of critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency is associated with severity of traumatic brain injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhao, Zilong; Chai, Yan; Luo, Lanlan; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Jianning

    2014-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes deleterious critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency (CIRCI), leading to high mortality and morbidity. However, the incidence of CIRCI following different TBI severities is not fully defined. This study was designed to investigate mechanistically the effects of injury severity on corticosteroid response and the development of CIRCI in a rat model of experimentally controlled TBI. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sham, mild injury, moderate injury or severe injury groups. TBI was induced using a fluid percussion device at magnitudes of 1.2-1.4 atm (mild injury), 2.0-2.2 atm (moderate injury), and 3.2-3.5 atm (severe injury). We first assessed the effects of injury severity on the mortality and CIRCI occurrence using electrical stimulation test to assess corticosteroid response. We also investigated a series of pathological changes in the hypothalamus, especially in the paraventricular nuclei (PVN), among different injury group including: apoptosis detected by a TUNEL assay, blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability assessed by brain water content and Evans Blue extravasation into the cerebral parenchyma, and BBB integrity evaluated by CD31 and Claudin-5 expression and transmission electron microscopy. We made the following observations. First, 6.7% of mild-injured, 13.3% of moderate-injured, and 68.8% of severe-injured rats developed CIRCI, with a peak incidence on post-injury day 7. Second, TBI-induced CIRCI is closely correlated with injury severity. As the injury severity rises both the incidence of CIRCI and mortality surge; Third, increased level of injury severity reduces the expression of endothelial tight junction protein, aggravate BBB permeability and exacerbate the ensuing neural apoptosis in the PVN of hypothalamus. These findings indicate that increased severity of TBI aggravate the incidence of CIRCI by causing damage to tight junctions of vascular endothelial cells and increasing neuronal

  5. Pluripotency of adult stem cells derived from human and rat pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C.; Birth, M.; Rohwedel, J.; Assmuth, K.; Goepel, A.; Wedel, T.

    Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found within fully developed tissues or organs of an adult individuum. Until recently, these cells have been considered to bear less self-renewal ability and differentiation potency compared to embryonic stem cells. In recent studies an undifferentiated cell type was found in primary cultures of isolated acini from exocrine pancreas termed pancreatic stellate cells. Here we show that pancreatic stellate-like cells have the capacity of extended self-renewal and are able to differentiate spontaneously into cell types of all three germ layers expressing markers for smooth muscle cells, neurons, glial cells, epithelial cells, chondrocytes and secretory cells (insulin, amylase). Differentiation and subsequent formation of three-dimensional cellular aggregates (organoid bodies) were induced by merely culturing pancreatic stellate-like cells in hanging drops. These cells were developed into stable, long-term, in vitro cultures of both primary undifferentiated cell lines as well as organoid cultures. Thus, evidence is given that cell lineages of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal origin arise spontaneously from a single adult undifferentiated cell type. Based on the present findings it is assumed that pancreatic stellate-like cells are a new class of lineage uncommitted pluripotent adult stem cells with a remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency. The data emphasize the versatility of adult stem cells and may lead to a reappraisal of their use for the treatment of inherited disorders or acquired degenerative diseases.

  6. Stylet penetration behaviors of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xue; Xiao-Ying Wang; Cui-Hong Huang; Rong-Jiang Wang; Biao Liu; Feng-Ming Yan; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Stylet penetration behaviors of cotton aphids Aphis gossypii Glover on a tmnsgenic cotton line "GK-12" expressing Bt toxic protein ofCry1A (Bt cotton) and a non-Bt conventional cotton line "Simian-3" (CK cotton) were recorded with the direct current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) technique. Cotton aphids reared on Bt cotton (abbreviated as Bt-aphids) and its parental non-Bt control line (CK-aphids) for more than 20 generations each, were used for recordings on two cotton lines. Among 47 selected parameters reflecting the activities of aphid stylets within plant tissues, there were eight parameters of CK-aphids showing significant differences between the performances of CK-aphids on Bt cotton and CK cotton, while for Bt-aphids, all the parameters were statistically equal between the performances on the two cotton lines. All parameters with significant differences indicated that CK-aphids could penetrate into Bt cotton more easily, but the phloem saps of Bt cotton were not as good as those of regular cotton for CK-aphids. Based on the present results, we concluded that there were some factors in Bt cotton affecting penetration behaviors of CK-aphids, but it just took several generations for CK-aphids to completely adapt Bt cotton, and Bt-aphids could feed on two cotton lines without difficulty.

  7. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  8. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  9. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  10. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  11. Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to the changes of the cerebral white matter in adult offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingxing; Cai, Ruowei [Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Lv, Guorong, E-mail: lxingwan502@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Huang, Ziyang; Wang, Zhenhua [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China)

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of reduced fetal oxygen supply on cerebral white matter in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to postnatal hypoxia and high-fat diet. Based on a 3 x 2 full factorial design consisting of three factors of maternal hypoxia, postnatal high-fat diet, and postnatal hypoxia, the ultrastructure of myelin, axon and capillaries were observed, and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-H+L(NF-H+L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in periventricular white matter of 16-month-old offspring. Demyelination, injured axon and damaged microvasculars were observed in maternal hypoxia offspring. The main effect of maternal hypoxia lead to decreased expression of MBP or NF-H+L, and increased expression of GFAP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive three-way interaction among maternal hypoxia, high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia on MBP, NF-H+L or GFAP expression (all P < 0.05). In summary, our results indicated that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy in rats lead to changes of periventricular white matter in adult offspring, including demyelination, damaged axon and proliferated astroglia. This effect was amplified by high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia.

  12. Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to the changes of the cerebral white matter in adult offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of reduced fetal oxygen supply on cerebral white matter in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to postnatal hypoxia and high-fat diet. Based on a 3 x 2 full factorial design consisting of three factors of maternal hypoxia, postnatal high-fat diet, and postnatal hypoxia, the ultrastructure of myelin, axon and capillaries were observed, and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-H+L(NF-H+L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in periventricular white matter of 16-month-old offspring. Demyelination, injured axon and damaged microvasculars were observed in maternal hypoxia offspring. The main effect of maternal hypoxia lead to decreased expression of MBP or NF-H+L, and increased expression of GFAP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive three-way interaction among maternal hypoxia, high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia on MBP, NF-H+L or GFAP expression (all P < 0.05). In summary, our results indicated that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy in rats lead to changes of periventricular white matter in adult offspring, including demyelination, damaged axon and proliferated astroglia. This effect was amplified by high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia.

  13. Localization and regulation of dopamine receptor D4 expression in the adult and developing rat retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitten, Laura L; Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L;

    2008-01-01

    in the photoreceptors via Drd4 receptors located on the cell membrane of these cells. In this study, we show by semiquantitative in situ hybridization a prominent day/night variation in Drd4 expression in the retina of the Sprague-Dawley rat with a peak during the nighttime. Drd4 expression is seen...... in all retinal layers but the nocturnal increase is confined to the photoreceptors. Retinal Drd4 expression is not affected by removal of the sympathetic input to the eye, but triiodothyronine treatment induces Drd4 expression in the photoreceptors. In a developmental series, we show that the...... expression of Drd4 is restricted to postnatal stages with a peak at postnatal day 12. The high Drd4 expression in the rat retinal photoreceptors during the night supports physiological and pharmacologic evidence that the Drd4 receptor is involved in the dopaminergic inhibition of melatonin synthesis upon...

  14. Some Neuro hormonal Effects of ruta chalepensis in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral sub-chronic administrations of Ruta chalepensis extract equivalent to 3.0 g/kg body weight were given to male albino rats daily for four weeks (0.5 ml solution/100 g/ rat). The data revealed significant increases in tyrosine, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in all tested brain areas throughout most of the experimental intervals. Significant increases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were also observed while serum prolactin was decreased significantly. It could be also concluded from the present results that treatment with Ruta chalepensis extract significantly increased catecholamine content. This observation may be in part due to an increase in its synthesis through an increase of the peripheral availability of tyrosine for brain synthesis of catecholamine and/or a decrease in its release

  15. Transplantation of an Acutely Isolated Bone Marrow Fraction Repairs Demyelinated Adult Rat Spinal Cord Axons

    OpenAIRE

    SASAKI, MASANORI; HONMOU, OSAMU; Akiyama, Yukinori; Uede,Teiji; Hashi,Kazuo; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2001-01-01

    The potential of bone marrow cells to differentiate into myelin-forming cells and to repair the demyelinated rat spinal cord in vivo was studied using cell transplantation techniques. The dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord was demyelinated by x-irradiation treatment, followed by microinjection of ethidium bromide. Suspensions of a bone marrow cell fraction acutely isolated from femoral bones in LacZ transgenic mice were prepared by centrifugation on a density gradient (Ficoll-Paque) to remov...

  16. The effects of pomegranate extract on normal adult rat kidney: A stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Basgen, John; Saremy, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used widely in the traditional medicine of various civilizations for more than 5000 years. The pomegranate tree has several parts; each part has useful medicinal effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether administration of pomegranate extract could result in morphometric changes in the kidneys of rats. Eighteen male r...

  17. Neonatal brain infusion of quinolinic acid induces schizophrenia-like behaviour in adult rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejkalová, H.; Skuba, I.; Klaschka, Jan; Šťastný, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, Suppl. 1 (2005), s. 97-97. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /11./. 09.09.2005-12.09.2005, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA MZd NF7626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : schizophrenia * rats * behaviour * quinolinic acid Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  18. Bisphenol A Prevents the Synaptogenic Response to Testosterone in the Brain of Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leranth, Csaba; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; MacLusky, Neil J.; Hajszan, Tibor

    2007-01-01

    Exposure measurement data from several developed countries indicate that human beings are widely exposed to low levels of the synthetic xenoestrogen, bisphenol A. We reported previously that bisphenol A, even at doses below the reference safe daily limit for human exposure, recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, impairs the synaptogenic response to 17β-estradiol in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Recent experiments revealed that bisphenol A also interferes with andro...

  19. Enriched Environment Protects the Optic Nerve from Early Diabetes-Induced Damage in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dorfman, Damián; Marcos L Aranda; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm) optic nerve (ON) could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment ...

  20. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    A. Y. Jasem; H. M. Jassem; H. K. Ismaiel

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight). The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight), caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live ...

  1. CHRONIC NEONATAL ORGANOTIN EXPOSURE ALTERS RADIAL-ARM MAZE PERFORMANCE IN ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Evans rats were intubated with 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg of triethyltin sulfate (TET) or 0.3 mg/kg of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) from postnatal day 3-29, 1.0 mg/kg of TMT was given on alternate days beginning on postnatal day 3. Learning and memory were assessed in an automated rad...

  2. Similar withdrawal severity in adolescents and adults in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, S.A.; Kelso, M.L.; Liput, D.J.; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent’s unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study i...

  3. Making cotton incombustible by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of the dead by fires from 1982 to 1986 was 4866, and those by burning clothes reached about 11 % of them. The number shows the tendency of decrease year by year, but it is desirable to make the beddings and night clothes used in social welfare facilities incombustible. The experiment of obtaining the effect of incombustibility by impregnating the aqueous solution of vinyl phosphonate oligomer (VPO) or N-methylol acrylamide into cotton cloths and irradiating with low energy electron beam in nitrogen atmosphere has been carried out so far. As the result, it was found that by using VPO alone as the agent for incombustibility, the incombustible cotton cloths having excellent washing endurance can be obtained without generating harmful formaldehyde and without impairing the character of cotton. For the purpose of the incombustible processing of beddings and night clothes, the test on the incombustible cotton cloths processed with VPO and irradiated with electron beam and Co-60 gamma ray and the tests required for the approval as disaster-preventing products were carried out this time, and the results are reported. The experimental method and the results of VPO concentration and incombustibility, the charge of the strength of cotton cloths, the stiffness of the processed cotton cloths and the scale-up test of incombustible processing are described. (K.I.)

  4. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  5. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  6. Neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure induces loss of dopaminergic neurons in young adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may be associated with the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorous pesticide with developmental neurotoxicity. Its neurotoxicity, notably on the monoamine system, suggests that exposure of CPF may induce dopaminergic neuronal injury. We investigated whether neonatal exposure to CPF contributes to initiation and progression of dopaminergic neurotoxicity and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. The newborn rats were administrated 5 mg/kg CPF subcutaneously from postnatal day (PND) 11 to PND 14 daily. The effect of CPF on dopaminergic neurons, microglia, astrocyte, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p. 65 and p. 38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways was analyzed in the substantia nigra of rats at 12 h, 24 h, 72 h, 16 d and 46 d after exposure. CPF-treated rats exhibited significant reduction of dopaminergic neurons at 16 d and 46 d after exposure, and a significant increase in the expression of microglia and astrocytes in the substantia nigra after CPF exposure. Intense activation of NF-κB p. 65 and p. 38 MAPK inflammatory signaling pathways was observed. Our findings indicate that neonatal exposure to CPF may induce long-term dopaminergic neuronal damage in the substantia nigra mediated by the activation of inflammatory response via NF-κB p. 65 and p. 38 MAPK pathways in the nigrostriatal system

  7. Effects of Ethanol on the Expression Level of Various BDNF mRNA Isoforms and Their Encoded Protein in the Hippocampus of Adult and Embryonic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shojaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the effects of oral ethanol (Eth alone or combined with the phytoestrogen resveratrol (Rsv on the expression of various brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF transcripts and the encoded protein pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of pregnant and embryonic rats. A low (0.25 g/kg body weight (BW/day dose of Eth produced an increase in the expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and a decrease in that of the exon IX in embryos, but failed to affect BDNF transcript and pro-BDNF protein expression in adults. However, co-administration of Eth 0.25 g/kg·BW/day and Rsv led to increased expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and to a small but significant increase in the level of pro-BDNF protein in maternal rats. A high (2.5 g/kg·BW/day dose of Eth increased the expression of BDNF exons III and IV in embryos, but it decreased the expression of exon IX containing BDNF mRNAs in the maternal rats. While the high dose of Eth alone reduced the level of pro-BDNF in adults, it failed to change the levels of pro-BDNF in embryos. Eth differentially affects the expression pattern of BDNF transcripts and levels of pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of both adult and embryonic rats.

  8. Regional expression and ultrastructural localization of EphA7 in the hippocampus and cerebellum of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegandjin, Clara A; Jammow, Wafaa; Laforest, Sylvie; Riad, Mustapha; Baharnoori, Moogeh; Badeaux, Frédérique; DesGroseillers, Luc; Murai, Keith K; Pasquale, Elena B; Drolet, Guy; Doucet, Guy

    2016-08-15

    EphA7 is expressed in the adult central nervous system (CNS), where its roles are yet poorly defined. We mapped its distribution using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) combined with light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) in adult rat and mouse brain. The strongest ISH signal was in the hippocampal pyramidal and granule cell layers. Moderate levels were detected in habenula, striatum, amygdala, the cingulate, piriform and entorhinal cortex, and in cerebellum, notably the Purkinje cell layer. The IHC signal distribution was consistent with ISH results, with transport of the protein to processes, as exemplified in the hippocampal neuropil layers and weakly stained pyramidal cell layers. In contrast, in the cerebellum, the Purkinje cell bodies were the most strongly immunolabeled elements. EM localized the cell surface-expression of EphA7 essentially in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) of dendritic spines and shafts, and on some astrocytic leaflets, in both hippocampus and cerebellum. Perikaryal and dendritic labeling was mostly intracellular, associated with the synthetic and trafficking machineries. Immunopositive vesicles were also observed in axons and axon terminals. Quantitative analysis in EM showed significant differences in the frequency of labeled elements between regions. Notably, labeled dendrites were ∼3-5 times less frequent in cerebellum than in hippocampus, but they were individually endowed with ∼10-40 times higher frequencies of PSDs, on their shafts and spines. The cell surface localization of EphA7, being preferentially in PSDs, and in perisynaptic astrocytic leaflets, provides morphologic evidence that EphA7 plays key roles in adult CNS synaptic maintenance, plasticity, or function. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2462-2478, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780036

  9. Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

  10. Protective Effects of Edaravone in Adult Rats with Surgery and Lipopolysaccharide Administration-Induced Cognitive Function Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiqi; Cao, Jiangbei; Liu, Na; Ma, Li; Zhou, Xueyue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yongan

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by cognitive declines in patients after surgery. Previous studies have suggested that surgery contributed to such impairment. It has been proven that neuroinflammation may exacerbate surgery-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. The free radical scavenger edaravone has high blood brain barrier permeability, and was demonstrated to effectively remove free radicals from the brain and alleviate the development of POCD in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, suggesting its potential role in preventing POCD. For this reason, this study was designed to determine whether edaravone is protective against POCD through its inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. First, Sprague Dawley adult male rats were administered 3 mg/kg edaravone intraperitoneally after undergoing a unilateral nephrectomy combined with lipopolysaccharide injection. Second, behavioral parameters related to cognitive function were recorded by fear conditioning and Morris Water Maze tests. Last, superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortex on postoperative days 3 and 7, and microglial (Iba1) activation, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and synaptic function (synapsin 1) were also examined 3 and 7 days after surgery. Rats that underwent surgery plus lipopolysaccharide administration showed significant impairments in spatial and working memory, accompanied by significant reductions in hippocampal-dependent and independent fear responses. All impairments were attenuated by treatment with edaravone. Moreover, an abnormal decrease in superoxide dismutase activation, abnormal increase in malondialdehyde levels, significant increase in microglial reactivity, downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and a statistically significant decrease in synapsin-1 were observed in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortices of

  11. Protein Restriction During the Last Third of Pregnancy Malprograms the Neuroendocrine Axes to Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Male Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Malta, Ananda; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Pavanello, Audrei; Torrezan, Rosana; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic malprogramming has been associated with low birth weight; however, the interplay between insulin secretion disruption and adrenal function upon lipid metabolism is unclear in adult offspring from protein-malnourished mothers during the last third of gestation. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of a maternal low-protein diet during the last third of pregnancy on adult offspring metabolism, including pancreatic islet function and morphophysiological aspects of the liver, adrenal gland, white adipose tissue, and pancreas. Virgin female Wistar rats (age 70 d) were mated and fed a protein-restricted diet (4%, intrauterine protein restricted [IUPR]) from day 14 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas control dams were fed a 20.5% protein diet. At age 91 d, their body composition, glucose-insulin homeostasis, ACTH, corticosterone, leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile, pancreatic islet function and liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas morphology were assessed. The birth weights of the IUPR rats were 20% lower than the control rats (P rats were heavier, hyperphagic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic, and hypercorticosteronemic (P rats (P < .05). Maternal undernutrition during the last third of gestation disrupts the pancreatic islet insulinotropic response and induces obesity-associated complications. Such alterations lead to a high risk of metabolic syndrome, characterized by insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:27007071

  12. Fructose Rich Diet-Induced High Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 Production in the Adult Female Rat: Protective Effect of Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Spinedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of progesterone (P4 on fructose rich diet (FRD intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT or containing P4 (12 mg/kg. Rats ate Purina chow-diet ad libitum throughout the entire experiment and, between 100 and 120 days of age drank ad libitum tap water alone (normal diet; CT-ND and P4-ND or containing fructose (10% w/v; CT-FRD and P4-FRD. At age 120 days, animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test or decapitated. Plasma concentrations of various biomarkers and PMAT gene abundance were monitored. P4-ND (vs. CT-ND rats showed elevated circulating levels of lipids. CT-FRD rats displayed high (vs. CT-ND plasma concentrations of lipids, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Lipidemia and adiponectinemia were high (vs. P4-ND in P4-FRD rats. Although P4 failed to prevent FRD-induced hyperleptinemia, it was fully protective on FRD-enhanced plasma PAI-1 levels. PMAT leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were high in CT-FRD and P4-FRD rats. While FRD enhanced PMAT PAI-1 mRNA abundance in CT rats, this effect was absent in P4 rats. Our study supports that a preceding P4-enriched milieu prevented the enhanced prothrombotic risk induced by FRD-elicited high PAI-1 production.

  13. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  14. Quercetin attenuates di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular toxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ellah, M F; Aly, Haa; Mokhlis, Ham; Abdel-Aziz, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential oxidative damage of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the rat testis and to further elucidate the potential modulatory effect of quercetin. DEHP was diluted in corn oil and given to rats by oral gavage at doses 0, 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg/day (groups I, III, IV, or V, respectively) for 15 consecutive days. Group VI was pretreated with quercetin (90 mg/kg), 24 h before starting the experiment and then treated with DEHP (900 mg/kg/day) for 15 consecutive days. Group II was treated with quercetin (90 mg/kg/day). The relative testes weight and sperm motility were significantly decreased by treatment with 900 mg/kg of DEHP. Both sperm count and daily sperm production were significantly decreased by DEHP treatment at doses of 600 and 900 mg/kg. Serum testosterone level and prostatic acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and testicular lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) activity were significantly decreased in animals treated with 900 mg/kg. Serum total ACP activity was significantly increased in animals treated with 600 and 900 mg/kg of DEHP. DEHP treatment induced oxidative stress and histopathological abnormality. These abnormalities were effectively normalized by pretreatment with quercetin except for LDH-X near normalcy. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrate that DEHP impairs testicular function at least, in part, by inducing oxidative stress and quercetin has a potent protective effect against DEHP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. PMID:25882133

  15. Indomethacin administered early in the postnatal period results in reduced glomerular number in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A L; Koina, M E; Gubhaju, L; Cullen-McEwen, L A; Bertram, J F; Lynnhtun, J; Shadbolt, B; Falk, M C; Dahlstrom, J E

    2014-11-15

    Indomethacin and ibuprofen are administered to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) during active glomerulogenesis. Light and electron microscopic glomerular changes with no change in glomerular number were seen following indomethacin and ibuprofen treatment during glomerulogenesis at 14 days after birth in a neonatal rat model. This present study aimed to determine whether longstanding renal structural changes are present at 30 days and 6 mo (equivalent to human adulthood). Rat pups were administered indomethacin or ibuprofen antenatally on days 18-20 (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen) or postnatally intraperitoneally from day 1 to 3 or day 1 to 5 (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen). Control groups received no treatment or normal saline intraperitoneally. Pups were killed at 30 days of age and 6 mo of age. Tissue blocks from right kidneys were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination, while total glomerular number was determined in left kidneys using unbiased stereology. Eight pups were included in each group from 14 maternal rats. At 30 days and 6 mo, there were persistent electron microscopy abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane in those receiving postnatal indomethacin and ibuprofen. There were no significant light microscopy findings at 30 days or 6 mo. At 6 mo, there were significantly fewer glomeruli in those receiving postnatal indomethacin but not ibuprofen (P = 0.003). In conclusion, indomethacin administered during glomerulogenesis appears to reduce the number of glomeruli in adulthood. Alternative options for closing a PDA should be considered including ibuprofen as well as emerging therapies such as paracetamol. PMID:25186294

  16. Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candasamy Mayuren

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52.Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at

  17. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole; Larsson, Erik; Persson, A Erik G

    2007-01-01

    adulthood. Rats were operated at 3 weeks of age (after completed nephrogenesis) and then subjected to either normal or high-salt diets for 6 to 8 weeks. Four different experimental groups were used: sham-operated animals raised with normal-salt diet (controls) or high-salt diet (HS) and uninephrectomized...... renin concentrations during high sodium conditions and hypertrophic kidneys and hearts with various degrees of histopathologic changes. In conclusion, at a young age after completed nephrogenesis, uninephrectomy or chronic salt loading causes renal and cardiovascular injury with salt...

  18. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  19. Soaring Cotton Prices to Make Manufacturing Difficult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With manufacturing slowly recovering amid improving economic condi-tions, cotton demand has increased prompting more orders among mills. However, with a deficient supply of cotton in the market, prices extend gains

  20. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN COTTON PREPARATION SPINNING

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Barbu; Adina Bucevschi; Alexandru Popa

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented the latest achievements in the field of cotton spinning. All in preparation for spinning cotton equipment are aspects of automation, robotics and aggregatisation which led to increased quality of products and increasing labor productivity.