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Sample records for adult common marmoset

  1. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  2. Small RNA profiling and characterization of piRNA clusters in the adult testes of the common marmoset, a model primate.

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    Hirano, Takamasa; Iwasaki, Yuka W; Lin, Zachary Yu-Ching; Imamura, Masanori; Seki, Naomi M; Sasaki, Erika; Saito, Kuniaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Siomi, Mikiko C; Siomi, Haruhiko

    2014-08-01

    Small RNAs mediate gene silencing by binding Argonaute/Piwi proteins to regulate target RNAs. Here, we describe small RNA profiling of the adult testes of Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset. The most abundant class of small RNAs in the adult testis was piRNAs, although 353 novel miRNAs but few endo-siRNAs were also identified. MARWI, a marmoset homolog of mouse MIWI and a very abundant PIWI in adult testes, associates with piRNAs that show characteristics of mouse pachytene piRNAs. As in other mammals, most marmoset piRNAs are derived from conserved clustered regions in the genome, which are annotated as intergenic regions. However, unlike in mice, marmoset piRNA clusters are also found on the X chromosome, suggesting escape from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation by the X-linked clusters. Some of the piRNA clusters identified contain antisense-orientated pseudogenes, suggesting the possibility that pseudogene-derived piRNAs may regulate parental functional protein-coding genes. More piRNAs map to transposable element (TE) subfamilies when they have copies in piRNA clusters. In addition, the strand bias observed for piRNAs mapped to each TE subfamily correlates with the polarity of copies inserted in clusters. These findings suggest that pachytene piRNA clusters determine the abundance and strand-bias of TE-derived piRNAs, may regulate protein-coding genes via pseudogene-derived piRNAs, and may even play roles in meiosis in the adult marmoset testis.

  3. Use of human methylation arrays for epigenome research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Junko; Murata, Yui; Bundo, Miki; Oh-Nishi, Arata; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Ikegame, Tempei; Zhao, Zhilei; Jinde, Seiichiro; Aiba, Atsu; Suhara, Tetsuya; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Tadafumi; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2017-02-17

    We examined the usefulness of commercially available DNA methylation arrays designed for the human genome (Illumina HumanMethylation450 and MethylationEPIC) for high-throughput epigenome analysis of the common marmoset, a nonhuman primate suitable for research on neuropsychiatric disorders. From among the probes on the methylation arrays, we selected those available for the common marmoset. DNA methylation data were obtained from genomic DNA extracted from the frontal cortex and blood samples of adult common marmosets as well as the frontal cortex of neonatal marmosets. About 10% of the probes on the arrays were estimated to be useful for DNA methylation assay in the common marmoset. Strong correlations existed between human and marmoset DNA methylation data. Illumina methylation arrays are useful for epigenome research using the common marmoset.

  4. Strategies in Landmark Use by Children, Adults, and Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Suzanne E.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Cheng, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Common marmosets ("Callithrix jacchus jacchus"), human children, and human adults learned to find a goal that was located in the center of a square array of four identical landmarks. The location of the landmark array and corresponding goal varied across trials, so the task could not be solved without using the landmark array. In Experiment 1, a…

  5. Differences in social and vocal behavior between left- and right-handed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-11-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show either a left- or right-hand preference for reaching to pick up food and they retain the same preference throughout adult life. We compared the behavior of 10 right-handed and 10 left-handed marmosets, matched for age and sex. They were presented with live crickets both when alone and when in their social group. The marmosets captured more crickets and the latency to capture the first cricket was shorter when they were in a group than when they were alone. This effect of social facilitation was significantly greater for right- than left-handed individuals. The number of vocalizations (tsik, crackle, very brief whistle, cough, and phee) produced by the left- and right-handed marmosets differed significantly: right-handed marmosets produced an increased number of all of these calls when the crickets were presented, whereas left-handed marmosets did not show a change from pretesting levels. The right-handed marmosets also produced more tsik (mobbing) calls than left-handed marmosets when they were presented with a fear-inducing stimulus and performed more head cocking and parallax movements than the left-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference is associated with differences in exploratory and social behavior, the latter including vocal communication.

  6. Effects of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on glucocorticoid receptor and calcyon gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of neonatal and adult common marmoset monkeys

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    Feldon Joram

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX are commonly used to promote fetal lung maturation in at-risk preterm births, but there is emerging evidence of subsequent neurobehavioral abnormalities in these children e.g. problems with inattention/hyperactivity. However, molecular pathways mediating effects of glucocorticoid overexposure on motor and cognitive development are poorly understood. Methods In this study with common marmoset monkeys, we investigated for neonatal and adulthood effects of antenatal DEX treatment on the expression of the corticosteroid receptors and also calcyon, a risk gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Pregnant marmosets were exposed to DEX (5 mg/kg body weight or vehicle during early (days 42-48 or late (days 90-96 stages of the 144-day pregnancy. Results In neonates, relative to controls, glucocorticoid receptor (GR mRNA levels were significantly reduced after the late DEX treatment in the medial, orbital and dorsal PFC and after the early DEX treatment in the dorsal PFC. The early DEX exposure, specifically, resulted in significant reduction in calcyon mRNA expression in the medial, orbital, dorsal and lateral PFC relative to controls. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR mRNA levels were not significantly affected by DEX treatment. In adults, PFC GR, calcyon, and MR mRNA levels were not significantly affected by early or late prenatal DEX treatment. Conclusion These findings indicate that antenatal DEX treatment could lead to short-term alterations in PFC expression of the GR and calcyon genes, with possible neurodevelopmental functional consequences.

  7. A modified light-dark box test for the common marmoset.

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    Wang, Yiwen; Fang, Qin; Gong, Neng

    2014-06-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has attracted extensive attention for use as a non-human primate model in biomedical research, especially in the study of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, behavioral test methods are still limited in the field of marmoset research. The light-dark box is widely used for the evaluation of anxiety in rodents, but little is known about light-dark preference in marmosets. Here, we modified the light-dark test to study this behavior. The modified apparatus consisted of three compartments: one transparent open area and two closed opaque compartments. The closed compartments could be dark or light. We found that both adult and young marmosets liked to explore the open area, but the young animals showed more interest than adults. Furthermore, when one of the closed compartments was light and the other dark, the adult marmosets showed a preference for the dark compartment, but the young animals had no preference. These results suggest that the exploratory behavior and the light-dark preference in marmosets are age-dependent. Our study provides a new method to study exploration, anxiety, and fear in marmosets.

  8. A combined histological and MRI brain atlas of the common marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, John D.; Kenkel, William M.; Aronoff, Emily C.; Bock, Nicholas A.; Zametkin, Molly R.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2009-01-01

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is of growing importance for research in neuroscience and related fields. In the present work, we describe a combined histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brains of two adult female marmosets. Histological sections were processed from Nissl staining and digitized to produce an atlas in a large format that facilitates visualization of structures with significant detail. Naming of identifiable brain structures was ...

  9. Aging Phenotypes of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

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    Corinna N. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the phenotypic changes associated with aging in a short-lived primate is necessary in order to develop better translational models for human health, aging, and disease research. A population of conventionally housed marmoset monkeys was assessed to determine if phenotypes of body composition, hematology, and morphometrical measures were associated with age or risk of death. We found that the cause of mortality in older marmosets was more likely to be due to cardiac and chronic kidney disease than in younger marmosets. Older marmosets have decreased fat mass, morphometric measures, and serum albumin. Older marmosets are more likely to show a modified posture while at rest and this modified posture was significantly associated with an increased risk of imminent death. These assessments provide an initial definition of aged health in marmosets and a base for future translational aging research with this species.

  10. Molecular signatures to define spermatogenic cells in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zachary Yu-Ching; Imamura, Masanori; Sano, Chiaki; Nakajima, Ryusuke; Suzuki, Tomoko; Yamadera, Rie; Takehara, Yuji; Okano, Hirotaka James; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2012-05-01

    Germ cell development is a fundamental process required to produce offspring. The developmental program of spermatogenesis has been assumed to be similar among mammals. However, recent studies have revealed differences in the molecular properties of primate germ cells compared with the well-characterized mouse germ cells. This may prevent simple application of rodent insights into higher primates. Therefore, thorough investigation of primate germ cells is necessary, as this may lead to the development of more appropriate animal models. The aim of this study is to define molecular signatures of spermatogenic cells in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Interestingly, NANOG, PRDM1, DPPA3 (STELLA), IFITM3, and ZP1 transcripts, but no POU5F1 (OCT4), were detected in adult marmoset testis. Conversely, mouse testis expressed Pou5f1 but not Nanog, Prdm1, Dppa3, Ifitm3, and Zp1. Other previously described mouse germ cell markers were conserved in marmoset and mouse testes. Intriguingly, marmoset spermatogenic cells underwent dynamic protein expression in a developmental stage-specific manner; DDX4 (VASA) protein was present in gonocytes, diminished in spermatogonial cells, and reexpressed in spermatocytes. To investigate epigenetic differences between adult marmoset and mice, DNA methylation analyses identified unique epigenetic profiles to marmoset and mice. Marmoset NANOG and POU5F1 promoters in spermatogenic cells exhibited a methylation status opposite to that in mice, while the DDX4 and LEFTY1 loci, as well as imprinted genes, displayed an evolutionarily conserved methylation pattern. Marmosets have great advantages as models for human reproductive biology and are also valuable as experimental nonhuman primates; thus, the current study provides an important platform for primate reproductive biology, including possible applications to humans.

  11. Frequency discrimination in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Osmanski, Michael S; Song, Xindong; Guo, Yueqi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-11-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a highly vocal New World primate species that has emerged in recent years as a promising model system for studies of auditory and vocal processing. Our recent studies have examined perceptual mechanisms related to the pitch of harmonic complex tones in this species. However, no previous psychoacoustic work has measured marmosets' frequency discrimination abilities for pure tones across a broad frequency range. Here we systematically examined frequency difference limens (FDLs), which measure the minimum discriminable frequency difference between two pure tones, in marmosets across most of their hearing range. Results show that marmosets' FDLs are comparable to other New World primates, with lowest values in the frequency range of ∼3.5-14 kHz. This region of lowest FDLs corresponds with the region of lowest hearing thresholds in this species measured in our previous study and also with the greatest concentration of spectral energy in the major types of marmoset vocalizations. These data suggest that frequency discrimination in the common marmoset may have evolved to match the hearing sensitivity and spectral characteristics of this species' vocalizations.

  12. Internal capsule stroke in the common marmoset.

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    Puentes, S; Kaido, T; Hanakawa, T; Ichinohe, N; Otsuki, T; Seki, K

    2015-01-22

    White matter (WM) impairment and motor deficit after stroke are directly related. However, WM injury mechanisms and their relation to motor disturbances are still poorly understood. In humans, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) irrigates the internal capsule (IC), and stroke to this region can induce isolated motor impairment. The goal of this study was to analyze whether AChA occlusion can injure the IC in the marmoset monkey. The vascular distribution of the marmoset brain was examined by colored latex perfusion and revealed high resemblance to the human brain anatomy. Next, a new approach to electrocoagulate the AChA was developed and chronic experiments showed infarction compromising the IC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (day 4) and histology (day 11). Behavioral analysis was performed using a neurologic score previously developed and our own scoring method. Marmosets showed a decreased score that was still evident at day 10 after AChA electrocoagulation. We developed a new approach able to induce damage to the marmoset IC that may be useful for the detailed study of WM impairment and behavioral changes after stroke in the nonhuman primate.

  13. Noninvasive genotyping of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) by fingernail PCR.

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    Takabayashi, Shuji; Katoh, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that is a useful model for medical studies. In this study, we report a convenient, reliable, and noninvasive procedure to genotype a living common marmoset by using fingernails. This method was used to successfully genotype DNA by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) PCR without prior purification, by using the KOD FX PCR enzyme kit. Additionally, there is no sample contamination from hematopoietic chimera derived from fused placenta in utero. We compared chimeric levels between various tissues in females with male littermates using quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR to prepare a reliable DNA source for genetic analyses, such as genotyping, gene mapping, or genomic sequencing. The chimerism detected appeared to be restricted to lymphatic tissues, such as bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and blood cells. As a result, DNA from fingernails with the quick is the best DNA source for genetic research in living marmosets.

  14. Mobbing vocalizations as a coping response in the common marmoset.

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    Cross, N; Rogers, L J

    2006-02-01

    Using a non-invasive method of sampling saliva followed by assay for cortisol levels, we found that common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show a decrease in cortisol levels after seeing a snake-model stimulus that reliably elicits mobbing (tsik) calls. In fact, there was a significant positive correlation between the number of tsik vocalizations made and the magnitude of the decrease in the cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, marmosets with higher levels of cortisol prior to being exposed to the stimulus produce more tsik calls than those with lower levels of cortisol. Subsequent experiments showed that, in response to 15 min of isolation with no visual or auditory contact with conspecifics (a traditional stressor), cortisol levels increased significantly. However, playback of the mobbing calls of a familiar conspecific to individual isolated marmosets not only prevented the rise in cortisol, but also actually caused a decrease in the levels of this hormone. This suggests that the mobbing calls serve to calm the marmoset after experiencing a stressful situation. This finding results in a greater understanding as to the role of physiological responses during communication in this species and could have implications for the welfare of marmosets in captivity.

  15. Population-averaged standard template brain atlas for the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Hikishima, K; Quallo, M M; Komaki, Y; Yamada, M; Kawai, K; Momoshima, S; Okano, H J; Sasaki, E; Tamaoki, N; Lemon, R N; Iriki, A; Okano, H

    2011-02-14

    Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) neuroimaging analysis techniques based on voxel-wise statistics, such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional MRI, are widely applied to cognitive brain research in both human subjects and in non-human primates. Recent developments in imaging have enabled the evaluation of smaller animal models with sufficient spatial resolution. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate species, has been widely used in neuroscience research, to which voxel-wise statistics could be extended with a species-specific brain template. Here, we report, for the first time, a tissue-segmented, population-averaged standard template of the common marmoset brain. This template was created by using anatomical T(1)-weighted images from 22 adult marmosets with a high-resolution isotropic voxel size of (0.2 mm)(3) at 7-Tesla and DARTEL algorithm in SPM8. Whole brain templates are available at International Neuroinformatics Japan Node website, http://brainatlas.brain.riken.jp/marmoset/.

  16. Metabolic Characterization of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Go, Young-Mi; Liang, Yongliang; Uppal, Karan; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Promislow, Daniel E L; Wachtman, Lynn M; Jones, Dean P

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution metabolomics has created opportunity to integrate nutrition and metabolism into genetic studies to improve understanding of the diverse radiation of primate species. At present, however, there is very little information to help guide experimental design for study of wild populations. In a previous non-targeted metabolomics study of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Rhesus macaques, humans, and four non-primate mammalian species, we found that essential amino acids (AA) and other central metabolites had interspecies variation similar to intraspecies variation while non-essential AA, environmental chemicals and catabolic waste products had greater interspecies variation. The present study was designed to test whether 55 plasma metabolites, including both nutritionally essential and non-essential metabolites and catabolic products, differ in concentration in common marmosets and humans. Significant differences were present for more than half of the metabolites analyzed and included AA, vitamins and central lipid metabolites, as well as for catabolic products of AA, nucleotides, energy metabolism and heme. Three environmental chemicals were present at low nanomolar concentrations but did not differ between species. Sex and age differences in marmosets were present for AA and nucleotide metabolism and warrant additional study. Overall, the results suggest that quantitative, targeted metabolomics can provide a useful complement to non-targeted metabolomics for studies of diet and environment interactions in primate evolution.

  17. The spinal cord of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Watson, Charles; Sengul, Gulgun; Tanaka, Ikuko; Rusznak, Zoltan; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    The marmoset spinal cord possesses all the characteristic features of a typical mammalian spinal cord, but with some interesting variation in the levels of origin of the limb nerves. In our study Nissl and ChAT sections of the each segment of the spinal cord in two marmosets (Ma5 and Ma8), we found that the spinal cord can be functionally and anatomically divided into six regions: the prebrachial region (C1 to C3); the brachial region (C4 to C8) - segments supplying the upper limb; the post-brachial region (T1 to L1) - containing the sympathetic outflow, and supplying the hypaxial muscles of the body wall; the crural region (L2 to L5) - segments supplying the lower limb; the postcrural region (L6) - containing the parasympathetic outflow; and the caudal region (L7 to Co4) - supplying the tail. In the rat, mouse, and rhesus monkey, the prebrachial region consists of segments C1 to C4 (with the phrenic nucleus located at the C4 segment), and the brachial region extends from C5 to T1 inclusive. The prefixing of the upper limb outflow in these two marmosets mirrors the finding in the literature that a large C4 contribution to the brachial plexus is common in humans.

  18. Use of the common marmoset to study Burkholderia mallei infection.

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    Jelesijevic, Tomislav; Zimmerman, Shawn M; Harvey, Stephen B; Mead, Daniel G; Shaffer, Teresa L; Estes, D Mark; Michel, Frank; Quinn, Frederick D; Hogan, Robert J; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. mallei typically occurs via the respiratory or percutaneous route, and the most common manifestations are life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There is no vaccine to protect against B. mallei and there is concern regarding its use as a biothreat agent. Thus, experiments were performed to establish a non-human primate model of intranasal infection to study the organism and develop countermeasures. Groups of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were inoculated intranasally with B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and monitored for clinical signs of illness for up to 13 days. We discovered that 83% of marmosets inoculated with doses of 2.5 X 10(4) to 2.5 X 10(5) bacteria developed acute lethal infection within 3-4 days. Signs of disease were severe and included lethargy, inappetence, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent and hemorrhagic nasal discharges, and increased respiratory effort with abdominal lifts. Burkholderia mallei was cultured from the lungs, spleen and liver of these animals, and pathologic examination of tissues revealed lesions characteristic of glanders. Challenge experiments also revealed that 91% of animals infected with doses ranging from 25 to 2.5 X 10(3) bacteria exhibited mild non-specific signs of illness and were culture negative. One marmoset inoculated with 2.5 X 10(3) organisms developed moderate signs of disease and reached humane end-points 8 days post-infection. The liver and spleen of this animal were colonized with the agent and pathological analysis of tissues showed nasal, splenic and hepatic lesions. Taken together, these data indicate that the marmoset is a suitable model to study respiratory infection by B. mallei.

  19. Use of the common marmoset to study Burkholderia mallei infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jelesijevic

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. mallei typically occurs via the respiratory or percutaneous route, and the most common manifestations are life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There is no vaccine to protect against B. mallei and there is concern regarding its use as a biothreat agent. Thus, experiments were performed to establish a non-human primate model of intranasal infection to study the organism and develop countermeasures. Groups of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus were inoculated intranasally with B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and monitored for clinical signs of illness for up to 13 days. We discovered that 83% of marmosets inoculated with doses of 2.5 X 10(4 to 2.5 X 10(5 bacteria developed acute lethal infection within 3-4 days. Signs of disease were severe and included lethargy, inappetence, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent and hemorrhagic nasal discharges, and increased respiratory effort with abdominal lifts. Burkholderia mallei was cultured from the lungs, spleen and liver of these animals, and pathologic examination of tissues revealed lesions characteristic of glanders. Challenge experiments also revealed that 91% of animals infected with doses ranging from 25 to 2.5 X 10(3 bacteria exhibited mild non-specific signs of illness and were culture negative. One marmoset inoculated with 2.5 X 10(3 organisms developed moderate signs of disease and reached humane end-points 8 days post-infection. The liver and spleen of this animal were colonized with the agent and pathological analysis of tissues showed nasal, splenic and hepatic lesions. Taken together, these data indicate that the marmoset is a suitable model to study respiratory infection by B

  20. A case of nontraumatic gas gangrene in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Yasuda, Masahiko; Inoue, Takashi; Ueno, Masami; Morita, Hanako; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Kawai, Kenji; Itoh, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset is widely used in neuroscience and regenerative medicine research. However, information concerning common marmoset disorders, particularly infectious diseases, is scarce. Here, we report a case of a female common marmoset that died suddenly due to gas gangrene. The animal presented with gaseous abdominal distention at postmortem, and Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from several tissues. Vacuoles, a Gram-positive bacteremia and intravascular hemolysis were observed microscopically in the muscles, liver and lungs. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed nontraumatic gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens type A in this common marmoset.

  1. Differential contribution of dietary fat and monosaccharide to metabolic syndrome in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    There is a critical need for animal models to study aspects type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis and prevention. While the rhesus macaque is such an established model, the common marmoset has added benefits including reduced zoonotic risks, shorter life span, and a predisposition to birth twins demonstrating chimerism. The marmoset as a model organism for the study of metabolic syndrome has not been fully evaluated. Marmosets fed high-fat or glucose-enriched diets were followed longitudinall...

  2. Mirror Neurons in a New World Monkey, Common Marmoset.

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    Suzuki, Wataru; Banno, Taku; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Abe, Hiroshi; Goda, Naokazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neurons respond when executing a motor act and when observing others' similar act. So far, mirror neurons have been found only in macaques, humans, and songbirds. To investigate the degree of phylogenetic specialization of mirror neurons during the course of their evolution, we determined whether mirror neurons with similar properties to macaques occur in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The ventral premotor cortex (PMv), where mirror neurons have been reported in macaques, is difficult to identify in marmosets, since no sulcal landmarks exist in the frontal cortex. We addressed this problem using "in vivo" connection imaging methods. That is, we first identified cells responsive to others' grasping action in a clear landmark, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), under anesthesia, and injected fluorescent tracers into the region. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy, we identified clusters of labeled cells in the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which were confirmed to be within the ventrolateral frontal cortex including PMv after sacrifice. We next implanted electrodes into the ventrolateral frontal cortex and STS and recorded single/multi-units under an awake condition. As a result, we found neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic "mirror" properties quite similar to those in macaques. This finding suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution.

  3. Web-accessible digital brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Akazawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Yasuhisa

    2009-05-01

    Here we describe a web-accessible digital brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at http://marmoset-brain.org:2008. We prepared the histological sections of the marmoset brain using various staining techniques. For virtual microscopy, high-resolution digital images of sections were obtained with Aperio Scanscope. The digital images were then converted to Zoomify files (zoomable multiresolution image files). Thereby, we could provide the multiresolution images of the marmoset brains for fast interactive viewing on the web via the Internet. In addition, we describe an automated method to obtain drawings of Nissl-stained sections.

  4. Development of metabolic function biomarkers in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus.

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    Ziegler, Toni E; Colman, Ricki J; Tardif, Suzette D; Sosa, Megan E; Wegner, Fredrick H; Wittwer, Daniel J; Shrestha, Hemanta

    2013-05-01

    Metabolic assessment of a non-human primate model of metabolic syndrome and obesity requires the necessary biomarkers specific to the species. While the rhesus monkey has a number of specific assays for assessing metabolic syndrome, the marmoset does not. Furthermore, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has a small blood volume that necessitates using a single blood volume for multiple analyses. The common marmoset holds a great potential as an alternative primate model for the study of human disease but assay methods need to be developed and validated for the biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. Here we report on the adaptation, development, and validation of commercially available immunoassays for common marmoset samples in small volumes. We have performed biological validations for insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin to demonstrate the use of these biomarkers in examining metabolic syndrome and other related diseases in the common marmoset.

  5. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing different subsets of lymphocytes from the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Ito, Ryoji; Maekawa, Shin-ichiro; Kawai, Kenji; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shuzo; Ishii, Hajime; Tanioka, Yoshikuni; Satake, Masanobu; Yagita, Hideo; Habu, Sonoko; Ito, Mamoru

    2008-12-22

    Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset, is a small new world primate that is considered effective as an experimental animal model for various human diseases. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against common marmoset lymphocytes for immunological studies on the common marmoset. We established five hybridoma clones, 6C9, 10D7, 6F10, 7A4 and 5A1, producing anti-marmoset mAbs against cell surface antigens on marmoset T and/or B lymphocytes. We confirmed that 6C9 and 10D7 antibodies recognized CD45 antigen, and 6F10 antibody recognized CD8 antigen by flow cytometry using marmoset cDNA transfectants. We also tested them for application of immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We found that immunohistochemistry using marmoset spleen sections could be applied with all established mAbs but immunoprecipitation and the Western blot analysis could be applied with 6F10 and 10D7 antibodies but not with the other three mAbs. These results show that these monoclonal antibodies are useful for advancing immunological research on the common marmoset.

  6. Congenital malformation of the vaginal orifice, imperforate vagina, in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Kimie; Oguchi, Ayaka; Nishio, Kenji; Okano, Yasushi; Takahashi, Eiki

    2015-03-01

    The following is a report on a congenital vaginal malformation, imperforate vagina, in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). This anomaly was observed for the first time in an adult female in our research colony. There was no uterine and vaginal aplasia or atresia in her grossly normal genital tract. The plasma progesterone concentration suggested that the ovarian cycle had ceased. However, this may not be related to a functional anomaly, but rather to suppressed ovulation resulting from subordination to cagemates considering the various stages of follicular development observed.

  7. An observational investigation of behavioural contagion in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus: indications for contagious scent-marking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J.M. Massen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioural contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing and scent-marking. We coded these behaviours from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-minute observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday and afternoon to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns / hour and very little stretching behaviour. For all other behaviours, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, that almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviours in marmosets.

  8. An animal model that reflects human disease: the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L

    2012-06-01

    The common marmoset is a new world primate belonging to the Callitrichidae family weighing between 350 and 400 g. The marmoset has been shown to be an outstanding model for studying aging, reproduction, neuroscience, toxicology, and infectious disease. With regard to their susceptibility to infectious agents, they are exquisite NHP models for viral, protozoan and bacterial agents, as well as prions. The marmoset provides the advantages of a small animal model in high containment coupled with the immunological repertoire of a nonhuman primate and susceptibility to wild type, non-adapted viruses.

  9. Cloning and expression of a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-02-04

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of endogenous catechol amines and estrogens and exogenous catechol-type of drugs. A Parkinson's disease model of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been widely used in preclinical studies to evaluate inhibitory potential of new drug candidates on marmoset COMT. Despite COMT inhibitors could potentiate the pharmacological action of levodopa on Parkinson's disease in animal models, marmoset COMT cDNA has not yet been identified and characterized. In this study, a cDNA highly homologous to human COMT was cloned from marmoset livers. This cDNA encoded 268 amino acids containing a transmembrane region and critical amino acid residues for catalytic function. The amino acid sequences of marmoset COMT shared high sequence identity (90%) with human COMT. COMT mRNA was expressed in all five tissues tested, including brain, lung, liver, kidney and small intestine, and was more abundant in marmoset liver and kidney. Membrane-bound COMT was immunochemically detected in livers and kidneys, whereas soluble COMT was detected in livers, similar to humans. These results indicated that the molecular characteristics of marmoset COMT were generally similar to the human ortholog.

  10. Life span of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at CLEA Japan breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Saitoh, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Shin; Ohsato-Suzuki, Motoko; Ohno, Tamio; Kitajima, Shuji

    2012-08-01

    The life span and survival parameters of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in a breeding colony at CLEA Japan, Inc. were investigated. The average life span of male marmosets was 148.5 ± 6.1 (mean ± SE) months of age (M), which was significantly longer (P marmosets show a slight decline in survival during the first 7-9 years and then a dramatic decrease and another slight decline after 14-16 year of age in survival, i.e., a lifespan curve similar to what is observed in colonies of aging rodents and humans. The sex-associated difference in life span was caused by reproductive burden on the females. The present study reported a longer than expected life span of the marmoset, and a long-lived animal can be a powerful model for senescence and longevity sciences.

  11. Purification and partial characterization of α1-proteinase inhibitor in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parambeth, Joseph Cyrus; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2015-04-01

    Fecal alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) concentration has been to diagnose enteric protein loss in dogs and cats. Chronic lymphocytic enteritis is commonly seen in the marmoset (Callithrix jaccus) and is characterized by hypoalbuminemia. As a prelude to immunoassay development for detecting enteric protein loss, marmoset serum α1-PI was purified using immunoaffinity chromatography and ceramic hydroxyapatite chromatography. Partial characterization was performed by reducing gel electrophoresis and enzyme inhibitory assays. Protein identity was confirmed with peptide mass fingerprinting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Molecular mass, relative molecular mass, and isoelectric point for marmoset α1-PI were 54 kDa, 51,677, and 4.8-5.4, respectively. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activity were observed. N-terminal amino acid sequence for marmoset α1-PI was EDPQGDAAQKMDTSHH. In conclusion, marmoset α1-PI was successfully purified from serum with an overall yield of 12% using a rapid and efficient method. Purified marmoset α1-PI has characteristics similar to those of α1-PI reported for other species.

  12. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases.

  13. Characterization of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Akifumi; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Nobukiyo, Asako; Yamaoka, Emi; Hiyama, Eiso

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be useful for regenerative medicine because they can beharvested easily from the bone marrow of living donors and the cells can be differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. To apply MSCs for the medical treatment of human diseases as regenerative medicine, detailed experimental characterization of the cells is required. Recently, a New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), has been widely used as a new human disease model because of its ease of handling and breeding. Although common marmoset MSCs have been established and will be used in preclinical studies of regenerative medicine, the characteristics of these cells remain unclear. Aiming to characterize common marmoset MSCs further, we harvested common marmoset bone marrow-derived cells (cmBMDCs) from the femurs of newborn males. We revealed that the morphology of the cells was similar to common marmoset fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix components, such as gelatin and fibronectin, were effective for their proliferation and formation of colony-forming unit fibroblasts. Furthermore, we were able to differentiate cmBMDCs into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro, and they expressed the MSCmarkers CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105, but their expression decreased with increasing passage number. The data demonstrate that cmBMDCs exhibit characteristics of MSCs and thus it would be beneficial to use these cells in preclinical studies.

  14. Comparative pathology of rhesus macaque and common marmoset animal models with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pin; Xu, Yanfeng; Deng, Wei; Bao, Linlin; Huang, Lan; Xu, Yuhuan; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (CoV), has recently emerged. It causes severe viral pneumonia and is associated with a high fatality rate. However, the pathogenesis, comparative pathology and inflammatory cell response of rhesus macaques and common marmosets experimentally infected with MERS-CoV are unknown. We describe the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings from rhesus macaque and common marmoset animal models of MERS-CoV infection. The main histopathological findings in the lungs of rhesus macaques and common marmosets were varying degrees of pulmonary lesions, including pneumonia, pulmonary oedema, haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of the pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells, and inflammatory cell infiltration. The characteristic inflammatory cells in the lungs of rhesus macaques and common marmosets were eosinophils and neutrophils, respectively. Based on these observations, the lungs of rhesus macaques and common marmosets appeared to develop chronic and acute pneumonia, respectively. MERS-CoV antigens and viral RNA were identified in type I and II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, and ultrastructural observations showed that viral protein was found in type II pneumocytes and inflammatory cells in both species. Correspondingly, the entry receptor DDP4 was found in type I and II pneumocytes, bronchial epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. The rhesus macaque and common marmoset animal models of MERS-CoV can be used as a tool to mimic the oncome of MERS-CoV infections in humans. These models can help to provide a better understanding of the pathogenic process of this virus and to develop effective medications and prophylactic treatments. PMID:28234937

  15. Bioavailability and efficacy of levofloxacin against Francisella tularensis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle; Lever, Mark S; Dean, Rachel E; Pearce, Peter C; Stevens, Daniel J; Simpson, Andrew J H

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies with levofloxacin were performed in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) model of inhalational tularemia. Plasma levofloxacin pharmacokinetics were determined in six animals in separate single-dose and multidose studies. Plasma drug concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-electrospray ionization. On day 7 of a twice-daily dosing regimen of 40 mg/kg, the levofloxacin half-life, maximum concentration, and area under the curve in marmoset plasma were 2.3 h, 20.9 microg/ml, and 81.4 microg/liter/h, respectively. An efficacy study was undertaken using eight treated and two untreated control animals. Marmosets were challenged with a mean of 1.5 x 10(2) CFU of Francisella tularensis by the airborne route. Treated animals were administered 16.5 mg/kg levofloxacin by mouth twice daily, based on the pharmacokinetic parameters, beginning 24 h after challenge. Control animals had a raised core body temperature by 57 h postchallenge and died from infection by day 5. All of the other animals survived, remained afebrile, and lacked overt clinical signs. No bacteria were recovered from the organs of these animals at postmortem after culling at day 24 postchallenge. In conclusion, postexposure prophylaxis with orally administered levofloxacin was efficacious against acute inhalational tularemia in the common marmoset. The marmoset appears to be an appropriate animal model for the evaluation of postexposure therapies.

  16. Characterization of plasma thiol redox potential in a common marmoset model of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its short lifespan, ease of use and age-related pathologies that mirror those observed in humans, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate model of aging. Blood and extracellular fluid possess two major thiol-dependent redox nodes involving cysteine (Cys, cystine (CySS, glutathione (GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG. Alteration in these plasma redox nodes significantly affects cellular physiology, and oxidation of the plasma Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS is associated with aging and disease risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine age-related changes in plasma redox metabolites and corresponding redox potentials (Eh to further validate the marmoset as a nonhuman primate model of aging. We measured plasma thiol redox states in marmosets and used existing human data with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS to model the relationships between age and redox metabolites. A classification accuracy of 70.2% and an AUC of 0.703 were achieved using the MARS model built from the marmoset redox data to classify the human samples as young or old. These results show that common marmosets provide a useful model for thiol redox biology of aging.

  17. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  18. Measurement of absolute auditory thresholds in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski, Michael S; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-07-01

    The common marmoset is a small, arboreal, New World primate that has emerged as a promising non-human model system in auditory neuroscience. A complete understanding of the neuroethology of auditory processing in marmosets will include behavioral work examining how sounds are perceived by these animals. However, there have been few studies of the marmoset's hearing and perceptual abilities and the audiogram of this species has not been measured using modern psychophysical methods. The present experiment pairs psychophysics with an operant conditioning technique to examine perception of pure tone stimuli by marmosets using an active behavioral paradigm. Subjects were trained to lick at a feeding tube when they detected a sound. Correct responses provided access to a food reward. Pure tones of varying intensities were presented to subjects using the method of constant stimuli. Behavioral thresholds were calculated for each animal based on hit rate--threshold was defined by the tone intensity that the animal correctly identified 50% of the time. Results show that marmoset hearing is comparable to that of other New World monkeys, with a hearing range extending from about 125 Hz up to 36 kHz and a sensitivity peak around 7 kHz.

  19. Vocalizations associated with anxiety and fear in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoko; Gokan, Hayato; Oh-Nishi, Arata; Suhara, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Shigeru; Minamimoto, Takafumi

    2014-12-15

    Vocalizations of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) were examined under experimental situations related to fear or anxiety. When marmosets were isolated in an unfamiliar environment, they frequently vocalized "tsik-egg" calls, which were the combination calls of 'tsik' followed by several 'egg'. Tsik-egg calls were also observed after treatment with the anxiogenic drug FG-7142 (20mg/kg, sc). In contrast, when marmosets were exposed to predatory stimuli as fear-evoking situations, they frequently vocalized tsik solo calls as well as tsik-egg calls. These results suggest that marmosets dissociate the vocalization of tsik-egg and tsik calls under conditions related to fear/anxiety; tsik-egg solo vocalizations were emitted under anxiety-related conditions (e.g., isolation and anxiogenic drug treatment), whereas a mixed vocalization of tsik-egg and tsik was emitted when confronted with fear-provoking stimuli (i.e., threatening predatory stimuli). Tsik-egg call with/without tsik can be used as a specific vocal index of fear/anxiety in marmosets, which allows us to understand the neural mechanism of negative emotions in primate.

  20. Differential renal glomerular changes induced by 5/6 nephrectomization between common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yui; Yamaguchi, Itaru; Onoda, Noriko; Saito, Takashi; Myojo, Kensuke; Imaizumi, Minami; Takada, Chie; Kimoto, Naoya; Takaba, Katsumi; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-07-01

    We have been investigating the relevance and availability of 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) as a chronic renal failure model. As a part of this investigation, renal glomerular changes in the Nx marmosets were histopathologically and immunohistochemically evaluated, and then compared with those in 5/6 Nx SD rats. In the Nx marmosets, the blood and urine parameters were elevated, excluding urine protein; histopathologically, enlargement of Bowman's capsule and atrophy of the glomeruli were observed in all animals, and other slight changes were also observed in 1 or 2 marmosets. There were no significant changes in the mesangial matrix injury score, vimentin and desmin positivity or the number of WT1 positive cells between the control and Nx marmoset groups. On the other hand, in the Nx rats, the blood and urine parameters were elevated; histopathologically, various changes were observed in the glomeruli, and the mesangial matrix injury score, vimentin and desmin positivity were increased, while the number of WT1 positive cells was decreased; these histopathological impacts on the renal glomerulus at 13 weeks after Nx in rats were more severe than that in the Nx marmosets. Because the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was much thicker in the marmosets than in the rats in electron microscopy, the weaker pathological changes in the Nx marmosets might be due to the GBM thickness. This study showed for the first time glomerular lesions developed in the Nx marmosets, and the possible pathogenesis of the glomerular lesions was discussed.

  1. Characterising trait anxiety in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): investigations into behavioural, psychophysiological and cognitive phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The major aim of my thesis project has been to develop a non-human primate model of trait anxiety, using a new world monkey, the common marmoset. The first step was to identify animals high or low in trait anxiety. Based on the findings that high trait-anxious individuals display over-generalization of fear responses, a pathogenic marker of elevated trait anxiety in humans, a new aversive discriminative conditioning paradigm was designed. Testing a normal cohort of marmosets revealed that 26%...

  2. Exchanging grooming, but not tolerance and aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Schino, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the reciprocal exchanges of grooming, tolerance and reduced aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a cooperatively breeding primate whose groups are typically characterized by uniformly high genetic relatedness and high interdependency between group members. Both partner control and partner choice processes played a role in the reciprocal exchanges of grooming. In contrast, we did not find any evidence of reciprocity between grooming and tolerance over a preferred food source or between grooming and reduced aggression. Thus, reciprocity seems to play a variable role in the exchange of cooperative behaviors in marmosets.

  3. Body weight-associated differences in ovarian morphology in captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerer-Bernhard, J U; Tkachenko, O Y; Heistermann, M; Gründker, C; Nayudu, P L

    2015-06-01

    In captivity, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) is on average heavier than their wild-living counterparts, and has a tendency to produce triplet litters rather than the normal twins. To provide initial basic information about possible weight-related differences among the ovaries, a morphometric study of follicular phase ovaries from 48 young adult marmosets has been carried out. Nearly 90% of these ovaries were found to contain some degree of luteal tissue composed of large and/or small cells. The luteal structures, follicles of all stages, and stroma were subjected to morphometric analysis, and these results were compared with body weight, circulating triglyceride, androstenedione, and total estrogens. Where only large luteal cells were present, the median body weight was the highest (only this group included animals over 500 g) compared with mixed, or only small luteal cells, or absence of luteal cells. Furthermore, in this group plasma triglycerides were significantly higher compared to other groups, suggesting possible role of triglycerides in promoting luteinisation. Plasma androstenedione was also a critical discriminating factor, and was elevated where large luteal cells were present even as a mixture with small cells suggesting the large luteal cells to be the likely major ovarian source of this hormone and its metabolites. Additionally, the ovaries with large luteal cells compared to those containing only small or no luteal cells, had lower primordial follicle reserve associated with high levels of atresia and luteinisation among growing non-ovulatory follicles, indicating an accelerated activation, but at the same time a suboptimal environment for follicular growth.

  4. Colonization of collagen scaffolds by adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells of the common marmoset monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernemann, Inga, E-mail: bernemann@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Mueller, Thomas; Blasczyk, Rainer [Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Glasmacher, Birgit; Hofmann, Nicola [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiate in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. {yields} Marmoset MSCs integrate in collagen type I scaffolds and differentiate excellently into adipogenic cells. {yields} Common marmoset monkey is a suitable model for soft tissue engineering in human regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: In regenerative medicine, human cell replacement therapy offers great potential, especially by cell types differentiated from immunologically and ethically unproblematic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In terms of an appropriate carrier material, collagen scaffolds with homogeneous pore size of 65 {mu}m were optimal for cell seeding and cultivating. However, before clinical application and transplantation of MSC-derived cells in scaffolds, the safety and efficiency, but also possible interference in differentiation due to the material must be preclinically tested. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a preferable non-human primate animal model for this aim due to its genetic and physiological similarities to the human. Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs were successfully isolated, cultured and differentiated in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by defined factors. The differentiation capability could be determined by FACS. Specific marker genes for all three cell types could be detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, MSCs seeded on collagen I scaffolds differentiated in adipogenic lineage showed after 28 days of differentiation high cell viability and homogenous distribution on the material which was validated by calcein AM and EthD staining. As proof of adipogenic cells, the intracellular lipid vesicles in the cells were stained with Oil Red O. The generation of fat vacuoles was visibly extensive distinguishable and furthermore determined on the molecular level by expression of specific marker genes. The results of the study proved both the differential

  5. Ocular wavefront aberrations in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: effects of age and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Nancy J; Marcos, Susana; Troilo, David

    2010-11-23

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a primate model for emmetropization studies. The refractive development of the marmoset eye depends on visual experience, so knowledge of the optical quality of the eye is valuable. We report on the wavefront aberrations of the marmoset eye, measured with a clinical Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences). Aberrations were measured on both eyes of 23 marmosets whose ages ranged from 18 to 452 days. Twenty-one of the subjects were members of studies of emmetropization and accommodation, and two were untreated normal subjects. Eleven of the 21 experimental subjects had worn monocular diffusers and 10 had worn binocular spectacle lenses of equal power. Monocular deprivation or lens rearing began at about 45 days of age and ended at about 108 days of age. All refractions and aberration measures were performed while the eyes were cyclopleged; most aberration measures were made while subjects were awake, but some control measurements were performed under anesthesia. Wavefront error was expressed as a seventh-order Zernike polynomial expansion, using the Optical Society of America's naming convention. Aberrations in young marmosets decreased up to about 100 days of age, after which the higher-order RMS aberration leveled off to about 0.10 μm over a 3 mm diameter pupil. Higher-order aberrations were 1.8 times greater when the subjects were under general anesthesia than when they were awake. Young marmoset eyes were characterized by negative spherical aberration. Form-deprived eyes of the monocular deprivation animals had greater wavefront aberrations than their fellow untreated eyes, particularly for asymmetric aberrations in the odd-numbered Zernike orders. Both lens-treated and form-deprived eyes showed similar significant increases in Z3(-3) trefoil aberration, suggesting the increase in trefoil may be related to factors that do not involve visual feedback.

  6. Development of an acute model of inhalational melioidosis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle; Dean, Rachel E; Salguero, Francisco J; Taylor, Christopher; Pearce, Peter C; Simpson, Andrew J H; Lever, Mark S

    2011-12-01

    Studies of inhalational melioidosis were undertaken in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Following exposure to an inhaled challenge with aerosolized Burkholderia pseudomallei, lethal infection was observed in marmosets challenged with doses below 10 cfu; a precise LD(50) determination was not possible. The model was further characterized using a target challenge dose of approximately 10(2) cfu. A separate pathogenesis time-course experiment was also conducted. All animals succumbed, between 27 and 78 h postchallenge. The challenge dose received and the time to the humane endpoint (1 °C below normal body temperature postfever) were correlated. The first indicator of disease was an increased core body temperature (T(c) ), at 22 h postchallenge. This coincided with bacteraemia and bacterial dissemination. Overt clinical signs were first observed 3-5 h later. A sharp decrease (typically within 3-6 h) in the T(c) was observed prior to humanely culling the animals in the lethality study. Pathology was noted in the lung, liver and spleen. Disease progression in the common marmoset appears to be consistent with human infection in terms of bacterial spread, pathology and physiology. The common marmoset can therefore be considered a suitable animal model for further studies of inhalational melioidosis.

  7. Serum albumin and body weight as biomarkers for the antemortem identification of bone and gastrointestinal disease in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Victoria K; Shaw, Gillian C; Sotuyo, Nathaniel P; Carlson, Cathy S; Olson, Erik J; Zink, M Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L; Adams, Robert J; Hutchinson, Eric K; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in research makes it important to diagnose spontaneous disease that may confound experimental studies. Bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are two major causes of morbidity and mortality in captive marmosets, but currently no effective antemortem tests are available to identify affected animals prior to the terminal stage of disease. In this study we propose that bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are associated disease entities in marmosets and aim to establish the efficacy of several economical antemortem tests in identifying and predicting disease. Tissues from marmosets were examined to define affected animals and unaffected controls. Complete blood count, serum chemistry values, body weight, quantitative radiographs, and tissue-specific biochemical markers were evaluated as candidate biomarkers for disease. Bone and gastrointestinal disease were associated, with marmosets being over seven times more likely to have either concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease or neither disease as opposed to lesions in only one organ system. When used in tandem, serum albumin disease. Progressive body weight loss of 0.05% of peak body weight per day predicted which marmosets would develop disease prior to the terminal stage. Bone tissue-specific tests, such as quantitative analysis of radiographs and serum parathyroid hormone levels, were effective for distinguishing between marmosets with bone disease and those without. These results provide an avenue for making informed decisions regarding the removal of affected marmosets from studies in a timely manner, preserving the integrity of research results.

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Trichospirura leptostoma Infection in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, James V.; Clapp, Neal K.; Carson, Robert L.; Henke, Marsha A.; McCracken, Malcolm D.; Faulkner, Charles T.; Patton, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Trichospirura leptostoma is a spirurid nematode that inhabits the pancreatic ducts of the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, and other New World primates. This parasite was diagnosed in members of this species at the Marmoset Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee colony after their importation from multiple colonies outside the United States. Animals with few parasites in the pancreas had few tissue changes, whereas those with many parasites had moderate to severe fibrosis replacing exocrine tissue. Trichospirura leptostoma can cause chronic pancreatitis, resulting in subclinical to clinical pancreatic insufficiency and secondary malnutrition. Clinical signs of pancreatic insufficiency in affected marmosets included weight loss (despite good appetite) and increased fecal volume. Because earlier reports did not mention treatments, experimental therapeutic regimens were attempted to eliminate infections from the marmosets. In the clinical studies, different doses and treatment periods with ivermectin and fenbendazole were evaluated for therapeutic efficacy. Fenbendazole given daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight by gavage for 14 days was the most effective treatment (PI 0.052). Control of the cockroach vector, as well as treatment of infected animals, is needed to prevent Trichospirura leptostoma-induced disease.

  9. Differential contribution of dietary fat and monosaccharide to metabolic syndrome in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Wachtman, Lynn M; Kramer, Joshua A; Miller, Andrew D; Hachey, Audra M; Curran, Elizabeth H; Mansfield, Keith G

    2011-06-01

    There is a critical need for animal models to study aspects type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis and prevention. While the rhesus macaque is such an established model, the common marmoset has added benefits including reduced zoonotic risks, shorter life span, and a predisposition to birth twins demonstrating chimerism. The marmoset as a model organism for the study of metabolic syndrome has not been fully evaluated. Marmosets fed high-fat or glucose-enriched diets were followed longitudinally to observe effects on morphometric and metabolic measures. Effects on pancreatic histomorphometry and vascular pathology were examined terminally. The glucose-enriched diet group developed an obese phenotype and a prolonged hyperglycemic state evidenced by a rapid and persistent increase in mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) observed as early as week 16. In contrast, marmosets fed a high-fat diet did not maintain an obese phenotype and demonstrated a delayed increase in HgbA1) that did not reach statistical significance until week 40. Consumption of either diet resulted in profound pancreatic islet hyperplasia suggesting a compensation for increased insulin requirements. Although the high-fat diet group developed atherosclerosis of increased severity, the presence of lesions correlated with glucose intolerance only in the glucose-enriched diet group. The altered timing of glucose dysregulation, differential contribution to obesity, and variation in vascular pathology suggests mechanisms of effect specific to dietary nutrient content. Feeding nutritionally modified diets to common marmosets recapitulates aspects of metabolic disease and represents a model that may prove instrumental to elucidating the contribution of nutrient excess to disease development.

  10. Birth of healthy offspring following ICSI in in vitro-matured common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsukasa; Hanazawa, Kisaburo; Inoue, Takashi; Sato, Kenya; Sedohara, Ayako; Okahara, Junko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Yagihashi, Chie; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Eto, Tomoo; Konno, Yusuke; Okano, Hideyuki; Suematsu, Makoto; Sasaki, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), an important method used to treat male subfertility, is applied in the transgenic technology of sperm-mediated gene transfer. However, no study has described successful generation of offspring using ICSI in the common marmoset, a small non-human primate used as a model for biomedical translational research. In this study, we investigated blastocyst development and the subsequent live offspring stages of marmoset oocytes matured in vitro and fertilized by ICSI. To investigate the optimal timing of performing ICSI, corrected immature oocytes were matured in vitro and ICSI was performed at various time points (1-2 h, 2-4 h, 4-6 h, 6-8 h, and 8-10 h after extrusion of the first polar body (PB)). Matured oocytes were then divided randomly into two groups: one was used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and the other for ICSI. To investigate in vivo development of embryos followed by ICSI, 6-cell- to 8-cell-stage embryos and blastocysts were nonsurgically transferred into recipient marmosets. Although no significant differences were observed in the fertilization rate of blastocysts among ICSI timing after the first PB extrusion, the blastocyst rate at 1-2 h was lowest among groups at 2-4 h, 4-6 h, 6-8 h, and 8-10 h. Comparing ICSI to IVF, the fertilization rates obtained in ICSI were higher than in IVF (p>0.05). No significant difference was noted in the cleaved blastocyst rate between ICSI and IVF. Following the transfer of 37 ICSI blastocysts, 4 of 20 recipients became pregnant, while with the transfer of 21 6-cell- to 8-cell-stage ICSI embryos, 3 of 8 recipients became pregnant. Four healthy offspring were produced and grew normally. These are the first marmoset offspring produced by ICSI, making it an effective fertilization method for marmosets.

  11. Congenitally caused fused labia in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Isachenko, E F; Nayudu, P L; Isachenko, V V; Nawroth, F; Michelmann, H W

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the occurrence of an external genital abnormality in female marmoset monkeys (fused labia) is discussed. This malformation was detected, for the first time, in a group of animals at the German Primate Center (GPC), Goettingen. The malformed vulva was completely sealed except for an opening of 1.5-2.5 mm around the urethra sufficient for urination. Because of this defect the animals were not able to copulate. As a consequence, the affected females were functionally infertile although they had a normal genital tract and a regular cycle. This vulvar abnormality was found in 12 females, offspring of 10 pairs in which either one or both came to the German Primate Center from two genetically related colonies in Munich, Germany, and one colony in Basel, Switzerland. The abnormality appeared to be recessive and inheritable from either parent. In pairs in which both animals were from one of the mentioned colonies, 45% of the female offspring were affected. In pairs where only one partner came from these colonies, 26% of female offspring had the malformation. These results indicate that avoidance of inbreeding, which is frequently performed in primate colonies, may reduce, but not eliminate the expression of abnormalities of genetic origin. Therefore selective breeding is required, and, in colonies where these recessive mutations are widespread, the development of genetic screening tests would be advantageous.

  12. Derivation of Neural Progenitors and Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Common Marmoset and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Laughing Bear Torrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs derived from mammalian species are valuable tools for modeling human disease, including retinal degenerative eye diseases that result in visual loss. Restoration of vision has focused on transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE to the retina. Here we used transgenic common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and human pluripotent stem cells carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP reporter as a model system for retinal differentiation. Using suspension and subsequent adherent differentiation cultures, we observed spontaneous in vitro differentiation that included NPCs and cells with pigment granules characteristic of differentiated RPE. Retinal cells derived from human and common marmoset pluripotent stem cells provide potentially unlimited cell sources for testing safety and immune compatibility following autologous or allogeneic transplantation using nonhuman primates in early translational applications.

  13. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in diurnal variation of corrected QT intervals in common marmosets.

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    Honda, Masaki; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Isobe, Takehito; Tabo, Mitsuyasu; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that the corrected QT (QTc) interval of the electrocardiogram is longer during the dark period than during the light period in telemetered common marmosets. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities in the changes of QTc interval associated with the light-dark cycle.Telemetry transmitters were implanted in six common marmosets to continuously record the electrocardiogram. The QT intervals obtained were corrected for the RR interval by applying individual probabilistic QT-rate correction formulae. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed to quantify each autonomic nervous function. Changes in QTc intervals and autonomic nervous tones were associated with the light-dark cycle. Parasympathetic nervous activity and QTc intervals significantly increased by approximately 10 ms during the dark period.Atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, suppressed the increased parasympathetic tone and QTc prolongation during the dark period. In contrast, propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, decreased the sympathetic activity and increased QTc intervals during the light period. These results suggest that the parasympathetic nerve functions prolong QTc intervals during the dark period, while the sympathetic nerve functions shorten them during the light period in common marmosets.

  14. Anatomical description and morphometry of the skeleton of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, C; Bakker, J; Breugelmans, S; Kondova, I; Saunders, J; Langermans, J A M; Cornillie, P; Van den Broeck, W; Van Loo, D; Van Hoorebeke, L; Bosseler, L; Chiers, K; Decostere, A

    2012-04-01

    Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) is regularly used in biomedical research, including for studies involving the skeleton. To support these studies, skeletons of healthy animals that had been euthanized for reasons not interfering with skeletal anatomy were prepared. The marmoset dental formula 2I-1C-3P-2M of each oral quadrant is atypical for New World monkeys which commonly possess a third molar. Seven cervical, 12-13 thoracic, 7-6 lumbar, 2-3 sacral and 26-29 caudal vertebrae are present, the thoracolumbar region always comprising 19 vertebrae. A sigmoid clavicle connects the scapula with the manubrium of the sternum. Depending on the number of thoracic vertebrae, 4-5 sternebrae are located between the manubrium and xiphoid process. Wide interosseous spaces separate the radius from the ulna, and the tibia from the fibula. A small sesamoid bone is inserted in the m. abductor digiti primi longus at the medial border of the carpus, a pair of ovoid sesamoid bones is located at the palmar/plantar sides of the trochleae of each metapodial bone, and round fabellae articulate with the proximal surfaces of the femoral condyles. Male marmosets possess a small penile bone. Both the front and hind feet have five digits. The hallux possesses a flat nail, whereas all other digits present curved claws. Interestingly, a central bone is present in both the carpus and tarsus. This study provides a description and detailed illustrations of the skeleton of the common marmoset as an anatomical guide for further biomedical research.

  15. An alternative method of endotracheal intubation of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A A; Leach, M C; Flecknell, P A

    2012-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation was carried out in 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). A commercially available tilting stand and a Miller laryngoscope blade were used to visualize the larynx. Anaesthesia was induced with alphaxalone (10.6 ± 1.6 mg/kg intramuscularly, followed by 3.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg intravenously). The diameter of the proximal trachea easily fitted an endotracheal tube made from readily available material (a 12 G 'over the needle' catheter). Once the tip of the endotracheal tube was at the level of the vocal folds, the tube had to be gently rotated through a 180° angle in order to pass through the larynx into the trachea. Assessment of the dimensions of the larynx and trachea, and comparison with external anatomical features of the animals (n = 10) showed that the length of the trachea could be predicted by multiplying the craniosacral length of the marmoset by a factor of 0.42.

  16. Behavioral and trait rating assessments of personality in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicki, Suzanne; Lehmann, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The study of personality in animals is a rapidly growing scientific field and numerous species have been reported to show consistent personality profiles. Much animal personality research has focused on nonhuman primates, with the main emphasis being placed on Old World primates, particularly rhesus macaques and chimpanzees. So far, little work has been done on cooperatively breeding nonhuman primates and New World species. Here, we study personality in the cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to broaden the taxonomic range of such research and to widen the perspective of comparative personality research. We use behavioral data collection and observer trait ratings to assess marmoset personality dimensions. The resulting behavioral and rating-derived personality dimensions, when viewed in tandem, resemble the human five-factor model and include extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness. Correlations between the behavioral data and the observer trait-rated personality components suggest that the personality construct of common marmosets exhibits both convergent and discriminant validity. The finding of a distinct Conscientiousness component in this species extends previous knowledge in comparative personality psychology and warrants reconsideration of proposed taxonomic trait distributions.

  17. The olfactory bulb and the number of its glomeruli in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya-Ito, Keiko; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Ichikawa, Masumi; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    The olfactory system has been well studied in mammals such as mice and rats. However, few studies have focused on characterizing this system in diurnal primates that rely on their sense of smell to a lesser extent due to their ecological environment. In the present study, we determined the histological organization of the olfactory bulb in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We then constructed 3-dimensional models of the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, and estimated the number of glomeruli. Olfactory glomeruli are the functional units of olfactory processing, and have been investigated in detail using mice. There are approximately 1800 glomeruli in a mouse hemibulb, and olfactory sensory neurons expressing one selected olfactory receptor converge onto one or two glomeruli. Because mice have about 1000 olfactory receptor genes, it is proposed that the number of glomeruli in mammals is nearly double that of olfactory receptor genes. The common marmoset carries only about 400 intact olfactory receptor genes. The present study revealed that the number of glomeruli in a marmoset hemibulb was approximately 1500-1800. This result suggests that the number of glomeruli is not positively correlated with the number of intact olfactory receptor genes in mammals.

  18. Resequencing of the common marmoset genome improves genome assemblies and gene-coding sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kengo; Kuroki, Yoko; Kumita, Wakako; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kawai, Jun; Iriki, Atsushi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-11-20

    The first draft of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) genome was published by the Marmoset Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. The draft was based on whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and the current assembly version is Callithrix_jacches-3.2.1, but there still exist 187,214 undetermined gap regions and supercontigs and relatively short contigs that are unmapped to chromosomes in the draft genome. We performed resequencing and assembly of the genome of common marmoset by deep sequencing with high-throughput sequencing technology. Several different sequence runs using Illumina sequencing platforms were executed, and 181 Gbp of high-quality bases including mate-pairs with long insert lengths of 3, 8, 20, and 40 Kbp were obtained, that is, approximately 60× coverage. The resequencing significantly improved the MGSAC draft genome sequence. The N50 of the contigs, which is a statistical measure used to evaluate assembly quality, doubled. As a result, 51% of the contigs (total length: 299 Mbp) that were unmapped to chromosomes in the MGSAC draft were merged with chromosomal contigs, and the improved genome sequence helped to detect 5,288 new genes that are homologous to human cDNAs and the gaps in 5,187 transcripts of the Ensembl gene annotations were completely filled.

  19. Modeling Parkinson's disease in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): overview of models, methods, and animal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Ahn, Jae-Bum; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-12-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied, popular New World monkey and is used widely in reproductive biology, neuroscience, and drug development, due to its comparative ease of handling, high reproductive efficiency, and its unique behavioral characters. In this review, we discuss the marmoset models in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a neurological movement disorder primarily resulting from a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons with clinical features of tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and akinesia. The most common PD models involve the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 6-hydroxydopamine to study the pathogenesis and to evaluate novel therapies. Following the systemic or local administration of these neurotoxins, the marmosets with very severe Parkinson's symptoms are recommended to be placed in an intensive care unit with artificial feeding to increase survival rate. All procedures with MPTP should be conducted in a special room with enclosed cages under negative-pressure by trained researchers with personal protection. Behavioral tests are conducted to provide an external measure of the brain pathology. Along with several biomarkers, including α-synuclein and DJ-1, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate the functional changes associated with PD. With the recent growing interest in potential and novel therapies such as stem cell and gene therapy for PD in Korea, the marmoset can be considered as a suitable non-human primate model in PD research to bridge the gap between rodent studies and clinical applications.

  20. Experimental cross-species infection of common marmosets by titi monkey adenovirus.

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    Guixia Yu

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV, as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses.

  1. Overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L A; Bauer, Jan; Hart, Bert A 't; Kap, Yolanda S

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established in marmosets has proven their value for exploratory research into (etio) pathogenic mechanisms and for the evaluation of new therapies that cannot be tested in lower species because of their specificity for humans. Effective usage of the marmoset in preclinical immunological research has been hampered by the limited availability of blood for immunological studies and of reagents for profiling of cellular and humoral immune reactions. In this paper, we give a concise overview of the procedures and reagents that were developed over the years in our laboratory in marmoset models of the above-mentioned diseases.

  2. Social mobbing calls in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): effects of experience and associated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Tommasi, Luca; Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-04-01

    We compared the mobbing response to model snakes of two groups of captive-born common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) differing in genetic relatedness, age and past experience. Mobbing vocalisations (tsik calls), other mobbing behaviour and attention to the stimulus were recorded for 2 min. intervals pre-exposure, during exposure to various stimuli and post-exposure. Marmosets in one group were vocally reactive to all stimuli, although more so to one particular stimulus resembling rearing snakes and modified images of it, whereas the marmosets in a younger and genetically unrelated group attended to the stimuli but made very few mobbing calls. The parent stock of the first group had suffered stress in early life and had developed a phobic response to a specific stimulus, which they had transmitted to their offspring. A third group, matching the older group in age range but genetically unrelated, was also found to be unresponsive to the stimulus that elicited the strongest response in the first group. Cortisol levels in samples of hair were assayed and a significant negative correlation was found between the number of tsik calls made during presentation of the stimuli and the cortisol level, showing that mobbing behaviour/behavioural reactivity is associated with low levels of physiological stress.

  3. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species. PMID:28367117

  4. Retinal projections and neurochemical characterization of the pregeniculate nucleus of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ruthnaldo R M; Pinato, Luciana; Nascimento, Rayane B S; Engelberth, Rovena Clara G J; Nascimento, Expedito S Junior; Cavalcante, Judney C; Britto, Luiz R G; Costa, Miriam S M O; Cavalcante, Jeferson S

    2012-05-01

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are the main components of the circadian timing system. The SCN is the site of the endogenous biological clock that generates rhythms and synchronizes them to environmental cues. The IGL is a key structure that modulates SCN activity and is responsible for the transmission of non-photic information to the SCN, thus participating in the integration between photic and non-photic stimuli. Both the SCN and IGL receive projections of retinal ganglion cells and the IGL is connected to the SCN through the geniculohypothalamic tract. Little is known about these structures in the primate brain and the pregeniculate nucleus (PGN) has been suggested to be the primate equivalent of the rodent IGL. The aim of this study was to characterize the PGN of a primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), and to analyze its retinal afferents. Here, the marmoset PGN was found to be organized into three subsectors based on neuronal size, pattern of retinal projections, and the distribution of neuropeptide Y-, GAD-, serotonin-, enkephalin- and substance P-labeled terminals. This pattern indicates that the marmoset PGN is equivalent to the IGL. This detailed description contributes to the understanding of the circadian timing system in this primate species considering the importance of the IGL within the context of circadian regulation.

  5. Comparative experimental subcutaneous glanders and melioidosis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle; Salguero, Francisco J; Dean, Rachel E; Ngugi, Sarah A; Smither, Sophie J; Atkins, Timothy P; Lever, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Glanders and melioidosis are caused by two distinct Burkholderia species and have generally been considered to have similar disease progression. While both of these pathogens are HHS/CDC Tier 1 agents, natural infection with both these pathogens is primarily through skin inoculation. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was used to compare disease following experimental subcutaneous challenge. Acute, lethal disease was observed in marmosets following challenge with between 26 and 1.2 × 10(8) cfu Burkholderia pseudomallei within 22-85 h. The reproducibility and progression of the disease were assessed following a challenge of 1 × 10(2) cfu of B. pseudomallei. Melioidosis was characterised by high levels of bacteraemia, focal microgranuloma progressing to non-necrotic multifocal solid lesions in the livers and spleens and multi-organ failure. Lethal disease was observed in 93% of animals challenged with Burkholderia mallei, occurring between 5 and 10.6 days. Following challenge with 1 × 10(2) cfu of B. mallei, glanders was characterised with lymphatic spread of the bacteria and non-necrotic, multifocal solid lesions progressing to a multifocal lesion with severe necrosis and pneumonia. The experimental results confirmed that the disease pathology and presentation is strikingly different between the two pathogens. The marmoset provides a model of the human syndrome for both diseases facilitating the development of medical countermeasures.

  6. Simultaneous pharmacokinetics evaluation of human cytochrome P450 probes, caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam, in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Utoh, Masahiro; Toda, Akiko; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes (caffeine, racemic warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam) composite, after single intravenous and oral administrations at doses of 0.20 and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively, to four male common marmosets were investigated. 2. The plasma concentrations of caffeine and warfarin decreased slowly in a monophasic manner but those of omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam decreased extensively after intravenous and oral administrations, in a manner that approximated those as reported for pharmacokinetics in humans. 3. Bioavailabilities were ∼100% for caffeine and warfarin, but midazolam was 4% in marmosets, presumably because of contribution of marmoset P450 3A4 expressed in small intestine and liver, with a high catalytic efficiency for midazolam 1'-hydroxylation as evident in the recombinant system. 4. These results suggest that common marmosets, despite their rapid clearance of some human P450 probe substrates, could be an experimental model for humans and that marmoset P450s have functional characteristics that differ from those of human and/or cynomolgus monkey P450s in some aspects, indicating their importance in modeling in P450-dependent drug metabolism studies in marmosets and of further studies.

  7. Proteome profiling reveals regional protein alteration in cerebrum of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) exposed to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yueting; Yamamoto, Megumi; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-03-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to selectively damage the calcarine and precentral cortices along deep sulci and fissures in adult cases, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to identify and analyze the differential proteome expression in two regions of the cerebrum (the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe including the calcarine sulcus) of the common marmoset exposed to MeHg using a shot-gun proteomic approach. A total of 1045 and 1062 proteins were identified in the frontal lobe (FL) and occipital lobe (OL), of which, 62 and 89 proteins were found significantly changed with MeHg exposure. Functional enrichment/depletion analysis showed that the lipid metabolic process and proteolysis were affected in both two lobes. Functional changes in FL were characterized in cell cycle and cell division, sulfur compound metabolic process, microtubule-based process and glycerolipid metabolic process. In comparison, proteins were enriched in the functions of transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, chemical caused homeostasis and regulation of body fluid levels in OL. Pathway analysis predicted that vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption was disturbed in MeHg-treated FL. Our results showed that MeHg induced regional specific protein changes in FL and OL but with similar endpoint effects such as energy diminish and disruption of water transport. APOE and GPX1 were shown to be possible key proteins targeted by MeHg leading to multiple functional changes in OL. This is the first report of the whole proteome changes of primate cerebrum for MeHg neurotoxicity, and the results will contribute to the understanding of molecular basis of MeHg intoxication in humans.

  8. Germ cell dynamics in the testis of the postnatal common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S; Ehmcke, J; Wistuba, J; Eildermann, K; Behr, R; Schlatt, S; Gromoll, J

    2010-11-01

    The seminiferous epithelium in the nonhuman primate Callithrix jacchus is similarly organized to man. This monkey has therefore been used as a preclinical model for spermatogenesis and testicular stem cell physiology. However, little is known about the developmental dynamics of germ cells in the postnatal primate testis. In this study, we analyzed testes of newborn, 8-week-old, and adult marmosets employing immunohistochemistry using pluripotent stem cell and germ cell markers DDX4 (VASA), POU5F1 (OCT3/4), and TFAP2C (AP-2γ). Stereological and morphometric techniques were applied for quantitative analysis of germ cell populations and testicular histological changes. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) of testicular mRNA was applied using 16 marker genes establishing the corresponding profiles during postnatal testicular development. Testis size increased during the first 8 weeks of life with the main driver being longitudinal outgrowth of seminiferous cords. The number of DDX4-positive cells per testis doubled between birth and 8 weeks of age whereas TFAP2C- and POU5F1-positive cells remained unchanged. This increase in DDX4-expressing cells indicates dynamic growth of the differentiated A-spermatogonial population. The presence of cells expressing POU5F1 and TFAP2C after 8 weeks reveals the persistence of less differentiated germ cells. The mRNA and protein profiles determined by qRT-PCR and western blot in newborn, 8-week-old, and adult marmosets corroborated the immunohistochemical findings. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of distinct spermatogonial subpopulations in the primate testis exhibiting different dynamics during early testicular development. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the marmoset testis as a model for human testicular development.

  9. The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

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    Clarke J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortic-pulmonary regions (APR of seven adult marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and the region of the right subclavian artery of a further three marmosets were diffusion-fixed with 10% buffered formol-saline solution. In both regions serial 5-µm sections were cut and stained by the Martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet and soluble blue method. Presumptive thoracic paraganglionic (PTP tissue was only observed in the APR. PTP tissue was composed of small groups of cells that varied in size and number. The distribution of the groups of cells was extremely variable, so much so that it would be misleading to attempt to classify their position; they were not circumscribed by a connective tissue capsule, but were always related to the thoracic branches of the left vagus nerve. The cells lay in loose areolar tissue characteristic of this part of the mediastinum and received their blood supply from small adjacent connective tissue arterioles. Unlike the paraganglionic tissue found in the carotid body the cells in the thorax did not appear to have a profuse capillary blood supply. There was, however, a close cellular-neural relationship. The cells, 10-15 µm in diameter, were oval or rounded in appearance and possessed a central nucleus and clear cytoplasm. No evidence was found that these cells possessed a 'companion' cell reminiscent of the arrangement of type 1 and type 2 cells in the carotid body. In conclusion, we found evidence of presumed paraganglionic tissue in the APR of the marmoset which, however, did not show the characteristic histological features of the aortic body chemoreceptors that have been described in some non-primate mammals. A survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals.

  10. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement: values, problems and applicability in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietsch, M; Einspanier, A

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, C. j.) is an established primate model in biomedical research and for human-related diseases. Monitoring of cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) is important for the health surveillance of these experimental animals and the quantification of diseases or pharmaceutical substances influencing BP. Measurement guidelines for C. j. do not exist yet; therefore, the present study was carried out to establish a practicable protocol based on recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). Furthermore, BP data of 49 marmosets (13.8-202.4 months of age) were obtained via high-definition oscillometry to further knowledge of physiological parameters and gender-related differences in this primate. The thighs proved to be the most suitable measurement localization, since systolic values were less variable (left 4.03 ± 2.90%, right 5.96 ± 2.77%) compared with the tail (12.7 ± 6.96%). BP values were similar in the morning and in the afternoon (P > 0.05). Data were highly reproducible within and between several sessions on three consecutive days (P > 0.05) as well as over the course of 20 months (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the measurement time for females was significantly shorter than for males (5:14 ± 1:59 min versus 6:50 ± 1:58 min, P = 0.007). Measurement recommendations for the common marmoset were successfully established. Standardized values enabled a reliable comparison of BP parameters, e.g. for cardiovascular, toxicological or metabolic research.

  11. Sustained performance by common marmosets in a delayed matching to position task with variable stimulus presentations.

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    Yamazaki, Yumiko; Saiki, Masakado; Inada, Masayuki; Watanabe, Shigeru; Iriki, Atsushi

    2016-01-15

    Working memory is used to solve various cognitive problems by maintaining information for some time and then by refreshing this information after certain purposes are achieved. In the present study, we explored the ability of common marmosets to perform a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task in a controlled environment using operant conditioning. The DMTP task requires the subjects to respond to the sample stimulus and to select one of two comparison stimuli with a position matching that of the sample stimulus after a programmed delay period. Positional arrangement of the sample and comparison stimuli, which were quasi-randomly determined in each trial, was employed to prevent the subjects from using any strategies based on their own body positions or orientations. The delay intervals between presentations of the sample and comparison stimuli were fixed at 0.5 and 1s in the initial phases and were then varied between 5 intervals per delay set (e.g., 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8s) intermixed in a session. The longest delay interval within a set was gradually increased after the marmosets achieved the criterion of each task. The subjects were successfully trained in the procedure and showed accurate performance even following delays of more than 100 s. The response times in the trials suggested that they used different strategies depending on the delay interval length. Thus, the present study shows the robust ability of common marmosets in a task requiring positional memory, which is related to their foraging strategy observed in the wild.

  12. Testing efficacy of administration of the antiaging drug rapamycin in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset.

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    Tardif, Suzette; Ross, Corinna; Bergman, Phillip; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Javors, Marty; Salmon, Adam; Spross, Jennifer; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan

    2015-05-01

    This report is the first description of dosing procedures, pharmacokinetics, biochemical action, and general tolerability of the antiaging drug rapamycin in the common marmoset, a small and short-lived monkey. Eudragit-encapsulated rapamycin was given orally to trained marmosets in a short-term (3 weeks) and a long-term (14 months) study. Circulating trough rapamycin levels (mean = 5.2 ng/mL; 1.93-10.73 ng/mL) achieved at roughly 1.0 mg/kg/day was comparable to those reported in studies of rodents and within the therapeutic range for humans. Long-term treated animals (6/8) indicated a reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling as noted by a decrease in the phospho rpS6 to total rpS6 ratio after 2 weeks of treatment. All long-term treated subjects had detectable concentrations of rapamycin in liver (4.7-19.9 pg/mg) and adipose tissue (2.2-32.8 pg/mg) with reduced mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in these tissues. There was no evidence of clinical anemia, fibrotic lung changes, or mouth ulcers. The observed death rate in the long-term study was as expected given the animals' ages. The ability to rapidly and reliably dose socially housed marmosets with an oral form of rapamycin that is well tolerated and that demonstrates a suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway leads us to conclude that this species offers a viable model for rapamycin testing to establish safety and efficacy for long-term antiaging intervention.

  13. Activity-dependent regulation of MHC class I expression in the developing primary visual cortex of the common marmoset monkey

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    Schlumbohm Christina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent studies have highlighted the important role of immunity-related molecules in synaptic plasticity processes in the developing and adult mammalian brains. It has been suggested that neuronal MHCI (major histocompatibility complex class I genes play a role in the refinement and pruning of synapses in the developing visual system. As a fast evolutionary rate may generate distinct properties of molecules in different mammalian species, we studied the expression of MHCI molecules in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus. Methods and results Analysis of expression levels of MHCI molecules in the developing visual cortex of the common marmoset monkeys revealed a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High levels of expression were detected very early in postnatal development, at a stage when synaptogenesis takes place and ocular dominance columns are formed. To determine whether the expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by retinal activity, animals were subjected to monocular enucleation. Levels of MHCI heavy chain subunit transcripts in the visual cortex were found to be elevated in response to monocular enucleation. Furthermore, MHCI heavy chain immunoreactivity revealed a banded pattern in layer IV of the visual cortex in enucleated animals, which was not observed in control animals. This pattern of immunoreactivity indicated that higher expression levels were associated with retinal activity coming from the intact eye. Conclusions These data demonstrate that, in the nonhuman primate brain, expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by neuronal activity. Moreover, this study extends previous findings by suggesting a role for neuronal MHCI molecules during synaptogenesis in the visual cortex.

  14. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a model for neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia.

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    Fukuoka, T; Nakano, M; Kohda, A; Okuno, Y; Matsuo, M

    1997-12-01

    To examine whether acute dystonia is induced by neuroleptic treatment, common marmosets were treated with haloperidol orally twice a week over 25 weeks until dystonic behavior was elicited. Movement disorders such as acute dystonia were observed 6 weeks after the initial treatment, and had appeared in all treated animals by 25 weeks. Once these movement disorders were induced, they consistently reappeared after further treatment with haloperidol, and once haloperidol dosing was discontinued, the episodes vanished. Then, various neuroleptic drugs (bromperidol, chlorpromazine, risperidone thioridazine, sulpiride, tiapride, and clozapine) or a nonneuroleptic drug (diazepam) were administered orally instead of haloperidol in the above animals. All the neuroleptic drugs except for clozapine elicited similar abnormal behavior, while diazepam failed to induce any dystonia. An anticholinergic drug, trihexyphenidyl, which is known to reduce acute dystonia in patients, was also given orally to the above haloperidol-sensitized animals, followed by further treatment with haloperidol 30 min later. This clearly suppressed the induction of dystonia by haloperidol. The similarity between these findings for haloperidol-pretreated common marmosets and clinical findings suggests that the present model is useful for predicting the potential of antipsychotics to induce acute dystonia in humans.

  15. Administration of MPTP to the common marmoset does not alter cortical cholinergic function

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    Garvey, J.; Petersen, M.; Waters, C.M.; Rose, S.P.; Hunt, S.; Briggs, R.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to common marmosets induced persistent motor deficits and decreased concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and (TH)dopamine uptake in the caudate-putamen. There was an 80% reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in substantia nigra. At 10 days following the start of MPTP administration, the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the thalamus and frontal cortex was unchanged compared with control animals. Similarly, specific (TH)QNB binding was unaltered. At 4-6 weeks following the start of MPTP treatment, choline acetyltransferase activity and (TH)QNB binding in the frontal cortex and thalamus remained unaffected. There was no evidence for cell loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert or alteration in the intensity of staining for acetylcholinesterase. MPTP treatment of the common marmoset produces a nigrostriatal lesion. In contrast, MPTP did not alter cortical cholinergic function and was not neurotoxic to the cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of Meynert.

  16. Biology and maintenance of Callithrix J. (common marmoset) as a model for biomedical research. Biologia e allevamento di Callithrix j. (common marmoset) quale modello per ricerche biomediche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaco, V.

    1983-01-01

    Marmosets, because of their small size, breeding capabilities in captivity and physiological features are proposed as experimental subjects for current scientific demands in immunologic, zoologic, ethologic, pharmacologic and toxicologic studies. The female normally produced twin litters with the complete immunologic tolerance, thus offering opportunities for researches on biologic chimeras and organ transplantations. This report briefly describes the maintenance features in captivity of a colony of marmosets established at Casaccia Nuclear Research Center in 1966. 9 refs.

  17. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  18. Minimally invasive transabdominal collection of preimplantation embryos from the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, K; Mueller, T; Becker, T; Heistermann, M; Behr, R; Sasaki, E

    2012-09-01

    A novel, minimally invasive, transabdominal embryo collection method (transabdominal method) was developed as an alternative to a standard abdominal incision for embryo collection in the common marmoset. The abdominal incision method was used for 304 flushes using 36 female animals, whereas the transabdominal method was used for 488 flushes using 48 females; successful embryo collection rates were 48.0% and 48.4% (P > 0.05), respectively. These techniques were successfully duplicated at another institute (German Primate Center, DPZ). At that institution, successful embryo collection rates were 88.9% and 77.8% for the abdominal incision and transabdominal methods, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the average numbers of preimplantation embryos obtained per flush were (mean ± SD) 1.91 ± 0.35 and 1.71 ± 0.14 (P > 0.05). The transabdominal method reduced animal stress, did not require incisional wound healing, and enabled successive embryo recoveries to be done much sooner. More embryos in early developmental stages (zygotes/morulae) were recovered using the transabdominal method (76.1%) than the abdominal incision method (52.6%, P marmoset developmental biology and embryology.

  19. Individual Differences in Gambling Proneness among Rats and Common Marmosets: An Automated Choice Task

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    Francesca Zoratto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest is rising for animal modeling of pathological gambling. Using the operant probabilistic-delivery task (PDT, gambling proneness can be evaluated in laboratory animals. Drawing a comparison with rats, this study evaluated the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus using a PDT. By nose- or hand-poking, subjects learnt to prefer a large (LLL, 5-6 pellets over a small (SS, 1-2 pellets reward and, subsequently, the probability of occurrence of large-reward delivery was decreased progressively to very low levels (from 100% to 17% and 14%. As probability decreased, subjects showed a great versus little shift in preference from LLL to SS reinforcer. Hence, two distinct subpopulations (“non-gambler” versus “gambler” were differentiated within each species. A proof of the model validity comes from marmosets’ reaction to reward-delivery omission. Namely, depending on individual temperament (“gambler” versus “non-gambler”, they showed either persistence (i.e., inadequate pokes towards LLL or restlessness (i.e., inadequate pokes towards SS, respectively. In conclusion, the marmoset could be a suitable model for preclinical gambling studies. Implementation of the PDT to species other than rats may be relevant for determining its external validity/generalizability and improving its face/construct validity.

  20. A case report of spontaneous opening of congenitally fused labia in a female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) followed by pregnancy and birth of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, E; Nayudu, P L; Michelmann, H W

    2011-10-01

    A first case of spontaneous opening of congenitally fused labia (CFL phenotype) in a captive common marmoset followed by pregnancy and birth is presented here. The occurrence of this phenotype has been previously published in captive marmosets, but so far the etiology is unknown.

  1. An overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Jagessar (Anwar); M.P.M. Vierboom (Michel); E. Blezer (Erwin); J. Bauer; B.A. 't Hart (Bert); Y.S. Kap (Yolanda)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS e

  2. An Overview of Models, Methods, and Reagents Developed for Translational Autoimmunity Research in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L. A.; Bauer, Jan; 't Hart, Bert A.; Kap, Yolanda S.

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established i

  3. Thyroid follicular adenoma with accumulation of collagen type IV in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasako, K; Doi, T; Kanno, T; Wako, Y; Hamamura, M; Tsuchitani, M

    2014-01-01

    A thyroid tumour was identified in a 10-year-old male common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The tumour was encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue and compressed the adjacent normal thyroid. The tumour was composed of variably sized and irregularly shaped thyroid follicles lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells. Eosinophilic material at the base of the neoplastic cells stained black with periodic acid-methenamine silver and red with periodic acid-Schiff. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that this eosinophilic material was collagen type IV. Ultrastructurally, highly dense and amorphous material was observed at the base of the neoplastic cells. Small vesicles in the basolateral cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained similar material to that at the base of the cells. The tumour was diagnosed as a thyroid follicular adenoma with accumulation of collagen type IV. This is the first description of an endocrine tumour with accumulation of collagen type IV in animals.

  4. Presence of Viral Genome in Urine and Development of Hematuria and Pathological Changes in Kidneys in Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus after Inoculation with Dengue Virus

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    Hirofumi Akari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus developed high levels of viremia, clinical signs including fever, weight loss, a decrease in activity and hematuria upon inoculation with dengue virus (DENV. Presence of DENV genome in urine samples and pathological changes in kidneys were examined in the present study. Levels of DENV genome were determined in 228 urine samples from 20 primary DENV-inoculated marmosets and in 56 urine samples from four secondary DENV-inoculated marmosets. DENV genome was detected in 75% (15/20 of marmosets after primary DENV infection. No DENV genome was detected in urine samples from the marmosets with secondary infection with homologous DENV (0%, 0/4. Two marmosets demonstrated hematuria. Pathological analysis of the kidneys demonstrated non-suppressive interstitial nephritis with renal tubular regeneration. DENV antigen-positive cells were detected in kidneys. In human dengue virus infections, some patients present renal symptoms. The results indicate that marmosets recapitulate some aspects of the involvement of kidneys in human DENV infection, and suggest that marmosets are potentially useful for the studies of the pathogenesis of DENV infection, including kidneys.

  5. Differential virulence and disease progression following Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Laura E; Weiner, Danielle M; Schimel, Daniel; Lin, Philana Ling; Dayao, Emmanuel; Tankersley, Sarah L; Cai, Ying; Coleman, M Teresa; Tomko, Jaime; Paripati, Praveen; Orandle, Marlene; Kastenmayer, Robin J; Tartakovsky, Michael; Rosenthal, Alexander; Portevin, Damien; Eum, Seok Yong; Lahouar, Saher; Gagneux, Sebastien; Young, Douglas B; Flynn, Joanne L; Barry, Clifton E

    2013-08-01

    Existing small-animal models of tuberculosis (TB) rarely develop cavitary disease, limiting their value for assessing the biology and dynamics of this highly important feature of human disease. To develop a smaller primate model with pathology similar to that seen in humans, we experimentally infected the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with diverse strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of various pathogenic potentials. These included recent isolates of the modern Beijing lineage, the Euro-American X lineage, and M. africanum. All three strains produced fulminant disease in this animal with a spectrum of progression rates and clinical sequelae that could be monitored in real time using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Lesion pathology at sacrifice revealed the entire spectrum of lesions observed in human TB patients. The three strains produced different rates of progression to disease, various extents of extrapulmonary dissemination, and various degrees of cavitation. The majority of live births in this species are twins, and comparison of results from siblings with different infecting strains allowed us to establish that the infection was highly reproducible and that the differential virulence of strains was not simply host variation. Quantitative assessment of disease burden by FDG-PET/CT provided an accurate reflection of the pathology findings at necropsy. These results suggest that the marmoset offers an attractive small-animal model of human disease that recapitulates both the complex pathology and spectrum of disease observed in humans infected with various M. tuberculosis strain clades.

  6. Differential Virulence and Disease Progression following Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infection of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Laura E.; Weiner, Danielle M.; Schimel, Daniel; Lin, Philana Ling; Dayao, Emmanuel; Tankersley, Sarah L.; Cai, Ying; Coleman, M. Teresa; Tomko, Jaime; Paripati, Praveen; Orandle, Marlene; Kastenmayer, Robin J.; Tartakovsky, Michael; Rosenthal, Alexander; Portevin, Damien; Eum, Seok Yong; Lahouar, Saher; Gagneux, Sebastien; Young, Douglas B.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing small-animal models of tuberculosis (TB) rarely develop cavitary disease, limiting their value for assessing the biology and dynamics of this highly important feature of human disease. To develop a smaller primate model with pathology similar to that seen in humans, we experimentally infected the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with diverse strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of various pathogenic potentials. These included recent isolates of the modern Beijing lineage, the Euro-American X lineage, and M. africanum. All three strains produced fulminant disease in this animal with a spectrum of progression rates and clinical sequelae that could be monitored in real time using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Lesion pathology at sacrifice revealed the entire spectrum of lesions observed in human TB patients. The three strains produced different rates of progression to disease, various extents of extrapulmonary dissemination, and various degrees of cavitation. The majority of live births in this species are twins, and comparison of results from siblings with different infecting strains allowed us to establish that the infection was highly reproducible and that the differential virulence of strains was not simply host variation. Quantitative assessment of disease burden by FDG-PET/CT provided an accurate reflection of the pathology findings at necropsy. These results suggest that the marmoset offers an attractive small-animal model of human disease that recapitulates both the complex pathology and spectrum of disease observed in humans infected with various M. tuberculosis strain clades. PMID:23716617

  7. Exploring the Innate Immunological Response of an Alternative Nonhuman Primate Model of Infectious Disease; the Common Marmoset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is increasingly being utilised as a nonhuman primate model for human disease, ranging from autoimmune to infectious disease. In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary. Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals. Single cell suspensions of blood, spleen, and lung were examined. Generally, the phenotype of cells was comparable between humans and marmosets, with approximately 63% of all lymphocytes in the blood of marmosets being T cells, 25% B-cells, and 12% NK cells. The percentage of neutrophils in marmoset blood were more similar to human values than mouse values. Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response. This work significantly enhances the ability to understand the immune response in these animals and fortifies their use as models of infectious disease.

  8. Effect of the size of zona pellucida opening on hatching in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Kumon, Mami; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Okada, Hironori; Okada, Takashi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    The use of the common marmoset monkey in biomedical research has increased recently, and further attention has been devoted to this model after the successful production of transgenic marmosets. To extend genetic engineering approaches to widespread biomedical research fields, efficient prolonged in vitro culturing of embryo development is necessary. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the size of the zona pellucida opening on promoting the hatching process in the marmoset embryo. Piezo-microdrilling of a 6-μm opening in eight embryos resulted in four partially hatched embryos and one hatched embryo after 5 days of culture. Piezo-microdrilling a 20-μm opening in 11 embryos resulted in nine partial hatchings and no hatched embryos. Piezo-scraping an 80-μm opening in six embryos resulted in no partially hatched embryos and five hatched embryos. These results suggest that an 80-μm opening, rather than 6-μm or 20-μm openings, is suitable to complete the hatching process in the marmoset embryo.

  9. Development of a compact and general-purpose experimental apparatus with a touch-sensitive screen for use in evaluating cognitive functions in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Atsushi; Izumi, Akihiro; Miwa, Miki; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2011-07-15

    Common marmosets have been used extensively in biomedical research and the recent advent of techniques to generate transgenic marmosets has accelerated the use of this model. New methods that efficiently assess the degree of cognitive function in common marmosets are needed in order to establish their suitability as non-human primate models of higher brain function disorders. Here, we have developed a new apparatus suitable for testing the cognitive functions of common marmosets. Utilizing a mini laptop PC with a touch-sensitive screen as the main component, the apparatus is small and lightweight and can be easily attached to the home cages. The ease of designing and testing new paradigms with the flexible software is another advantage of this system. We have tested visual discrimination and its reversal tasks using this apparatus and confirmed its efficacy.

  10. Validation of non-fluorescent methods to reliably detect acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R R; Valle, C M R; Nichi, M; Muniz, J A P C; Nayudu, P L; Guimarães, M A B V

    2008-07-01

    Simple, rapid and stable sperm evaluation methods which have been optimized for common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) are critical for studies involving collection and evaluation of sperm in the field. This is particularly important for new species groups such as Callitrichidae where the sperm have been little studied. Of this family, C. jacchus is the best known, and has been chosen as a model species for other members of the genus Callithrix. The fundamental evaluation parameters for sperm of any species are viability and acrosomal status. Semen samples were collected by penile vibratory stimulation. To evaluate sperm plasma membrane integrity, Eosin-Nigrosin was tested here for the common marmoset sperm to be used under field conditions. Further, a non-fluorescent stain for acrosome, the "Simple" stain, developed for domestic and wild cats, was tested on common marmoset sperm. This was compared with a fluorescent staining, Fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA), routinely used and validated for common marmoset at the German Primate Centre to evaluate acrosomal integrity. Results obtained with the "Simple" stain showed a marked differentiation between sperm with intact and non-intact acrosome both with and without ionophore treatment and closely correlated with results obtained with FITC-PSA. Temperature had no effect on the results with the "Simple" stain and the complete processing is simple enough to be carried out under field conditions. These findings indicated that the "Simple" stain and Eosin-Nigrosin provide rapid and accurate results for C. jacchus sperm and that those methods can be reliably used as field tools for sperm evaluation for this species.

  11. Colonization with nontuberculous mycobacteria is associated with positive tuberculin skin test reactions in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Lynn M; Miller, Andrew D; Xia, DongLing; Curran, Elizabeth H; Mansfield, Keith G

    2011-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality in nonhuman primate colonies. Preventative health programs designed to detect infection routinely include tuberculin skin testing (TST). Because Mammalian Old Tuberculin used for TST contains antigens common to a variety of mycobacterial species, false-positive results can occur in animals sensitized to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Over 11 mo, a large colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) demonstrated a 3.6% prevalence of equivocal or positive TST reactions (termed 'suspect reactions'). Culture of gastric aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and feces revealed a single animal with a positive fecal culture for Mycobacterium gordonae. PCR amplification of M. gordonae DNA in feces collected from animals with suspect TST reactions (demonstrating a 66.7% colonization rate) and colony controls (demonstrating a 14.3% colonization rate) revealed a significant association between suspect TST reactions and intestinal colonization. Gross and histopathologic evaluation revealed a multifocal lymphadenopathy and granulomatous lymphadenitis in 2 of 4 TST-positive marmosets examined. Counter to expectations, granulomatous lymphoid tissue was culture-positive for M. kansasii rather than M. gordonae. Detection of M. gordonae in the feces of TST-suspect animals likely represents an apathogenic intestinal colonization that may serve as an indicator of NTM exposure, whereas evidence of histopathologic disease is associated with the more pathogenic M. kansasii. Although a high index of suspicion for M. tuberculosis should always be maintained, colonization with NTM organisms represents a cause of suspect TST reactions in common marmosets.

  12. Temporal bone characterization and cochlear implant feasibility in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Luke A; Della Santina, Charles C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-08-01

    The marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a valuable non-human primate model for studying behavioral and neural mechanisms related to vocal communication. It is also well suited for investigating neural mechanisms related to cochlear implants. The purpose of this study was to characterize marmoset temporal bone anatomy and investigate the feasibility of implanting a multi-channel intracochlear electrode into the marmoset scala tympani. Micro computed tomography (microCT) was used to create high-resolution images of marmoset temporal bones. Cochlear fluid spaces, middle ear ossicles, semicircular canals and the surrounding temporal bone were reconstructed in three-dimensional space. Our results show that the marmoset cochlea is ∼16.5 mm in length and has ∼2.8 turns. The cross-sectional area of the scala tympani is greatest (∼0.8 mm(2)) at ∼1.75 mm from the base of the scala, reduces to ∼0.4 mm(2) at 5 mm from the base, and decreases at a constant rate for the remaining length. Interestingly, this length-area profile, when scaled 2.5 times, is similar to the scala tympani of the human cochlea. Given these dimensions, a compatible multi-channel implant electrode was identified. In a cadaveric specimen, this electrode was inserted ¾ turn into the scala tympani through a cochleostomy at ∼1 mm apical to the round window. The depth of the most apical electrode band was ∼8 mm. Our study provides detailed structural anatomy data for the middle and inner ear of the marmoset, and suggests the potential of the marmoset as a new non-human primate model for cochlear implant research.

  13. Video demonstrations seed alternative problem-solving techniques in wild common marmosets.

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    Gunhold, Tina; Whiten, Andrew; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Studies of social learning and tradition formation under field conditions have recently gained momentum, but suffer from the limited control of socio-ecological factors thought to be responsible for transmission patterns. The use of artificial visual stimuli is a potentially powerful tool to overcome some of these problems. Here, in a field experiment, we used video images of unfamiliar conspecifics performing virtual demonstrations of foraging techniques. We tested 12 family groups of wild common marmosets. Six groups received video demonstrations (footage of conspecifics either pulling a drawer open or pushing a lid upwards, in an 'artificial fruit'); the other six groups served as controls (exposed to a static image of a conspecific next to the fruit). Subjects in video groups were more manipulative and successful in opening the fruit than controls; they were also more likely to use the technique they had witnessed and thus could serve as live models for other family members. To our knowledge, this is the first study that used video demonstrations in the wild and demonstrated the potent force of social learning, even from unfamiliar conspecifics, under field conditions.

  14. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-04-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50 , were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals' lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema.

  15. Analysis of essential pathways for self-renewal in common marmoset embryonic stem cells

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    Takenobu Nii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common marmoset (CM is widely recognized as a useful non-human primate for disease modeling and preclinical studies. Thus, embryonic stem cells (ESCs derived from CM have potential as an appropriate cell source to test human regenerative medicine using human ESCs. CM ESCs have been established by us and other groups, and can be cultured in vitro. However, the growth factors and downstream pathways for self-renewal of CM ESCs are largely unknown. In this study, we found that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF rather than leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF promoted CM ESC self-renewal via the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-protein kinase B (AKT pathway on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF feeders. Moreover, bFGF and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signaling pathways cooperatively maintained the undifferentiated state of CM ESCs under feeder-free condition. Our findings may improve the culture techniques of CM ESCs and facilitate their use as a preclinical experimental resource for human regenerative medicine.

  16. Inflammatory fibroid polyp in the duodenum of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Yokouchi, Yusuke; Imaoka, Masako; Sayama, Ayako; Jindo, Toshimasa; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A 32-month-old male common marmoset had a firm and white-colored mass in the duodenal wall. The cut surface was smooth and grayish white in color. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferation of spindle cells with an oval to spindle-shaped nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a loose myxoid or fibrotic background. Most of the lesion displayed no specific growth pattern whereas some of the cells concentrated around the vessels and created an onion-bulb structure. Additionally, marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, mainly eosinophils, was observed throughout the lesion. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, fascin, and cyclin D1, and negative for S-100, factor VIII-related antigen, and c-kit. These histological and immunohistochemical features did not meet any differential diagnoses such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, smooth muscle tumor, schwannoma, and hemangiosarcoma. Collectively, the authors diagnosed the mass as a lesion that corresponded to an inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) in humans. IFP is defined as a mesenchymal proliferation composed of spindle stromal cells, small blood vessels, and inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, and is currently classified as a nonneoplastic lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous IFP in nonhuman primates.

  17. Molecular Cloning of Ghrelin and Characteristics of Ghrelin-Producing Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemi, Shota; Sakata, Ichiro; Apu, Auvijit Saha; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yahashi, Satowa; Katsuura, Goro; Iwashige, Fumihiro; Akune, Atsushi; Inui, Akio; Sakai, Takafumi

    2016-10-01

    Ghrelin was first isolated from human and rat as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In the present study, we determined the ghrelin cDNA sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World monkey, and investigated the distribution of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and localization profiles with somatostatin-producing cells. The marmoset ghrelin cDNA coding region was 354 base pairs, and showed high homology to that in human, rhesus monkey, and mouse. Marmoset ghrelin consists of 28 amino acids, and the N-terminal region is highly conserved as found in other mammalian species. Marmoset preproghrelin and mature ghrelin have 86.3% and 92.9% homology, respectively, to their human counterparts. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that marmoset ghrelin mRNA is highly expressed in the stomach, but it is not detected in other tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, a large number of ghrelin mRNA-expressing cells and ghrelin-immunopositive cells were detected in the mucosal layer of the stomach, but not in the myenteric plexus. Moreover, all the ghrelin cells examined in the stomach were observed to be closed-type. Double staining showed that somatostatin-immunopositive cells were not co-localized with ghrelin-producing cells; however, a subset of somatostatin-immunopositive cells is directly adjacent to ghrelin-immunopositive cells. These findings suggest that the distribution of ghrelin cells in marmoset differs from that in rodents, and thus the marmoset may be a more useful model for the translational study of ghrelin in primates. In conclusion, we have clarified the expression and cell distribution of ghrelin in marmoset, which may represent a useful model in translational study.

  18. Endocrine and cognitive adaptations to cope with stress in immature male and female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

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    Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Our studies on brain plasticity combine hormonal and behavioral approaches to investigate stress-coping mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This is an important experimental model in Psychiatry, since we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from infancy to puberty, with females showing higher levels that extend to adulthood. Immature males and females at 6, 9 and 12 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation, depending on age, but similar in terms of range of variation between sexes. Additional evidence showed that during juvenile to sub-adult transition males buffered the HPA axis during chronic stress. However, animals under both acute and chronic stress performed poorly on spatial cognitive tests and evidence from the literature that they respond better to social tasks indicates that new approaches are necessary to take advantage of this experimental model. These findings increase the potential of also using this experimental model during development, such as in adolescence, and strengthen the importance of sex as a part of experimental protocols that study neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and mood disorders as well as associated therapeutics.

  19. Density, proportion, and dendritic coverage of retinal ganglion cells of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus

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    F.L. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative analysis of M and P cell mosaics of the common-marmoset retina. Ganglion cells were labeled retrogradely from optic nerve deposits of Biocytin. The labeling was visualized using horseradish peroxidase (HRP histochemistry and 3-3'diaminobenzidine as chromogen. M and P cells were morphologically similar to those found in Old- and New-World primates. Measurements were performed on well-stained cells from 4 retinas of different animals. We analyzed separate mosaics for inner and outer M and P cells at increasing distances from the fovea (2.5-9 mm of eccentricity to estimate cell density, proportion, and dendritic coverage. M cell density decreased towards the retinal periphery in all quadrants. M cell density was higher in the nasal quadrant than in other retinal regions at similar eccentricities, reaching about 740 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity, and representing 8-14% of all ganglion cells. P cell density increased from peripheral to more central regions, reaching about 5540 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity. P cells represented a smaller proportion of all ganglion cells in the nasal quadrant than in other quadrants, and their numbers increased towards central retinal regions. The M cell coverage factor ranged from 5 to 12 and the P cell coverage factor ranged from 1 to 3 in the nasal quadrant and from 5 to 12 in the other quadrants. These results show that central and peripheral retinal regions differ in terms of cell class proportions and dendritic coverage, and their properties do not result from simply scaling down cell density. Therefore, differences in functional properties between central and peripheral vision should take these distinct regional retinal characteristics into account.

  20. The common marmoset as an indispensable animal model for immunotherapy development in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Yolanda S.; Jagessar, S. Anwar; Dunham, Jordon; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2016-01-01

    New drugs often fail in the translation from the rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to human multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we present the marmoset EAE model as an indispensable model for translational research into MS. The genetic heterogeneity of this species and lifelong

  1. Long-term-stability of relationship structure in family groups of common marmosets, and its link to proactive prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Christa; Burkart, Judith M

    2017-05-01

    Cooperatively breeding, group-living common marmosets show differentiated relationships, where more strongly bonded dyads within a group engage more in affiliative interactions than less strongly bonded ones. Intriguingly, recent results suggest that strong bonds do not only occur between breeding partners but between individuals from any sex or status, and that strong-bond partners exhibit correlated oxytocin fluctuations (dyadic oxytocin synchrony, OTS) over a period of six weeks. To date, it is unclear whether such relationships are stable over time and whether they are also reflected in higher partner-specific proactive prosociality. To assess the long-term stability of the relationship structure of common marmoset family groups, we investigated whether hormonal and behavioral markers of group structure (dyadic OTS, dyadic affiliation, and individual group integration) in common marmoset families remained stable over a period of six months. We collected baseline urinary OT and social behavior of 36 dyads from three family groups in a non-reproductive period (period A), and again six months later, around the birth of new infants (period B). Patterns of dyadic OTS, dyadic affiliation, and individual group integration were consistent between the two study periods. Oxytocin data from a fourth group (10 dyads), collected in two non-reproductive periods separated by a period of more than five years, could replicate this finding. Furthermore, OTS was also correlated with proactive prosociality that was assessed experimentally for 38 dyads during an earlier study. These results suggest that differentiated relationships are stable over time, even between group members other than the breeding pair, and that more strongly bonded partners also show higher levels of proactive prosociality. Future studies are necessary to identify whether these relationships have an adaptive function, perhaps with regard to positive consequences on cooperativeness.

  2. A longitudinal analysis of the effects of age on the blood plasma metabolome in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Tran, ViLinh; Wachtman, Lynn M; Green, Cara L; Jones, Dean P; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-04-01

    Primates tend to be long-lived for their size with humans being the longest lived of all primates. There are compelling reasons to understand the underlying age-related processes that shape human lifespan. But the very fact of our long lifespan that makes it so compelling, also makes it especially difficult to study. Thus, in studies of aging, researchers have turned to non-human primate models, including chimpanzees, baboons, and rhesus macaques. More recently, the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, has been recognized as a particularly valuable model in studies of aging, given its small size, ease of housing in captivity, and relatively short lifespan. However, little is known about the physiological changes that occur as marmosets age. To begin to fill in this gap, we utilized high sensitivity metabolomics to define the longitudinal biochemical changes associated with age in the common marmoset. We measured 2104 metabolites from blood plasma at three separate time points over a 17-month period, and we completed both a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the metabolome. We discovered hundreds of metabolites associated with age and body weight in both male and female animals. Our longitudinal analysis identified age-associated metabolic pathways that were not found in our cross-sectional analysis. Pathways enriched for age-associated metabolites included tryptophan, nucleotide, and xenobiotic metabolism, suggesting these biochemical pathways might play an important role in the basic mechanisms of aging in primates. Moreover, we found that many metabolic pathways associated with age were sex specific. Our work illustrates the power of longitudinal approaches, even in a short time frame, to discover novel biochemical changes that occur with age.

  3. The common marmoset as an indispensable animal model for immunotherapy development in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kap, Yolanda S; Jagessar, S Anwar; Dunham, Jordon; 't Hart, Bert A

    2016-08-01

    New drugs often fail in the translation from the rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to human multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we present the marmoset EAE model as an indispensable model for translational research into MS. The genetic heterogeneity of this species and lifelong exposure to chronic latent infections and environmental pathogens create a human-like immune system. Unique to this model is the presence of the pathological hallmark of progressive MS, in particular cortical grey matter lesions. Another great possibility of this model is systemic and longitudinal immune profiling, whereas in humans and mice immune profiling is usually performed in a single compartment (i.e. blood or spleen, respectively). Overall, the marmoset model provides unique opportunities for systemic drug-effect profiling.

  4. Characterization and Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    to assess intranasal EEEV infection 70 (Adams, 2008). The small size of the marmoset allows for easy handling, reasonable housing 71 space , and...P.D., Boolukos, P.J. 1969. Eastern equine encephalitis. Distribution of 599 central nervous system lesions in man and Rhesus monkey . J Comp Pathol...pp. 831-838. 654 Wyckoff, R.W. 1939. Encephalomyelitis in monkeys . Science. 89(2319), 542-543. 655 Wyckoff, R.W., Tesar, W.C. 1939. Equine

  5. Differential endocrine responses to infant odors in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Toni E; Peterson, Laura J; Sosa, Megan E; Barnard, Allison M

    2011-02-01

    Olfactory cues can exert priming effects on many mammalian species. Paternally experienced marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, exposed to direct isolated olfactory contact with their own infant's scent show rapid decreases in testosterone levels within 20 min, whereas paternally inexperienced males do not. The following study tests whether there is a differential steroid response to exposure of infant scent from dependent infants (own and novel) and independent infants (own and novel). We examined the serum levels of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and combined estrogens and androgens in eight male marmosets 20 min after exposure to isolated infant scent. Testosterone and androgen levels combined were significantly lower with exposure to own infant scent than a novel infant scent when the infants were at a dependent age but not at an independent age. Estrogen levels elevated significantly in response to own infant scent when the infants were at a dependent age but not at an independent age. These results suggest that marmoset fathers are more responsive to priming cues from related infants and hormonal responses from fathers are greatest when the infant is at a dependent age.

  6. Metabolic consequences of long-term rapamycin exposure on common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Corinna; Salmon, Adam; Strong, Randy; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Javors, Marty; Richardson, Arlan; Tardif, Suzette

    2015-11-01

    Rapamycin has been shown to extend lifespan in rodent models, but the effects on metabolic health and function have been widely debated in both clinical and translational trials. Prior to rapamycin being used as a treatment to extend both lifespan and healthspan in the human population, it is vital to assess the side effects of the treatment on metabolic pathways in animal model systems, including a closely related non-human primate model. In this study, we found that long-term treatment of marmoset monkeys with orally-administered encapsulated rapamycin resulted in no overall effects on body weight and only a small decrease in fat mass over the first few months of treatment. Rapamycin treated subjects showed no overall changes in daily activity counts, blood lipids, or significant changes in glucose metabolism including oral glucose tolerance. Adipose tissue displayed no differences in gene expression of metabolic markers following treatment, while liver tissue exhibited suppressed G6Pase activity with increased PCK and GPI activity. Overall, the marmosets revealed only minor metabolic consequences of chronic treatment with rapamycin and this adds to the growing body of literature that suggests that chronic and/or intermittent rapamycin treatment results in improved health span and metabolic functioning. The marmosets offer an interesting alternative animal model for future intervention testing and translational modeling.

  7. Bifidobacterium aesculapii sp. nov., from the faeces of the baby common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, M; Michelini, S; Stefanini, I; Ferrara, A; Tacconi, S; Biavati, B; Mattarelli, P

    2014-08-01

    Six Gram-positive-staining, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains with a peculiar morphology were isolated from faecal samples of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Cells of these strains showed a morphology not reported previously for a bifidobacterial species, which resembled a coiled snake, always coiled or ring shaped or forming a 'Y' shape. Strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 were chosen as representative strains and characterized further. The bacteria utilized a wide range of carbohydrates and produced urease. Glucose was fermented to acetate and lactate. Strain MRM 3/1(T) showed a peptidoglycan type unique among members of the genus Bifidobacterium. The DNA base composition was 64.7 mol% G+C. Almost-complete 16S rRNA, hsp60, clpC and rpoB gene sequences were obtained and phylogenetic relationships were determined. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 had the highest similarities to Bifidobacterium scardovii DSM 13734(T) (94.6%) and Bifidobacterium stellenboschense DSM 23968(T) (94.5%). Analysis of hsp60 showed that both strains were closely related to B. stellenboschense DSM 23968(T) (97.5% similarity); however, despite this high degree of similarity, our isolates could be distinguished from B. stellenboschense DSM 23968(T) by low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (30.4% with MRM 3/1(T)). Strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 were located in an actinobacterial cluster and were more closely related to the genus Bifidobacterium than to other genera in the family Bifidobacteriaceae. On the basis of these results, strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 represent a novel species within the genus Bifidobacterium, for which the name Bifidobacterium aesculapii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MRM 3/1(T) ( = DSM 26737(T) = JCM 18761(T)).

  8. Distinct Neural Activities in Premotor Cortex during Natural Vocal Behaviors in a New World Primate, the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sabyasachi; Zhao, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-11-30

    Although evidence from human studies has long indicated the crucial role of the frontal cortex in speech production, it has remained uncertain whether the frontal cortex in nonhuman primates plays a similar role in vocal communication. Previous studies of prefrontal and premotor cortices of macaque monkeys have found neural signals associated with cue- and reward-conditioned vocal production, but not with self-initiated or spontaneous vocalizations (Coudé et al., 2011; Hage and Nieder, 2013), which casts doubt on the role of the frontal cortex of the Old World monkeys in vocal communication. A recent study of marmoset frontal cortex observed modulated neural activities associated with self-initiated vocal production (Miller et al., 2015), but it did not delineate whether these neural activities were specifically attributed to vocal production or if they may result from other nonvocal motor activity such as orofacial motor movement. In the present study, we attempted to resolve these issues and examined single neuron activities in premotor cortex during natural vocal exchanges in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate. Neural activation and suppression were observed both before and during self-initiated vocal production. Furthermore, by comparing neural activities between self-initiated vocal production and nonvocal orofacial motor movement, we identified a subpopulation of neurons in marmoset premotor cortex that was activated or suppressed by vocal production, but not by orofacial movement. These findings provide clear evidence of the premotor cortex's involvement in self-initiated vocal production in natural vocal behaviors of a New World primate.

  9. Pre-evaluated safe human iPSC-derived neural stem cells promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury in common marmoset without tumorigenicity.

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    Yoshiomi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Murine and human iPSC-NS/PCs (induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells promote functional recovery following transplantation into the injured spinal cord in rodents. However, for clinical applicability, it is critical to obtain proof of the concept regarding the efficacy of grafted human iPSC-NS/PCs (hiPSC-NS/PCs for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI in a non-human primate model. This study used a pre-evaluated "safe" hiPSC-NS/PC clone and an adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of contusive SCI. SCI was induced at the fifth cervical level (C5, followed by transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs at 9 days after injury. Behavioral analyses were performed from the time of the initial injury until 12 weeks after SCI. Grafted hiPSC-NS/PCs survived and differentiated into all three neural lineages. Furthermore, transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs enhanced axonal sparing/regrowth and angiogenesis, and prevented the demyelination after SCI compared with that in vehicle control animals. Notably, no tumor formation occurred for at least 12 weeks after transplantation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression levels of human neurotrophic factors were significantly higher in cultured hiPSC-NS/PCs than in human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs. Finally, behavioral tests showed that hiPSC-NS/PCs promoted functional recovery after SCI in the common marmoset. Taken together, these results indicate that pre-evaluated safe hiPSC-NS/PCs are a potential source of cells for the treatment of SCI in the clinic.

  10. Abundant occurrence of basal radial glia in the subventricular zone of embryonic neocortex of a lissencephalic primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus.

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    Kelava, Iva; Reillo, Isabel; Murayama, Ayako Y; Kalinka, Alex T; Stenzel, Denise; Tomancak, Pavel; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Lebrand, Cécile; Sasaki, Erika; Schwamborn, Jens C; Okano, Hideyuki; Huttner, Wieland B; Borrell, Víctor

    2012-02-01

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors are a hallmark of the developing neocortex. Recent studies described a novel type of SVZ progenitor that retains a basal process at mitosis, sustains expression of radial glial markers, and is capable of self-renewal. These progenitors, referred to here as basal radial glia (bRG), occur at high relative abundance in the SVZ of gyrencephalic primates (human) and nonprimates (ferret) but not lissencephalic rodents (mouse). Here, we analyzed the occurrence of bRG cells in the embryonic neocortex of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, a near-lissencephalic primate. bRG cells, expressing Pax6, Sox2 (but not Tbr2), glutamate aspartate transporter, and glial fibrillary acidic protein and retaining a basal process at mitosis, occur at similar relative abundance in the marmoset SVZ as in human and ferret. The proportion of progenitors in M-phase was lower in embryonic marmoset than developing ferret neocortex, raising the possibility of a longer cell cycle. Fitting the gyrification indices of 26 anthropoid species to an evolutionary model suggested that the marmoset evolved from a gyrencephalic ancestor. Our results suggest that a high relative abundance of bRG cells may be necessary, but is not sufficient, for gyrencephaly and that the marmoset's lissencephaly evolved secondarily by changing progenitor parameters other than progenitor type.

  11. On-going elucidation of mechanisms of primate specific synaptic spine development using the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-04-01

    Recently, pathophysiology of human psychiatry originates from abnormal numbers of synapses/spines. There are generally two-types of development of spines from birth depending on species. One is, after birth, synaptogenesis occurs, and there is a clear peak of spines, and then rapidly pruning occurring, which are called "overshoot-type" of development of synapses/spines. Primates including human belong to this type. In other type including rodents, even after a peak, general number of spines does not decrease so much. Although these differences, most of human psychiatric models have been genetic modified rodents. Now, transgenic primate (the common marmoset) became available. In near future, we can, examine pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders using this animal model, which is closer to human being. To begin with this endeavor, we should know how synapses/spines of normal marmosets developed, and molecular mechanisms of "overshoot-type" of spine development, which human being also shows. Here, we will present our recent effort to explore these questions, and future experiments will be discussed.

  12. Development of a modified artificial insemination technique combining penile vibration stimulation and the swim-up method in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Shuji; Suzuki, Yuiko; Katoh, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is used as a New World monkey species in biomedical studies because of its small body size and good reproduction in captivity. A modified artificial insemination technique was developed in this species to encourage breeding of lines carrying interesting genes and traits. Fresh semen was collected by penile vibratory stimulation. Medium containing highly motile sperm was inseminated into the uterus using a catheter. Seven females were inseminated using freshly prepared sperm from different males every day for 3 days including the expected ovulation day. As a result, four females conceived, and three females delivered six offspring in total (two singletons and one quadruplet). The paternity of the newborns was determined using microsatellite markers to accurately pinpoint the timing of insemination and ovulation. It is expected that our artificial insemination protocol can be effectively used to establish marmoset lines and genetically manage marmoset colonies.

  13. NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on natural killer cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masamichi; Kudo, Yohei; Kawano, Mitsuko; Nakayama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Kyohei; Kameda, Mai; Ebara, Masamune; Sato, Takeki; Nakamura, Marina; Omine, Kaito; Kametani, Yoshie; Suzuki, Ryuji; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2014-11-01

    The natural killer group 2 membrane D (NKG2D) receptor is an NK-activating receptor that plays an important role in host defense against tumors and viral infections. Although the marmoset is an important and reliable animal model, especially for the study of human-specific viral infections, functional characterization of NKG2D on marmoset NK cells has not previously been conducted. In the present study, we investigated a subpopulation of marmoset NK cells that express NKG2D and exhibit cytolytic potential. On the basis of their CD16 and CD56 expression patterns, marmoset NK cells can be classified into three subpopulations: CD16(+) CD56(-), CD16(-) CD56(+) and CD16(-) CD56(-) cells. NKG2D expression on marmoset CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+) splenocytes was confirmed using an NKG2D ligand composed of an MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA)-Fc fusion protein. When marmoset splenocytes were cultured with IL-2 for 4 days, NKG2D expression was retained on CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+). In addition, CD16(+) CD56(+) cells within the marmoset NK population appeared which expressed NKG2D after IL-2 stimulation. IL-2-activated marmoset NK cells showed strong cytolytic activity against K562 target cells and target cells stably expressing MICA. Further, the cytolytic activity of marmoset splenocytes was significantly reduced after addition of MICA-Fc fusion protein. Thus, NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on marmoset NK cells that possesses cytotoxic potential, and phenotypic profiles of marmoset NK cell subpopulations are similar to those seen in humans.

  14. Genomic sequence analysis of the MHC class I G/F segment in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Azumi; Brameier, Markus; Roos, Christian; Suzuki, Shingo; Shigenari, Atsuko; Kametani, Yoshie; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Matsutani, Takaji; Suzuki, Ryuji; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Walter, Lutz; Shiina, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World monkey that is used frequently as a model for various human diseases. However, detailed knowledge about the MHC is still lacking. In this study, we sequenced and annotated a total of 854 kb of the common marmoset MHC region that corresponds to the HLA-A/G/F segment (Caja-G/F) between the Caja-G1 and RNF39 genes. The sequenced region contains 19 MHC class I genes, of which 14 are of the MHC-G (Caja-G) type, and 5 are of the MHC-F (Caja-F) type. Six putatively functional Caja-G and Caja-F genes (Caja-G1, Caja-G3, Caja-G7, Caja-G12, Caja-G13, and Caja-F4), 13 pseudogenes related either to Caja-G or Caja-F, three non-MHC genes (ZNRD1, PPPIR11, and RNF39), two miscRNA genes (ZNRD1-AS1 and HCG8), and one non-MHC pseudogene (ETF1P1) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis suggests segmental duplications of units consisting of basically five (four Caja-G and one Caja-F) MHC class I genes, with subsequent expansion/deletion of genes. A similar genomic organization of the Caja-G/F segment has not been observed in catarrhine primates, indicating that this genomic segment was formed in New World monkeys after the split of New World and Old World monkeys.

  15. Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Reed F., E-mail: johnsonreed@mail.nih.gov [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Via, Laura E. [Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kumar, Mia R.; Cornish, Joseph P. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Yellayi, Srikanth; Huzella, Louis; Postnikova, Elena; Oberlander, Nicholas; Bartos, Christopher; Ork, Britini L.; Mazur, Steven; Allan, Cindy; Holbrook, Michael R. [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Solomon, Jeffrey [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Johnson, Joshua C. [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Pickel, James [Transgenic Core Facility, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hensley, Lisa E. [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be a threat to human health in the Middle East. Development of countermeasures is ongoing; however, an animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease has yet to be defined. A recent study indicated that inoculation of common marmosets resulted in inconsistent lethality. Based on these data we sought to compare two isolates of MERS-CoV. We followed disease progression in common marmosets after intratracheal exposure with: MERS-CoV-EMC/2012, MERS-CoV-Jordan-n3/2012, media, or inactivated virus. Our data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography (CT), with limited other clinical signs. Based on CT data, clinical data, and virological data, MERS-CoV inoculation of common marmosets results in mild to moderate clinical signs of disease that are likely due to manipulations of the marmoset rather than as a result of robust viral replication. - Highlights: • Common marmosets infected with MERS-EMC and MERS-JOR did not develop lethal disease. • Infected subjects developed transient signs of clinical disease. • CT indicated few differences between the infected and control groups. • Marmosets do not faithfully replicate human MERS pathogenesis.

  16. Do snakes represent the principal predatory threat to callitrichids? Fatal attack of a viper (Bothrops leucurus) on a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in the Atlantic Forest of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone

    2011-07-01

    A juvenile common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was attacked by a whitetail lancehead viper (Bothrops leucurus) while playing with other group members close to the ground at a site in northeastern Brazil. The attack was almost immediately fatal, but the viper was unable to ingest the body of the marmoset. After approximately 10 min, during which it attempted to swallow the marmoset a number of times, the viper moved away, abandoning the body. While raptors are the principal predators of callitrichids, this record reinforces the relative vulnerability of these primates to snakes in comparison with other platyrrhines, although the small number of recorded events precludes a more definitive analysis of the phenomenon.

  17. More effective induction of anesthesia using midazolam-butorphanol-ketamine-sevoflurane compared with ketamine-sevoflurane in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-01

    The common marmoset has been increasingly used for research in the biomedical field; however, there is little information available regarding effective methods of anesthesia in this species. This study retrospectively analyzed 2 regimens of anesthesia induction: intramuscular injection of ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane, and intramuscular injection of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane. Anesthetic depth did not reach the surgical anesthesia stage in 7 out of 99 animals receiving the former regimen, whereas there were only 2 such animals out of 273 receiving the latter regimen. The latter regimen, when followed by maintenance anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane inhalation, was successfully used in various nociceptive procedures. These results indicate that the injection of a combination of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of a high concentration of sevoflurane is effective for anesthesia induction in marmosets.

  18. Multipotent stromal cells derived from common marmoset Callithrix jacchus within alginate 3D environment: Effect of cryopreservation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Hofmann, Nicola; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Pogozhykh, Denys; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    Multipotent stromal cells derived from the common marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus (cjMSCs) possess high phylogenetic similarity to humans, with a great potential for preclinical studies in the field of regenerative medicine. Safe and effective long-term storage of cells is of great significance to clinical and research applications. Encapsulation of such cell types within alginate beads that can mimic an extra-cellular matrix and provide a supportive environment for cells during cryopreservation, has several advantages over freezing of cells in suspension. In this study we have analysed the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO, 2.5-10%, v/v) and pre-freeze loading time of alginate encapsulated cjMSCs in Me2SO (0-45 min) on the viability and metabolic activity of the cells after freezing using a slow cooling rate (-1°C/min). It was found that these parameters affect the stability and homogeneity of alginate beads after thawing. Moreover, the cjMSCs can be frozen in alginate beads with lower Me2SO concentration of 7.5% after 30 min of loading, while retaining high cryopreservation outcome. We demonstrated the maximum viability, membrane integrity and metabolic activity of the cells under optimized, less cytotoxic conditions. The results of this study are another step forward towards the application of cryopreservation for the long-term storage and subsequent applications of transplants in cell-based therapies.

  19. Birth of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) offspring derived from in vitro-matured oocytes in chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, I; Takahashi, T; Shimada, A; Yoshioka, K; Sasaki, E

    2012-10-15

    Optimization of oocyte culture conditions is a crucial aspect of reproductive biology and technology. In the present study, maturation of germinal vesicle-stage marmoset oocytes were evaluated in the following media: Waymouth medium, Waymouth medium containing porcine follicular fluid (pFF) (Waymouth-pFF medium), and porcine oocyte medium (POM). Oocytes cultured in Waymouth-pFF medium had higher maturation rates to the metaphase II stage than those cultured in Waymouth medium (36.1% vs. 24.8%, respectively, P marmoset oocytes. Hence, maturation of marmoset oocytes cultured in POM was subsequently evaluated. The rate of maturation to the metaphase I stage was significantly higher and degradation rates were significantly lower in oocytes cultured in POM than those cultured in Waymouth medium. In addition, three offspring were successfully obtained after transfer of embryos matured in chemically defined medium. Therefore, we concluded that POM was suitable for marmoset oocyte culture. Furthermore, this was apparently the first report of marmoset offspring derived from oocytes cultured in chemically defined medium.

  20. Comparative distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cândido, Paulo Laino; Sita, Luciane Valéria; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

    2011-11-24

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely distributed in the brain of many species. In the hypothalamus, CART neurotransmission has been implicated in diverse functions including energy balance, stress response, and temperature and endocrine regulation. Although some studies have been performed in primates, very little is known about the distribution of CART neurons in New World monkeys. New World monkeys are good models for systems neuroscience, as some species have evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics shared with humans, including diurnal and social habits, intense maternal care, complex manipulative abilities and well-developed frontal cortices. In the present study, we assessed the distribution of CART mRNA and peptide in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We found that the distribution of hypothalamic CART neurons in these monkeys is similar to what has been described for rodents and humans, but some relevant differences were noticed. Only in capuchin monkeys CART neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic and the intercalatus nuclei, whereas only in marmoset CART neurons were observed in the dorsal anterior nucleus. We also found that the only in marmoset displayed CART neurons in the periventricular preoptic nucleus and in an area seemingly comprising the premammillary nucleus. These hypothalamic sites are both well defined in rodents but poorly defined in humans. Our findings indicate that CART expression in hypothalamic neurons is conserved across species but the identified differences suggest that CART is also involved in the control of species-specific related functions.

  1. Efficient embryo transfer in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) with a reduced transfer volume: a non-surgical approach with cryopreserved late-stage embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Kumon, Mami; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Okada, Hironori; Okada, Takashi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2013-05-01

    Among primates, the common marmoset is suitable for primate embryology research. Its small body size, however, has delayed the technical development of efficient embryo transfer. Furthermore, three factors have been determined to adversely affect the performance of marmoset embryo transfer: nonsurgical approaches, the use of cryopreserved embryos, and the use of late-stage embryos. Here we performed embryo transfer under conditions that included the above three factors and using either a small (1 μl or less) or a large volume (2-3 μl) of medium. The pregnancy and birth rates were 50% (5/10) and 27% (3/11), respectively, when using the large volume, and 80% (8/10) and 75% (9/12), respectively, when using the small volume. The latter scores exceed those of previous reports using comparable conditions. Thus, it appears that these three previously considered factors could be overcome, and we propose that reducing the transfer volume to 1 μl or less is essential for successful marmoset embryo transfer.

  2. Effects of lurasidone on ketamine-induced joint visual attention dysfunction as a possible disease model of autism spectrum disorders in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakako, Tomokazu; Murai, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kotani, Manato; Matsumoto, Kenji; Manabe, Shoji; Ogi, Yuji; Konoike, Naho; Nakamura, Katsuki; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2014-11-01

    Infants with autism have difficulties performing joint visual attention (JVA), defined as following another person's pointing gesture and gaze. Some non-human primates (NHPs) can also perform JVA. Most preclinical research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has used rodents as animal models of this social interaction disorder. However, models using rodents fail to capture the complexity of social interactions that are disrupted in ASD. Therefore, JVA impairment in NHPs might be a more useful model of ASD. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate and convenient ASD model with common marmosets. We first tested whether marmosets were capable of performing JVA. Subsequently, we administered ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, to induce JVA impairment and investigated the effects of lurasidone, a newer antipsychotic agent, on the JVA impairments. An apparatus was constructed using 4 white boxes, which were attached to the corners of a frame. All boxes had a hinged door, and marmosets could easily obtain a reward by pushing the door. An experimenter pointed and gazed at the boxes to inform the marmosets which box contained the reward. Their behavior was scored according to the number of incorrect choices. The JVA score was significantly higher in the cued vs. uncued tasks. Ketamine significantly decreased the JVA score, but lurasidone significantly reversed this effect. These findings suggest that this experimental system could be a useful animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by NMDA-receptor signaling, including ASD, and that lurasidone might be effective for some aspects of ASD.

  3. An ethogram of the common marmoset (Calithrix jacchus jacchus): general behavioural repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M F; Poole, T B

    1976-05-01

    The behavioural repertoire of four captive breeding pairs of Callithrix jacchus jacchus is described. Social communication took the form of postures, facial expressions, vocalizations and piloerection displays. Detailed analyses were made of piloerection displays, adult play, copulatory, aggressive, and prey-catching behaviour. Aggressive behaviour was uncommon in adult mated pairs. Play between adults showed a degree of temporal of temporal organization. Vocalizations were the main methods of intragroup communication whilst piloerection displays were directed towards members of other groups and also to unfamiliar objects. The behavioural repertoire of C. jacchus jacchus is compared with that of other Primates.

  4. The role of harmonic resolvability in pitch perception in a vocal nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski, Michael S; Song, Xindong; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-05-22

    Pitch is one of the most fundamental percepts in the auditory system and can be extracted using either spectral or temporal information in an acoustic signal. Although pitch perception has been extensively studied in human subjects, it is far less clear how nonhuman primates perceive pitch. We have addressed this question in a series of behavioral studies in which marmosets, a vocal nonhuman primate species, were trained to discriminate complex harmonic tones differing in either spectral (fundamental frequency [f0]) or temporal envelope (repetition rate) cues. We found that marmosets used temporal envelope information to discriminate pitch for acoustic stimuli with higher-order harmonics and lower f0 values and spectral information for acoustic stimuli with lower-order harmonics and higher f0 values. We further measured frequency resolution in marmosets using a psychophysical task in which pure tone thresholds were measured as a function of notched noise masker bandwidth. Results show that only the first four harmonics are resolved at low f0 values and up to 16 harmonics are resolved at higher f0 values. Resolvability in marmosets is different from that in humans, where the first five to nine harmonics are consistently resolved across most f0 values, and is likely the result of a smaller marmoset cochlea. In sum, these results show that marmosets use two mechanisms to extract pitch (harmonic templates [spectral] for resolved harmonics, and envelope extraction [temporal] for unresolved harmonics) and that species differences in stimulus resolvability need to be taken into account when investigating and comparing mechanisms of pitch perception across animals.

  5. Qualitative de novo analysis of full length cDNA and quantitative analysis of gene expression for common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) transcriptomes using parallel long-read technology and short-read sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Murayama, Norie; Onodera, Jun; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a non-human primate that could prove useful as human pharmacokinetic and biomedical research models. The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are a superfamily of enzymes that have critical roles in drug metabolism and disposition via monooxygenation of a broad range of xenobiotics; however, information on some marmoset P450s is currently limited. Therefore, identification and quantitative analysis of tissue-specific mRNA transcripts, including those of P450s and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO, another monooxygenase family), need to be carried out in detail before the marmoset can be used as an animal model in drug development. De novo assembly and expression analysis of marmoset transcripts were conducted with pooled liver, intestine, kidney, and brain samples from three male and three female marmosets. After unique sequences were automatically aligned by assembling software, the mean contig length was 718 bp (with a standard deviation of 457 bp) among a total of 47,883 transcripts. Approximately 30% of the total transcripts were matched to known marmoset sequences. Gene expression in 18 marmoset P450- and 4 FMO-like genes displayed some tissue-specific patterns. Of these, the three most highly expressed in marmoset liver were P450 2D-, 2E-, and 3A-like genes. In extrahepatic tissues, including brain, gene expressions of these monooxygenases were lower than those in liver, although P450 3A4 (previously P450 3A21) in intestine and P450 4A11- and FMO1-like genes in kidney were relatively highly expressed. By means of massive parallel long-read sequencing and short-read technology applied to marmoset liver, intestine, kidney, and brain, the combined next-generation sequencing analyses reported here were able to identify novel marmoset drug-metabolizing P450 transcripts that have until now been little reported. These results provide a foundation for mechanistic studies and pave the way for the use of marmosets as model animals

  6. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset: a novel animal model for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.M. Brok (Herbert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a major cause of disability in young adults affecting approximately 15,000 people in The Netberlands. Critical aspects of the disease have been modeled by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals. The vast majority of investigators use rats an

  7. An assessment of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) γ9(+) T cells and their response to phosphoantigen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline A; Laws, Thomas R; Oyston, Petra C F

    2012-12-01

    γ9δ2 T cells are a primate-specific γδ T cell subtype that expand and become activated during infection, responding directly to phosphoantigens which are by-products of essential metabolic pathways in both bacteria and mammals. Analogues of natural phosphoantigens have been developed as potential immunotherapeutics for treatment of tumours and infectious diseases. Several non-human primate models have been used in preclinical studies, however, little is known about marmoset γ9δ2 T cell responses. We identified γ9(+) T cells in various tissues in the marmoset and determined that these cells respond to phosphoantigen in a similar manner to human γ9δ2 T cells in vitro. Both human γ9δ2 T cells and marmoset γ9(+) T cells were able to reduce growth of the intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in vitro following expansion with phosphoantigen. This suggests that the marmoset is an appropriate model for examining the immunotherapeutic potential of compounds which target γ9δ2 T cells.

  8. Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed F; Via, Laura E; Kumar, Mia R; Cornish, Joseph P; Yellayi, Srikanth; Huzella, Louis; Postnikova, Elena; Oberlander, Nicholas; Bartos, Christopher; Ork, Britini L; Mazur, Steven; Allan, Cindy; Holbrook, Michael R; Solomon, Jeffrey; Johnson, Joshua C; Pickel, James; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be a threat to human health in the Middle East. Development of countermeasures is ongoing; however, an animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease has yet to be defined. A recent study indicated that inoculation of common marmosets resulted in inconsistent lethality. Based on these data we sought to compare two isolates of MERS-CoV. We followed disease progression in common marmosets after intratracheal exposure with: MERS-CoV-EMC/2012, MERS-CoV-Jordan-n3/2012, media, or inactivated virus. Our data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography (CT), with limited other clinical signs. Based on CT data, clinical data, and virological data, MERS-CoV inoculation of common marmosets results in mild to moderate clinical signs of disease that are likely due to manipulations of the marmoset rather than as a result of robust viral replication.

  9. In vivo manipulation of γ9(+ T cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus with phosphoantigen and effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Laws

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a dangerous human pathogen. Phosphoantigens specifically the target primate specific γ9(+δ2(+ T cells subset and some have been developed as potential immunotherapeutics. Previously, we demonstrated that, when stimulated with the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, γ9(+δ2(+ T cells aid in the killing of intracellular B. pseudomallei bacteria. Moreover, we found that common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus γ9(+ T cells increase in frequency and respond to the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP and/or B. pseudomallei, in combination with IL-2, in a similar manner to human γ9(+δ2(+ T cells. Here we evaluate the efficacy of the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, in combination with IL-2, as a therapy against B. pseudomallei infection, in vivo. We found that the previous studies predicted the in vivo responsiveness of γ9(+ T cells to the CHDMAPP+IL-2 treatment and significant expansion of the numbers of peripheral and splenic γ9(+ T cells were observed. This effect was similar to those reported in other primate species treated with phosphoantigen. Furthermore, splenocytes were retrieved 7 days post onset of treatment, restimulated with CHDMAPP or heat-killed B. pseudomallei and the cultured γ9(+ T cells demonstrated no reduction in IFN-γ response when CHDMAPP+IL-2 animals were compared to IL-2 only treated animals. Using an established model of B. pseudomallei infection in the marmoset, we assessed the potential for using phosphoantigen as a novel immunotherapy. The CHDMAPP treatment regime had no effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis and this was despite the presence of elevated numbers of γ9(+ T cells in the spleen, liver and lung and an increased proportion of IFN-γ(+ cells in response to infection. We therefore report that the common marmoset has proven a good model for studying the effect in vivo of γ9(+ T cell stimulation; however, γ9(+ T cells have little or no effect on the progression of lethal, respiratory B

  10. In vivo manipulation of γ9(+) T cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus) with phosphoantigen and effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Thomas R; Nelson, Michelle; Bonnafous, Cecile; Sicard, Helene; Taylor, Christopher; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Atkins, Timothy P; Oyston, Petra C F; Rowland, Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a dangerous human pathogen. Phosphoantigens specifically the target primate specific γ9(+)δ2(+) T cells subset and some have been developed as potential immunotherapeutics. Previously, we demonstrated that, when stimulated with the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, γ9(+)δ2(+) T cells aid in the killing of intracellular B. pseudomallei bacteria. Moreover, we found that common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus) γ9(+) T cells increase in frequency and respond to the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP and/or B. pseudomallei, in combination with IL-2, in a similar manner to human γ9(+)δ2(+) T cells. Here we evaluate the efficacy of the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, in combination with IL-2, as a therapy against B. pseudomallei infection, in vivo. We found that the previous studies predicted the in vivo responsiveness of γ9(+) T cells to the CHDMAPP+IL-2 treatment and significant expansion of the numbers of peripheral and splenic γ9(+) T cells were observed. This effect was similar to those reported in other primate species treated with phosphoantigen. Furthermore, splenocytes were retrieved 7 days post onset of treatment, restimulated with CHDMAPP or heat-killed B. pseudomallei and the cultured γ9(+) T cells demonstrated no reduction in IFN-γ response when CHDMAPP+IL-2 animals were compared to IL-2 only treated animals. Using an established model of B. pseudomallei infection in the marmoset, we assessed the potential for using phosphoantigen as a novel immunotherapy. The CHDMAPP treatment regime had no effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis and this was despite the presence of elevated numbers of γ9(+) T cells in the spleen, liver and lung and an increased proportion of IFN-γ(+) cells in response to infection. We therefore report that the common marmoset has proven a good model for studying the effect in vivo of γ9(+) T cell stimulation; however, γ9(+) T cells have little or no effect on the progression of lethal, respiratory B. pseudomallei

  11. The influence of sex and relatedness on stress response in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão-Coelho, Nicole L; Silva, Hélderes Peregrino A; De Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro

    2012-09-01

    Research in stress physiology has demonstrated the benefits of receiving social support during stressful conditions. However, recent data have shown that the efficacy of social support in buffering physiological and behavioral responses to stressor agents depends on species, sex, and relatedness among animals. This study investigated whether different kinds of social support (presence of same sex related or nonrelated conspecifics) have the same effect on hormonal (fecal cortisol levels) and behavioral responses (agonistic: scent-marking and individual piloerection; anxiety: locomotion; tension-reducing: autogrooming, allogrooming, and body contact). We used adult male and female isosexual dyads of Callithrix jacchus, a small Neotropical primate from the Callitrichidae family, widely used in the study of stress and related diseases. Following a 28-day baseline phase, dyads faced three challenging situations (phase 1: dyads were moved together from the baseline cage to a similar new cage; phase 2: each dyad member was moved alone to a new cage; and phase 3: dyad members were reunited in the same baseline cage). Type of social support was found to influence the response to stressors differently for each sex. Related male dyads did not change their hormonal or behavioral profile over the three experimental phases, when compared to the baseline phase. For nonrelated male dyads, social support buffered hormonal but not behavioral response. For females, the social support offered by a related and nonrelated animal, does not seem to buffer the stress response, as shown by correlations between agonistic behaviors versus cortisol and locomotion during all three experimental phases and a significant increase in fecal cortisol levels during phases 2 and 3, when compared with baseline levels. The results only partially support the buffering model theory and corroborate other studies reporting that the benefits of social support during a period of crisis arise only when it is

  12. Placental insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and its relation to litter size in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Julienne N; Eklund, Amy; Tardif, Suzette

    2009-12-01

    The primate placenta produces a wide variety of hormones throughout gestation that regulate placental function and fetal growth. One such hormone is insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), a peptide implicated in cell division, differentiation, and amino acid transport. IGF-II concentrations were measured in 23 common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) term placentas from twin and triplet litters in order to determine whether previously described differences in fetoplacental phenotype such as placental and litter mass and placental surface area were related to differences in endocrine function. IGF-II was extracted from frozen tissue samples and measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit designed for human tissue, which was validated for marmoset placenta. IGF-II concentrations were not related to placental or litter mass, and twin and triplet placentas did not differ in total concentration. However, per individual fetus, triplets were associated with a significant 42% reduction in IGF-II concentration (P = 0.03), and IGF-II concentration per gram of fetal mass was a third lower in triplet litters. The triplet placenta exhibits a global expansion of the surface area which was contrasted by a per unit area reduction in IGF-II concentration (r = -0.75, P = 0.01), a pattern that explains why twin and triplet placentas overall did not differ in concentration. Per fetus, triplet pregnancies are associated with relatively less maternal mass, placental mass and microscopic surface area suggesting that the intrauterine growth of triplets is supported by systems that increase the efficiency of nutrient transfer. The finding that individual triplet fetuses are also associated with significantly lower IGF-II concentrations is consistent with the view that the marmoset fetoplacental unit exhibits a flexible pattern of placental allocation and metabolism. Plasticity in placental endocrine and metabolic function is likely to play an important role in the ability of the

  13. Double expression of CD34 and CD117 on bone marrow progenitors is a hallmark of the development of functional mast cell of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset).

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    Nunomura, Satoshi; Shimada, Shin; Kametani, Yoshie; Yamada, Yuko; Yoshioka, Mino; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Manabu; Itoh, Toshio; Kono, Azumi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tani, Kenzaburo; Ando, Kiyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Ra, Chisei; Habu, Sonoko; Satake, Masanobu; Sasaki, Erika

    2012-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are developed from hematopoietic progenitor cells and play an important role in inflammation. Study of the kinetics of development and accumulation of primate MC in vivo is crucial for the control of human inflammatory diseases, as evolution of the immune system is quite rapid and inflammation including MC response is considered to be different between mouse and human. In the present study, we examined the development of MC from hematopoietic progenitors of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset), an experimental animal of nonhuman primates. Bone marrow cells were fractionated for the expression of CD34 and CD117 by cell sorting. MCs were developed in vitro or by transplanting the cells to NOD/SCID/IL-2γc knockout (NOG) mice. In vitro culture of CD34(+)CD117(+) (double positive, DP) cells with stem cell factor could generate high-affinity Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR)-expressing CD117(+) cells with typical granules. The developed MC released β-hexosaminidase and produced leukotriene C(4) after the stimulation of FcεRI. Transplantation of DP cells gave rise to a marked expansion of CD34(-)CD45(+)CD117(+)FcεR(+) cells in NOG mice. They expressed transcripts encoding chymase 1 and tryptase β. Differentiation of CD34(-)CD117(+) cells to MCs was relatively limited compared with the DP cells, similarly to human MCs. These results suggest that this marmoset system provides a good model for human MC development.

  14. Comparative genome analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I B/C segments in primates elucidated by genomic sequencing in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Shiina, Takashi; Kono, Azumi; Westphal, Nico; Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Kita, Yuki F; Roos, Christian; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Walter, Lutz

    2011-08-01

    Common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) have emerged as important animal models for biomedical research, necessitating a more extensive characterization of their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. However, the genomic information of the marmoset MHC (Caja) is still lacking. The MHC-B/C segment represents the most diverse MHC region among primates. Therefore, in this paper, to elucidate the detailed gene organization and evolutionary processes of the Caja class I B (Caja-B) segment, we determined two parts of the Caja-B sequences with 1,079 kb in total, ranging from H6orf15 to BAT1 and compared the structure and phylogeny with that of other primates. This segment contains 54 genes in total, nine Caja-B genes (Caja-B1 to Caja-B9), two MIC genes (MIC1 and MIC2), eight non-MHC genes, two non-coding genes, and 33 non-MHC pseudogenes that have not been observed in other primate MHC-B/C segments. Caja-B3, Caja-B4, and Caja-B7 encode proper MHC class I proteins according to amino acid structural characteristics. Phylogenetic relationships based on 48 MHC-I nucleotide sequences in primates suggested (1) species-specific divergence for Caja, Mamu, and HLA/Patr/Gogo lineages, (2) independent generation of the "seven coding exon" type MHC-B genes in Mamu and HLA/Patr/Gogo lineages from an ancestral "eight coding exon" type MHC-I gene, (3) parallel correlation with the long and short segmental duplication unit length in Caja and Mamu lineages. These findings indicate that the MHC-B/C segment has been under permanent selective pressure in the evolution of primates.

  15. COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF SEMEN FROM THE COMMON MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus COLHEITA E AVALIAÇÃO DO SÊMEN DE SAGUI-DE-TUFO-BRANCO (Callithrix jacchus

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    César Roberto Esper

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available y of different extenders on the semen from common marmoset to improve the quality of physical and morphological characteristics. Three adult specimens were used and nine ejaculates were collected from each one, using electroejaculation. To break up the seminal clot, nine variations of three different extenders were tested. TALP, Ca+2 free, with 0.5% tripsin, during 45 minutes at 37ºC, was the best extender, dissolving partially the semen clot. The electroejaculation is a viable semen collection method for common marmoset, obtaining success in all animals, but the semen quality was relatively poor.

    KEY WORDS: Callithrix jacchus, electroejaculation, primates, semen.
    método de eletroejaculação na colheita de sêmen de saguis-de-tufo-branco (Callithrix jacchus e realizar uma avaliação descritiva dos aspectos físicos e morfológicos do ejaculado. Foram utilizados três espécimes adultos e colhidas nove amostras de sêmen de cada animal, pela eletroejaculação. Para os testes de dissolução dos coágulos seminais, utilizaram-se nove variações de três tipos de meios. De todas as variações estudadas, o meio TALP, livre de íons Ca+2, acrescido de tripsina a 0,5%, durante 45 minutos, a 37º C, mostrou-se o mais eficiente na dissolução do coágulo, porém não foi capaz de dissolvê-lo completamente. O método de eletroejaculação para colheita de sêmen em C. jacchus mostrou-se viável, apresentando sucesso em todas as colheitas, porém a qualidade do sêmen apresentou-se baixa.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Callithrix jacchus, eletroejaculação, primata, sêmen.

  16. Functional Connectivity Hubs and Networks in the Awake Marmoset Brain

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    Annabelle Marie Belcher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to achieve a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or hubs, and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains functional connectivity hubs. Ten adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus were acclimated to mild, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following restraint training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each subject. lFCD revealed prominent cortical and subcortical hubs of connectivity across the marmoset brain; specifically, in primary and secondary visual cortices (V1/V2, higher-order visual association areas (A19M/V6[DM], posterior parietal and posterior cingulate areas (PGM and A23b/A31, thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatal areas (caudate, putamen, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (A24a. lFCD hubs were highly connected to widespread areas of the brain, and further revealed significant network-network interactions. These data provide a baseline platform for future investigations in a nonhuman primate model of the brain’s network topology.

  17. Motor learning in common marmosets: vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation and its sensitivity to inhibitors of Purkinje cell long-term depression.

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    Anzai, Mari; Nagao, Soich

    2014-06-01

    Adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) provides an experimental model for cerebellum-dependent motor learning. We developed an eye movement measuring system and a paradigm for induction of HVOR adaptation for the common marmoset. The HVOR gain in dark measured by 10° (peak-to-peak amplitude) and 0.11-0.5Hz turntable oscillation was around unity. The gain-up and gain-down HVOR adaptation was induced by 1h of sustained out-of-phase and in-phase 10°-0.33Hz combined turntable-screen oscillation in the light, respectively. To examine the role of long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, we intraperitonially applied T-588 or nimesulide, which block the induction of LTD in vitro or in vivo preparations, 1h before the test of HVOR adaptation. T-588 (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) did not affect nonadapted HVOR gains, and impaired both gain-up and gain-down HVOR adaptation. Nimesulide (3 and 6mg/kg) did not affect nonadapted HVOR gains, and impaired gain-up HVOR adaptation dose-dependently; however, it very little affected gain-down HVOR adaptation. These findings are consistent with the results of our study of nimesulide on the adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response in mice (Le et al., 2010), and support the view that LTD underlies HVOR adaptation.

  18. Novel marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B infections: immunologic, virologic and radiologic characterization.

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    Emily Leibovitch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 is a ubiquitous virus with an estimated seroprevalence of 95% in the adult population. HHV-6 is associated with several neurologic disorders, including multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the CNS. Animal models of HHV-6 infection would help clarify its role in human disease but have been slow to develop because rodents lack CD46, the receptor for cellular entry. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HHV-6 infections in a non-human primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. We inoculated a total of 12 marmosets with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously and HHV-6A intranasally. Animals were monitored for 25 weeks post-inoculation clinically, immunologically and by MRI. Marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms and generated virus-specific antibody responses, while those inoculated intravenously with HHV-6B were asymptomatic and generated comparatively lower antibody responses. Viral DNA was detected at a low frequency in paraffin-embedded CNS tissue of a subset of marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously. When different routes of HHV-6A inoculation were compared, intravenous inoculation resulted in virus-specific antibody responses and infrequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery, while intranasal inoculation resulted in negligible virus-specific antibody responses and frequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery. Moreover, marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms, while marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intranasally were asymptomatic. We demonstrate that a marmoset model of HHV-6 infection can serve to further define the contribution of this ubiquitous virus to human neurologic disorders.

  19. Novel marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) model of human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B infections: immunologic, virologic and radiologic characterization.

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    Leibovitch, Emily; Wohler, Jillian E; Cummings Macri, Sheila M; Motanic, Kelsey; Harberts, Erin; Gaitán, María I; Maggi, Pietro; Ellis, Mary; Westmoreland, Susan; Silva, Afonso; Reich, Daniel S; Jacobson, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous virus with an estimated seroprevalence of 95% in the adult population. HHV-6 is associated with several neurologic disorders, including multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the CNS. Animal models of HHV-6 infection would help clarify its role in human disease but have been slow to develop because rodents lack CD46, the receptor for cellular entry. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HHV-6 infections in a non-human primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. We inoculated a total of 12 marmosets with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously and HHV-6A intranasally. Animals were monitored for 25 weeks post-inoculation clinically, immunologically and by MRI. Marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms and generated virus-specific antibody responses, while those inoculated intravenously with HHV-6B were asymptomatic and generated comparatively lower antibody responses. Viral DNA was detected at a low frequency in paraffin-embedded CNS tissue of a subset of marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously. When different routes of HHV-6A inoculation were compared, intravenous inoculation resulted in virus-specific antibody responses and infrequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery, while intranasal inoculation resulted in negligible virus-specific antibody responses and frequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery. Moreover, marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms, while marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intranasally were asymptomatic. We demonstrate that a marmoset model of HHV-6 infection can serve to further define the contribution of this ubiquitous virus to human neurologic disorders.

  20. Hybridization effects and genetic diversity of the common and black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata) mitochondrial control region.

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    Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Fuzessy, Lisieux F; Grativol, Adriana D; French, Jeffrey A; de Oliveira e Silva, Ita; Pereira, Luiz C M; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Valença, Yuri M; Stone, Anne C

    2014-12-01

    Hybridization is continually documented in primates, but effects of natural and anthropogenic hybridization on biodiversity are still unclear and differentiating between these contexts remains challenging in regards to primate evolution and conservation. Here, we examine hybridization effects on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Callithrix marmosets, which provide a unique glimpse into interspecific mating under distinct anthropogenic and natural conditions. DNA was sampled from 40 marmosets along a 50-km transect from a previously uncharacterized hybrid zone in NE Brazil between the ranges of Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata. DNA was also collected from 46 marmosets along a 30-km transect in a hybrid zone in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, where exotic marmosets appeared in the 1980s. Combining Callithrix DNA sampled inside and outside of these hybrid zones, phylogenetic and network analyses show C. jacchus and C. penicillata being parental species to sampled hybrids. We expand limited Callithrix population genetics work by describing mtDNA diversity and demographic history of these parental species. We show ancient population expansion in C. jacchus and historically constant population size in C. penicillata, with the latter being more genetically diverse than the former. The natural hybrid zone contained higher genetic diversity relative to the anthropogenic zone. While our data suggest hybrid swarm formation within the anthropogenic zone due to removed physical reproductive barriers, this pattern is not seen in the natural hybrid zone. These results suggest different genetic dynamics within natural and anthropogenic hybridization contexts that carry important implications for primate evolution and conservation.

  1. Comparative anatomy of marmoset and mouse cortex from genomic expression.

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    Mashiko, Hiromi; Yoshida, Aya C; Kikuchi, Satomi S; Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki; Aruga, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki; Shimogori, Tomomi

    2012-04-11

    Advances in mouse neural circuit genetics, brain atlases, and behavioral assays provide a powerful system for modeling the genetic basis of cognition and psychiatric disease. However, a critical limitation of this approach is how to achieve concordance of mouse neurobiology with the ultimate goal of understanding the human brain. Previously, the common marmoset has shown promise as a genetic model system toward the linking of mouse and human studies. However, the advent of marmoset transgenic approaches will require an understanding of developmental principles in marmoset compared to mouse. In this study, we used gene expression analysis in marmoset brain to pose a series of fundamental questions on cortical development and evolution for direct comparison to existing mouse brain atlas expression data. Most genes showed reliable conservation of expression between marmoset and mouse. However, certain markers had strikingly divergent expression patterns. The lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar in the thalamus showed diversification of genetic organization between marmoset and mouse, suggesting they share some similarity. In contrast, gene expression patterns in early visual cortical areas showed marmoset-specific expression. In prefrontal cortex, some markers labeled architectonic areas and layers distinct between mouse and marmoset. Core hippocampus was conserved, while afferent areas showed divergence. Together, these results indicate that existing cortical areas are genetically conserved between marmoset and mouse, while differences in areal parcellation, afferent diversification, and layer complexity are associated with specific genes. Collectively, we propose that gene expression patterns in marmoset brain reveal important clues to the principles underlying the molecular evolution of cortical and cognitive expansion.

  2. Experimental schistosomiasis in the Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus Esquistossomose experimental no Sagüi Callithrix jacchus

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    Ana Luna de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate Callithrix jacchus as an animal model for mansoni schistosomiasis, a group of 10 male animals were once percutaneously exposed to 250 cercariae of the Schistosoma mansoni SLM (São Lourenço da Mata strain. Animals were periodically bled for measuring serum level of enzymes and proteins and for blood cell counting. When comparing pre-infection to post-infection values, a significant increase was found for alkaline phosphatase at 15 to 120 days p.i., differential counts of eosinophil at 45 and 60 days, and total protein and global eosinophil counts at 120 days. No Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in stools. Adult worms of small size were recovered from five animals. At day 120, the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs/g of tissue was 0-289.7 (liver, 0-30.1 (large intestine and 0-171.4 (small intestine. These findings lead us to classify Callithrix jacchus as a non-permissive host to the SLM strain of Schistosoma mansoni.Com o objetivo de avaliar o Callithrix jacchus (sagüi como modelo experimental para a esquistossomose, um grupo de 10 animais, machos, adultos jovens, foram expostos a 250 cercárias da cepa SLM (São Lourenço da Mata do Schistosoma mansoni, pela via percutânea. A intervalos de 15 dias até 120 dias apos infecção foram dosados os níveis de proteínas totais e enzimas séricas, além de realizados exames parasitológico e hematológico. Aumento significativo foi observado para: fosfatase alcalina a partir do 150 dia; contagem global de eosinófilos aos 120 dias, e diferencial de eosinófilos aos 45 e 60 dias p.i. Nao se observou ovos de Schistosoma nas fezes. Á perfusão cinco animais apresentaram vermes adultos. Todos os vermes encontrados eram diminutos. O número de ovos foi 0-289,7 ovos/g de tecido no fígado, 0-30,1 no intestino grosso, 0-171,4 no intestino delgado. Esta observaçoes levam-nos a concluir que o Callithrix jacchus seja não-permissivo ao Schistosoma.

  3. Neurometabolic profiles of the substantia nigra and striatum of MPTP-intoxicated common marmosets: An in vivo proton MRS study at 9.4 T.

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    Heo, Hwon; Ahn, Jae-Bum; Lee, Hyeong Hun; Kwon, Euna; Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Hyeonjin; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Given the strong coupling between the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum (STR) in the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), yet only a few studies reported to date that have simultaneously investigated the neurochemistry of these two brain regions in vivo, we performed longitudinal metabolic profiling in the SN and STR of 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated common marmoset monkey models of PD (n = 10) by using proton MRS ((1) H-MRS) at 9.4 T. T2 relaxometry was also performed in the SN by using MRI. Data were classified into control, MPTP_2weeks, and MPTP_6-10 weeks groups according to the treatment duration. In the SN, T2 of the MPTP_6-10 weeks group was lower than that of the control group (44.33 ± 1.75 versus 47.21 ± 2.47 ms, p < 0.05). The N-acetylaspartate to total creatine ratio (NAA/tCr) and γ-aminobutyric acid to tCr ratio (GABA/tCr) of the MPTP_6-10 weeks group were lower than those of the control group (0.41 ± 0.04 versus 0.54 ± 0.08 (p < 0.01) and 0.19 ± 0.03 versus 0.30 ± 0.09 (p < 0.05), respectively). The glutathione to tCr ratio (GSH/tCr) was correlated with T2 for the MPTP_6-10 weeks group (r = 0.83, p = 0.04). In the STR, however, GABA/tCr of the MPTP_6-10 weeks group was higher than that of the control group (0.25 ± 0.10 versus 0.16 ± 0.05, p < 0.05). These findings may be an in vivo depiction of the altered basal ganglion circuit in PD brain resulting from the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons and disruption of nigrostriatal dopaminergic projections. Given the important role of non-human primates in translational studies, our findings provide better understanding of the complicated evolution of PD.

  4. Effectivness of the GnRH analogue deslorelin as a reversible contraceptive in a neotropical primate, the Common Marmoset Callithrix Jacchus (Mammalia: Primates: Callitrichidae

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    Derek A. Rosenfield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deslorelin is a synthetic GnRH analogue, which is being used as a contraceptive in animals by acting as a gonadal suppressant.  The product Suprelorin (Virbac, Australia contains deslorelin as a biocompatible, slow release subcutaneous implant. The continuous release of deslorelin provokes a down-regulation of GnRH receptors, and subsequently, inhibition of the synthesis and release of the gonadotropins FSH and LH, necessary for gonadal activities.  The intention of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a subcutaneous deslorelin acetate implant (2,35mg in suppressing ovarian cyclic activity and inhibiting ovulation in captive Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus, and investigate the reversibility of the treatment.  Two experimental groups were formed, group deslorelin (D with three couples and control group (C with two couples.  To monitor the effect of the implants, hormones indicating ovarian cyclic activity were monitored non-invasively by enzyme immunoassay (fecal monoclonal antibody anti-progesterone CL 425.  Fecal samples were collected three times a week from all females during three trial phases (phase I: month 1,2,3 and 4; phase II: month: 5,6 and 7 and phase III: month 8,9 and 10.  In contrast to expectations the results of this trial indicated that there was no suppression of the ovarian cyclic activity, nor inhibition of the ovulation after the application of the implants.  The outcome of our trial can possibly be explained by the fact that the dosage of 2.35mg of deslorelin is not effective in C. jacchus.  We confirmed significant changes (p<0.05 of P4 metabolites from phase I to phase II due to the treatment after the implantation of the GnRH analogue Deslorelin.  The employed non-invasive fecal progesterone monitoring could be biologically validated and proved to be efficient in the detection of ovarian cyclic activity in this neotropical primate species, C. jacchus. 

  5. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp. living in an environment with high human activity

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    Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86% were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae.P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10% and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp., our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets.

  6. Anatomical and functional neuroimaging in awake, behaving marmosets.

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    Silva, Afonso C

    2017-03-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey that has gained significant recent interest in neuroscience research, not only because of its compatibility with gene editing techniques, but also due to its tremendous versatility as an experimental animal model. Neuroimaging modalities, including anatomical (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), complemented by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain. High-resolution anatomical MRI of the marmoset brain can be obtained with remarkable cytoarchitectonic detail. Functional MRI of the marmoset brain has been used to study various sensory systems, including somatosensory, auditory, and visual pathways, while resting-state fMRI studies have unraveled functional brain networks that bear great correspondence to those previously described in humans. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of the marmoset brain has enabled the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity from thousands of neurons with single cell spatial resolution. In this article, we aim to review the main results obtained by our group and by our colleagues in applying neuroimaging techniques to study the marmoset brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 373-389, 2017.

  7. Gene expression ontogeny of spermatogenesis in the marmoset uncovers primate characteristics during testicular development.

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    Lin, Zachary Yu-Ching; Hirano, Takamasa; Shibata, Shinsuke; Seki, Naomi M; Kitajima, Ryunosuke; Sedohara, Ayako; Siomi, Mikiko C; Sasaki, Erika; Siomi, Haruhiko; Imamura, Masanori; Okano, Hideyuki

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis has been investigated extensively in rodents and a strictly controlled developmental process has been defined at cellular and molecular levels. In comparison, primate spermatogenesis has been far less well characterized. However, important differences between primate and rodent spermatogenesis are emerging so it is not always accurate to extrapolate findings in rodents to primate systems. Here, we performed an extensive immunofluorescence study of spermatogenesis in neonatal, juvenile, and adult testes in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to determine primate-specific patterns of gene expression that underpin primate germ cell development. Initially we characterized adult spermatogonia into two main classes; mitotically active C-KIT(+)Ki67(+) cells and mitotically quiescent SALL4(+)PLZF(+)LIN28(+)DPPA4(+) cells. We then explored the expression of a set of markers, including PIWIL1/MARWI, VASA, DAZL, CLGN, RanBPM, SYCP1 and HAPRIN, during germ cell differentiation from early spermatocytes through round and elongating spermatids, and a clear program of gene expression changes was determined as development proceeded. We then examined the juvenile marmoset testis. Markers of gonocytes demonstrated two populations; one that migrates to the basal membrane where they form the SALL4(+) or C-KIT(+) spermatogonia, and another that remains in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. This later population, historically identified as pre-spermatogonia, expressed meiotic and apoptotic markers and were eliminated because they appear to have failed to correctly migrate. Our findings provide the first platform of gene expression dynamics in adult and developing germ cells of the common marmoset. Although we have characterized a limited number of genes, these results will facilitate primate spermatogenesis research and understanding of human reproduction.

  8. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine.

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    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  9. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology.

  10. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed.

  11. Audience affects decision-making in a marmoset communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toarmino, Camille R; Wong, Lauren; Miller, Cory T

    2017-01-01

    An audience can have a profound effect on the dynamics of communicative interactions. As a result, non-human primates often adjust their social decision-making strategies depending on the audience composition at a given time. Here we sought to test how the unique vocal behaviour of multiple audience members affected decisions to communicate. To address this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which common marmosets directly interacted with multiple 'virtual monkeys' (VMs), each of whom represented an individual marmoset with distinct vocal behaviour. This active social signalling paradigm provided subjects an opportunity to interact with and learn about the behaviour of each VM in the network and apply this knowledge in subsequent communicative decisions. We found that subjects' propensity to interact with particular VMs was determined by the behaviour of each VM in the audience and suggests that marmoset social decision-making strategies are highly adaptive to nuances of the immediate communication network.

  12. Histopathological characterization of renal tubular and interstitial changes in 5/6 nephrectomized marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yui; Yamaguchi, Itaru; Myojo, Kensuke; Kimoto, Naoya; Imaizumi, Minami; Takada, Chie; Sanada, Hiroko; Takaba, Katsumi; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have become a useful animal model, particularly for development of biopharmaceuticals. While various renal failure models have been established in rodents, there is currently no acceptable model in marmosets. We analyzed the damaged renal tubules and tubulointerstitial changes (inflammation and fibrosis) of 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) common marmosets by histopathological/immunohistochemical methods, and compared these findings to those in 5/6 Nx SD rats. In Nx marmosets and rats sacrificed at 5 and 13 weeks after Nx, variously dilated and atrophied renal tubules were seen in the cortex in common; however, the epithelial proliferating activity was much less in Nx marmosets. Furthermore, the degrees of inflammation and fibrosis seen in the affected cortex were more severe and massive in Nx marmosets with time-dependent increase. Interestingly, inflammation in Nx marmosets, of which degree was less in Nx rats, consisted of a large number of CD3-positive T cells and CD20-positive B cells (occasionally forming follicles), and a few CD68-positive macrophages. Based on these findings, lymphocytes might contribute to the progressive renal lesions in Nx marmosets. Fibrotic areas in Nx marmosets comprised myofibroblasts expressing vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas along with vimentin and α-SMA expressions, desmin was expressed in myofibroblasts in Nx rats. This study shows that there are some differences in renal lesions induced by Nx between marmosets and rats, which would provide useful, base-line information for pharmacology and toxicology studies using Nx marmosets.

  13. Mini-atlas of the marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Aya; Tokuno, Hironobu; Watson, Charles

    2015-04-01

    A mini-atlas of the brain is designed to help students and young researchers who are not familiar with neuroanatomy. In the mini-atlas, a limited number of important nuclei and fiber tracts are shown on a small number of brain sections from posterior end to the anterior end of the brain. The first mini-atlas was introduced for the rat brain (Watson et al., 2010). Here we present a mini-atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jaccus), which is one of representative experimental primates for modern neuroscience. We further discuss the differences of brain structures between rodents and primates.

  14. The timing of administration, dose dependence and efficacy of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors on the reversal of motor disability produced by L-DOPA in the MPTP-treated common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayarani-Binazir, Kayhan A; Jackson, Michael J; Fisher, Ria; Zoubiane, Ghada; Rose, Sarah; Jenner, Peter

    2010-06-10

    Dopa decarboxylase inhibitors are routinely used to potentiate the effects of L-DOPA in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, neither in clinical use nor in experimental models of Parkinson's disease have the timing and dose of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors been thoroughly explored. We now report on the choice of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors, dose and the time of dosing relationships of carbidopa, benserazide and L-alpha-methyl dopa (L-AMD) in potentiating the effects of L-DOPA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated common marmoset. Pre-treatment with benserazide for up to 3h did not alter the motor response to L-DOPA compared to simultaneous administration with L-DOPA. There was some evidence of a relationship between carbidopa and benserazide dose and increased locomotor activity and the reversal of motor disability. But in general, commonly used dose levels of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors appeared to produce a maximal motor response to L-DOPA. In contrast, dyskinesia intensity and duration continued to increase with both carbidopa and benserazide dose. The novel dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, L-AMD, increased locomotor activity and improved motor disability to the same extent as carbidopa or benserazide but importantly this was accompanied by significantly less dyskinesia. This study shows that currently, dopa decarboxylase inhibitors may be routinely employed in the MPTP-treated primate at doses which are higher than those necessary to produce a maximal potentiation of the anti-parkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. This may lead to excessive expression of dyskinesia in this model of Parkinson's disease and attention should be given to the dose regimens currently employed.

  15. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  16. Hematology and blood biochemistry in wild hybrid marmosets from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita de Oliveira e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the hematological and biochemical values of wild hybrid marmoset (Callithrix penicillata and C. geoffroyi found in a forest zone of Southeastern Brazil. The marmosets were anaesthetized using ketamine and xylazine hydrochloride. Blood samples (0.5-1mL were collected through the venipuncture of the femoral vein. Hematological and biochemical analyses were performed using automated counters and biochemical kits. The comparison for sex (adult males vs. adult females and age class (juvenile vs. adult physiological data and weight were analyzed through Student's t-test for independent samples. Significant differences between sex were observed in erythrocytes (P<0.01 and hemoglobin (P<0.05. The present study provides essential baseline information on the normal blood values of wild hybrid marmosets, the data of which are not readily accessible from the existing body of scientific literature on nonhuman primates.

  17. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2J2 mainly expressed in small intestines and livers effectively metabolizes human P450 2J2 probe substrates, astemizole and terfenadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Okamoto, Eriko; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    1. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World Monkey, has potential to be a useful animal model in preclinical studies. However, drug metabolizing properties have not been fully understood due to insufficient information on cytochrome P450 (P450), major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. Marmoset P450 2J2 cDNA was isolated from marmoset livers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high-sequence identity (91%) with cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes. A phylogenetic tree revealed that marmoset P450 2J2 was evolutionarily closer to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes, than P450 2J forms in pigs, rabbits, rats or mice. 3. Marmoset P450 2J2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the small intestine and liver, and to a lesser extent in the brain, lung and kidney. Immunoblot analysis also showed expression of marmoset P450 2J2 protein in the small intestine and liver. 4. Enzyme assays using marmoset P450 2J2 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that marmoset P450 2J2 effectively catalyzed astemizole O-demethylation and terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation, similar to human and cynomolgus monkey P450 2J2 enzymes. 5. These results suggest the functional characteristics of P450 2J2 enzymes are similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  18. Persistent anxiety-like behavior in marmosets following a recent predatory stress condition: reversal by diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marilia; Giorgetti, Marco; Souto, Anna América Vieira; Vilela, Gabriela; Santos, Katarina; Boas, Naiá Vilas; Tomaz, Carlos

    2007-04-01

    Initial investigations indicated the use of the Marmoset Predator Confrontation Test (MPCT) as an experimental procedure to measure fear/anxiety-related behaviors in non-human primates. However, possible long-term habituation effects and re-use of experimental subjects need to be verified. This study, therefore, compared the behavioral response of experienced versus naïve adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in the MPCT, with/without diazepam administrations. Subjects were tested in the figure-8 maze and confronted with a taxidermized wild-cat predator stimulus. After four initial 20-min maze habituation sessions, each subject was submitted to two randomly-assigned 20-min predator confrontation sessions: vehicle and 2 mg/kg of diazepam. Confrontation with the predator induced significant behavioral changes; i.e., proximic avoidance and tsik-tsik alarm call. Diazepam administration, concomitant to predator exposure, reversed the behavioral changes observed. In both the experienced and naïve marmosets a similar behavioral profile and response pattern to diazepam was detected, corroborating the important selective pressure that felines seem to have on marmoset behavioral ecology. Therefore, during a more naturalistic-like regimen--i.e., recurring intermittent predator encounters--the general response pattern remains highly consistent, regardless of prior experience. One may consider the re-use of marmoset subjects in the MPCT, particularly under these specific conditions (i.e. repeated 20-min confrontations, 72-h apart).

  19. T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism in the marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niblack, G.D.; Kateley, J.R.; Gengozian, N.

    1977-01-01

    Marmosets are natural blood chimeras, this condition resulting from the high frequency of fraternal twinning and the consistent development of placental vascular anastomoses between the two embryos. Identification of chimerism by sex-chromosome analysis of cultured blood lymphocytes provided a means of determining the proportion of chimerism among T and B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were enriched for T or B cells by filtration through a nylon column (yields >95% T-cells) or inactivation of T lymphocytes by treatment with a goat anti-marmoset thymocyte antiserum in the presence of complement (yields >95% B cells). Mitogenic stimulation of these separated, enriched cell populations yielded metaphase plates which could be scored for percentage male and female cells. Tests on five different blood chimeras showed the T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism to be the same. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with cells from another species of marmoset in a mixed lymphocyte culture test revealed the chimeric T-cell response (i.e., host and co-twin cells) to be similar to that obtained with a mitogenic lectin. The demonstration of equivalent T- and B-cell chimerism in these animals suggests derivation of these cells from a common stem cell pool and the response of both T-cell populations to an antigenic stimulus in proportions similar to their percentage chimerism suggests complete immunologic tolerance exists in this species for co-twin histocompatibility antigens.

  20. Adult neurogenesis in humans- common and unique traits in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New neurons are continuously generated in specific regions in the adult brain. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that adult-born neurons have specific functional features and mediate neural plasticity. Data on the extent and dynamics of adult neurogenesis in adult humans are starting to emerge, and there are clear similarities and differences compared to other mammals. Why do these differences arise? And what do they mean?

  1. Immunogenicity and Safety of Purified Inactiviated Hepatitis A Vaccine(YN5 Strain) in Common Marmosets%精制甲型肝炎灭活疫苗(YN5株)狨猴试验安全性和免疫原性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马波; 胡彩珍; 何丽芳; 黄果勇; 练幼辉; 王馨

    2004-01-01

    目的检测精制甲型肝炎灭活疫苗的安全性和免疫原性.方法甲型肝炎病毒YN-5株经Veto细胞培养制成精制甲型肝炎灭活疫苗.采用普通狨猴(common marmoset)进行疫苗的安全性、免疫原性和保护力试验.结果实验疫苗组和对照疫苗组狨猴均有特异抗体产生,对甲型肝炎病毒强毒株的攻击亦有保护作用.结论该疫苗(YN-5株)有良好的安全性和免疫原性.

  2. Novel Marmoset Cytochrome P450 2C19 in Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Human P450 2C9 and 2C19 Substrates, S-Warfarin, Tolbutamide, Flurbiprofen, and Omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Kawano, Mirai; Shimizu, Makiko; Toda, Akiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World monkey, has the potential for use in human drug development due to its evolutionary closeness to humans. Four novel cDNAs, encoding cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C18, 2C19, 2C58, and 2C76, were cloned from marmoset livers to characterize P450 2C molecular properties, including previously reported P450 2C8. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high sequence identities (>86%) with those of human P450 2Cs, except for marmoset P450 2C76, which has a low sequence identity (∼70%) with any human P450 2Cs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that marmoset P450 2Cs were more closely clustered with those of humans and macaques than other species investigated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that all of the marmoset P450 2C mRNAs were predominantly expressed in liver as opposed to the other tissues tested. Marmoset P450 2C proteins were detected in liver by immunoblotting using antibodies against human P450 2Cs. Among marmoset P450 2Cs heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, marmoset P450 2C19 efficiently catalyzed human P450 2C substrates, S-warfarin, diclofenac, tolbutamide, flurbiprofen, and omeprazole. Marmoset P450 2C19 had high Vmax and low Km values for S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation that were comparable to those in human liver microsomes, indicating warfarin stereoselectivity similar to findings in humans. Faster in vivo S-warfarin clearance than R-warfarin after intravenous administration of racemic warfarin (0.2 mg/kg) to marmosets was consistent with the in vitro kinetic parameters. These results indicated that marmoset P450 2C enzymes had functional characteristics similar to those of humans, and that P450 2C-dependent metabolic properties are likewise similar between marmosets and humans.

  3. B-Cell Depletion Attenuates White and Gray Matter Pathology in Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Yolanda S.; Bauer, Jan; van Driel, Nikki; Bleeker, Wim K.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Geurts, Jeroen J. G.; Laman, Jon D.; Craigen, Jenny L.; Blezer, Erwin; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CD20-positive B-cell depletion on central nervous system (CNS) white and gray matter pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmosets, a relevant preclinical model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was ind

  4. Two new test methods to quantify motor deficits in a marmoset model for Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, P.S.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Helden, H.P.M.; Smit, A.B.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The validity of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a model for human disease depends on the development of parameters with clinical relevance. We tested the effect of treatment with MPTP in two newly developed non-invasive motor behavioral paradigms in the context of Parkinson's disease. Th

  5. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF INFLUENZA B VIRUS FROM COMMON COTTON-EARED MARMOSETS%普通棉耳狨猴中乙型流感病毒的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建党; 李晓眠; 刘凤勇; 金孟珏; 刘民; 徐燕; 张国际; 何建民

    2002-01-01

    乙型流感病毒是引起人类局部流行性感冒的重要病原体,其起源和自然储存宿主目前仍不清楚.1999年夏季在某动物中心饲养的普通棉耳狨猴(Callithrixjacchus)群体中爆发了以呼吸道症状为主的急性传染病,死亡比率高达1/3.通过对死亡狨猴肺组织匀浆接种鸡胚和MDCK细胞的分离培养,分离出病毒.双份血清的红细胞凝集抑制试验证实,此分离株为此次狨猴群体感染流行的病原体.通过甲型和乙型流感病毒标准血清鉴定,证实该分离株为乙型流感病毒,命名为B/marmoset/China/1/99.

  6. Comparison of marmoset and human FSH using synthetic peptides of the β-subunit L2 loop region and anti-peptide antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutteyil, Susha S; Kulkarni, Bhalchandra J; Mojidra, Rahul; Joseph, Shaini; Pathak, Bhakti R; Mahale, Smita D

    2016-06-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone required for female and male gametogenesis in vertebrates. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate monkey, used as animal model in biomedical research. Observations like, requirement of extremely high dose of human FSH in marmosets for superovulation compared to other primates and generation of antibodies in marmoset against human FSH after repeated superovulation cycles, point towards the possibility that FSH-FSH receptor (FSHR) interaction in marmosets might be different than in the humans. In this study we attempted to understand some of these structural differences using FSH peptides and anti-peptide antibody approach. Based on sequence alignment, in silico modeling and docking studies, L2 loop of FSH β-subunit (L2β) was found to be different between marmoset and human. Hence, peptides corresponding to region 32-50 of marmoset and human L2β loop were synthesized, purified and characterized. The peptides displayed dissimilarity in terms of molecular mass, predicted isoelectric point, predicted charge and in the ability to inhibit hormone-receptor interaction. Polyclonal antibodies generated against both the peptides were found to exhibit specific binding for the corresponding peptide and parent FSH in ELISA and Western blotting respectively and exhibited negligible reactivity to cross-species peptide and FSH in ELISA. The anti-peptide antibody against marmoset FSH was also able to detect native FSH in marmoset plasma samples and pituitary sections. In summary, the L2β loop of marmoset and human FSH has distinct receptor interaction ability and immunoreactivity indicating possibility of subtle conformational and biochemical differences between the two regions which may affect the FSH-FSHR interaction in these two primates. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2D8 in livers and small intestines metabolizes typical human P450 2D6 substrates, metoprolol, bufuralol and dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Hagihira, Yuya; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    1. Although the New World non-human primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), is a potentially useful animal model, comprehensive understanding of drug metabolizing enzymes is insufficient. 2. A cDNA encoding a novel cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D8 was identified in marmosets. The amino acid sequence deduced from P450 2D8 cDNA showed a high sequence identity (83-86%) with other primate P450 2Ds. Phylogenetic analysis showed that marmoset P450 2D8 was closely clustered with human P450 2D6, unlike P450 2Ds of miniature pig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse or rat. 3. Marmoset P450 2D8 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the liver and small intestine among the tissues types analyzed, whereas marmoset P450 2D6 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver where P450 2D protein was detected by immunoblotting. 4. By metabolic assays using marmoset P450 2D8 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, although P450 2D8 exhibits lower catalytic efficiency compared to marmoset and human P450 2D6 enzymes, P450 2D8 mediated O-demethylations of metoprolol and dextromethorphan and bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. 5. These results suggest that marmoset P450 2D8 (also expressed in the extrahepatic tissues) has potential roles in drug metabolism in a similar manner to those of human and marmoset P450 2D6.

  8. Development of the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray (EUMAMA: a new genetic tool for large-scale expression profiling in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waegele Brigitte

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus, a small non-endangered New World primate native to eastern Brazil, is becoming increasingly used as a non-human primate model in biomedical research, drug development and safety assessment. In contrast to the growing interest for the marmoset as an animal model, the molecular tools for genetic analysis are extremely limited. Results Here we report the development of the first marmoset-specific oligonucleotide microarray (EUMAMA containing probe sets targeting 1541 different marmoset transcripts expressed in hippocampus. These 1541 transcripts represent a wide variety of different functional gene classes. Hybridisation of the marmoset microarray with labelled RNA from hippocampus, cortex and a panel of 7 different peripheral tissues resulted in high detection rates of 85% in the neuronal tissues and on average 70% in the non-neuronal tissues. The expression profiles of the 2 neuronal tissues, hippocampus and cortex, were highly similar, as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.96. Several transcripts with a tissue-specific pattern of expression were identified. Besides the marmoset microarray we have generated 3215 ESTs derived from marmoset hippocampus, which have been annotated and submitted to GenBank [GenBank: EF214838 – EF215447, EH380242 – EH382846]. Conclusion We have generated the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray and demonstrated its use to characterise large-scale gene expression profiles of hippocampus but also of other neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. In addition, we have generated a large collection of ESTs of marmoset origin, which are now available in the public domain. These new tools will facilitate molecular genetic research into this non-human primate animal model.

  9. Diazepam-induced decrease in anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys exposed to a novel open-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Komorowski, Mara; Melo, Gabriela C; Lima, Talita; Barros, Marilia

    2012-01-01

    Unfamiliar environments can be a source of stress, fear and anxiety for marmoset monkeys. In spite of existing data, the influence of putative anxiolytics on the effects of novel environments has yet to be tested in primates. Therefore, the behavior of adult black tufted-ear marmosets to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel environment was analyzed in the presence and absence of diazepam (DZP). Marmosets were pre-treated with vehicle (n=5) or diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, ip; n=5) and submitted to a 15 min free exploration trial within a rectangular open-field arena. DZP-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, demonstrated significantly lower rates of (phee) contact calls and exploration, while a higher scan duration. Sojourn time in the arena's central zone was also significantly higher in the former group and sedation was not observed. Thus, pre-treatment with the benzodiazepine DZP decreased several anxiety-related behaviors induced by subjecting the marmosets to a new environment. The results also indicate that, as with rodent subjects, the open-field may provide a useful simple paradigm for assessing anxiety-like behaviors in this primate and, as such, constitutes a unique opportunity for direct comparative studies between rodents and marmoset monkeys in terms of anxiety and/or sedation.

  10. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Katharina; Warthemann, Rita; Lentes, Jana; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf; Langenstroth, Daniel; Gromoll, Jörg; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in

  11. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Debowski

    Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement

  12. Active immunization against renin in normotensive marmoset

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    Michel, J.B.; Guettier, C.; Philippe, M.; Galen, F.X.; Corvol, P.; Menard, J.

    1987-06-01

    Primate renins (human and monkey) are very similar. We used pure human renin to immunize marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and thereby produce a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction. After a control period of 2 months, five male marmosets, on their usual sodium-poor diet, were immunized against pure human renin by three subcutneous injections of 30 ..mu..g each, with complete and then incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three marmosets were injected with adjuvant only and served as controls. Blood sampling and blood pressure measurements were performed weekly. After the third injection, the five marmosets immunized against renin developed a high titer of renin antibodies (50% binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human renin at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:10,000). The antibodies inhibited the enzymatic activity of both marmoset and human renins. At the same time, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly. Plasma renin enzyme activity was undetectable in the animals. Plasma aldosterone decreased significantly. After 1-4 months with low blood pressure, a normal urinary output, and a normal plasma creatinine, the five marmosets became sick and died within one month. At autopsy an immunological renal disease, characterize by the presence of immunoglobulin and macrophage infiltration colocalized with renin, was found. No immunoglobulin was detectable in extrarenal vessels or in other organs. These experiments demonstrate that, in this primate, a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system can be achieved by active immunization against homologous renin, but this blockade is associated with the development of an autoimmune disease localized in the kidney.

  13. An operant conditioning method for studying auditory behaviors in marmoset monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan D Remington

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is a small New World primate that has increasingly been used as a non-human model in the fields of sensory, motor, and cognitive neuroscience. However, little knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods in this species. Developing an understanding of the neural basis of perception and cognition in an animal model requires measurement of both brain activity and behavior. Here we describe an operant conditioning behavioral training method developed to allow controlled psychoacoustic measurements in marmosets. We demonstrate that marmosets can be trained to consistently perform a Go/No-Go auditory task in which a subject licks at a feeding tube when it detects a sound. Correct responses result in delivery of a food reward. Crucially, this operant conditioning task generates little body movement and is well suited for pairing behavior with single-unit electrophysiology. Successful implementation of an operant conditioning behavior opens the door to a wide range of new studies in the field of auditory neuroscience using the marmoset as a model system.

  14. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) as a biochemical marker for wasting marmoset syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takuro; Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2016-06-01

    Use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate experimental animal has increased in recent years. Although wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) is one of the biggest problems in captive marmoset colonies, the molecular mechanisms, biochemical markers for accurate diagnosis and a reliable treatment remain unknown. In this study, as a first step to finding biochemical marker(s) for the accurate diagnosis of WMS, we conducted blood cell counts, including hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelets, and examined serum chemistry values, including albumin, calcium and levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), using a colony of marmosets with and without weight loss. MMP9 is thought to be an enzyme responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix components and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions, such as human and murine inflammatory bowel disease, which, like WMS, are characterized histologically by inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestines. The values of hematocrit and hemoglobin and levels of serum albumin and calcium in the WMS group were significantly decreased versus the control group. The platelet values and serum MMP9 concentrations were increased significantly in the WMS group compared with the control group. MMP9 could be a new and useful marker for the diagnosis of WMS in addition to hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum albumin and calcium. Our results also indicate that MMP9 could be a useful molecular candidate for treatment.

  15. Touchscreen assays of learning, response inhibition, and motivation in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D; Bergman, Jack; Coyle, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in precision gene editing have led to the emergence of the marmoset as an experimental subject of considerable interest and translational value. A better understanding of behavioral phenotypes of the common marmoset will inform the extent to which forthcoming transgenic mutants are cognitively intact. Therefore, additional information regarding their learning, inhibitory control, and motivational abilities is needed. The present studies used touchscreen-based repeated acquisition and discrimination reversal tasks to examine basic dimensions of learning and response inhibition. Marmosets were trained daily to respond to one of the two simultaneously presented novel stimuli. Subjects learned to discriminate the two stimuli (acquisition) and, subsequently, with the contingencies switched (reversal). In addition, progressive ratio performance was used to measure the effort expended to obtain a highly palatable reinforcer varying in magnitude and, thereby, provide an index of relative motivational value. Results indicate that rates of both acquisition and reversal of novel discriminations increased across successive sessions, but that rate of reversal learning remained slower than acquisition learning, i.e., more trials were needed for mastery. A positive correlation was observed between progressive ratio break point and reinforcement magnitude. These results closely replicate previous findings with squirrel monkeys, thus providing evidence of similarity in learning processes across nonhuman primate species. Moreover, these data provide key information about the normative phenotype of wild-type marmosets using three relevant behavioral endpoints.

  16. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  17. Molecular Cloning, Tissue Distribution, and Functional Characterization of Marmoset Cytochrome P450 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World monkey, has potential to be an animal model for drug metabolism studies. In this study, we identified and characterized cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A1 and 1B1 in addition to the known P450 1A2 in marmosets. Marmoset P450 1A1 and 1B1 cDNA contained open reading frames encoding 512 and 543 amino acids, respectively, with high sequence identities (90%-93%) to other primate P450 1A1s and 1B1s. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed close evolutionary relationships among marmoset, macaque, and human P450 1A and 1B enzymes. By mRNA quantification and immunoblot analyses in five marmoset tissues, P450 1A1 was mainly expressed in lungs and small intestines, and P450 1A2 was expressed predominantly in livers. In contrast, P450 1B1 was expressed in all tissues tested. Marmoset P450 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, and phenacetin O-deethylation, similar to those of humans and cynomolgus monkeys. Notably, marmoset P450 1A1 and 1A2 more efficiently catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation than those of the human homologs, but were comparable to those of the cynomolgus monkey homologs. Additionally, marmoset P450 1B1 preferentially catalyzed estradiol 4-hydroxylation; however, rat P450 1B1 more favorably catalyzed estradiol 2-hydroxylation, indicating that the estradiol hydroxylation specificity of marmoset P450 1B1 was similar to those of human and cynomolgus monkey P450 1B1. These results indicated that marmoset P450 1A and 1B enzymes had functional characteristics similar to those of humans and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that P450 1A and 1B-dependent metabolism was similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys, and humans.

  18. Young Adult Literature and the Common Core: A Surprisingly Good Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, Jonathan; Wadham, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Advocates have long argued that an increased role for young adult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young…

  19. The marmoset monkey: a multi-purpose preclinical and translational model of human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart, Bert A; Abbott, David H; Nakamura, Katsuki; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2012-11-01

    The development of biologic molecules (monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, soluble receptors) as specific therapeutics for human disease creates a need for animal models in which safety and efficacy can be tested. Models in lower animal species are precluded when the reagents fail to recognize their targets, which is often the case in rats and mice. In this Feature article we will highlight the common marmoset, a small-bodied nonhuman primate (NHP), as a useful model in biomedical and preclinical translational research.

  20. Metabolism of radiohafnium in marmosets and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.M.; Seidel, A.; Doerfel, H.

    1985-01-01

    The whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf was studied in marmosets (Callithrex jacchus) and found to be closely similar to that in rats and Chinese hamsters. Limited tissue distribution studies suggest a higher uptake in liver and much lower deposition in skin and muscle in the marmoset as compared to the rat or Chinese hamster. Studies in Chinese hamsters showed that treatment with the chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid resulted in only a small reduction in the whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf. The absorption of orally administered /sup 181/Hf, in various chemical forms, was found to be between 0.04 and 0.13% of the ingested dose and was unaffected by age between 5 and 21 months but was increased by fasting. The measured absorption of /sup 181/Hf in Chinese hamsters and in rats was similar to that of plutonium suggesting that radiohafnium could be used as a surrogate for plutonium for selected studies in human volunteers.

  1. Functional capabilities of marmoset T and B lymphocytes in primary in vitro antibody formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickerson, D.A.; Gengozian, N.

    1981-01-15

    In vitro tests of T- and B-lymphocyte function of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus, were examined to explore the lower immune response profile previously reported for S. o. oedipus. Experiments with trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP-LPS) revealed peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from both species capable of antibody formation. This response was both T cell and monocyte independent; indeed, removal of T cells led to an enhanced response, indicating a regulatory role for this cell in each species. Studies with the nonmitogenic form of TNP-LPS, trinitrophenyl-base-hydrolyzed-lipopolysaccharide, revealed that plaque-forming cells could be obtained from S. fuscicollis PBL while S. o. oedipus PBL were unresponsive. This report also demonstrates that hemopoietic chimerism, a feature common to all marmosets, has a negative influence on antibody-forming capabilities.

  2. Natural variation in gestational cortisol is associated with patterns of growth in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Birnie, Andrew K; Korgan, Austin C; Santo, Jonathan B; French, Jeffrey A

    2012-02-01

    High levels of prenatal cortisol have been previously reported to retard fetal growth. Although cortisol plays a pivotal role in prenatal maturation, heightened exposure to cortisol can result in lower body weights at birth, which have been shown to be associated with adult diseases like hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study examines the relationship between natural variation in gestational cortisol and fetal and postnatal growth in marmoset monkeys. Urinary samples obtained during the mother's gestation were analyzed for cortisol. Marmoset body mass index (BMI) was measured from birth through 540 days in 30- or 60-day intervals. Multi-level modeling was used to test if marmoset growth over time was predicted by changes in gestational cortisol controlling for time, sex, litter, and litter size. The results show that offspring exposed to intra-uterine environments with elevated levels of cortisol had lower linear BMI rates of change shortly after birth than did offspring exposed to lower levels of cortisol, but exhibited a higher curvilinear growth rate during adolescence. Average daily change in gestational cortisol during the first trimester had a stronger relationship with postnatal growth than change during the third trimester. Higher exposure to cortisol during gestation does alter developmental trajectories, however there appears to be a catch-up period during later post-natal growth. These observations contribute to a larger discussion about the relationship of maternal glucocorticoids on offspring development and the possibility of an earlier vulnerable developmental window.

  3. Morphology of pericardium of black-tufted-ear-marmoset (Callithrix penicillata

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    Luana Célia Stunitz da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many of the diseases that affect the marmosets have already been described, there is a lack of anatomical information on them. In this regard, this study aimed to describe the histological and ultrastructural morphology of the pericardium of black-tufted-ear-marmoset (Callithrix penicillata using four adult specimens from a breeding of wild animals that died from natural causes. Initially, the dissection for exposing and removing the pericardium was carried out in all the primates, which was afterwards sent for analysis both through scanning electronic microscopy and through light microscopy, stained with hematoxylin/eosin (HE and Masson trichrome. This resulted in the observation of a single layer of epithelial cells, named mesothelium, and the presence of cellular extensions and pores. Thus, one can conclude that the pericardium of black-tufted-ear-marmoset has microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics very similar to those of rat, mouse, and golden hamster. It has, however, cellular extensions instead of microvilli previously described in other animal species.

  4. Atlas of the developing brain of the marmoset monkey constructed using magnetic resonance histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikishima, K; Sawada, K; Murayama, A Y; Komaki, Y; Kawai, K; Sato, N; Inoue, T; Itoh, T; Momoshima, S; Iriki, A; Okano, H J; Sasaki, E; Okano, H

    2013-01-29

    The developmental anatomy of the brain is largely directed by neural-based cues. Despite this knowledge, the developmental trajectory of the primate brain has not yet been fully characterized. To realize this goal, the advance in noninvasive imaging methods and new brain atlases are essential. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate, is widely used in neuroscience research. The recent introduction of transgenic techniques has enabled the marmoset to be used as a genetically modifiable primate model for brain development. Here, a magnetic resonance histology technique involving the use of ultra-high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to identify the developmental anatomy of the marmoset brain at different time points from gestational week 8 through to birth. The data allowed the generation of a multidimensional atlas of brain structures at different developmental stages. Furthermore, in utero MRI techniques were developed to noninvasively monitor brain development during the embryonic and fetal stages. The multidimensional atlas and the MRI tools developed herein are anticipated to further our understanding of the developing primate brain.

  5. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentolhoda Fereydouni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1. This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs. OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and—after significant refinement—possibly also the production of monkey oocytes.

  6. Monocular inhibition reveals temporal and spatial changes in gene expression in the primary visual cortex of marmoset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eNakagami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of the expression of several activity-dependent genes evoked by visual inputs in the primary visual cortex (V1 in adult marmosets. In order to examine the rapid time course of activity-dependent gene expression, marmosets were first monocularly inactivated by tetrodotoxin (TTX, kept in darkness for two days, and then exposed to various length of light stimulation. Activity-dependent genes including HTR1B, HTR2A, whose activity-dependency were previously reported by us, and well-known immediate early genes (IEGs, c-FOS, ZIF268, and ARC, were examined by in situ hybridization. Using this system, first, we demonstrated the ocular dominance type of gene expression pattern in V1 under this condition. IEGs were expressed in columnar patterns throughout layers II-VI of all the tested monocular marmosets. Second, we showed the regulation of HTR1B and HTR2A expressions by retinal spontaneous activity, because HTR1B and HTR2A mRNA expressions sustained a certain level regardless of visual stimulation and were inhibited by a blockade of the retinal activity with TTX. Third, IEGs dynamically changed its laminar distribution from half an hour to several hours upon a stimulus onset with the unique time course for each gene. The expression patterns of these genes were different in neurons of each layer as well. These results suggest that the regulation of each neuron in the primary visual cortex of marmosets is subjected to different regulation upon the change of activities from retina. It should be related to a highly differentiated laminar structure of primate visual systems, reflecting the functions of the activity-dependent gene expression in marmoset V1.

  7. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  8. A Systematic Review of Loneliness and Common Chronic Physical Conditions in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Petitte, Trisha; Mallow, Jennifer; Barnes, Emily; Petrone, Ashley; Barr, Taura; Theeke, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is a prevalent and global problem for adult populations and has been linked to multiple chronic conditions in quantitative studies. This paper presents a systematic review of quantitative studies that examined the links between loneliness and common chronic conditions including: heart disease, hypertension, stroke, lung disease, and metabolic disorders. A comprehensive literature search process guided by the PRISMA statement led to the inclusion of 33 articles that measure loneline...

  9. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  10. A Systematic Review of Loneliness and Common Chronic Physical Conditions in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitte, Trisha; Mallow, Jennifer; Barnes, Emily; Petrone, Ashley; Barr, Taura; Theeke, Laurie

    Loneliness is a prevalent and global problem for adult populations and has been linked to multiple chronic conditions in quantitative studies. This paper presents a systematic review of quantitative studies that examined the links between loneliness and common chronic conditions including: heart disease, hypertension, stroke, lung disease, and metabolic disorders. A comprehensive literature search process guided by the PRISMA statement led to the inclusion of 33 articles that measure loneliness in chronic illness populations. Loneliness is a significant biopsychosocial stressor that is prevalent in adults with heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and lung disease. The relationships among loneliness, obesity, and metabolic disorders are understudied but current research indicates that loneliness is associated with obesity and with psychological stress in obese persons. Limited interventions have demonstrated long-term effectiveness for reducing loneliness in adults with these same chronic conditions. Future longitudinal randomized trials that enhance knowledge of how diminishing loneliness can lead to improved health outcomes in persons with common chronic conditions would continue to build evidence to support the translation of findings to recommendations for clinical care.

  11. Development of the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray (EUMAMA): a new genetic tool for large-scale expression profiling in a non-human primate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datson, N.A.; Morsink, M.C.; Atanasova, S.; Armstrong, V.W.; Zischler, H.; Schlumbohm, C.; Dutilh, B.E.; Huynen, M.A.; Waegele, B.; Ruepp, A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fuchs, E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), a small non-endangered New World primate native to eastern Brazil, is becoming increasingly used as a non-human primate model in biomedical research, drug development and safety assessment. In contrast to the growing interest for the marmo

  12. Comparative morphology of the diaphragm of white tufted-ear marmoset and the white-fronted marmoset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Borges Lessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marmosets of the Callithrix genus have a great importance in the research field, not only for its occurrence in the ecosystems of South America and Central America, but also because of its small size and easy management. This study aimed to characterize the ultrastructure of the diaphragm of four adult animals of the C. jacchus species and four animals of the C. geoffroyi species that died from natural causes. Diaphragms were collected, dissected, and fixed in 10% formaldehyde and analyzed through scanning electron microscopy. It was observed the presence of an external membrane of connective tissue, with cylindrical muscle fibers arranged in rows perpendicular to the longitudinal axis and grouped into fascicles. In C. jacchus it was observed a discontinuous and linear fibers’ architecture, resulting in a score of 7 and 8 fascicles for male and female, respectively. In C. geoffroyi the fiber had a continuous shape, but also linear, yielding a total of 9 and 6 fascicles for male and female, respectively. The architecture of muscle fibers and the count of fascicles of the coastal face of the diaphragm suggest differences between the species C. geoffroyi and C. jacchus and between males and females, intra- and interspecies.

  13. Aggression and flight behaviour of the marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus: an ethogram for brain stimulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, H P

    1978-01-01

    The aggressive and flight behaviour of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is described and split into behavioural units, allowing analysis of agonistic behaviour evoked by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus. The social context of the described units is also considered. C. jacchus shows clearly recognizable behavioural patterns. Free-born animals are very timid and show typical flight reactions. Within aggressive behaviour, two types of aggression can be distinguished: very violent attacks causing severe injuries, often accompanied by particular threat displays and observed during dominance and territorial encounters, and, on the other hand, relatively harmless short attacks, together with a noisy vocalization, for defensive purposes or keeping group members at a distance.

  14. Common epigenetic variation in a European population of mentally healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnik, Annette; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; Egli, Tobias; Freytag, Virginie; Hartmann, Francina; Heck, Angela; Peter, Fabian; Spalek, Klara; Stetak, Attila; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Vukojevic, Vanja

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation represents an important link between structural genetic variation and complex phenotypes. The study of genome-wide CpG methylation and its relation to traits relevant to psychiatry has become increasingly important. Here, we analyzed quality metrics of 394,043 CpG sites in two samples of 568 and 319 mentally healthy young adults. For 25% of all CpGs we observed medium to large common epigenetic variation. These CpGs were overrepresented in open sea and shore regions, as well as in intergenic regions. They also showed a strong enrichment of significant hits in association analyses. Furthermore, a significant proportion of common DNA methylation is at least partially genetically driven and thus may be observed similarly across tissues. These findings could be of particular relevance for studies of complex neuropsychiatric traits, which often rely on proxy tissues.

  15. Inhibition of maternal behaviour by central infusion of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, W; Boettcher, C A; Post, J L; Abbott, D H

    2011-11-01

    Stress can inhibit maternal behaviour and increase rates of child abuse in humans and other animals; however, the neuroendocrine mechanisms are not known. To determine whether corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a role in stress-induced disruption of maternal behaviour in primates, we characterised the effects of acute i.c.v. infusions of CRH on maternal and abusive behaviour in common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). Nulliparous females were implanted with indwelling i.c.v. guide cannulae before conception. Between 18 and 58 days after the birth of her first infants, each female underwent a series of i.c.v. infusions of human CRH (0, 2, 8 and 25 μg) in 8 μl of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. In the 70 min after infusion, marmosets were tested with one of their infants, first in their home cage and, subsequently, in an unfamiliar cage in which the infant was confined in a transparent box on the cage floor. In the home cage, the highest dose of CRH significantly reduced the amount of time that mothers spent carrying their infants, as compared to vehicle alone, although it did not reliably affect aggression toward the infant or other behaviours. In the confined-infant test, the highest dose of CRH significantly reduced the amount of time that mothers spent on the cage floor, increased mothers' vocalisation rates, and tended to reduce their activity levels and time spent in proximity to their infant. Twenty-five micrograms of CRH also elicited significant elevations in plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol concentrations compared to vehicle. These results indicate that i.c.v.-administered CRH reduces maternal behaviour in marmoset mothers, in both familiar and unfamiliar environments, but does not increase infant abuse.

  16. Treatments for common psychiatric conditions among adults during acute, rehabilitation, and reintegration phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difede, Joann; Cukor, Judith; Lee, Francis; Yurt, Roger

    2009-12-01

    Common and pernicious adult psychiatric disorders consequent to burn injury include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and new-onset substance abuse disorder. Diagnosing and treating these disorders is complicated by the complex psychosocial issues associated with burns including grief, pain, role impairment, disfigurement, dysfunction, stigma, as well as financial and legal issues. Additionally, pre-morbid psychiatric and neurological illnesses are risk factors for burns, adding to the challenge of diagnosis and treatment. This article will focus on the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and MDD consequent to burn trauma, as these are the major psychiatric outcomes, addressing the attendant psychosocial problems as threads in this post-trauma tapestry.

  17. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  18. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jane Burklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one’s emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one’s own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N=39. Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes.

  19. Analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus in dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGibbon, Thomas; Eriköz, Bahar; Grünert, Ulrike; Martin, Paul R

    2015-09-01

    Marmosets are diurnal New World monkeys that show sex-linked cone photopigment polymorphism, whereby all males and some females are dichromats ("red-green colorblind"), but most females show trichromatic color vision. Here we asked whether trichromats express chromatic-specific circuitry in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). The volume of parvocellular (P), magnocellular (M), and koniocellular (K) layers was calculated in Nissl-stained sections from the LGN of adult marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; 10 trichromatic females; 2 dichromatic females; and 13 dichromatic males). Retinal ganglion cell axon terminals within the P and K layers were reconstructed and measured following anterograde tracer (dextran) injections. We show that there is little difference in LGN layer volume with respect to age, weight, or sex of the animals, or between dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes. The morphology of retinal ganglion cell terminals was largely indistinguishable on comparing dichromats and trichromats, and likewise on comparing terminals representing peripheral or foveal retina. We conclude that the LGN circuits we studied are largely independent of red-green color vision phenotype and visual field location.

  20. Postnatal development of quantitative morphological parameters in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the marmoset monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschy, J M; Garey, L J

    1986-12-01

    Quantitative morphological parameters were studied in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) during development, using a series of 14 animals, at ages from birth to adulthood. They include the volume of the LGN and of its layers and interlaminar zones, their neuronal content expressed as numerical density and total number, and the density and number of glial cells in the nucleus as a whole. The volume of the LGN increases rapidly after birth, reaches a maximum at 6 months of age, and then decreases to its adult value of about 11 mm3. Neuronal density follows a reciprocal curve, reaching an adult value of about 41,000 neurons/mm3, so that the total number of about 440,000 neurons per LGN remains constant throughout life although large interindividual variations, especially in juveniles, do not allow unequivocal statements about total neuronal number to be made. Parvocellular layers occupy most of the geniculate volume, and contain about 74% of its neurons in the adult. We found no difference in their development pattern compared with the magnocellular component. The 'superficial' layers and interlaminar zones contain more than 15% of the geniculate neurons, and they could therefore play an important functional role in the primary visual pathway of New World primates. The number of glial cells nearly triples during the first 6 weeks and stabilizes around 800,000 in the LGN of one hemisphere. As the same brains were used as in a previous study on the area 17 of the marmoset (Dev. Brain Res., 29 (1986) 173-188) direct comparisons of the development of cortex and thalamus can be made. Their development is parallel in time, and in both cases the adult values for volume, neuronal density and glial numbers are reached several months postnatally.

  1. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar Kosmos Turesson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing and symbolic (referential signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet. We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols. To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  2. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  3. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A F; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J F; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.

  4. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex SF; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor VA; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John JP; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela AF; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul IW; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth JF; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: avirulence of the PF strain to Callithrix marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Menezes

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Callithrix jacchus geoffroy marmosets (HumBol. 1812 were injected once subcutaneously with 10.000 parasites/g body weight and followed for a period of six months. The PF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. Follow-up was done through blood cultures, xenodiagnosis, serological tests, and ECG. A small number of normaI animais served as control.

  6. Sleep and Alertness Management IV: Effects of Alertness Enhancers Caffeine and Modafinil on Performance in Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    IV: Effects of F +31 15 284 39 91 Info-DenV@tno.nl alertness enhancers caffeine and modafinil on performance in marmosets Date March 2007 Author(s...modafinil op taakverrichting in marmosets 4Wfysieke aspecten centraal staan. Het Resultaten en conclusies onderzoek is uitdrukkelijk wiet gericht op de Beide...modafinil op taakverrichting in marmosets Cotc en * *aprifrai vermnoeidheid en taakverrichting uit te Onvoldoende rust kan vermoeidheid, stellen of te

  7. Tamanho da área de vida e padrão de uso do espaço em grupos de sagüis, Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Primates, Callitrichidae Home range size and pattern of range use in common marmoset groups, Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Primates, Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Soraia Soares de Castro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abundance and distribution of fruits and gums resources in home range size and pattern of range use were investigated in Callithrix jacchus. From October 1996 to January 1998 two groups (QT and PB that lived in a National Forest/IBAMA-RN in northeastern Brazil (6º5'S, 35º12'W, were observed once a week by instantaneous scan sampling. The frequency of quadrant's visit in the home range was recorded at five minute intervals. Trees used for feeding on fruits and/or gum by the study groups were marked with flagging tape and numbered. Samples of the food items were collected for identification. Data on the temporal variation in fruits abundance was based on the monthly phenological observations of the marked trees. Study groups showed small home range size (QT: 2.4 ha and PB: 0.7 ha. No significant differences in home range size between dry and wet months were found, but groups showed a tendency to broadened the range use in the wet months. This revealed a behavioral strategy which marmosets exploited more gums face to decreased in fruits abundance. The abundance and distribution in clusters of fruits and gums resources influenced the pattern of range use and home range size.

  8. Marmosets treated with oxytocin are more socially attractive to their long-term mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon eCavanaugh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult male-female bonds are partly characterized by initiating and maintaining close proximity with a social partner, as well as engaging in high levels of affiliative and sociosexual behavior. Oxytocin (OXT, a neuromodulatory nonapeptide, plays a critical role in the facilitation of social bonding and prosocial behavior toward a social partner (Feldman, 2012. However, less attention has been given to whether augmentation of OXT levels in an individual alters others’ perceptions and behavior toward an OXT-treated social partner. We examined social dynamics in well-established male-female pairs of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus in which one member of the pair was administered an intranasal OXT agonist, an OXT antagonist, or saline. OXT treatment did not alter the expression of affiliative toward an untreated partner. However, OXT did significantly influence the expression of proximity and grooming behavior with a treated partner, as a function of OXT treatment and sex. Female interest in initiating and maintaining proximity with a pair-mate was altered by OXT treatment. Untreated female marmosets departed from their saline-treated partner more frequently than they approached them, as indicated by a low proximity index score. However, when males received an intranasal OXT agonist they had a significantly increased proximity index score relative to saline, indicating that their untreated partner approached them more often than they departed from them. Saline-treated females initiated and received equivalent levels of grooming behavior. However, when female marmosets were treated with an OXT agonist their untreated partner groomed them proportionately more often, for a greater total duration, and for more time per bout, than they initiated grooming behavior. These results suggest that intranasal OXT altered male and female marmosets’ stimulus properties in such a way as to increase the amount of grooming behavior that females received from

  9. A Common Language: How Neuroimmunological Cross Talk Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Odette; Kempermann, Gerd; Walker, Tara L

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulation of the brain is generally studied in the context of injury or disease. Less is known about how the immune system regulates the brain during normal brain function. Recent work has redefined the field of neuroimmunology and, as long as their recruitment and activation are well regulated, immune cells are now known to have protective properties within the central nervous system in maintaining brain health. Adult neurogenesis, the process of new neuron generation in the adult brain, is highly plastic and regulated by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Emerging research has shown that immune cells and their secreted factors can influence adult neurogenesis, both under baseline conditions and during conditions known to change neurogenesis levels, such as aging and learning in an enriched environment. This review will discuss how, under nonpathological conditions, the immune system can interact with the neural stem cells to regulate adult neurogenesis with particular focus on the hippocampus-a region crucial for learning and memory.

  10. SMI-32 parcellates the visual cortical areas of the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Zsolt B

    The distribution pattern of SMI-32-immunoreactivity (SMI-32-ir) of neuronal elements was examined in the visual cortical areas of marmoset monkey. Layer IV of the primary visual cortex (V1) and layers III and V of the extrastriate areas showed the most abundant SMI-32-ir. The different areal and laminar distribution of SMI-32-ir allowed the distinction between various extrastriate areas and determined their exact anatomical boundaries in the New World monkey, Callithrix penicillata. It is shown here that the parcellating nature of SMI-32 described earlier in the visual cortical areas of other mammals - including Old World monkeys - is also present in the marmoset. Furthermore, a comparison became possible between the chemoanatomical organization of New World and Old World primates' visual cortical areas.

  11. The cortical motor system of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakola, Sophia; Burman, Kathleen J; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2015-04-01

    Precise descriptions of the anatomical pathways that link different areas of the cerebral cortex are essential to the understanding of the sensorimotor and association processes that underlie human actions, and their impairment in pathological situations. Many years of research in macaque monkeys have critically shaped how we currently think about cortical motor function in humans. However, it is important to obtain additional understanding about the homologies between cortical areas in human and various non-human primates, and in particular how evolutionary changes in connectivity within specific neural circuits impact on the capacity for different behaviors. Current research has converged on the New World marmoset monkey as an important animal model for cortical function and dysfunction, emphasizing advantages unique to this species. However, the motor repertoire of the marmoset differs from that of the macaque in many ways, including the capacity for skilled use of the hands. Here, we review current knowledge about the cortical frontal areas in marmosets, which are key to the generation and control of motor behaviors, with focus on comparative analyses. We note significant parallels with the macaque monkey, as well as a few potentially important differences, which suggest future directions for work involving architectonic and functional analyses.

  12. Energy allocation changes in overwintering adults of the common pistachio Psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, R; Izadi, H; Mahdian, K

    2012-12-01

    The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is known as the key pest of pistachio orchards in Iran. This pest passes the winter as adults. In this study, energy allocation changes in relation to ambient temperature were investigated in field-collected adults by measuring total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, sorbitol, myoinositol, glycogen, lipid, and protein contents. Glycogen content decreased with decrease in ambient temperature. The decrease in glycogen content was proportional to the increase in total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents. In January, with mean ambient temperature of 5.4°C, glycogen content was at the lowest level, whereas total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, and sorbitol were at the highest level. Total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents increased as temperature decreased from 22.7°C in October to 5.4°C in January. In conclusion, low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols may play a role in winter survival and adaptation to cold of the common pistachio psylla by providing the required cryoprotection. Also, overwintering adults of the common pistachio psylla may store energy in the form of lipid for later utilization during the overwintering.

  13. A Common Language: How Neuroimmunological Cross Talk Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Leiter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune regulation of the brain is generally studied in the context of injury or disease. Less is known about how the immune system regulates the brain during normal brain function. Recent work has redefined the field of neuroimmunology and, as long as their recruitment and activation are well regulated, immune cells are now known to have protective properties within the central nervous system in maintaining brain health. Adult neurogenesis, the process of new neuron generation in the adult brain, is highly plastic and regulated by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Emerging research has shown that immune cells and their secreted factors can influence adult neurogenesis, both under baseline conditions and during conditions known to change neurogenesis levels, such as aging and learning in an enriched environment. This review will discuss how, under nonpathological conditions, the immune system can interact with the neural stem cells to regulate adult neurogenesis with particular focus on the hippocampus—a region crucial for learning and memory.

  14. Are there reasons why adult asthma is more common in females?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, Barbro N.; Ray, Anuradha; Hylkema, Macbteld N.; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2007-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that women are at increased risk of developing adult-onset asthma and also suffer from more severe disease than men. These gender differences appear to be the product of biological sex differences as well as sociocultural and environmental differences. The biolog

  15. An examination of the dimensionalities and common constructs of selected adult cognitive learning style instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    Though a widespread advocacy exists for the use of learning style instruments in adult education, accurate measurement and interpretation using existing instrumentation have proven problematic. Additionally, relatively little attempt has been made to empirically reconcile the different theoretical and conceptual frameworks underlying these instruments. The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity of a cognitive learning ...

  16. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, Andrew R.; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chun, Audrey Y.; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M.; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C.; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancakova, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnloev, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Boettcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M.; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chines, Peter S.; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E. Warwick; De Jong, Pim A.; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Doerr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S.; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Groenberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Groves, Christopher J.; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K.; Hillege, Hans L.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Bent; Johansson, Asa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N.; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstroem, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M.; Noethen, Markus M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A.; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shin, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J.; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W.; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mannisto, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; Maerz, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E.; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Voelzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Ines; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Kari E.; Strachan, David P.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J.; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Weedon, Michael N.; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Goddard, Michael E.; Visscher, Peter M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Frayling, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated similar to 2,000,

  17. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Wood (Andrew); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Yang (Jian); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T.H. Pers (Tune); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); A.Y. Chu (Audrey Y); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); J. Luan; Z. Kutalik; N. Amin (Najaf); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); F.R. Day (Felix); Y. Duan (Yanan); M. Fall (Magnus); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Karjalainen (Juha); K.S. Lo (Ken Sin); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); E. Porcu (Eleonora); J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.H. Zhao; D. Absher (Devin); E. Albrecht (Eva); D. Anderson (David); J. Baron (Jeffrey); M. Beekman (Marian); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); B. Feenstra; M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); K. Fischer (Krista); R.M. Fraser (Ross); A. Goel (Anuj); J. Gong (Jian); A.E. Justice (Anne); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); U. Lim (Unhee); V. Lotay (Vaneet); J.C. Lui (Julian C); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); M.A. Nalls (Michael); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J.S. Ried (Janina); S. Ripke (Stephan); D. Shungin (Dmitry); A. Stancáková (Alena); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. Trompet (Stella); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); U. Afzal (Uzma); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); J.L. Bolton (Jennifer); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); H.A. Boyd; M. Bruinenberg (M.); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Buyske (Steven); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); P.S. Chines (Peter); R. Clarke (Robert); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); E.W. Daw (E Warwick); P.A. De Jong (Pim A); J. Deelen (Joris); G. Delgado; J.C. Denny (Josh C); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); M. Dimitriou (Maria); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); M. Dörr (Marcus); N. Eklund (Niina); E. Eury (Elodie); L. Folkersen (Lasse); M. Garcia (Melissa); F. Geller (Frank); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); A. Go (Attie); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja B); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grönberg (Henrik); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); C.J. Groves (Christopher J.); J. Haessler (Jeff); P. Hall (Per); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Hannemann (Mario); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); Q. Helmer (Quinta); G. Hemani; A.K. Henders (Anjali); H.L. Hillege (Hans); M.A. Hlatky (Mark); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); P. Hoffmann (Per); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); T. Illig (Thomas); A. Isaacs (Aaron); A.L. James (Alan); J. Jeff (Janina); B. Johansen (Berit); A. Johansson (Åsa); G.J. Jolley (Jason); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); M.J. Junttila (Juhani); M.M.L. Kho (Marcia); L. Kinnunen (Leena); N. Klopp (Norman); T. Kocher; W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); Y. Lu (Yingchang); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); M. Maillard (Marc); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); S. McLachlan (Stela); P.J. McLaren (Paul J); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.A. Morken (Mario); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); A.W. Musk (Arthur); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nauck (Matthias); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Oozageer (Laticia); S. Pilz (Stefan); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); R. Roussel (Ronan); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); H. Schunkert (Heribert); R.A. Scott (Robert); J.S. Sehmi (Joban); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); J. Shi (Jianxin); K. Silventoinen (Karri); J.H. Smit (Johannes H.); G.D. Smith; J. Smolonska (Joanna); A. Stanton (Alice); K. Stirrups (Kathy); D.J. Stott (David J); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); D. van Heemst (Diana); F.V.A. Van Oort (Floor V A); S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith M); L. Waite (Lindsay); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); R. Wennauer (Roman); L.R. Wilkens (Lynne R.); C. Willenborg (Christina); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); A. Wright (Alan); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); R. Biffar; J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); P. Bovet (Pascal); P. Brambilla (Paolo); M.J. Brown (Morris); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Caulfield (Mark); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); F.S. Collins (Francis); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); R. Erbel (Raimund); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); J. Eriksson; M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); I. Ford; N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Golay (Alain); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); D.W. Haas (David W); A.S. Hall (Alistair); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew C); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L.A. Hindorff (Lucia A); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); S.E. Humphries (Steve E.); S.C. Hunt (Steven); E. Hypponen (Elina); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F. Kee (Frank); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Lupoli (Sara); P.A. Madden; S. Männistö (Satu); P. Manunta (Paolo); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); B. McKnight (Barbara); T. Meitinger (Thomas); F.L. Moll (Frans); G.W. Montgomery (Grant W.); A.D. Morris (Andrew); A.P. Morris (Andrew); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); L. Qi (Lu); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); P. Sever (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk; J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Virtamo (Jarmo); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); P. Amouyel (Philippe); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert W.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin P.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Stéphane); J.C. Chambers (John C.); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P.W. Franks; P. Froguel (Philippe); L. Groop (Leif); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); A. Hamsten (Anders); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Hui (Jennie); D. Hunter (David); K. Hveem (Kristian); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (Yongmei); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); W. März (Winfried); M. Melbye (Mads); S. Moebus (Susanne); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); J.E. Powell (Joseph); C. Power (Christine); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); E. Reinmaa (Eva); P.M. Ridker (Paul); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; D. Schlessinger (David); P.E. Slagboom (P Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); K. Strauch (Konstantin); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); H. Völzke (Henry); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Zanen (Pieter); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); I.M. Heid (Iris); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); I. Barroso (Inês); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); K.E. North (Kari); D.P. Strachan (David P.); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); A. Metspalu (Andres); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Franke (Lude); C.J. Willer (Cristen); A. Price (Alkes); G. Lettre (Guillaume); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Ingelsson (Erik); J.R. O´Connell; G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.E. Goddard (Michael); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); T.M. Frayling (Timothy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractUsing genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated 1/42,

  18. Medical diseases and depression in older adults: common features and etiological relation

    OpenAIRE

    Bastidas-Bilbao, Hamer

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted of 51 English-language papers published since 2000 in the following databases: PsycNet, Ebsco, and Science Direct. Findings reveal a high comorbidity of depression in older adults. Moreover, they also exhibit stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinsonism, with patterns of symptoms similar to those seen in depression resulting from disease impairment. Analysis shows that these diseases can also precede depression, even without an anatomical-functional...

  19. Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to common aeroallergens in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R B; van Ree, R; Forsberg, B

    2014-01-01

    history, farm exposure, number of older siblings and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Skin prick test positivity to any one of the measured allergens varied within Europe from 31.4% to 52.9%. Prevalence of sensitization to single allergens also varied. Variation in serum total IgE was less marked. Younger...... variation in gender, age, smoking history, farm exposure, family size and BMI. Higher prevalence in younger, compared to older, adults may reflect cohort-associated increases in sensitization or the influence of ageing on immune or tissue responses....

  20. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: white-tufted-ear marmoset [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available white-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix jacchus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Call...ithrix_jacchus_L.png Callithrix_jacchus_NL.png Callithrix_jacchus_S.png Callithrix_jacchu...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callithrix+jacchus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cal...lithrix+jacchus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Call...ithrix+jacchus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callithrix+jacchus&t=NS ...

  2. Cognitive impairment in a young marmoset reveals lateral ventriculomegaly and a mild hippocampal atrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoun, A; Strelnikov, K; Bonté, E; Fonta, C; Girard, P

    2015-11-03

    The number of studies that use the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in various fields of neurosciences is increasing dramatically. In general, animals enter the study when their health status is considered satisfactory on the basis of classical clinical investigations. In behavioral studies, variations of score between individuals are frequently observed, some of them being considered as poor performers or outliers. Experimenters rarely consider the fact that it could be related to some brain anomaly. This raises the important issue of the reliability of such classical behavioral approaches without using complementary imaging, especially in animals lacking striking external clinical signs. Here we report the case of a young marmoset which presented a set of cognitive impairments in two different tasks compared to other age-matched animals. Brain imaging revealed a patent right lateral ventricular enlargement with a mild hippocampal atrophy. This abnormality could explain the cognitive impairments of this animal. Such a case points to the importance of complementing behavioral studies by imaging explorations to avoid experimental bias.

  3. Susceptibility of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus to Monkeypox Virus: A Low Dose Prospective Model for Monkeypox and Smallpox Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Mucker

    Full Text Available Although current nonhuman primate models of monkeypox and smallpox diseases provide some insight into disease pathogenesis, they require a high titer inoculum, use an unnatural route of infection, and/or do not accurately represent the entire disease course. This is a concern when developing smallpox and/or monkeypox countermeasures or trying to understand host pathogen relationships. In our studies, we altered half of the test system by using a New World nonhuman primate host, the common marmoset. Based on dose finding studies, we found that marmosets are susceptible to monkeypox virus infection, produce a high viremia, and have pathological features consistent with smallpox and monkeypox in humans. The low dose (48 plaque forming units required to elicit a uniformly lethal disease and the extended incubation (preclinical signs are unique features among nonhuman primate models utilizing monkeypox virus. The uniform lethality, hemorrhagic rash, high viremia, decrease in platelets, pathology, and abbreviated acute phase are reflective of early-type hemorrhagic smallpox.

  4. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  5. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the

  6. Homologies between human and marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) chromosomes revealed by comparative chromosome painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherlock, J.K.; Griffin, D.K.; Delhanty, J.D.A.; Parrington, J.M. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-15

    Regions of DNA homology between human and marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) chromosomes have been demonstrated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. All 24 chromosome paints and two centromere repeat sequences from Homo sapiens (HSA) have been annealed to previously G-banded metaphase spreads of Callithrix jacchus. All human paint probes, except Y, successfully hybridized to marmoset chromosomes. Fifteen of them hybridized to one region only, seven to two regions, and paint 1 to three regions. Homologies proposed from previous banding comparisons have been confirmed for HSA 2, 4-6, 10-12, 18, 19, 21, and X and partially confirmed for HSA 1 and 3, but were not in agreement for HSA 14 and 17. Human centromere repeat sequences for X and 18 did not hybridize to marmoset chromosomes. Because, at present, there is the confusing situation of several different numbering systems for marmoset chromosomes, we propose a new simpler nomenclature based on descending order of chromosome size. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Somnolence in adult craniopharyngioma patients is a common, heterogeneous condition that is potentially treatable.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, R K

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Somnolence and obesity are prevalent in craniopharyngioma patients. We hypothesized that somnolence was because of obstructive sleep apnoea in craniopharyngioma patients. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We assessed prevalence of somnolence and sleep apnoea in 28 craniopharyngioma and 23 obese controls attending a tertiary referral centre, by means of the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and polysomnography. All subjects with sleep apnoea were offered continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) or modafinil. All craniopharyngioma patients, with unexplained somnolence, were offered modafinil. RESULTS: Somnolence was reported by 20\\/28 (71.5%) craniopharyngioma patients and 4\\/23 (17%) obese subjects (P < 0.001). Median ESS was 7.5 (IQR 6, 10.7) in craniopharyngioma patients and 4.0 (4,8) in controls, P < 0.01. Eleven somnolent craniopharyngioma patients had obstructive sleep apnoea, in whom treatment led to a reduction in ESS by 6.4 +\\/- 1.4, P = 0.01. Among the remaining nine patients, five were offered modafinil therapy, of whom four had benefit, three were not compliant with hormone replacement, and one died before intervention. There was no difference in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea between craniopharyngioma (n = 13, 46%) and obese subjects (n = 14, 61%, P = 0.4). Body mass index (BMI) does not correlate with apnoea hypopnoea index [apnoea - hypopnoea index (AHI), r = 0.25, P = 0.08], which suggests that obesity alone does not explain the prevalence of sleep apnoea in craniopharyngioma patients. CONCLUSIONS: Somnolence is common in craniopharyngioma patients and in the majority is because of obstructive sleep apnoea. An additional group of somnolent craniopharyngioma patients benefits from modafinil.

  8. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Naval Scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jan P. Langenberg, Ph.D., Pharm.D. Henk C. Trap CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: TNO Prins...Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers 5b. GRANT...inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard were studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in the marmoset . Hairless guinea pigs were 5

  9. [The marmoset in biomedical research. Value of this primate model for cardiovascular studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J B; Mahouy, G

    1990-03-01

    Because of its small size, low cost of maintenance, breeding capabilities in captivity, the marmoset, a New World monkey, appears well suited for clinical and fundamental investigations. The contribution of this laboratory animal in the main areas of biomedical research is succinctly described: viral oncology, infections diseases, immunology, reproduction, toxicology and teratology, odontology, behaviour and neuro-psychopathology. Emphasis is put upon the exceptional interest of the use of marmoset as a biological model in cardiovascular studies.

  10. Reunion behavior after social separation is associated with enhanced HPA recovery in young marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jack H; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Hochfelder, Benjamin; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-07-01

    The relationships that offspring develop with caregivers can exert a powerful influence on behavior and physiology, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In many mammalian species, offspring-caregiver relationships are largely limited to interactions with mother. Marmoset monkeys receive care in early life from multiple classes of caregivers in addition to the mother, including fathers and siblings. We evaluated whether affiliative social interactions with family members in marmosets were associated with differences in cortisol reactivity to a short-term social separation stressor, and whether these variations in affiliative interactions upon reunion predicted how well marmosets subsequently regulated HPA axis function after cessation of the stressor. Marmosets were separated from the family for 8h at three developmental time points (6-, 12-, and 18-months of age), and interactions of the separated marmoset with the family group were recorded during reunion. Urinary cortisol was measured prior to social separation, every 2h during the separation, and on the morning after separation. Heightened cortisol reactivity during social separation did not predict affiliative social behavior upon reunion but higher rates of grooming and play behavior predicted enhanced HPA regulation. Marmosets with higher rates of grooming and play with family members upon reunion had post-stress cortisol levels closer to preseparation baseline than marmosets with lower rates of affiliative reunion behavior. Combined with previous research showing the early programming effects of social interactions with caregivers, as well as the buffering effect of a close social partner during stress, the current study highlights the high degree of behavioral and HPA adaptability to social stressors across development in marmoset monkeys.

  11. X-ray-induced translocations in marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) stem-cell spermatogonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buul, P.P.W. van (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese)

    1984-11-01

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonial stem cells of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was studied after irradiation with different doses of X-rays (50, 100 and 200 rad) via spermatocyte analysis many cell generations later. The obtained results show a dose-effect relationship with clear saturation effects at 200 rad. The recorded frequencies of translocations were much lower than those reported for closely related marmosets (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus). Possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

  12. Predictors of shingles reports at diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency and selective immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency in 212 Alabama adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine predictors of shingles reports in adults with common variable immunodeficiency or immunoglobulin (Ig G subclass deficiency (CVID/IgGSD. We tabulated observations at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD in 212 white adult index patients (165 women, 47 men who responded to a question about having had shingles. None had been vaccinated for herpes zoster. We analyzed age, sex, and shingles reports; blood levels of CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD56+ mononuclear cells; serum levels of IgG subclasses, IgA, and IgM; and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A and -B haplotypes. Cell counts and immunoglobulin levels were normalized with loge (ln transformation for analyses. Thirty-one patients (14.6% reported shingles; 11 reported recurrent or disseminated shingles. Patients with shingles reports had greater mean age at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD [54±13 (standard deviation years vs. 47±12 years; P=0.0130] and a greater prevalence of HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity (35.5% vs. 17.7%; P=0.0227. In a 13-factor logistic regression model, there was a positive association of age with shingles reports [P=0.0151; odds ratio (1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.08]. HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity was also positively associated with shingles reports [P=0.0480; odds ratio 2.61 (1.00, 6.81]. During a mean followup interval of 7.5 years after CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, the prevalence of recurrent shingles was almost five-fold greater in patients with previous shingles reports. In conclusion, in white adults at CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, age at diagnosis and positivity for HLA-A*01, B*08 have significant positive associations with reports of previous shingles.

  13. Health Disparities in Nonreligious and Religious Older Adults in the United States: A Descriptive Epidemiology of 16 Common Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C.H. Nowakowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compute prevalence estimates for nonreligious and religious people in relation to 16 common chronic conditions in contemporary American society. Using survey data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we speak to current debates concerning potential relationships between religion, nonreligion and health in older adult populations with two key findings. First, we show no consistent relationships between religion or nonreligion and chronic condition prevalence. Second, we demonstrate race, sex, and class variations within nonreligious people’s health outcomes consistent with patterns noted in previous analyses of religious populations. In conclusion, we draw out implications for future research concerning the importance of (1 using caution when interpreting correlations between religion (i.e., a privileged social location and health; (2 developing intersectional approaches to religion, nonreligion, and health; and (3 building a diverse base of scholarship concerning nonreligion and health.

  14. Cystic dilatation of the common bile duct in adults: report of five cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda Pedro Carlos Loureiro de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report five cases of cystic dilatation of the common bile duct Type I (Todani?s classification in adults patients, in Division of General Surgery of a University Hospital, treated over a- 25-year- period from 1974 to 1999, among 16.057 operations, and not previously published. Diagnosis was obtained by operative cholangiogram (OC in the first case, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram on the second one (PTHC and by ultrasonography (US, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, and operative cholangiogram (OC, respectively, on the last three cases. The second patient had an adenocarcinoma arising in the cystic wall associated with peritoneal metastasis. The first two cases were treated by internal drainage and the last three by excision of the cysts and bilioenteric anastomoses. Classification, incidence, etiology, diagnosis, malignization and surgical treatment of biliary cystic disease (BCD were revised, with the conclusion that resection must be the preferable method of treatment, when possible, especially due to the concern of malignization.

  15. Rapidly evolving marmoset MSMB genes are differently expressed in the male genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceder Yvonne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-microseminoprotein, an abundant component in prostatic fluid, is encoded by the potential tumor suppressor gene MSMB. Some New World monkeys carry several copies of this gene, in contrast to most mammals, including humans, which have one only. Here we have investigated the background for the species difference by analyzing the chromosomal organization and expression of MSMB in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. Methods Genes were identified in the Callithrix jacchus genome database using bioinformatics and transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantified by real time PCR in the presence of SYBR green. Results The common marmoset has five MSMB: one processed pseudogene and four functional genes. The latter encompass homologous genomic regions of 32-35 kb, containing the genes of 12-14 kb and conserved upstream and downstream regions of 14-19 kb and 3-4 kb. One gene, MSMB1, occupies the same position on the chromosome as the single human gene. On the same chromosome, but several Mb away, is another MSMB locus situated with MSMB2, MSMB3 and MSMB4 arranged in tandem. Measurements of transcripts demonstrated that all functional genes are expressed in the male genital tract, generating very high transcript levels in the prostate. The transcript levels in seminal vesicles and testis are two and four orders of magnitude lower. A single gene, MSMB3, accounts for more than 90% of MSMB transcripts in both the prostate and the seminal vesicles, whereas in the testis around half of the transcripts originate from MSMB2. These genes display rapid evolution with a skewed distribution of mutated nucleotides; in MSMB2 they affect nucleotides encoding the N-terminal Greek key domain, whereas in MSMB3 it is the C-terminal MSMB-unique domain that is affected. Conclusion Callitrichide monkeys have four functional MSMB that are all expressed in the male genital tract, but the product from one gene, MSMB3, will predominate in seminal

  16. Commonalities in social and non-social cognitive impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Bahorik, Amber L; McKnight, Summer A F; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Newhill, Christina E; Phillips, Mary L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Minshew, Nancy J

    2013-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are both conditions that are characterized by impairments in social and non-social cognition, yet commonalities in the magnitude and domains of cognitive deficits across these two conditions remain unclear. This study examined neurocognitive and social-cognitive functioning in 47 outpatients with schizophrenia, 43 verbal adults with ASD, and 24 healthy volunteers. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing processing speed, attention, memory, and problem-solving domains was administered along with a social-cognitive battery of emotion processing. Results demonstrated large and significant impairments in emotion processing and neurocognition relative to healthy individuals in participants with autism (d=-.97 and -1.71, respectively) and schizophrenia (d=-.65 and -1.48, respectively). No significant differences were observed between those with ASD and schizophrenia on any cognitive domain assessed, and the areas of greatest impairment were identical across both disorders and included slowness in speed of processing and an inability to understand emotions. These findings indicate a high degree of similarity in the cognitive challenges experienced by verbal adults with autism and schizophrenia, and the potential need for trans-diagnostic remediation approaches to enhance cognition in these conditions.

  17. Archival tagging of subadult and adult common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) off the coast of southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartamil, Daniel P; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Wegner, Nicholas C; Aalbers, Scott A; Baquero, Andres; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    The common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) is a secondary target species of the California drift gillnet fishery (CA-DGN) and supports a growing recreational fishery in California waters. This study used archival tags to examine the movement patterns and habitat preferences of common threshers of the size range captured in the CA-DGN (>120 cm fork length). Depth and temperature-logging archival tags were deployed on 57 subadult and adult common threshers in the Southern California Bight. Tags from five individuals (8.8%) were recovered, and 154 days of data were successfully obtained from four of these. By night, shark movements were primarily limited to waters above the thermocline, which ranged in depth from 15 to 20 m. Sharks were significantly deeper by day, and daytime vertical distribution consisted of two distinct modes: a 'shallow mode' (wherein sharks occupied only the upper 20 m of the water column) and a 'deep mode' (characterized by frequent vertical excursions below the thermocline). This modal switch is interpreted as relating to regional differences in abundance of surface-oriented prey and prey in deeper water. Maximum dive depth was 320 m, greatest dive duration was 712 min, minimum temperature experienced during a dive was 9.1°C, and dive descent rate was significantly greater than ascent rate. Sharks inhabited waters corresponding to a sea surface temperature range of 16 to 21°C. The nocturnal depth distribution of common threshers has implications for management of drift gillnet deployment depths in the CA-DGN.

  18. Sleep and Alertness Management I: Pharmacokinetics of Hypnotics and Alertness Enhancers in Marmoset Monkeys (slaap- en alertheidsmanagement I: farmacokinetiek van slaap- en alertheidsverhogendemiddelen in marmosetapen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    I: F +31 15 284 39 91 Pharmacokinetics of hypnotics and alertness lnfo-DenV@tno.nI enhancers in Marmoset monkeys Date October 2006 Author(s) Dr...drugs. However, if these drugs are to be used in a novel animal model setting (the marmoset ), pharmacokinetics will be different and need to be re...values from quick to slow. Species Absorption: tcmax Hypnotics Marmoset monkeys ZAL < ZPD < TMP Human ZAL < ZPD = TMP Alertness enhancers Marmoset

  19. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests.

  20. Common FABP4 Genetic Variants and Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Biggs, Mary L.; Jensen, Majken K.; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Zieman, Susan J.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Psaty, Bruce M.; Siscovick, David S.; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-01-01

    We examined common variants in the fatty acid binding protein 4 gene (FABP4) and plasma levels of FABP4 in adults aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. We genotyped rs16909187, rs1054135, rs16909192, rs10808846, rs7018409, rs2290201, and rs6992708 and measured circulating FABP4 levels among 3190 European Americans and 660 African Americans. Among European Americans, the minor alleles of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were associated with lower FABP4 levels (all p ≤ 0.01). Among African Americans, the SNP with the lowest minor allele frequency was associated with lower FABP4 levels (p = 0.015). The C-A haplotype of rs16909192 and rs2290201 was associated with lower FABP4 levels in both European Americans (frequency = 16 %; p = 0.001) and African Americans (frequency = 8 %; p = 0.04). The haplotype combined a SNP in the first intron with one in the 3′untranslated region. However, the alleles associated with lower FABP4 levels were associated with higher fasting glucose in meta-analyses from the MAGIC consortium. These results demonstrate associations of common SNP and haplotypes in the FABP4 gene with lower plasma FABP4 but higher fasting glucose levels. PMID:24043587

  1. Developmental expression profiles of axon guidance signaling and the immune system in the marmoset cortex: potential molecular mechanisms of pruning of dendritic spines during primate synapse formation in late infancy and prepuberty (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Oga, Tomofumi; Nakagaki, Keiko; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Sumida, Kayo; Hoshino, Kohei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Saito, Koichi; Suto, Fumikazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-02-14

    The synapse number and the related dendritic spine number in the cerebral cortex of primates shows a rapid increase after birth. Depending on the brain region and species, the number of synapses reaches a peak before adulthood, and pruning takes place after this peak (overshoot-type synaptic formation). Human mental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, are hypothesized to be a result of either too weak or excessive pruning after the peak is reached. Thus, it is important to study the molecular mechanisms underlying overshoot-type synaptic formation, particularly the pruning phase. To examine the molecular mechanisms, we used common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Microarray analysis of the marmoset cortex was performed in the ventrolateral prefrontal, inferior temporal, and primary visual cortices, where changes in the number of dendritic spines have been observed. The spine number of all the brain regions above showed a peak at 3 months (3 M) after birth and gradually decreased (e.g., at 6 M and in adults). In this study, we focused on genes that showed differential expression between ages of 3 M and 6 M and on the differences whose fold change (FC) was greater than 1.2. The selected genes were subjected to canonical pathway analysis, and in this study, we describe axon guidance signaling, which had high plausibility. The results showed a large number of genes belonging to subsystems within the axon guidance signaling pathway, macrophages/immune system, glutamate system, and others. We divided the data and discussion of these results into 2 papers, and this is the first paper, which deals with the axon guidance signaling and macrophage/immune system. Other systems will be described in the next paper. Many components of subsystems within the axon guidance signaling underwent changes in gene expression from 3 M to 6 M so that the synapse/dendritic spine number would decrease at 6 M. Thus, axon guidance signaling probably contributes to the decrease in

  2. Analysis of bipolar and amacrine populations in marmoset retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzien, Felix; Percival, Kumiko A; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2015-02-01

    About 15 parallel ganglion cell pathways transmit visual signals to the brain, but the interneuron (bipolar and amacrine) populations providing input to ganglion cells remain poorly understood in primate retina. We carried out a quantitative analysis of the inner nuclear layer in the retina of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vertical Vibratome sections along the horizontal meridian were processed with immunohistochemical markers. Image stacks were taken with a confocal microscope, and densities of cell populations were determined. The density of flat midget bipolar cells fell from 15,746 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm (8 deg) to 7,827 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm (25 deg). The rod bipolar cell density fell from 8,640 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm to 4,278 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm, but the ratio of the two bipolar cell types did not change with eccentricity. The amacrine cell density ranged from 30,000 cells/mm(2) at 8 deg to less than 15,000 cells/mm(2) at 25 deg, but throughout the retina, the ratio of glycinergic to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic to amacrine cells remained relatively constant. The fractions of rod bipolar, cone bipolar, amacrine, Müller, and horizontal cells of all cells in the inner nuclear layer were comparable in central and peripheral retina. Marmosets had lower proportions of midget bipolar and rod bipolar in comparison with macaque. These differences were correlated with differences in rod and cone densities between the two species and did not reflect fundamental differences in the wiring between the two species.

  3. "What's wrong with my monkey?" Ethical perspectives on germline transgenesis in marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, I Anna S; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The birth of the first transgenic primate to have inherited a transgene from its parents opens the possibility to set up transgenic marmoset colonies, as these monkeys are small and relatively easy to keep and breed in research facilities. The prospect of transgenic marmoset models of human disease, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether it is acceptable to use animals as models of human disease; whether it is acceptable to genetically modify animals; and whether these animals' being monkeys makes a difference. The analysis considers the prospect of transgenic marmoset studies coming to replace transgenic mouse studies and lesion studies in marmosets in some areas of research. The mainstream, broadly utilitarian view of animal research suggests that such a transition will not give rise to greater ethical problems than those presently faced. It can be argued that using marmosets rather than mice will not result in more animal suffering, and that the benefits of research will improve with a move to a species more similar in phylogenetic terms to humans. The biological and social proximity of monkeys and humans may also benefit the animals by making it easier for scientists and caretakers to recognize signs of suffering and increasing the human motivation to limit it. The animal welfare and research impacts of the transition to marmoset use will depend very much on the extent to which researchers take these issues seriously and seek to minimize animal harm and optimize human benefit.

  4. Experimental Respiratory Infection of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) With Ebola Virus Kikwit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Nunez, Alejandro; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a highly infectious and lethal hemorrhagic fever in primates with high fatality rates during outbreaks and EBOV may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. There is therefore a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures against this virus. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess vaccines or therapies against EBOV disease (EVD), initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of EBOV-Kikwit, between 4 and 27 times the 50% tissue culture infectious dose, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to EVD between 6 and 8 days after challenge. Typical signs of EVD were observed. Pathogenesis studies revealed that virus was isolated from the lungs of animals beginning on day 3 after challenge and from the liver, spleen and blood beginning on day 5. The most striking features were observed in animals that succumbed to infection, including high viral titers in all organs, increased levels of liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels of platelets, multifocal moderate to severe hepatitis, and perivascular edema.

  5. Remote long-term registrations of sleep-wake rhythms, core body temperature and activity in marmoset monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Kerstin; Coolen, Alex; Schlumbohm, Christina; Meerlo, Peter; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Initial studies in the day active marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) indicate that the sleep-wake cycle of these non-human primates resembles that of humans and therefore conceivably represent an appropriate model for human sleep. The methods currently employed for sleep studies in marmosets are l

  6. Locating Common Ground: An Exploration of Adult Educator Practices that Support Parent Involvement for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores linkages between adult educator practices and the parent involvement needs of adult students with school-age children. A comparative case study examined the knowledge, experiential, self-efficacy, and social capital dimensions of adult educator practices that inform parent involvement efforts. One English as a Second Language…

  7. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  8. An analysis of the association of gastroenteric lesions with chronic wasting syndrome of marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifoux, L V; Bronson, R T; Escajadillo, A; McKenna, S

    1982-09-01

    Retrospective pathology data from necropsies of 162 marmosets, Saguinus oedipus, were studied to determine the nature of chronic wasting syndrome, a poorly defined entity associated with a high mortality rate in many marmoset colonies. Paraffin sections of the gastroenteric organs of 116 of these marmosets were re-examined in detail; lesions were identified, quantitated, and analyzed with a method of multiple chi-square testing for possible associations between findings. Five distinct disease entities were identified: prosthenorchosis, amebiasis, paramyxovirus disease, sepsis, and chronic colitis. Lesions of several of these often occurred in the same monkey, and all but the first were associated with cachexia. Lesions of chronic colitis were crypt abscesses, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear infiltration of the lamina propria, epithelial cell atypia, karyorrhexis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. The cause of chronic colitis was not identified, nor was any explanation found for weight loss and increased susceptibility to disease.

  9. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  10. Arousal dynamics drive vocal production in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjon, Jeremy I; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Cervantes, Diego C; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-08-01

    Vocal production is the result of interacting cognitive and autonomic processes. Despite claims that changes in one interoceptive state (arousal) govern primate vocalizations, we know very little about how it influences their likelihood and timing. In this study we investigated the role of arousal during naturally occurring vocal production in marmoset monkeys. Throughout each session, naturally occurring contact calls are produced more quickly, and with greater probability, during higher levels of arousal, as measured by heart rate. On average, we observed a steady increase in heart rate 23 s before the production of a call. Following call production, there is a sharp and steep cardiac deceleration lasting ∼8 s. The dynamics of cardiac fluctuations around a vocalization cannot be completely predicted by the animal's respiration or movement. Moreover, the timing of vocal production was tightly correlated to the phase of a 0.1-Hz autonomic nervous system rhythm known as the Mayer wave. Finally, a compilation of the state space of arousal dynamics during vocalization illustrated that perturbations to the resting state space increase the likelihood of a call occurring. Together, these data suggest that arousal dynamics are critical for spontaneous primate vocal production, not only as a robust predictor of the likelihood of vocal onset but also as scaffolding on which behavior can unfold.

  11. Muscle contractile properties as an explanation of the higher mean power output in marmosets than humans during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plas, Rogier L C; Degens, Hans; Meijer, J Peter; de Wit, Gerard M J; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Bobbert, Maarten F; Jaspers, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    The muscle mass-specific mean power output (PMMS,mean) during push-off in jumping in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) is more than twice that in humans. In the present study it was tested whether this is attributable to differences in muscle contractile properties. In biopsies of marmoset m. vastus lateralis (VL) and m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (N=4), fibre-type distribution was assessed using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In single fibres from four marmoset and nine human VL biopsies, the force-velocity characteristics were determined. Marmoset VL contained almost exclusively fast muscle fibres (>99.0%), of which 63% were type IIB and 37% were hybrid fibres, fibres containing multiple myosin heavy chains. GM contained 9% type I fibres, 44% type IIB and 47% hybrid muscle fibres. The proportions of fast muscle fibres in marmoset VL and GM were substantially larger than those reported in the corresponding human muscles. The curvature of the force-velocity relationships of marmoset type IIB and hybrid fibres was substantially flatter than that of human type I, IIA, IIX and hybrid fibres, resulting in substantially higher muscle fibre mass-specific peak power (PFMS,peak). Muscle mass-specific peak power output (PMMS,peak) values of marmoset whole VL and GM, estimated from their fibre-type distributions and force-velocity characteristics, were more than twice the estimates for the corresponding human muscles. As the relative difference in estimated PMMS,peak between marmosets and humans is similar to that of PMMS,mean during push-off in jumping, it is likely that the difference in in vivo mechanical output between humans and marmosets is attributable to differences in muscle contractile properties.

  12. Antibodies against human BLyS and APRIL attenuate EAE development in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Heijmans, Nicole; Oh, Luke; Bauer, Jan; Blezer, Erwin L A; Laman, Jon D; Migone, Thi-Sau; Devalaraja, Matt N; 't Hart, Bert A

    2012-09-01

    B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS, also indicated as BAFF (B-cell activating factor) and CD257), and A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL, CD256) are two members of the TNF superfamily with a central role in B cell survival. Antibodies against these factors have potential therapeutic relevance in autoimmune inflammatory disorders with a proven pathogenic contribution of B cells, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study we performed a multi-parameter efficacy comparison of monoclonal antibodies against human anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A MS-like disease was induced by immunization with recombinant human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rhMOG) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The results show that the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL antibody cause significant depletion of circulating CD20+ B cells, but a small subset of CD20 + CD40(high) B cells was not depleted. Induction of CD20+ B cell depletion from lymph nodes was only observed in the anti-BLyS treated monkeys. Both antibodies had a significant inhibitory effect on disease development, but all monkeys developed clinically evident EAE. Anti-BLyS treated monkeys were sacrificed with the same clinical signs as saline-treated monkeys, but nevertheless displayed significantly reduced spinal cord demyelination. This effect was not observed in the anti-APRIL treated monkeys. The two antibodies had a different effect on T cell subset activation and the profiles of ex vivo released cytokines. In conclusion, treatment with anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL delays the development of neurological disease in a relevant preclinical model of MS. The two mAbs achieve this effect via different mechanisms.

  13. Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Skinner, Timothy Chas; Pouwer, F

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify insulin therapy appraisals among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin and how negative appraisals relate to clinical, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Diabetes MILES - Australia 2011 was a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused on behavioural and psych......AIM: To identify insulin therapy appraisals among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin and how negative appraisals relate to clinical, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Diabetes MILES - Australia 2011 was a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused on behavioural...... and psychosocial issues. Subgroup analyses were conducted on the responses of 273 adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin (46% women; mean ± sd age: 59 ± 9 years; diabetes duration: 12 ± 7 years; years using insulin: 4 ± 4). They completed validated measures of insulin therapy appraisals (ITAS), depression (PHQ......-9), anxiety (GAD-7), diabetes distress (PAID) and diabetes-specific self-efficacy (DES-SF). RESULTS: Insulin was perceived to be very important, and its benefits (e.g. improves health) were endorsed by most (82%). Fifty-one per cent believed that taking insulin means their diabetes has become worse...

  14. Characterization of the antibody response of the marmoset to sheep red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gengozian, N.; Salter, B.L.; Basford, N.L.; Kateley, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The immune competence of two species of marmosets, S. fuscicollis and S. oedipus, was evaluated by the intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC). In S. fuscicollis marmosets, 1 ml of a 50% suspension yielded titres of haemolysin and agglutinating antibodies equal to or greater than 1 ml of a 10% dose of antigen. In both species, the i.v. route, while resulting in formation of 19S and 7S agglutinins, yielded only 19S haemolysins, even after multiple antigen injections. Repeated i.v. injections resulted in a progressive decrease in peak titres, in contrast to the i.m. route, where booster inoculations gave a typical anamnestic response. Jerne plaque-forming cells (PFC) in the spleens of S. oedipus marmosets showed predominately 19S plaques after a primary i.v. challenge; only 19S PFC were detected in the spleen of an animal that had been given multiple inoculations, the type of antibody produced reflecting that found in the serum. 19S but not 7S haemolysins of both species were sensitive to heating at 56/sup 0/C for /sup 1///sub 2/ hr. The serum titres and splenic PFC data from the marmosets suggest these animals, particularly S. oedipus, respond poorly to SRBC when a comparison is made to similar studies in mice and rats.

  15. Marmoset: A programming project assignment framework to improve the feedback cycle for students, faculty and researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacco, Jaime W.

    We developed Marmoset, a system that improves the feedback cycle on programming assignments for students, faculty and researchers alike. Using automation, Marmoset substantially lowers the burden on faculty for grading programming assignments, allowing faculty to give students more rapid feedback on their assignments. To further improve the feedback cycle, Marmoset provides students with limited access to the results of the instructor's private test cases before the submission deadline using a novel token-based incentive system. This both encourages students to start their work early and to think critically about their work. Because students submit early, instructors can monitor all students' progress on test cases and identify where in projects students are having problems in order to update the project requirements in a timely fashion and make the best use of time in lectures, discussion sections, and office hours. To study in more detail the development process of students, Marmoset can be configured to transparently capture snapshots to a central repository every-time students save their files. These detailed development histories offer a unique, detailed perspective of each student's progress on a programming assignment, from the first line of code written and saved all the way through the final edit before the final submission. This type of data has proved extremely valuable for many uses, such as mining new bug patterns and evaluating existing bug-finding tools.

  16. T and B lymphocytes in the marmoset: a natural haemopoietic chimera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niblack, G.D.; Gengozian, N.

    1976-01-01

    The thymus-derived (T) lymphocyte and bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocyte populations of the marmoset were characterized using specific cell surface markers. Approximately 85% of the thymocytes formed rosettes with neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes (E/sub n/). The percentage (approximately 69%) of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) forming rosettes with E/sub n/ was the same as that which stained with fluorescently labelled goat anti-marmoset thymocyte serum (ATS). These two assays identified the same cell population since treatment of cells with ATS and complement resulted in a concomitant decrease in E/sub n/ rosette formation. Marmoset PBL also formed rosettes with human erythrocytes sensitized with antibody and complement (HEAC); since the percentage (approximately 20%) HEAC rosette was the same as that of cells stained with fluorescently labelled goat anti-marmoset IgG, these cells were considered to be B cells. A small percentage of cells (aproximately 1.5%) possessed both types of receptors. The mean percentages of T and B cells present in PBL of single-born, presumably non-chimeric animals, were the same as that of isosexual and heterosexual chimeras.

  17. A simpler primate brain: the visual system of the marmoset monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Samuel G; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2014-01-01

    Humans are diurnal primates with high visual acuity at the center of gaze. Although primates share many similarities in the organization of their visual centers with other mammals, and even other species of vertebrates, their visual pathways also show unique features, particularly with respect to the organization of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, in order to understand some aspects of human visual function, we need to study non-human primate brains. Which species is the most appropriate model? Macaque monkeys, the most widely used non-human primates, are not an optimal choice in many practical respects. For example, much of the macaque cerebral cortex is buried within sulci, and is therefore inaccessible to many imaging techniques, and the postnatal development and lifespan of macaques are prohibitively long for many studies of brain maturation, plasticity, and aging. In these and several other respects the marmoset, a small New World monkey, represents a more appropriate choice. Here we review the visual pathways of the marmoset, highlighting recent work that brings these advantages into focus, and identify where additional work needs to be done to link marmoset brain organization to that of macaques and humans. We will argue that the marmoset monkey provides a good subject for studies of a complex visual system, which will likely allow an important bridge linking experiments in animal models to humans.

  18. Sensitization to common aeroallergens in a population of young adults in a sub-Saharan Africa setting: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to aeroallergens increases the risk of developing asthma or allergic rhinitis. Data on sensitization to airborne allergens in the general population in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of sensitization to common aeroallergens in a population of young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences of the University of Douala...

  19. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalanka-Tuovinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability,

  20. North American (Panax quinquefolius and Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Krebs Seida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardized ginseng extract has become the best-selling cold and flu remedy in Canada, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of ginseng in preventing common colds remains. Objective: To assess the efficacy of ginseng preparations for the prevention of common colds in healthy adults. Methods: Comprehensive bibliographic database, trial registry and grey literature searches were conducted up to December 2007. Randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing North American (Panax quinquefolius or Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng root extract to placebo or no treatment in healthy adults were included. Two reviewers independently applied the study selection criteria and assessed methodological quality. Results: Five trials involving 747 participants were included. All five trials examined North American ginseng. The methodological quality of the trials varied widely. Ginseng preparations significantly reduced the total number of common colds by 25% compared to placebo (one trial; 95% CI: 5–45. There was a tendency toward a lower incidence of having at least one common cold or other acute respiratory infection (ARI in the ginseng group compared to the placebo group (five trials; relative risk: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.48–1.02. Compared to placebo, ginseng significantly shortened the duration of colds or ARIs by 6.2 days (two trials; 95% CI: 3.4–9.0. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to conclude that ginseng reduces the incidence or severity of common colds. North American ginseng appears to be effective in shortening the duration of colds or ARIs in healthy adults when taken preventatively for durations of 8–16 weeks.

  1. 狨猴副粘病毒感染%Studies on paramyxovirus infection in common marmosets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤勇; 石建党; 金孟珏; 李晓眠; 王俊莉

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1999年夏季,在一个狨猴实验室中暴发急性呼吸道疾病,动物发病率达80%,死亡率约20%,病程在3~10天.在确定发病原因中,动物剖检只见肺脏病变,对4只死亡狨猴肺组织进行病毒分离,对分离物进行电子显微镜检查和血凝及血凝抑制试验,电镜显示分离物属副粘病毒,凝集试验表明分离物产生的红细胞凝集现象能被副流感病毒Ⅰ型(仙台病毒)阳性血清所抑制.而且发病后动物血清抗体效价对副流感病毒Ⅰ型(仙台病毒)升高4倍以上,从而确定动物死亡原因是副流感病毒Ⅰ型(仙台病毒)引起肺炎感染造成.

  2. A review of the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adult patients with common comorbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemow, David B; Bushe, Chris; Mancini, Michele; Ossipov, Michael H; Upadhyaya, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults. Moreover, a cumulative review and assessment of these studies has not been conducted. For this reason, we performed a literature review to find, identify, and cumulatively review clinical studies that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders. We found a total of 50 clinical studies (37 in children; 13 in adults) that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in patients with ADHD and a comorbid disorder. The comorbidities that were studied in children or in adults included anxiety, depression, and substance use disorder. Overall, the presence of comorbidity did not adversely impact the efficacy of atomoxetine in treatment of ADHD symptoms in both patient populations. In the studies identified and assessed in this review, atomoxetine did not appear to exacerbate any of the comorbid conditions and could, therefore, be an important therapy choice for the treatment of ADHD in the presence of comorbid disorders. PMID:28223809

  3. Comparative study of the oxidation of propranolol enantiomers in hepatic and small intestinal microsomes from cynomolgus and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizudani, Takeshi; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Yamano, Shigeru; Narimatsu, Shizuo

    2010-01-05

    Oxidative metabolism of propranolol (PL) enantiomers (R-PL and S-PL) to 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-PL), 5-OH-PL and N-deisopropylpropranolol (NDP) was examined in hepatic microsomes from cynomolgus and marmoset monkeys and in small intestinal microsomes from monkeys and humans. In hepatic microsomes, levels of oxidation activities were similar between the two monkey species, and substrate enantioselectivity (R-PLmicrosomes. In small intestinal microsomes, activity levels were much higher in cynomolgus monkeys than in marmosets and humans and reversed substrate enantioselectivity (R-PL>S-PL) was seen in the formation of NDP in cynomolgus monkeys and humans and in the formation of 5-OH-PL in marmosets. The formation of the three metabolites in cynomolgus monkeys and the formation of NDP in marmosets were biphasic, while the formation of 4-OH-PL in humans was monophasic. From the inhibition experiments using CYP antibodies, CYP2C9 and 2C19 were thought to be involved as N-deisopropylases and CYP2D6 and 3A4 as 4-hydroxylases in human small intestine. Furthermore, CYP1A, 2C and 3A enzymes could be involved in cynomolgus monkeys and CYP2C and 3A enzymes in marmosets. These results indicate that the oxidative profile of PL in hepatic and small intestinal microsomes differ considerably among cynomolgus monkeys, marmosets and humans.

  4. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  5. A review of the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adult patients with common comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemow DB

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available David B Clemow,1 Chris Bushe,2 Michele Mancini,3 Michael H Ossipov,4 Himanshu Upadhyaya1 1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly, Windlesham, UK; 3Eli Lilly Italia S.p.A., Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; 4inVentiv Health Clinical, LLC, Blue Bell, PA, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults. Moreover, a cumulative review and assessment of these studies has not been conducted. For this reason, we performed a literature review to find, identify, and cumulatively review clinical studies that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders. We found a total of 50 clinical studies (37 in children; 13 in adults that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in patients with ADHD and a comorbid disorder. The comorbidities that were studied in children or in adults included anxiety, depression, and substance use disorder. Overall, the presence of comorbidity did not adversely impact the efficacy of atomoxetine in treatment of ADHD symptoms in both patient populations. In the studies identified and assessed in this review, atomoxetine did not appear to exacerbate any of the comorbid conditions and could, therefore, be an important therapy choice for the

  6. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozowicka, B., E-mail: B.Lozowicka@iorpib.poznan.pl [Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok (Poland); Mojsak, P.; Jankowska, M.; Kaczynski, P.; Hrynko, I.; Rutkowska, E.; Szabunko, J. [Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok (Poland); Borusiewicz, A. [Department of Agronomy, The Academy of Agrobusiness in Łomza (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005–2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01–0.81 mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor < 2.9% and < 10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. - Highlights: • Health risk assessment of insecticide via dietary intake of fruit was estimated. • Sixteen residues in pome, stone, berries and small fruit ranged from 0.01 to 0.8 mg/kg. • Organophosphates were the most frequently occurring group with common MoA. • Dietary exposures for adults and children were below the safety reference values. • Toxicological study provided important date of human health.

  7. Common and distinct clinical features in adult patients with anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibodies: heterogeneity within the syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Hamaguchi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify similarities and differences in the clinical features of adult Japanese patients with individual anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibodies (anti-ARS Abs. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 166 adult Japanese patients with anti-ARS Abs detected by immunoprecipitation assays. These patients had visited Kanazawa University Hospital or collaborating medical centers from 2003 to 2009. RESULTS: Anti-ARS Ab specificity included anti-Jo-1 (36%, anti-EJ (23%, anti-PL-7 (18%, anti-PL-12 (11%, anti-KS (8%, and anti-OJ (5%. These anti-ARS Abs were mutually exclusive, except for one serum Ab that had both anti-PL-7 and PL-12 reactivity. Myositis was closely associated with anti-Jo-1, anti-EJ, and anti-PL-7, while interstitial lung disease (ILD was correlated with all 6 anti-ARS Abs. Dermatomyositis (DM-specific skin manifestations (heliotrope rash and Gottron's sign were frequently observed in patients with anti-Jo-1, anti-EJ, anti-PL-7, and anti-PL-12. Therefore, most clinical diagnoses were polymyositis or DM for anti-Jo-1, anti-EJ, and anti-PL-7; clinically amyopathic DM or ILD for anti-PL-12; and ILD for anti-KS and anti-OJ. Patients with anti-Jo-1, anti-EJ, and anti-PL-7 developed myositis later if they had ILD alone at the time of disease onset, and most patients with anti-ARS Abs eventually developed ILD if they did not have ILD at disease onset. CONCLUSION: Patients with anti-ARS Abs are relatively homogeneous. However, the distribution and timing of myositis, ILD, and rashes differ among patients with individual anti-ARS Abs. Thus, identification of individual anti-ARS Abs is beneficial to define this rather homogeneous subset and to predict clinical outcomes within the "anti-synthetase syndrome."

  8. Gated blood-pool studies of cardiac function in the rat and marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, G.H.; Barnden, L.R.; Buttfield, I.H.; Charnock, J.S.

    1983-08-01

    To develop a sensitive, relatively noninvasive method for monitoring cardiac function in small laboratory animals, equilibrium gated blood-pool imaging (with Tc-99m RBC) was adapted for use in an inbred strain of laboratory rats of 400-470 g body weight and in marmosets of 320-400 g body weight. A 2-mm pinhole collimator was fitted to the gamma camera to produce a distinct image of the left ventricle following intravenous injection of 5 mCi of pertechnetate. Reproducible and consistent data for heart rate, left-ventricular ejection fraction, and peak ejection rate were obtained from studies on 13 male rats and five marmosets maintained on constant diets. An intravenous injection of 0.4 microgram of isoprenaline led to predictable increases in heart rate, left-ventricular ejection fraction, and peak ejection rate, and provided evidence of the sensitivity of the method in monitoring heart function in small laboratory animals.

  9. Gated blood-pool studies of cardiac function in the rat and marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, G.H. (CSIRO, Adelaide, South Australia); Barnden, L.R.; Buttfield, I.H.; Charnock, J.S.

    1983-08-01

    To develop a sensitive, relatively noninvasive method for monitoring cardiac function in small laboratory animals, equilibrium gated blood-pool imaging (with Tc-99m RBC) was adapted for use in an inbred strain of laboratory rats of 400 to 470 g body weight and in marmosets of 320 to 400 g body weight. A 2-mm pinhole collimator was fitted to the gamma camera to produce a distinct image of the left ventricle following intravenous injection of 5 mCi of pertechnetate. Reproducible and consistent data for heart rate, left-ventricular ejection fraction, and peak ejection rate were obtained from studies on 13 male rats and five marmosets maintained on constant diets. An intravenous injection of 0.4 ..mu..g of isoprenaline led to predictable increases in heart rate, left-ventricular ejection fraction, and peak ejection rate, and provided evidence of the sensitivity of the method in monitoring heart function in small laboratory animals.

  10. LPS-induced lung inflammation in marmoset monkeys - an acute model for anti-inflammatory drug testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Seehase

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50. LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies.

  12. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98. 734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.; Patil, R.K.; Elger, W.A.; Jayaraman, S.

    1988-04-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. /sup 3/H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of /sup 3/H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy.

  13. IgG+ platelets in the marmoset: their induction, maintenance, and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gengozian, N.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    Immunization of marmosets with platelets from another species of marmoset leads to antibody formation to the donor platelets, deposition of IgG on the host's platelets, and thrombocytopenia. This disease closely resembles posttransfusion purpura of man, which may develop after one or two transfusions of whole blood. The mode of immunization in the marmoset was found to be important: intravenous (i.v.) inoculations were without effect, while intramuscular (i.m.) immunizations led to the disease. Intramuscular inoculations were characterized by formation of 7S antibodies, as measured by indirect immunofluorescent (IF) and complement-dependent platelet cytotoxicity (PC) tests; in contrast, i.v. immunizations, while leading to 7S antibodies by the IF test, yielded only 19S antibodies reactive in the PC assay. The titers were also consistently higher with i.m. immunizations. Antibody was not limited to the donor platelets, but auto- or host-type reactivity was also present; this antibody was in very low titer and could be found only when the animal was thrombocytopenic. A primary finding was the ability to maintain increased deposition of IgG on the host's platelets in the absence of thrombocytopenia by biweekly or monthly inoculations of the donor platelet antigen. The amount of IgG found on platelets of normal and immunized marmosets was comparable to that reported for normal humans and patients with cinical immune thrombocytopenia. Finally, platelet survival studies in animals with IgG+ platelets and normal platelet counts indicated a rapid turnover, suggesting operation of a compensatory mechanism to maintain platelet levels.

  14. Transmission of colour and acuity signals by parvocellular cells in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R; Blessing, Esther M; Buzás, Péter; Szmajda, Brett A; Forte, Jason D

    2011-06-01

    The red-green axis of colour vision evolved recently in primate evolutionary history. Signals serving red-green colour vision travel together with signals serving spatial vision, in the parvocellular (PC) division of the subcortical visual pathway. However, the question of whether receptive fields of PC pathway cells are specialized to transmit red-green colour signals remains unresolved. We addressed this question in single-cell recordings from the lateral geniculate nucleus of anaesthetized marmosets. Marmosets show a high proportion of dichromatic (red-green colour-blind) individuals, allowing spatial and colour tuning properties of PC cells to be directly compared in dichromatic and trichromatic visual systems. We measured spatial frequency tuning for sine gratings that provided selective stimulation of individual photoreceptor types. We found that in trichromatic marmosets, the foveal visual field representation is dominated by red-green colour-selective PC cells. Colour selectivity of PC cells is reduced at greater eccentricities, but cone inputs to centre and surround are biased to create more selectivity than predicted by a purely 'random wiring' model. Thus, one-to-one connections in the fovea are sufficient, but not necessary, to create colour-selective responses. The distribution of spatial tuning properties for achromatic stimuli shows almost complete overlap between PC cells recorded in dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets. These data indicate that transmission of red-green colour signals has been enabled by centre-surround receptive fields of PC cells, and has not altered the capacity of PC cells to serve high-acuity vision at high stimulus contrast.

  15. Cortical connections of auditory cortex in marmoset monkeys: lateral belt and parabelt regions

    OpenAIRE

    de la Mothe, Lisa A.; Blumell, Suzanne; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Hackett, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    The current working model of primate auditory cortex is constructed from a number of studies of both New and Old World monkeys. It includes three levels of processing. A primary level, the core region, is surrounded both medially and laterally by a secondary belt region. A third level of processing, the parabelt region, is located lateral to the belt. The marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) has become an important model system to study auditory processing, but its anatomical organiza...

  16. Hawk calls elicit alarm and defensive reactions in captive Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Yvonne M; Caine, Nancy G

    2003-01-01

    Most descriptions of callitrichid antipredator behavior have come from observations of visual encounters with predators, but there is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that callitrichids may use auditory cues associated with raptors for the early detection of potential danger. In the present study, Geoffroy's marmosets consistently reacted to the tape-recorded calls of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with high-intensity antipredator behaviors. Compared to the taped calls of a raven (Corvus corax) and the taped sound of a power drill, the hawk calls elicited more startle reactions, more alarm calls, longer freeze times, increased use of safe areas of their enclosure and greater disruption in ongoing behavior. Once in a relatively safe location in the enclosure, the marmosets visually monitored the site of origin of the calls for 10 min and minimized locomotion for 30 min, but resumed baseline levels of other activities that had been disrupted by the hawk calls. Marmosets may use the auditory cues associated with predators for early detection, and subsequent avoidance, of a potential predator in the vicinity.

  17. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05–2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  18. Experimental endocrine manipulation by contraceptive regimen in the male marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, Joachim; Luetjens, C Marc; Ehmcke, Jens; Redmann, Klaus; Damm, Oliver S; Steinhoff, Antje; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, Reinhild; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Simoni, Manuela; Schlatt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Marmosets are used as preclinical model in reproductive research. In contrast to other primates, they display short gestation times rendering this species valid for exploration of effects on fertility. However, their peculiar endocrine regulation differs from a those of macaques and humans. We subjected male marmosets to previously clinically tested hormonal regimens that are known to effectively suppress spermatogenesis. Beside a control group, seven groups (each n=6) were investigated for different periods of up to 42 months: regimen I, (four groups) received testosterone undecanoate (TU) and norethisterone enanthate (NETE); regimen II, (two groups) received TU and NETE followed by NETE only; and regimen III, (one group) received NETE only. Testicular volume, cell ploidy and histology, endocrine changes and fertility were monitored weekly. TU and NETE and initial TU and NETE treatment followed by NETE failed to suppress spermatogenesis and fertility. Testicular volumes dropped, although spermatogenesis was only mildly affected; however, testicular cellular composition remained stable. Serum testosterone dropped when NETE was given alone but the animals remained fertile. Compared with controls, no significant changes were observed in sperm motility and fertility. Administration of TU and NETE affected testicular function only mildly, indicating that the regulatory role of chorionic gonadotrophin and testosterone on spermatogenesis is obviously limited and testicular function is maintained, although the endocrine axis is affected by the treatment. In conclusion, marmosets showed a different response to regimens of male contraception from macaques or men and have to be considered as a problematic model for preclinical trials of male hormonal contraception.

  19. Novel mastadenovirus infection and clinical disease in a pygmy marmoset (Callithrix [Cebuella] pygmaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, János; Hornyák, Ákos; Mándoki, Míra; Bakonyi, Tamás; Balka, Gyula; Szeredi, Levente; Marosán, Miklós; Ludányi, Tibor; Forgách, Petra; Sós, Endre; Demeter, Zoltán; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2013-12-27

    We describe the detection and successful isolation of a novel mastadenovirus from a pygmy marmoset (Callithrix [Cebuella] pygmaea) that died following an episode of severe respiratory signs. Pathologic/histopathologic examination revealed hydrothorax and catarrhal bronchopneumonia with pronounced desquamation of the bronchiolar epithelial cells, while in other airways a marked hyperplasia of the epithelial lining and numerous giant cells could be observed. We obtained partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase gene of the isolated strain and analyses of this region showed the highest level of identity to the recently described bat adenoviruses (strains PPV1 and TJM) and the type 2 canine adenovirus. Similar results were gained by phylogenetic calculations indicating that this novel marmoset adenovirus is only distantly related to reference Old and New World primate adenoviruses and formed a monophyletic group with bat and canine adenoviruses and the equine adenovirus 1. Even though the source of the infection remained unknown, our results could imply the possibility of a cross-species transmission of the virus from an anonymous host to the pygmy marmoset.

  20. Cloning and identification of measles virus receptor gene from marmoset cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) strains with mutated hemagglutinin gene (ha) lost the capacity to infect its sensitive host cells (Vero cells), but it may infect the marmoset B-lymphoblastoid cell line B95a. From above, we can presume that there is a novel cellular receptor for those measles virus strains on B95a cell s. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we screened and cloned a novel gene--bip (B-lympho- blastoid interaction protein of marmoset) from B95a cell cDNA library, which encoded a protein interacting with measles virus hemagglutinin protein (Ha). The bip cDNA was 1540 base pairs in length and contained a unique open rea ding frame (ORF) of 1011 base pairs encoding a transmembrane protein of 337 amino acid residues. The primary structure of amino acids residue is predicted that the Bip comprised a hydrophobic transmembrane domain and a hydrophobic leader region. The researches about the deletion mutants showed that the deletion of tran smembrane domain in Bip did not affect the interaction between Bip and Ha protei ns. Expression of bip in measles virus non-permissive cell line--CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells was performed to prove that CHO/Bip can be infected by meas les virus and then turned to the MV permissive cells. We concluded that the bip gene is a novel measles virus receptor gene in marmoset B-lymphoblastoid cells.

  1. Visual responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus of dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T; Lee, B B; Kremers, J; Cowing, J A; Hunt, D M; Martin, P R; Troy, J B

    1995-12-01

    New-world primates such as the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) show polymorphism for the middle- to long-wavelength sensitive cone pigments. Each X-chromosome carries a gene for only one of three possible pigments. All males are thus dichromats, but some females will be trichromats. We have investigated the responses of cells of the parvocellular (PC) and magnocellular (MC) systems within animals from a single marmoset family. The middle- to long-wavelength pigment of dichromats was identified physiologically. Trichromats could readily be distinguished from dichromats by the presence of a high proportion of red-green opponent PC-cells. The physiological classification of phenotypes was confirmed with genetic analysis. The pattern of inheritance was consistent with current genetic models. In trichromatic females, the properties of cells resembled in detail those of cells from the PC- and MC-pathways of the macaque. In dichromats, cell responses resembled those of trichromats (except for the lack of opponency in PC-cells); PC-cells showed sustained and MC-cells transient responses, with a lower contrast gain for the former type. One difference was that a proportion of PC-cells in dichromats showed strong rod input even at high levels of retinal illuminance. Thus, in trichromatic marmosets the presence of two middle- to long-wave pigments appears to permit the elaboration of all the physiological properties associated with trichromacy.

  2. Restricted use of fetal VH3 immunoglobulin genes by unselected B cells in the adult. Predominance of 56p1-like VH genes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Berberian, L; King, L; Sanz, I; Govan, H L

    1992-05-01

    The large VH3 family of human immunoglobulin genes is commonly used throughout B cell ontogeny. However, B cells of the fetus and certain autoantibody-producing clones are restricted to a recurrent subset of VH3 genes, and VH3 B cells are deficient in certain immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we have sequenced a set of rearranged VH3 genes generated by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from normal adults and those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). In both groups, all cones were readily identifiable with the fetal VH3 subset, and were further distinguished by limited DH motifs and exclusive use of JH4. In CVI, the residual population of VH3 B cells were notable for predominant use of 56p1-like VH genes. All clones displayed sequence divergence (including somatic mutation) with evidence of strong selection against complementarity-determining region (CDR) coding change. A survey of other V gene families indicates that human V gene diversity may be restricted in general by germline mechanisms. These findings suggest that the expressed antibody repertoire in the human adult may be much smaller than anticipated, and selected by processes in part distinct from the paradigm of maximal antigen-binding diversity.

  3. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  4. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4–67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans.

  5. The association between indices of obesity and common clinical measures in adults with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda B. Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the differences amongst the anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, blood pressure and body shape in diabetics as well as non-diabetics. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comprised of 309 subjects with 91 males and 218 females. Of this, there were 217 diabetics and 92 non-diabetics. The sample was taken from three hospitals in Trinidad. Lipid profile and blood pressure were taken from each facility's physician's notes while anthropometric measurements were taken from the patients themselves. Results: The diabetic group had elevated body mass index and waist to hip ratios were significant (P <0.05 when compared to non-diabetics. There was no significant association of lipid profile, blood pressure, waist circumference and waist to height ratios between diabetics and non-diabetics. As age increased, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was more common. Out of 217 diabetics, 173 were of East Indian descent. With regards to gender, more males were found to be diabetics resulting from having an android body shape as compared to females (gynoid body shape. Conclusion: It was found that of all the anthropometric measurements used, waist to hip ratio was found to be the most effective indicator of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Trinidadians, while body mass index was found to be the least effective indicator. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 256-259

  6. Predation on artificial nests by marmosets of the genus Callithrix (Primates, Platyrrhini in a Cerrado fragment in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of decline in bird populations in forest fragments are not well known, nest predation seems to play a major role in these events. A way to estimate the relative importance of predation for the reproduction of native birds is the use of artificial nests. Here, there is a report on the high rates of predation on artificial nests by two marmoset species from the genus Callithrix, C. pennicillata and C. jacchus, as well as their hybrid derivatives, in a Cerrado fragment in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. By means of artificial nests and quail eggs filled with paraffin, it was possible to identify the marmosets as predators through the bite pattern left on the paraffin. The results suggest a possible occurrence of predation on natural nests. Further studies involving the monitoring of natural nests will be able to confirm the role of marmosets in the decline of bird populations in the study area.

  7. 102 Bronchiectasis: Localization and Characteristics, Identified by Using a High Resolution CT Scan in Adults With Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Laura; Segura Mendez, Nora Hilda; Flores, Francisco; Campos Romero, Freya Helena; Guillén, Nelva

    2012-01-01

    Background The common variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is the second cause of primary immunodeficiency. The bronchiectasis are the most frequent structural pulmonary alterations in CVID, which have been principally described in pediatric population, finding the presence of the same ones in 50% of the cases, nevertheless exists inssuficient information about the location and characteristics as type and distribution of the bronchiectasis; in adult population, less information exists still on this matter. High resolution CT scan is valuable for detection of bronchiectasis and may alter treatment of these patients. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of bronchiectasis, their characteristics and most frequent location using a high resolution CT scan in adults with diagnosis of CVID. Methods This was a cohort study whit 15 adult subjects whit the diagnosis of CVID, who underwent a chest high-resolution computed tomography scan, previous signature of a letter of informed consent and with the approval of the committee of ethics and investigation (F-2011-3601-21). Results We studied all the subjects (n = 15) whit CVID, finding the presence of bronquiectasias in 73% of the subjects with CVID, 82% was a women and 8% males. The most frequent location was in the left lung in 46% of the cases and 45 bilateral %, with only 9% of location in right lung. These were more frequent in the lower lobe in 42, 17% in top lobe and l6% diffuse, the rest of them were brought like diffuse, bibasal or parahiliar. In one patient we found the presence of a left apical cavitation and only one was brought by presence of pulmonary diffuse fibrosis. Conclusions There was realized a search of bronchiectasis and their characteristics in subjects with CVID disorders, the incidence of bronchiectasis is higher in our poblation (82%) than in the rest (50% described in other pubiclations). The most affected lung was the left in the lower lobe. The most frequent type of

  8. [Adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.

  9. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  10. Actively induced platelet-bound IgG associated with thrombocytopenia in the marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gengozian, N.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1978-06-01

    Interspecies platelet immunizations among marmosets lead to antibody formation to the donor platelets and a profound thrombocytopenia, which when associated with anemia may result in death of the animal. This actively induced immonologic thrombocytopenia closely resembles two clinical disease entities manifesting autoimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Although antibody to donor-type platelets could be demonstrated readily, antihost activity was most often nondetectable or, when present, was in very low titer. A consistent finding was the appearance of IgG on the host's platelets shortly after immunization and concomitant with the appearance of antidonor platelet antibody. In 3 of 13 immunized animals thromoocytopenia did not occur even though antibody was formed and the host's platelets became IgG positive. In those animals that recovered from the induced thrombocytopenia IgG-positive platelets were found for periods ranging from 30 to greater than 100 days. Splenectomy before or after immunization did not alter the sequential development of antibody formation, appearance of IgG-positive platelets, and thrombocytopenia. Eluates prepared from IgG-positive platelets contained IgG and platelet antigens; the eluted IgG could attach nonspecifically to platelets of host or donor (immunizing) type, in contrast to the species specificity demonstrated for IgG eluted from platelets that had been reacted in vitro with specific antibody. Platelets in a few normal, nonimmunized marmosets were found to have signficant amounts of IgG on their surface, comparable to that observed in the immunized animal; interestingly, such IgG-positive platelets were found among imported but not laboratory-bred marmosets.

  11. Cortical connections of auditory cortex in marmoset monkeys: lateral belt and parabelt regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mothe, Lisa A; Blumell, Suzanne; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Hackett, Troy A

    2012-05-01

    The current working model of primate auditory cortex is constructed from a number of studies of both new and old world monkeys. It includes three levels of processing. A primary level, the core region, is surrounded both medially and laterally by a secondary belt region. A third level of processing, the parabelt region, is located lateral to the belt. The marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) has become an important model system to study auditory processing, but its anatomical organization has not been fully established. In previous studies, we focused on the architecture and connections of the core and medial belt areas (de la Mothe et al., 2006a, J Comp Neurol 496:27-71; de la Mothe et al., 2006b, J Comp Neurol 496:72-96). In this study, the corticocortical connections of the lateral belt and parabelt were examined in the marmoset. Tracers were injected into both rostral and caudal portions of the lateral belt and parabelt. Both regions revealed topographic connections along the rostrocaudal axis, where caudal areas of injection had stronger connections with caudal areas, and rostral areas of injection with rostral areas. The lateral belt had strong connections with the core, belt, and parabelt, whereas the parabelt had strong connections with the belt but not the core. Label in the core from injections in the parabelt was significantly reduced or absent, consistent with the idea that the parabelt relies mainly on the belt for its cortical input. In addition, the present and previous studies indicate hierarchical principles of anatomical organization in the marmoset that are consistent with those observed in other primates.

  12. Sleep and Alertness Management III: Effects of a Nap and Hypnotics on Performance During the Late Evening, Night and Early Morning in Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    hypnotics on performance Info-DenV@tno.nl during the late evening, night and early morning in marmosets Date November 2006 Author(s) Dr. I.H.C.I.M...so-called post-nap hangovers. In this study, the marmoset monkey model was validated as a model for testing the effects of drugs on performance during...evening, night and early morning missions was tested. It was proven that the homeostasis in marmoset monkeys after sleep deprivation is similar to the

  13. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of the male marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewen, J. G.; Preston, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of chromosome aberrations by low LET radiations was studied in peripheral lymphocytes and spermatogonial stem cells of the male marmoset. The data showed that there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of the lymphocytes whether they were irradiated in vitro or in vivo, but the frequency of heritable translocations recovered in the primary spermatocytes was considerably lower than that calculated to occur in the lymphocytes. The data are used to make estimates of human genetic risk from radiation based on limited interspecific comparisons.

  14. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of the male marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewen, J.G.; Preston, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The induction of chromosome aberrations by low LET radiations was studied in peripheral lymphocytes and spermatogonial stem cells of the male marmoset. The data showed that there was not significant difference in the sensitivity of the lymphocytes whether they were irradiated in vitro or in vivo, but the frequency of heritable translocations recovered in the primary spermatocytes were considerably lower than that calculated to occur in the lymphocytes. The data are used to make estimates of human genetic risk from radiation based on limited interspecific comparisons.

  15. The relationship between the production and the anti-gonadotrophic action of prostaglandin F 2 alpha in luteal cells from the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) in the early and mid-luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, G E; Michael, A E; Abayasekara, D R E

    2010-04-01

    To address the potential luteolytic role for prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)) in the corpus luteum of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), the ability of marmoset luteal cells, maintained in monolayer culture, to produce PGF(2 alpha) was determined in vitro in the presence and absence of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and other established pharmacological modulators of PGF(2 alpha) synthesis. We also assessed the effects of the PGF(2 alpha) analogue, cloprostenol, on progesterone output from luteal cells isolated in the early luteal phase versus the mid-luteal phase (days 3 and 14 post ovulation, respectively). Cloprostenol had no effect on progesterone output from luteal cells isolated on day 3 of the luteal phase, whereas it significantly inhibited both basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone synthesis by day 14 luteal cells during the culture period 48-72 h (Pmarmoset monkey appears to involve changes in both the luteal cell response to and production of PGF(2 alpha).

  16. Efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with common comorbidities in children, adolescents and adults: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Shari L.; Ghuman, Jaswinder K.; Ghuman, Harinder S.; Karpov, Irina; Schuster, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants. In this paper, we review studies utilizing randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) as well as within-subject designs to determine the effectiveness of ATX in the treatment of children and adults with ADHD and comorbid conditions. The current review uses an expanded methodology beyond systematic review of randomized controlled trials in order to improve generalizability of results to real-world practice. A total of 24 articles published from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed, including 14 RCTs: n = 1348 ATX, and n = 832 placebo. The majority of studies show that ATX is effective in the treatment of ADHD symptoms for individuals with ADHD and comorbid disorders. Cohen’s d effect sizes (ES) for improvement in ADHD symptoms and behaviors range from 0.47 to 2.21. The effectiveness of ATX to improve symptoms specific to comorbidity varied by type but appeared to be most effective for diminishing the presence of symptoms for those with comorbid anxiety, ES range of 0.40 to 1.51, and oppositional defiant disorder, ES range of 0.52 to 1.10. There are mixed or limited results for individuals with ADHD and comorbid substance-use disorders, autism spectrum disorders, dyslexia or reading disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and Tourette syndrome. Results from this review suggest that ATX is effective in the treatment of some youth and adults with ADHD and comorbid disorders

  17. Marmosets, Raree shows and Pulcinelle: an Analysis and Edition of a Hitherto-Unpublished Carnival Play by Antonio de Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analyisis, annotation and edition of the Mojiganga del mundinovo (‘The raree show, a carnival play’ by Antonio de Zamora. The play was performed in 1698 Madrid by the troupe of Carlos Vallejo, along with the sacramental one-act play El templo vivo de Dios (‘The living temple of God’. The hitherto unpublished text is based on the only two extant manuscripts, located in archives in Madrid. Despite the play’s title, my analysis argues that the novelty in this play is not so much the raree show, a contraption popularized four decades earlier in Golden Age theater, as the marmosets. The death of two marmosets and the ensuing desolation of their owner, Ms. Estupenda, both trigger the play and provide it with a plot. The marmosets, too, point to a changing mentality in late 17th-century society, regarding the possession among ladies of marmosets and other monkeys as pets.

  18. Polymorphism in Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum minasense in the blood of experimentally infected squirrel monkey and marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Ziccardi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections by Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum minasense were performed in primates - Saimiri sciureus and Callithrix penicillata - with the objective of searching for morphological variations of the blood trypomastigotes with respect to hosts and time of infection. We carried out morphological and morphometric analysis of blood trypomastigotes. Illustrations are given. Both the squirrel monkey and marmoset became infected after the injection of blood trypomastigotes of T. minasense , although the parasitaemia were briefer in the squirrel monkey. The parasites detected in the later host were narrower and shorter than those found in the inoculated marmoset. In the marmoset, the blood stream parasites derived from culture metacyclic trypomastigotes were considerably smaller than those derived from the inoculation of infected blood. Stronger evidence of polymorphism was found when, at the same time of infection, the blood trypomastigotes found in squirrel monkey had smaller length, body width and the distance from posterior end of the body to the kinetoplast almost four times smaller than the parasite found in the marmoset. Therefore, conflicting results on morphology and morphometry of T. minasense obtained by previous investigators could be due to polymorphism.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of riluzole in early phase Parkinson's disease on clinically relevant parameters in the marmoset MPTP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, P.S.; Jongsma, M.J.; Berg, R.M. van den; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Smit, A.B.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates neuroprotection in a marmoset MPTP (1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) model representing early Parkinson's disease (PD). The anti-glutamatergic compound riluzole is used as a model compound for neuroprotection. The compound is one of the few protective compounds used i

  20. Oral Treatment with the NADPH Oxidase Antagonist Apocynin Mitigates Clinical and Pathological Features of Parkinsonism in the MPTP marmoset Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, Ingrid H. C. H. M.; Wubben, Jacqueline A.; Finsen, Bente; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, isolated as principal bioactive component from the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, in a marmoset MPTP model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The methoxy-substituted catechol apocynin has a similar structure as homo

  1. 599 Prevalence of Common Variable Immunodeficiency in Adult Patients Specialty Hospital—Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI - Mss—Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Nelva; Segura Mendez, Nora Hilda; Mendoza, Laura; Campos Romero, Freya Helena

    2012-01-01

    Background Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency (IDP), occurs primarily in adults between the second to fourth decades of life, without gender predominance. It is characterized by concentrations of immunoglobulins (Igs) of at least 2 standard deviation (DS) of normal, recurring infections, some patients have autoimmune diseases and tumors, absence of isohemagglutinins and lack of production of antibodies (Ab) after vaccination and have excluded other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia. Objective Determine the prevalence of CVID in the Specialty Hospital—Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico City. Methods We included all patients with suspected diagnosis of CVID, clinical history, laboratory tests, determination of serum Igs and isohemagglutinins and were given a dose of gamma globulin 500 mg/kg/dose every 21 days. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The protocol was approved by the local research committee. Results A total of 15 patients, 11 women and 4 men, mean age 34 years (± 11), 14 patients met all international standards and just only one patient has positive isohemagglutinins. The prevalence of CVID calculated according to the total population that is entitled in this hospital, 1, 520, 900, 1: 101, 393. In relation to the number of patients served by our service, the prevalence of 0.053% with a ratio of 1:2.533 right holders. Conclusions Our results show differences in relation to the published literature, prevalence in female sex ratio of 3:1, participating patients were diagnosed at the 34 years of average age, just only 2 patients were diagnosed before 20 years of age, unlike some of the international and national reports, we establish the definitive diagnosis according to international standards in 93% of cases evaluated. The prevalence of CVID obtained in our study is 1:101.393, higher than reported in international literature is 1:30.000 to 1:50.000, but similar to that reported

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of white-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix jacchus (Primates: Callitrichinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing-Yu; Wang, Hai-Feng; Yang, Ming-Ying; Liu, Qi-Ying; Ding, Ming-Xia

    2016-05-01

    The white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that inhabits the coastal rainforests of eastern Brazil. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of white-tufted-ear marmoset for the first time. The total length of this mitogenome is 16,499 bp long, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene organization and arrangement is identical to typical vertebrates. The overall base composition is 32.75% of A, 26.95% of T, 26.91% C, and 13.39% G, with a slight A + T bias of 59.7%. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates.

  3. Even simple forms of social learning rely on intention attribution in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith; Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; van Schaik, Carel

    2012-05-01

    Intention attribution guides the cognitively most demanding forms of social learning, such as imitation, thereby scaffolding cumulative cultural evolution. However, it is not thought to be necessary for more basic forms of social learning. Here we present evidence that in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) even most basic forms of social learning such as enhancement depend on intention attribution. Marmosets perceived the behavior of a conspecific and a conspecific-like robot, but not that of a moving black box, as goal directed. Their subsequent choice behavior was shaped by social facilitation and stimulus enhancement, that is, by very simple forms of social learning, but only when exposed to the conspecific and robot, which they previously had perceived as intentional agents. We discuss the implications of this finding for contemporary debates about social learning, including emulation learning and ghost control studies, the necessity of goal-directed copying for cumulative cultural evolution, and the limits of current classification systems of social learning for the evolution of social and asocial learning.

  4. Quality of maternal and paternal care predicts later stress reactivity in the cooperatively-breeding marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Andrew K; Taylor, Jack H; Cavanaugh, Jon; French, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Variation in the early postnatal social environment can have lasting effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses. Both rats and macaque monkeys subjected to low quality or abusive maternal care during the early postnatal period have more pronounced HPA responses to environmental stressors throughout development and into adulthood compared to animals reared in higher quality early maternal environments. However, little is known about the relative contributions to HPA stress response styles in developing offspring in species in which offspring care is routinely provided by group members other than the mother, such as in cooperatively breeding mammals. Marmoset monkeys exhibit cooperative offspring rearing, with fathers and older siblings providing care in addition to that provided by the mother. We evaluated the effects of early maternal, paternal, and older sibling care on HPA responses to social separation across development in captive white-faced marmoset offspring (Callithrix geoffroyi). We monitored offspring care by mothers, fathers, and older siblings in marmosets for the first 60 days of life. Later in development, each marmoset experienced three standardized social separation/novelty exposure stressors at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. During separation, we collected urine samples and analyzed them via enzyme immunoassay for cortisol levels. Infants that received higher rates of rejections from the entire family group showed higher cortisol responses to social separation. This relationship was found when mothers, fathers, and older siblings, were analyzed separately as well. No differences in cortisol responses were found between offspring that received high and low rates of carrying or high and low rates of licking and grooming by any group member. In the cooperatively breeding marmoset, early social cues from multiple classes of caregivers may influence HPA stress responses throughout the lifespan.

  5. cDNA clone of hepatitis A virus encoding a virulent virus: induction of viral hepatitis by direct nucleic acid transfection of marmosets.

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, S U; Lewis, M; Govindarajan, S. (Srinath); M. Shapiro(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley CA, United States of America); Moskal, T; Purcell, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    Direct inoculation of marmoset livers with an in vitro transcription mixture containing cDNA and full-length genomic RNA transcripts of hepatitis A virus resulted in acute viral hepatitis. Elevations in serum levels of liver enzymes were correlated with appearance of antibody to hepatitis A virus. Genomes of infectious hepatitis A virus isolated from the feces of transfected marmosets contained the same mutation as the cDNA template used for transfection. Liver biopsies confirmed that the vir...

  6. A foraging advantage for dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) at low light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Nancy G; Osorio, Daniel; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2010-02-23

    Most New World monkey species have both dichromatic and trichromatic individuals present in the same population. The selective forces acting to maintain the variation are hotly debated and are relevant to the evolution of the 'routine' trichromatic colour vision found in catarrhine primates. While trichromats have a foraging advantage for red food compared with dichromats, visual tasks which dichromats perform better have received less attention. Here we examine the effects of light intensity on foraging success among marmosets. We find that dichromats outperform trichomats when foraging in shade, but not in sun. The simplest explanation is that dichromats pay more attention to achromatic cues than trichromats. However, dichromats did not show a preference for foraging in shade compared with trichromats. Our results reveal several interesting parallels with a recent study in capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), and suggest that dichromat advantage for certain tasks contributes to maintenance of the colour vision polymorphism.

  7. Salmonella Yoruba infection in white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus, found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necropsy findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.

  8. Reversal learning in gonadectomized marmosets with and without hormone replacement: are males more sensitive to punishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaClair, Matthew; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2016-05-01

    This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5 years) marmosets treated with testosterone cypionate (T, n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5) on Reversal Learning, which contributes to cognitive flexibility, and the Delayed Response task, measuring working memory. Their performance was compared to that of 11 ovariectomized females (mean age = 3.7 years) treated with Silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2, n = 6) or empty capsules (n = 5), previously tested on the same tasks (Lacreuse et al. in J Neuroendocrinol 26:296-309, 2014. doi: 10.1111/jne.12147). Behavioral observations were conducted daily. Females exhibited more locomotor behaviors than males. Males and females did not differ in the number of trials taken to reach criterion on the reversals, but males had significantly longer response latencies, regardless of hormone replacement. They also had a greater number of refusals than females. Additionally, both control and T-treated males, but not females, had slower responses on incorrect trials, suggesting that males were making errors due to distraction, lack of motivation or uncertainty. Furthermore, although both males and females had slower responding following an incorrect compared to a correct trial, the sex difference in response latencies was disproportionally large following an incorrect trial. No sex difference was found in the Delayed Response task. Overall, slower response latencies in males than females during Reversal Learning, especially during and following an incorrect trial, may reflect greater sensitivity to punishment (omission of reward) and greater performance monitoring in males, compared to females. Because these differences occurred in gonadectomized animals and regardless of hormone replacement, they may be organized early in life.

  9. Imitation as faithful copying of a novel technique in marmoset monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Voelkl

    Full Text Available Imitative learning has received great attention due to its supposed role in the development of culture and the cognitive demands it poses on the individual. Evidence for imitation in non-human primate species, therefore, could shed light on the early origins of proto-cultural traits in the primate order. Imitation has been defined as the learning of an act by seeing it done or, more specifically, as the copying of a novel or otherwise improbable act. But despite a century of research and the detection of mirror neurons the empirical basis for this most advanced form of observational learning is weak. Few, if any, studies have shown that the observer has learned the response topography, i.e., the specific action by which the response is made. In an experimental set-up we confronted marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus with a conspecific model that was previously trained to open a plastic box in a peculiar way. Employing detailed motion analyses we show that the observers precisely copied the movement patterns of the novel action demonstrated by the model. A discriminant analysis classified 13 out of 14 observer movements (92.86% as model movements and only one as non-observer movement. This evidence of imitation in non-human primates questions the dominant opinion that imitation is a human-specific ability. Furthermore, the high matching degree suggests that marmosets possess the neuronal mechanism to code the actions of others and to map them onto their own motor repertoire, rather than priming existing motor-templates.

  10. MARMOSET: The Path from LHC Data to the New Standard Model via On-Shell Effective Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Mrenna, S; Schuster, P; Thaler, J; Toro, N; Wang, L T; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Knuteson, Bruce; Mrenna, Stephen; Schuster, Philip; Thaler, Jesse; Toro, Natalia; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2007-01-01

    We describe a coherent strategy and set of tools for reconstructing the fundamental theory of the TeV scale from LHC data. We show that On-Shell Effective Theories (OSETs) effectively characterize hadron collider data in terms of masses, production cross sections, and decay modes of candidate new particles. An OSET description of the data strongly constrains the underlying new physics, and sharply motivates the construction of its Lagrangian. Simulating OSETs allows efficient analysis of new-physics signals, especially when they arise from complicated production and decay topologies. To this end, we present MARMOSET, a Monte Carlo tool for simulating the OSET version of essentially any new-physics model. MARMOSET enables rapid testing of theoretical hypotheses suggested by both data and model-building intuition, which together chart a path to the underlying theory. We illustrate this process by working through a number of data challenges, where the most important features of TeV-scale physics are reconstructe...

  11. Humans and natural predators induce different fear/anxiety reactions and response pattern to diazepam in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Gonçalves, Israel; Ziller, Felipe; Emile, Nally; Barros, Marilia

    2009-08-01

    The behavioral response of marmoset monkeys in the Human Threat (HT) test of anxiety, and the effects of diazepam (DZP), were compared to those in the Predator Confrontation (PC) procedure. Subjects (n=13) were initially submitted to four habituation trials, followed by four random confrontation sessions for each test (DZP 0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg). Each trial was divided into three consecutive 5-min intervals: pre-exposure, exposure (human observer, taxidermized oncilla cat) and post-exposure. As DZP induced sedation, marmosets (n=10) were re-tested in a second experiment, consisting of two habituation trials and four confrontation sessions per stimulus, with lower DZP doses (0, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg). Exposure to both stimuli significantly increased direct gazes and alarm calls, being dose-dependently reduced by DZP only in the PC test. In the HT protocol, the significant decrease in aerial scans was not detected with 0.10 mg/kg DZP. Locomotion, proximity, displacement activities and vigilance were not consistently influenced by the stimuli and/or DZP. The results thus suggest that the HT test had a greater impact on the marmosets' behavior, while DZP was more effective on the reactions observed in the PC test, possibly due to the inherent nature of each stimulus, distinct threat levels and/or presentation order.

  12. Detection of fruit by the Cerrado's marmoset (Callithrix penicillata): modeling color signals for different background scenarios and ambient light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Eduardo Sosti; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras; Pessoa, Daniel Marques de Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Among placental mammals, only primates have trichromatic color vision, however this is not a uniform condition. Under different genetic status, Old World monkeys have routine trichromacy, while New World monkeys show a visual polymorphism, characterized by obligatory male dichromacy. The ecological role of this genetic difference still remains unclear, but some studies show that dichromats and trichromats appear to have different abilities in detecting colored targets against a background of leaves. The Cerrado's marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) is known to forage in brightly illuminated (savanna-like vegetation) and dimly illuminated (forests) environments, exploiting a high amount of dark fruits. Hence, it seems to be a good model for studying the differential advantages enjoyed by each color vision phenotype under natural conditions. Our aim was to verify how the different phenotypes of Cerrado's marmoset detect components of their diet, evaluating the existence of differential phenotype advantages. Under two different light conditions, visual signals of naturally consumed fruits were modeled against different backgrounds scenarios. Even though dichromats and trichromats appear to be equally suited for tasks involving fruit detection, phenotype differential advantages are observed in this marmoset. In many conditions trichromats are predicted to perform better than dichromats, but under low ambient light dichromats manage to outperform trichromats in some scenarios. Phenotypes that carry widely spaced and longer M/L pigments enjoy the most advantage. These differential performances of trichromatic phenotypes, together with overdominance selection, seem to explain the maintenance of the tri-allelic system found in callitrichids.

  13. Calibration and validation of a physiologically based model for soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaizhen; Seng, Kok-Yong

    2012-09-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed for low, medium and high levels of soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig. The primary objective of this model was to describe the pharmacokinetics of soman after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig, and pig as well as its subsequent pharmacodynamic effects on blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels, relating dosimetry to physiological response. The reactions modelled in each physiologically realistic compartment are: (1) partitioning of C(±)P(±) soman from the blood into the tissue; (2) inhibition of AChE and carboxylesterase (CaE) by soman; (3) elimination of soman by enzymatic hydrolysis; (4) de novo synthesis and degradation of AChE and CaE; and (5) aging of AChE-soman and CaE-soman complexes. The model was first calibrated for the rat, then extrapolated for validation in the marmoset, guinea pig and pig. Adequate fits to experimental data on the time course of soman pharmacokinetics and AChE inhibition were achieved in the mammalian models. In conclusion, the present model adequately predicts the dose-response relationship resulting from soman intoxication and can potentially be applied to predict soman pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in other species, including human.

  14. Oral treatment with the NADPH oxidase antagonist apocynin mitigates clinical and pathological features of parkinsonism in the MPTP marmoset model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Wubben, Jacqueline A; Finsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, isolated as principal bioactive component from the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, in a marmoset MPTP model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The methoxy-substituted catechol apocynin has a similar structure...... models, the conditions for metabolic activation of apocynin and inhibition of microglia NADPH oxidase are in place. Marmoset monkeys received oral apocynin (100 mg/kg; p.o.) (n = 5) or Gum Arabica (controls; n = 5) three times daily until the end of the study, starting 1 week before PD induction.......5 % and 17.7 ± 6.7 %; P = 0.048) and improved the home cage activity with 32 % (P = 0.029), indicating anti-Parkinson efficacy. Apocynin also increased the number of surviving DA neurons in MPTP-treated marmosets with 8.5 % (P = 0.059), indicating a tendency towards a neuroprotective efficacy. In conclusion...

  15. Long-term persistent GBV-B infection and development of a chronic and progressive hepatitis C-like disease in marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eIwasaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that infection of GB virus B (GBV-B, which is closely related to HCV, develop acute self-resolving hepatitis in tamarins. In this study we sought to examine longitudinally the dynamics of viral and immunological status following GBV-B infection of marmosets and tamarins. Surprisingly, two of four marmosets but not tamarins experimentally challenged with GBV-B developed long-term chronic infection with fluctuated viremia, recurrent increase of alanine aminotransferase and plateaued titers of the anti-viral antibodies, which was comparable to chronic hepatitis C in humans. Moreover, one of the chronically infected marmosets developed an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis as revealed by biochemical, histological and immunopathological analyses. Of note, periodical analyses of the viral genomes in these marmosets indicated frequent and selective nonsynonymus mutations, suggesting efficient evasion of the virus from anti-viral immune pressure. These results demonstrated for the first time that GBV-B could induce chronic hepatitis C-like disease in marmosets and that the outcome of the viral infection and disease progression may depend on the differences between species and individuals.

  16. Detection of neutralizing antibody to human adenovirus type 5 in marmosets%狨猴血清中重组人5型腺病毒中和抗体滴度的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚纯; 李婷婷; 王一琳; 张玲; 朱海; 黎诚耀

    2016-01-01

    Objective To construct a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) expressing luciferase and GFP reporter gene and detect neutralizing antibodies against adenovirus type 5 in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to provide basic laboratory data for evaluating adenovirus vaccines. Methods Luciferase and GFP reporter genes from plasmid pHAGE-CMV-GFP were inserted into pDC315 to construct the recombinant adenovirus shutter plasmid pDC315-Luc-GFP. The shutter plasmid was co-transduced with pBHGlox(delta)E1,3Cre in 293A cell line to package the recombinant adenovirus rAd5/Luc/GFP. Three rounds of plaque formation experiment were performed to select the monoclonal adenovirus followed by purification with cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation and virus titration with TCID50 method. Chemiluminescence assay and flow cytometry were employed to detect the neutralizing antibody levels in 14 common marmosets. Results The shuttle plasmid pDC315-Luc-GFP was successfully constructed and the recombinant adenovirus rAd5/Luc/GFP was packaged with a the titer reaching 6.9×101 .5 PFU/mL. In the 14 marmosets, chemiluminescence assay identified 4 (28.6%) marmosets that were positive for Ad5-neutralizing antibodies, including 2 with a antibody titer of 1/16 and another 2 with a titer of 1/32;flow cytomery detected Ad5-neutralizing antibodies in 3 marmosets at the titer of 1/16. Conclusion Chemiluminescence assay is a simple, sensitive, and accurate modality for detecting Ad5-neutralizing antibodies. Common marmosets have a very low positivity rate for Ad5-neutralizing antibodies and are therefore promising models for studying adenovirus-based vaccines and therapies.%目的:构建表达荧光素酶与绿色荧光蛋白报告基因的重组人5型腺病毒rAd5/Luc/GFP,检测血清中和抗体最佳实验方法,分析小型灵长类动物普通棉耳狨猴体内腺病毒5型中和抗体水平,为评价腺病毒载体疫苗提供实验动物基础数据。方法利

  17. Transfer of various polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) via placenta and through milk in a marmoset monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenmaier, H.; Wiesmueller, T. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie); Golor, G.; Krowke, R.; Neubert, D. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryonalpharmakologie); Helge, H. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Kinderklinik und Poliklinik)

    1990-11-01

    A mixture of PCDDs and PCDFs was subcutaneously administered to a pregnant marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) 11 weeks prior to delivery. Transfer of PCDDs and PCDFs via placenta and mother's milk was investigated by measurement of concentrations in a newborn 1 day after birth and in an infant of the same litter after a lactation period of 33 days. Furthermore, comparative measurements were performed in different tissues of the mother at the end of the lactation period, and in addition, in two groups of four adult monkeys each 1 and 6 weeks after treatment. Deposition of the PCDDs and PCDFs into fetal liver was very low for most of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. Highest deposition was observed for 2,3,7,8-T4CDD and 1,2,3,7,8-P5CDD. For all other compounds concentrations in the hepatic tissue of newborn shortly after birth were lower than one tenth of corresponding concentrations in adults. Fetal liver is apparently largely unable to accumulate PCDDs/PCDFs. In contrast to liver, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs in adipose tissue of the newborn were at least one third of the levels in adults. However, concentrations of OCDD and OCDF were about three times higher in the newborn than in adult adipose tissue. Transfer of some of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs to the offspring via mother's milk was considerable, leading to hepatic concentrations in the suckled infant at the end of the 33-day nursing period well above corresponding concentrations in the dam. When hepatic concentrations in the infant and dam were compared 2- to 4-fold higher concentrations were found in the infant's liver for 2,3,7,8-T4CDD/F and for 1,2,3,7,8-P5CDD. In the case of the 2,3,7,8-substituted H6CDDs, P5CDFs, and most of the H6CDFs, hepatic concentrations in the infant and dam were in the same range at the end of the suckling period. (orig./MG).

  18. Tissue transglutaminase in marmoset experimental multiple sclerosis: discrepancy between white and grey matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Espitia Pinzon

    Full Text Available Infiltration of leukocytes is a major pathological event in white matter lesion formation in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS patients. In grey matter lesions, less infiltration of these cells occur, but microglial activation is present. Thus far, the interaction of β-integrins with extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. fibronectin, is considered to be of importance for the influx of immune cells. Recent in vitro studies indicate a possible role for the enzyme tissue Transglutaminase (TG2 in mediating cell adhesion and migration. In the present study we questioned whether TG2 is present in white and grey matter lesions observed in the marmoset model for MS. To this end, immunohistochemical studies were performed. We observed that TG2, expressed by infiltrating monocytes in white matter lesions co-expressed β1-integrin and is located in close apposition to deposited fibronectin. These data suggest an important role for TG2 in the adhesion and migration of infiltrating monocytes during white matter lesion formation. Moreover, in grey matter lesions, TG2 is mainly present in microglial cells together with some β1-integrin, whereas fibronectin is absent in these lesions. These data imply an alternative role for microglial-derived TG2 in grey matter lesions, e.g. cell proliferation. Further research should clarify the functional role of TG2 in monocytes or microglial cells in MS lesion formation.

  19. Evidence of hemispheric specialization in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata using tympanic membrane thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tomaz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have employed tympanic thermometry to assess lateralization of cognitive and emotional functions in primates. However, no studies using this technique have investigated the possibility of hemispheric specialization in New World monkeys. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate tympanic membrane (TM temperature asymmetries and their possible correlation with stress responses in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata. Infrared TM thermometry was completed bilaterally in 24 animals (14 males and 10 females during a stressful situation of capture and restraint. There were no significant differences between gender. A significant negative correlation was observed between TM temperature of the right ear and the number of captures (r = -0.633; P<0.001. Subjects with a more frequent previous history of captures (5 to 9 captures; N = 11 showed lower TM temperature when compared to those with fewer previous captures (1 to 4 captures; N = 13. No differences were observed for the left TM temperature. These results suggest that under intense emotional challenge (capture and restraint there is a stronger activation of the neural structures situated in the right brain hemisphere. Taken together, the data reveal for the first time evidence of hemispheric specialization in emotional physiological processing in a New World monkey.

  20. Tissue transglutaminase in marmoset experimental multiple sclerosis: discrepancy between white and grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia Pinzon, Nathaly; Stroo, Esther; 't Hart, Bert A; Bol, John G J M; Drukarch, Benjamin; Bauer, Jan; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Infiltration of leukocytes is a major pathological event in white matter lesion formation in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In grey matter lesions, less infiltration of these cells occur, but microglial activation is present. Thus far, the interaction of β-integrins with extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. fibronectin, is considered to be of importance for the influx of immune cells. Recent in vitro studies indicate a possible role for the enzyme tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) in mediating cell adhesion and migration. In the present study we questioned whether TG2 is present in white and grey matter lesions observed in the marmoset model for MS. To this end, immunohistochemical studies were performed. We observed that TG2, expressed by infiltrating monocytes in white matter lesions co-expressed β1-integrin and is located in close apposition to deposited fibronectin. These data suggest an important role for TG2 in the adhesion and migration of infiltrating monocytes during white matter lesion formation. Moreover, in grey matter lesions, TG2 is mainly present in microglial cells together with some β1-integrin, whereas fibronectin is absent in these lesions. These data imply an alternative role for microglial-derived TG2 in grey matter lesions, e.g. cell proliferation. Further research should clarify the functional role of TG2 in monocytes or microglial cells in MS lesion formation.

  1. Striate cortex in dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets: neurochemical compartmentalization and geniculate input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Samuel G

    2002-09-02

    The superficial layers of primate striate cortex (V1) contain a regular pattern of dense staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO) reactivity ("blobs") that receive direct input from the koniocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. It has been suggested that the blob regions are dedicated to processing color information. Here, the neurochemical compartmentalization of blobs and their input from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) was measured in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) identified as having either dichromatic or trichromatic color vision. In all animals, layer III of V1 showed a patchy distribution of CO. The spatial density of CO blobs (mean, 4.6 blobs/mm(2); range, 3.9-5.5), blob diameter, and the proportion of cortical area within blobs was not significantly different in dichromats and trichromats. The LGN input was studied by injecting retrograde tracer into V1. The koniocellular layers of the LGN contribute 11% of all relay cells, and form the only geniculate input to upper layer III of V1. Only half of all relay cells in the KC layers express calbindin. There is no obvious difference between dichromats and trichromats in the pattern of the geniculate projection to V1. It is concluded that the trichromatic phenotype is not associated with changes in the gross anatomy, neurochemistry, or organization of the geniculate afferents to the superficial layers of V1.

  2. Long-Term Two-Photon Calcium Imaging of Neuronal Populations with Subcellular Resolution in Adult Non-human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Osamu; Masamizu, Yoshito; Watakabe, Akiya; Terada, Shin-Ichiro; Ohtsuka, Masanari; Takaji, Masafumi; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Keiya; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2015-12-01

    Two-photon imaging with genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) enables long-term observation of neuronal activity in vivo. However, there are very few studies of GECIs in primates. Here, we report a method for long-term imaging of a GECI, GCaMP6f, expressed from adeno-associated virus vectors in cortical neurons of the adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate. We used a tetracycline-inducible expression system to robustly amplify neuronal GCaMP6f expression and up- and downregulate it for more than 100 days. We succeeded in monitoring spontaneous activity not only from hundreds of neurons three-dimensionally distributed in layers 2 and 3 but also from single dendrites and axons in layer 1. Furthermore, we detected selective activities from somata, dendrites, and axons in the somatosensory cortex responding to specific tactile stimuli. Our results provide a way to investigate the organization and plasticity of cortical microcircuits at subcellular resolution in non-human primates.

  3. Fear of nuclear war increases the risk of common mental disorders among young adults: a five-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the relation between fear of war and mental health is insufficient. We carried out a prospective cohort study to find out whether fear of nuclear war is related to increased risk of common mental disorders. Methods Within two months preceding the outbreak of Persian Gulf War in January 1991, 1518 adolescents [mean age 16.8 years, SD 0.9] filled in a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 1493 respondents, 47% gave their written informed consent to participate in the follow-up study. There were no material differences between those who chose to respond anonymously and those who volunteered to give their name and address for the follow-up study. In 1995, the response to the follow-up questionnaire was 92%. Common mental disorders were assessed by 36-item version of the General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]. A score 5 or higher was considered to indicate caseness. We excluded 23 cases which had used mental health services in the year 1991 or earlier and two cases with deficient responses to GHQ. This left 626 subjects for analysis [400 women]. Results After adjusting for significant mental health risk factors in logistic regression analysis, the risk for common mental disorders was found to be significantly related to the increasing frequency of fear for nuclear war, high scores of trait anxiety and high scores of immature defense style. Elevated risk was confined to the group reporting fear of nuclear war once a week or more often [odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.29–3.27]. Conclusion Frequent fear of nuclear war in adolescents seems to be an indicator for an increased risk for common mental disorders and deserves serious attention.

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics and subacute toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in rats and marmosets: extrapolation of effects in rodents to man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, C.; Orton, T.C.; Pratt, I.S.; Batten, P.L.; Bratt, H.; Jackson, S.J.; Elcombe, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    Certain phthalate esters and hypolipidemic agents are known to induce morphological and biochemical changes in the liver of rodents, which have been associated with an increased incidence of hepatocellular tumors in these species. There is evidence that hypolipidemic agents do not induce these effects in either subhuman primates or man. The oral and intraperitoneal administration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) to the marmoset monkey at doses up to 5 mmole DEHP/kg body weight/day for 14 days did not induce morphological or biochemical changes in the liver or testis comparable with those obtained in rats given the same amount of DEHP. In the marmoset, the excretion profile of (/sup 14/C)-DEHP following oral, IP, and IV administration and the lower tissue levels of radioactivity demonstrated a considerably reduced absorption in this species compared to the rat. The urinary metabolite pattern in the marmoset was in many respects qualitatively similar to but quantitatively different from that in the rat. The pharmacokinetic differences between these two species indicate that the tissues of the marmoset are exposed to a level of DEHP metabolites equivalent to the complete absorption of a dose of Ca. 0.1 to 0.25 mmole DEHP/kg body weight/day without significant toxicological effects. The evidence suggests that in some nonrodent species the hepatocellular and testicular response to DEHP is considerably less than that in rodents and is dose-dependent.

  5. Voxel-based morphometry of the marmoset brain: In vivo detection of volume loss in the substantia nigra of the MPTP-treated Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikishima, K; Ando, K; Komaki, Y; Kawai, K; Yano, R; Inoue, T; Itoh, T; Yamada, M; Momoshima, S; Okano, H J; Okano, H

    2015-08-06

    Movement dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Here, we established a method for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and automatic tissue segmentation of the marmoset monkey brain using a 7-T animal scanner and applied the method to assess DA degeneration in a PD model, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated animals, with tyrosine-hydroxylase staining. The most significant decreases of local tissue volume were detected in the bilateral SN of MPTP-treated marmoset brains (-53.0% in right and -46.5% in left) and corresponded with the location of DA neurodegeneration found in histology (-65.4% in right). In addition to the SN, the decreases were also confirmed in the locus coeruleus, and lateral hypothalamus. VBM using 7-T MRI was effective in detecting volume loss in the SN of the PD-model marmoset. This study provides a potential basis for the application of VBM with ultra-high field MRI in the clinical diagnosis of PD. The developed method may also offer value in automatic whole-brain evaluation of structural changes for the marmoset monkey.

  6. Fatal Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1 infection in captive marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata in Brazil: clinical and pathological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata A. Casagrande

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatal Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1 was diagnosed in 12 captive marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata from metropolitan region of São Paulo, São Paulo State. Clinical signs were variable among the cases, but most affected marmosets presented signs associated with viral epithelial replication: oral, lingual and facial skin ulcers and hypersalivation, and viral replication in the central nervous system: prostration, seizure and aggressive behavior. Consistent microscopic findings were diffuse mild to severe nonsuppurative necrotizing meningoencephalitis with gliosis, vasculitis and neuronal necrosis. Additionally, in the brain, oral cavity, skin, adrenal gland and myoenteric plexus intranuclear inclusion bodies were present. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the HHV-1 antigen in association with lesions in the brain, oral and lingual mucosa, facial skin, adrenal gland and myoenteric plexus. HHV-1-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of the brain was carried out and the virus was detected in 7/8 infected marmosets. It is concluded that HHV-1 causes widespread fatal infection in marmosets.

  7. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  8. MARMOSET: The Path from LHC Data to the New Standard Model via On-Shell Effective Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Thaler, Jesse; /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley; Wang, Lian-Tao; /Princeton U.; Knuteson, Bruce; /MIT, LNS; Mrenna, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We describe a coherent strategy and set of tools for reconstructing the fundamental theory of the TeV scale from LHC data. We show that On-Shell Effective Theories (OSETs) effectively characterize hadron collider data in terms of masses, production cross sections, and decay modes of candidate new particles. An OSET description of the data strongly constrains the underlying new physics, and sharply motivates the construction of its Lagrangian. Simulating OSETs allows efficient analysis of new-physics signals, especially when they arise from complicated production and decay topologies. To this end, we present MARMOSET, a Monte Carlo tool for simulating the OSET version of essentially any new-physics model. MARMOSET enables rapid testing of theoretical hypotheses suggested by both data and model-building intuition, which together chart a path to the underlying theory. We illustrate this process by working through a number of data challenges, where the most important features of TeV-scale physics are reconstructed with as little as 5 fb{sup -1} of simulated LHC signals.

  9. Oral treatment with the NADPH oxidase antagonist apocynin mitigates clinical and pathological features of parkinsonism in the MPTP marmoset model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Wubben, Jacqueline A; Finsen, Bente; 't Hart, Bert A

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, isolated as principal bioactive component from the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, in a marmoset MPTP model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The methoxy-substituted catechol apocynin has a similar structure as homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of dopamine (DA). Apocynin acquires its selective inhibitory capacity of the reactive oxygen species generating NADPH oxidase via metabolic activation by myeloperoxidase (MPO). As MPO is upregulated in activated brain microglia cells of PD patients and in MPTP animal models, the conditions for metabolic activation of apocynin and inhibition of microglia NADPH oxidase are in place. Marmoset monkeys received oral apocynin (100 mg/kg; p.o.) (n = 5) or Gum Arabica (controls; n = 5) three times daily until the end of the study, starting 1 week before PD induction with MPTP (1 mg/kg s.c. for 8 days). Parkinsonian symptoms, motor function, home-cage activity and body weight were monitored to assess the disease development and severity. Post-mortem numbers of the tyrosine hydroxylase expressing DA neurons in the substantia nigra were counted. During the MPTP injections, apocynin limited the body weight loss and relieved parkinsonian symptoms compared to controls (Linear regression, P motor-function deterioration.

  10. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults:Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeer G Al-Kindi; Guilherme H Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality(CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults(20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers(breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297(0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung(10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver(1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast(0.6%) and prostate(1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments(P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63(0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers(P = 0.02), breast(P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer(P = 0.097).There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers.CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  11. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  12. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  13. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    -mapping and cloning of the gene to understand the mechanism underlying LM initiation and disease resistance in common wheat.

  14. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  15. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  16. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  17. Incidence of common variant and disease in young adult brain by using magnetic resonance imaging%正常青年人群脑磁共振检查中常见变异及病变发生率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴站蓉; 平昭; 董大伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察对正常青年志愿者脑组织行MRI平扫检查检出常见变异及病变的发生率.方法 使用SIEMENS Trio Tim 3.0T MRI扫描仪对60例正常青年人行MRI平扫,T1WI、T2WI序列,必要时加扫FLAIR或DWI.结果 在男女各30例志愿者中发现蛛网膜下腔囊肿4例(男3例,女1例),发生部位分别为中颅凹2例,枕大池2例;透明隔囊肿1例;脱髓鞘改变4例(男3例,女1例).结论 蛛网膜下腔囊肿在正常人群中有一定发生率,通常男性多于女性,透明隔囊肿也有少量发生率,缺血性脱髓鞘改变在无神经系统临床表现正常青年人群中并不罕见.%Objective To study incidence of common variant and disease in normal young adult volunteer brain by MRI. Methods 60 normal young adults were examined by magnetic resonance general scan at SIEMENS Trio Tim 3.0T MRI (T1WI, T2WI). To scan FLAIR or DWI in needing. Results Among 60 normal young adults (male 30 cases, female 30 cases), intracranial arachnoid cysts was 4 cases, male 3 cases and female 1 case, location middle cranial fossa was 2 cases and posterior fossa was 2 cases; septi pellucidi was 1 case; demyelinating disease was 4 cases, male 3 cases and female 1 case. Conclusion Intracranial arachnoid cysts has any incidence; incidence of intracranial arachnoid cysts is male finding more than female; septi pellucidi has a little incidence; demyelinating disease is not rare in normal young adult volunteer brain.

  18. The MPTP marmoset model of parkinsonism: a multi-purpose non-human primate model for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; 't Hart, Bert A; Torres, German

    2010-12-01

    Aging societies face an increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders for which no cure exists. The paucity of relevant animal models that faithfully reproduce clinical and pathogenic features of neurodegenerative diseases is a major cause for the lack of effective therapies. Clinically distinct disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, are driven by overlapping pathogenic mechanisms that converge onto vulnerable neurons to ultimately cause abnormal clinical outcomes. These similarities, particularly in the early phases of neurodegeneration, might help identify appropriate animal model systems for studying of cell pathology. While reviewing some of the cellular mechanisms of disease progression, we discuss the MPTP-induced model of Parkinsonism in marmoset monkeys as a model system for construct, face and predictive validity in neurodegenerative studies.

  19. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823, in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAR. Dias

    Full Text Available Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea.

  20. Visual motion integration by neurons in the middle temporal area of a New World monkey, the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Selina S; Tailby, Chris; Gharaei, Saba; Camp, Aaron J; Bourne, James A; Solomon, Samuel G

    2011-12-01

    The middle temporal area (MT/V5) is an anatomically distinct region of primate visual cortex that is specialized for the processing of image motion. It is generally thought that some neurons in area MT are capable of signalling the motion of complex patterns, but this has only been established in the macaque monkey. We made extracellular recordings from single units in area MT of anaesthetized marmosets, a New World monkey. We show through quantitative analyses that some neurons (35 of 185; 19%) are capable of signalling pattern motion ('pattern cells'). Across several dimensions, the visual response of pattern cells in marmosets is indistinguishable from that of pattern cells in macaques. Other neurons respond to the motion of oriented contours in a pattern ('component cells') or show intermediate properties. In addition, we encountered a subset of neurons (22 of 185; 12%) insensitive to sinusoidal gratings but very responsive to plaids and other two-dimensional patterns and otherwise indistinguishable from pattern cells. We compared the response of each cell class to drifting gratings and dot fields. In pattern cells, directional selectivity was similar for gratings and dot fields; in component cells, directional selectivity was weaker for dot fields than gratings. Pattern cells were more likely to have stronger suppressive surrounds, prefer lower spatial frequencies and prefer higher speeds than component cells. We conclude that pattern motion sensitivity is a feature of some neurons in area MT of both New and Old World monkeys, suggesting that this functional property is an important stage in motion analysis and is likely to be conserved in humans.

  1. Cisto de colédoco em adulto: anomalia da junção do colédoco com o ducto pancreático submetido à ressecção do cisto e à derivação biliar e pancreática Common bile duct cyst in adult: anomaly of the common bile duct-pancreatic junction submitted to excision of the cyst and a biliary and pancreatic deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlio Basilio Speranzini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Common bile duct cysts are rare congenital anomalies which have been diagnosed only in twenty per cent of adults. The etiology is uncertain, but many patients have an anomalous pancreatobiliary junction anatomy. We present a case of a young man with a type I Alonso-Lej/ Todani common bile duct cyst and an anomalous common bile duct-pancreatic junction anatomy. Because the common bile duct did not have a segment of normal caliber, to avoid compromising with the pancreatic channel after the excision of the cyst, we performed a Roux-en-Y anastomosis by anastomosing the biliary duct to the proximal excluded jejunal loop and the common duct-pancreatic junction to the same more distally loop.

  2. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence.

  3. Analysis of the cross-talk of Epstein–Barr virus-infected B cells with T cells in the marmoset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jordon; van Driel, Nikki; Eggen, Bart JL; Paul, Chaitali; ‘t Hart, Bert A; Laman, Jon D; Kap, Yolanda S

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-known association of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a lymphocryptovirus (LCV), with multiple sclerosis, a clear pathogenic role for disease progression has not been established. The translationally relevant experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in marmoset monkeys revealed that LCV-infected B cells have a central pathogenic role in the activation of T cells that drive EAE progression. We hypothesized that LCV-infected B cells induce T-cell functions relevant for EAE progression. In the current study, we examined the ex vivo cross-talk between lymph node mononuclear cells (MNCs) from EAE marmosets and (semi-) autologous EBV-infected B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs). Results presented here demonstrate that infection with EBV B95-8 has a strong impact on gene expression profile of marmoset B cells, particularly those involved with antigen processing and presentation or co-stimulation to T cells. At the cellular level, we observed that MNC co-culture with B-LCLs induced decrease of CCR7 expression on T cells from EAE responder marmosets, but not in EAE monkeys without clinically evident disease. B-LCL interaction with T cells also resulted in significant loss of CD27 expression and reduced expression of IL-23R and CCR6, which coincided with enhanced IL-17A production. These results highlight the profound impact that EBV-infected B-LCL cells can have on second and third co-stimulatory signals involved in (autoreactive) T-cell activation. PMID:28243437

  4. Common risk factors and clinical characteristics for ischemic stroke in young adults%试论青年缺血性脑卒中常见危险因素及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对青年缺血性脑卒中患者临床特点的探究来分析各种常见的危险因素。方法抽取2013、2014年本市报告的250例青年缺血性脑卒中患者作为观察组研究对象,并选取同期进行健康体检的250例青年人作为对照组研究对象,对两组进行危险因素的比较分析,并对观察组患者的临床特征、治疗情况以及预后效果进行分析。结果观察组患者在吸烟、饮酒、高血压、高血脂等常见危险因素中所占的比例明显高于对照组,两组比较具有统计学意义(P﹤0.05);观察组所有患者均表现出不同的临床特点,其中静态发病、初发病以及运动障碍的临床表现最为突出,分别占比85.2%、97.2%、76.8%;经治疗后,246例(98.4%)患者的神经功能得到了不同程度的改善,其中78例(31.2%)患者存在明显的不良心理反应,4例(1.6%)患者因治疗无效死亡。结论通过加强对青年缺血性脑卒中的危险因素的控制,提高对临床特点的分析,才能有效降低该病的发病率。%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of young adult patients with ischemic stroke and to analyze different common risk factors for ischemic stroke. Methods The data of 250 young adult patients with ischemic stroke reported from 2013 to 2014 in our city were collected and compared with the data of another 250 healthy young adults undergoing routine physical examination. Comparison of risk factors for ischemic stroke between the two groups was performed and the clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, and prognosis of the two groups were also analyzed. Results The observation group took a significantly higher proportion in common risk factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia (P﹤0.05). The observation group had different clinical features;among them, the static onset, first onset, and movement disorder were the most

  5. Quantification of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 mRNA of marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) oocytes from periantral and antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, L; Kuhnert, S; Nayudu, P L; Einspanier, R; Hinsch, K D; Hinsch, E

    2012-05-01

    In mammals, the oocyte and preimplantation embryo are protected by the zona pellucida (ZP) consisting mainly of ZP glycoproteins, which are responsible for sperm binding, induction of the acrosome reaction and zona pellucida hardening to prevent polyspermia. The ZP proteins become increasingly important as possible predictors for in vitro cultured oocytes competence. As little is known about the stage-dependent expression of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 in marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) oocytes, mRNA expression was investigated with real-time RT-PCR. Total-RNA was isolated from three different classes of marmoset oocytes; Class 1 oocytes from periantral follicles (1000 μm, n = 9). Compared with Class 1 oocytes mRNA expression of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 in Class 2 oocytes was significantly decreased. In Class 3 oocytes, the transcription of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 genes showed also a significant decrease compared with Class 1 oocytes. In this study a differently regulated expression of the ZP genes during late folliculogenesis with an obvious downregulation of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 could be demonstrated for the first time in the marmoset monkey.

  6. Price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE tape for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Tascón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE tape as an oral hygiene method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm, compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults. Methods: The polytetrafluoroethylene tape was used as a method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm. By a randomized procedure the sample size was of 87 (31 men and 56 women between 16 and 28 years old. The oral hygiene of the participants was suspended during a period of 12 hours. A suitable disclosing solution was used to paint the dental surfaces. The removal of the biofilm was made by the same operator who used the same technique with the two materials (polytetrafluoroethylene tape and nylon dental floss. The information was collected using the coronal division (in thirds of the Greene and Vermillion Oral Hygiene Index. This index was modified to evaluate proximal surfaces only. Results: In the group of dental floss the presence of the proximal biofilm was 72.6% before and 11.2% after its removal. In the group of PTFE was 72.9% before and 11% after. After the comparison of the two methods the differences are not significant. PTFE price is 2.7 times lower than common nylon dental floss. Conclusions: The similarity in the removal of the proximal biofilm of the PTFE tape when compared to the nylon floss was significant. Thanks to its biocompatibility, tolerance and its low price, the PTFE tape is an alternative method for the removal of the biofilm in these proximal areas. Results of this study open a way for the investigation on non orthodox techniques, but effective, for the maintenance of the oral health with the only purpose of improving life quality of poor populations.

  7. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  8. Tissue distribution and subcellular binding of arsenic in marmoset monkeys after injection of /sup 74/As-arsenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahter, M.; Marafante, E.; Lindgren, A.; Dencker, L.

    1982-10-01

    The distribution and retention of arsenic in Marmoset monkeys, given /sup 74/As-arsenite (0.4 mg As/kg body weight) i.p., were studied by means of whole-body autoradiography and determination of /sup 74/As-levels in tissues and excreta. Only about 30% of the dose was eliminated over 4 days, mainly via the kidneys. All of the arsenic in urine and tissues was found to be in inorganic form. Tissues with highest accumulation 4 days after dosing were liver (about 20% of the dose), squamous epithelium of oral cavity and esophagus, kidney cortex, skin, testes (mainly tubuli seminiferi) and intestinal wall. As a rule the major part of the arsenic in these tissues was found to be associated with cellular organelles. In the liver about 50% of the arsenic was strongly bound to the rough microsomal membranes. In the soluble extract of tissues, arsenic was mainly associated with macromolecular constituents. The long retention time and tight binding of arsenic could partly be explained by the fact that no biotransformation into methylated arsenic occurred, in contrast to all other species studied so far.

  9. Mediodorsal thalamic nucleus receives a direct retinal input in marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus): a subunit B cholera toxin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Twyla Barros; de Santana, Melquisedec Abiaré Dantas; Silva, Alane de Medeiros; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Oliveira, Francisco Gilberto; Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; Costa, Miriam Stela Maris Oliveira; Nascimento, Expedito Silva do

    2013-01-01

    The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is a prominent nucleus in the thalamus, positioned lateral to the midline nuclei and medial to the intralaminar thalamic complex in the dorsal thalamus. Several studies identify the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus as a key structure in learning and memory, as well as in emotional mechanisms and alertness due to reciprocal connections with the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Fibers from the retina to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus have recently been described for the first time in a crepuscular rodent, suggesting a possible regulation of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus by visual activity. The present study shows retinal afferents in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of a new world primate, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), using B subunit of cholera toxin (CTb) as an anterograde tracer. A small population of labeled retinofugal axonal arborizations is consistently labeled in small domains of the medial and lateral periphery of the caudal half of the mediodorsal nucleus. Retinal projections in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus are exclusively contralateral and the morphology of the afferent endings was examined. Although the functional significance of this projection remains unknown, this retina-mediodorsal thalamic nucleus pathway may be involved in a wide possibility of functional implications.

  10. Interaction between rod and cone signals in responses of lateral geniculate neurons in dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S; Kremers, J; Maurer, J

    1998-01-01

    Parvocellular (P-) and magnocellular (M-) cells in the marmoset LGN can receive prominent rod input up to relatively high illuminance levels (Kremers et al., 1997b). In the present paper, we quantify rod and cone input strengths under different retinal illuminance levels. The stimulus was based on the so-called "silent substitution" method. The activities of P- and M-cells of dichromatic animals were recorded extracellularly. We were able to adequately describe the response amplitudes and phases by a vector summation of rod and cone signals. At low retinal illuminance levels, the cells' responses were determined by rod and cone inputs. With increasing illuminances the strength of the cone input increased relative to the rod strength. But, we often found significant rod inputs up to illuminances equivalent to 700 td in the human eye or more. Rod input strength was more pronounced in cells with receptive fields at large retinal eccentricities. The phase differences between rod and cone inputs suggest that the rod signals lag about 45 ms behind the cone signals.

  11. Connectivity between the OFF bipolar type DB3a and six types of ganglion cell in the marmoset retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Rania A; Percival, Kumiko A; Koizumi, Amane; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2016-06-15

    Parallel visual pathways originate at the first synapse in the retina, where cones make connections with cone bipolar cells that in turn contact ganglion cells. There are more ganglion cell types than bipolar types, suggesting that there must be divergence from bipolar to ganglion cells. Here we analyze the contacts between an OFF bipolar type (DB3a) and six ganglion cell types in the retina of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were transfected via particle-mediated gene transfer of an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP), and DB3a cells were labeled via immunohistochemistry. Ganglion cell types that fully or partially costratified with DB3a cells included OFF parasol, OFF midget, broad thorny, recursive bistratified, small bistratified, and large bistratified cells. On average, the number of DB3a contacts to parasol cells (18 contacts per axon terminal) is higher than that to other ganglion cell types (between four and seven contacts). We estimate that the DB3a output to OFF parasol cells accounts for at least 30% of the total DB3a output. Furthermore, we found that OFF parasol cells receive approximately 20% of their total bipolar input from DB3a cells, suggesting that other diffuse bipolar types also provide input to OFF parasol cells. We conclude that DB3a cells preferentially contact OFF parasol cells but also provide input to other ganglion cell types.

  12. REM sleep behavior disorder in the marmoset MPTP model of early Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, P.S.; Jongsma, M.J.; Berg, R.M. van den; Vis, J.C.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Smit, A.B.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep problems are a common phenomenon in most neurological and psychiatric diseases. In Parkinson disease (PD), for instance, sleep problems may be the most common and burdensome non-motor symptoms in addition to the well-described classical motor symptoms. Since sleep disturbance

  13. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  14. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  15. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Certain health problems are common in older adults. Heavy drinking can make these problems worse, including: Diabetes High blood pressure Congestive heart failure Liver problems Osteoporosis Memory problems Mood disorders Bad Interactions with Medications ...

  16. Establishment of drug-induced common marmoset model for hepatic fibrosis%诱导型狨猴肝纤维化模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌乾; 王青松; 郭正隆; 尹海芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立诱导型狨猴肝纤维化模型.方法:手术切除普通狨猴部分肝脏,通过腹腔注射二乙基亚硝胺(DENA-2.5 mg/kg),并利用体质量和肝功能检测、病理分析、免疫组化,胶原染色和B超小动物活体成像等手段进行监测.结果:手术切除肝脏促使狨猴肝脏再生,并伴随肥大和炎症反应;DENA药物诱导会引发与人类类似的肝脏炎症,肝脏胶原聚集和血管增生,最终导致狨猴肝脏纤维化.结论:手术切肝联合DENA化学诱导可以成功获得狨猴肝纤维化模型.

  17. 普通棉耳狨猴副粘病毒自然感染的研究%Infection of Paramyxovirusesin in Common Cotton-eared Marmoset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤勇; 石建党; 金孟珏; 李晓眠; 王俊莉

    2002-01-01

    对一个狨猴实验室中暴发急性呼吸道疾病进行了病因调查.通过动物剖检、病毒分离、电子显微镜检查和血凝及血凝抑制试验和动物感染实验,确定其病原是副流感病毒Ⅰ型(仙台病毒).从而确定动物死亡原因是病毒引起肺炎感染造成.

  18. Cancer Strikes Out!/Definitions/ Glossary/ Common Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Cancer Strikes Out!/ Definitions/ Glossary/ Common Types Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... is the most common type of leukemia in young children. It also affects adults. Chronic myeloid leukemia (or chronic myelogenous leukemia, CML) ...

  19. Toxicokinetics of the nerve agent (+/-)-VX in anesthetized and atropinized hairless guinea pigs and marmosets after intravenous and percutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Marcel J; Lander, Brenda J; van der Wiel, Herma; Langenberg, Jan P; Benschop, Hendrik P

    2003-08-15

    In continuation of our investigations on the toxicokinetics of the volatile nerve agents C(+/-)P(+/-)-soman and (+/-)-sarin, we now report on the toxicokinetics of the rather nonvolatile agent (+/-)-VX. A validated method was developed to determine blood levels of (+/-)-VX by means of achiral gas chromatography at blood levels > or =10 pg/ml. The ratio of the two enantiomers of VX in blood could be measured at levels > or =1 ng/ml by using chiral HPLC in combination with off-line gas chromatographic analysis. In order to obtain basic information on the toxicokinetics of (+/-)-VX, i.e., under conditions of 100% bioavailability, the blood levels of this agent were measured in hairless guinea pigs at iv doses corresponding with 1 and 2 LD50. The derived AUCs indicate a reasonable linearity of the toxicokinetics with dose. Also, the toxicokinetics in marmoset primates was studied at an absolute iv dose corresponding with 1 LD50 in the hairless guinea pig which led to approximately the same levels of (+/-)-VX in blood as observed at 2 LD50 in the hairless guinea pig. Finally, the toxicokinetics of (+/-)-VX were measured in hairless guinea pigs via the most relevant porte d' entrée for this agent, which is the percutaneous route at a dose corresponding with 1 LD50 (pc). Large variations were observed between individual animals in the rate of penetration of (+/-)-VX and in concomitant progression of AChE inhibition in blood of these animals. Blood levels of (+/-)-VX increased gradually over a 6-h period of time. After a 7-h penetration period, the total AUC corresponded with 2.5% bioavailability relative to iv administration. In contrast with the G-agents C(+/-)P(+/-)-soman and (+/-)-sarin, stereospecificity in the sequestration of the two enantiomers of (+/-)-VX is not a prominent phenomenon. It appears that (+/-)-VX is substantially more persistent in vivo than the two G-agents. This persistence may undermine the efficacy of pretreatment with carbamates of percutaneous

  20. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic “column leg” appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve.

  1. Translocation and radiotelemetry monitoring of black-tailed marmosets, Callithrix (Mico melanura(É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, in a wildlife rescue operation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AAB. Marques

    Full Text Available Five black-tailed marmoset Callithrix (Mico melanura (Primates - Callitrichidae individuals were monitored by radiotelemetry as part of a project on translocated wildlife affected by flooding the Manso River reservoir in the state of Mato Grosso, western Brazil (14° 52' S and 55° 48' W. The animals were monitored for eight months from October 2000 through August 2001. Only one death was recorded among the translocated animals. Two pairs established their home ranges in the new area, after some exploratory behavior. The new home range sizes varied from 0.72 to 4.27 km². The home ranges of male and female overlapped in the case of both pairs by 0.59 to 2.30 km². Trips were always made in pairs and not individually. The results indicate the feasibility of a successful translocation program for this species, as long as the animals are translocated to a similar habitat nearby.

  2. Low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increase transforming growth factor {beta} and cause myocardial fibrosis in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riecke, K.; Grimm, D.; Kossmehl, P.; Paul, M.; Stahlmann, R. [Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Benjamin Franklin Medical Center, Freie Univ. Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Shakibaei, M.; Schulze-Tanzil, G. [Inst. of Anatomy, Benjamin Franklin Medical Center, Freie Univ. Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between exposure to dioxins and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, cardiotoxic effects of low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in animals have not been reported so far. We studied the hearts of male marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after treatment with single subcutaneous doses of 1, 10 or 100 ng TCDD/kg body weight or vehicle (toluene/DMSO 1+2 v/v, 100 {mu}l/kg body weight). The animals were killed 2 or 4 weeks after treatment. Tissue samples of left ventricular myocardium were stained with picrosirius red and examined histologically along with quantitative image analysis. Extracellular matrix proteins were additionally analysed by western blotting. Monkeys showed no overt signs of toxicity nor did their relative heart weights differ significantly depending on treatment. Histology revealed an increase of picrosirius red-positive area above control values in 2 of 4 (1 ng TCDD/kg body weight), 6 of 12 (10 ng/kg) and 6 of 10 (100 ng/kg) marmosets. Western blotting confirmed these histological findings showing an increase of collagen, fibronectin and laminin in the hearts of TCDD-treated animals. Western blotting additionally showed an increased concentration of transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) as well as TGF-{beta} receptor type I which could be a functional link to the effects on extracellular matrix. Our findings might explain the association of TCDD exposure with increased cardiovascular mortality observed in epidemiological studies and should stimulate further research on the role of changes in the extracellular matrix in the toxic effects of dioxins and related substances on other organs. (orig.)

  3. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  4. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  5. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  6. The different clinical effects of anti-BLyS, anti-APRIL and anti-CD20 antibodies point at a critical pathogenic role of γ-herpesvirus infected B cells in the marmoset EAE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Jagessar, S; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heijmans, Nicole; Bauer, Jan; Laman, Jon D; Oh, Luke; Migone, Thi; Verschoor, Ernst J; 't Hart, Bert A

    2013-06-01

    The robust and rapid clinical effect of depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrates a critical pathogenic contribution of B cells. The clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb has been replicated in a relevant preclinical MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). By contrast, treatment with mAbs against two essential cytokines in B cell activation growth and survival, i.e. BlyS/BAFF and APRIL, was only partially effective. All three mAbs induced depletion of CD20+ B cells from the circulation, albeit with different kinetics and based on distinct mechanisms of action. In the current study we analyzed whether the different clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb or the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL mAbs is due to different depletion of B cells infected with the EBV of marmosets, CalHV3. Employing a novel PCR-based assay, half of the colony of group-housed marmosets was tested positive for CalHV3 DNA in secondary lymphoid organs. The same prevalence was observed in placebo-treated monkeys. In marmosets treated with anti-CD20 mAb the load of CalHV3 DNA in lymphoid organs was substantially reduced, while this was not observed in the monkeys treated with anti-BLyS or anti-APRIL mAbs. To examine the pathogenic role of virus-transformed B cells, we infused EBV-transformed B lymphoblastic cell (BLC) lines presenting the immunodominant MOG34-56 peptide. We observed in the recipients of MOG34-56 pulsed BLC, but not in their fraternal siblings infused with non-pulsed BLC, activation of anti-MOG34-56 T cells and meningeal inflammation. Collectively, the data show that among CD20+ B cells, the herpesvirus-transformed subset has a particularly important pathogenic role in the marmoset EAE model.

  7. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  8. Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids Nandrolone (Oxandrin ® ), oxandrolone (Anadrol ® ), oxymetholone ( ... swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts. Treatment ...

  9. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  10. Garlic for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence

  11. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  12. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain.

  13. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...

  14. Tragedy of the Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    The tittle refers to an article from 1968 by Garrett Hardin, using the metaphore of the common grazing land in villages in old time. These 'Commons' were for free use for people in the commounity to have some sheep grazing. This system was based on a certain social solidarity and ethic...

  15. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  16. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro eShiba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e. human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e. a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied aetiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies.

  17. 腺相关病毒介导的狨猴 P53基因沉默%Adeno-associated virus mediated p53 gene silence in marmosets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亮; 张晨; 向志光; 邓仪晨; 苏静芬; 刘云波

    2016-01-01

    目的:在细胞和整体动物水平,利用RNA干扰技术下调绒猴p53基因表达。方法对狨猴p53基因做生物信息学分析,针对靶序列设计shRNA干扰序列,构建在腺相关病毒载体上,转染非洲绿猴肾细胞( cos-7),在细胞水平用荧光定量PCR检测p53mRNA抑制效果,以Western blot 方法检测p53蛋白水平表达变化;优选shRNA干扰序列,包装含shRNA干扰序列的8型腺相关病毒,静脉注射感染狨猴;手术取少量肝脏组织,用Western blot和免疫组化方法检测p53蛋白水平的变化。结果细胞水平研究发现2个有效RNA干扰靶点,mRNA干扰效率分别为(82.7±8.1)%和(80.7±7.5)%(P<0.05);蛋白表达下调(77.3±11.5)%和(73.7±10.7)%(P<0.05);2只绒猴感染病毒后,经活体荧光成像分析可见病毒在肝脏、睾丸、颈部等位置分布,狨猴肝脏P53蛋白经Western blot、免疫组化分析未见明显变化。结论本研究在细胞水平实现绒猴P53基因表达下调,但整体动物水平狨猴肝脏P53蛋白表达未发现明显变化;今后需在感染方式等方面做进一步优化。%Objective To decrease the p53 gene expression at cellular and animal levels in marmoset using RNA interference technique.Methods The shRNA interference sequences were designed and inserted into the adeno-associated virus vector plasmid after bioinformatics analysis.The plasmids were transfected into African green monkey kidney cos-7 cells.The suppression of p53 mRNA was detected by real-time PCR, and the changes of p53 protein expression were detected by Western bolt.The adeno-associated virus-8 was injected through the hind leg vein.The changes of p53 protein expression in the liver tissue was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.Results We screened two RNA interference effective arget sequences.The expression of p53 mRNA was suppressed ( 82.7 ±8.1 )% and ( 80.7 ± 7.5)%, respectively (P<0

  18. Hypokalaemia: common things occur commonly – a retrospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alasdair; Jones, Gareth; Isles, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To define the causes of hypokalaemia in an unselected adult population. Design Retrospective survey of biochemistry database. Setting District general hospital in southwest Scotland. Participants and main outcome measures There were 187,704 measurements of urea and electrolytes in 2010. Sixty-one patients had serum potassium feeding syndrome and inadequate potassium supplementation when patients were nil by mouth (37%). In 25% of patients a transient and profound fall in serum potassium appeared to coincide with their acute illness. Acute alcohol intoxication and/or alcohol withdrawal were prominent features in 11% of patients. More than one cause was commonly present. There were no cases of Bartter's, Gitelman's or Liddle's syndromes or of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in this study. Conclusions Severe hypokalaemia <2.5 mmol/L occurs at least once a week in a district general hospital with a catchment population of around 150,000, suggesting there may be around 300 cases a week in the UK (population around 50,000,000). Diuretics, vomiting and diarrhoea are commonly implicated as are nutritional causes, acute illness and alcohol. Bartter's, Gitelman's, Liddle's syndrome and hypokalaemic period paralysis are all extremely uncommon. PMID:23323198

  19. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  20. The Common HOL Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and...

  1. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  2. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  3. Common Knowledge on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liddell, Torrin M

    2015-01-01

    Common knowledge of intentions is crucial to basic social tasks ranging from cooperative hunting to oligopoly collusion, riots, revolutions, and the evolution of social norms and human culture. Yet little is known about how common knowledge leaves a trace on the dynamics of a social network. Here we show how an individual's network properties---primarily local clustering and betweenness centrality---provide strong signals of the ability to successfully participate in common knowledge tasks. These signals are distinct from those expected when practices are contagious, or when people use less-sophisticated heuristics that do not yield true coordination. This makes it possible to infer decision rules from observation. We also find that tasks that require common knowledge can yield significant inequalities in success, in contrast to the relative equality that results when practices spread by contagion alone.

  4. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  5. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  6. MA Common Tern Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The official State census period for common terns was June 1-10. The survey was conducted on June 4 by Biologist Healey, Biotech Springfield, and Maintenance...

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL COMMONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.; Cochrane, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    We want to clarify the way in which we think about the global commons, particularly the problem of global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We develop a policy framework in which the policy goal is the sustainability of the earth's ability to absorb greenhouse gases. The framework considers the unequal incidence of benefits and costs of particular policies. We identify several resource management regimes and suggest that management under a common property ...

  8. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  9. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  10. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  11. [Chronic myeloid leukemia in an adult with common variable immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrill-Romanillos, Patricia María; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy Vania; Amaya-Mejía, Adela Sisy; Campos-Romero, Freya Helena; Mendoza-Reyna, Laura Dafne; Pérez-Rocha, Fernando; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficiencia primaria más sintomática, 70 a 80 % de los pacientes presentan neoplasias. Existen escasos informes de pacientes portadores de leucemia mieloide crónica e inmunodeficiencia común variable. CASO CLÍNICO: mujer de 36 años, quien inició su padecimiento con dolor en hipocondrio izquierdo, pérdida de peso de 8 kg en tres meses y esplenomegalia. Los resultados de la biometría hemática indicaron cuenta leucocitaria de 206 000/mL, 8 % de blastos, cuenta plaquetaria de 530 000/mL y hemoglobina de 8 g/dL. Con la ultrasonografía abdominal se identificó esplenomegalia de 19 ´ 12 cm. El cariotipo mostró el gen BCR/ABL 64.20 % IS y cromosoma Filadelfia 100 %. Se diagnosticó leucemia mieloide crónica. Por infecciones gastrointestinales y respiratorias frecuentes, así como por concentraciones reducidas de IgG, IgM e IgA, la paciente fue valorada por el servicio de alergia e inmunología clínica, donde se diagnosticó inmunodeficiencia común variable.

  12. [Malignancies in adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: los pacientes con inmunodeficiencia común variable tienen riesgo elevado de padecer enfermedades neoplásicas, con incidencia de 11 a 13%, especialmente durante la quinta y sexta décadas de la vida. Los linfomas de tipo celular B son los más frecuentes, además del linfoma no Hodgkin y tumores epiteliales (carcinomas de estómago, mama, vejiga y cuello uterino). Objetivo: conocer el tipo de enfermedades neoplásicas en una cohorte de pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo, en el que se revisaron los expedientes con diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencia común variable de la Clínica de Inmunodeficiencias Primarias del servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI del IMSS. Resultados: se incluyeron 23 pacientes con diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencia común variable; de éstos, 13 (56%) eran mujeres, el promedio de edad fue de 36.7 años. Se encontraron neoplasias en cuatro pacientes de este grupo (dos mujeres y dos hombres), la prevalencia de cáncer fue de 17.3%. Los tipos de cáncer reportados fueron: linfoma Hodgkin de células B (1/23), carcinoma neuroendocrino de la cabeza del páncreas (1/23), leucemia mieloide crónica (1/23) y cáncer papilar de tiroides (1/23). En dos de los pacientes, el diagnóstico de cáncer fue previo al diagnóstico de la inmunodeficiencia primaria. El promedio de edad al momento del diagnóstico de cáncer fue de 27 años (límites: 19-34 años). Conclusión: la frecuencia de cáncer en nuestra población fue similar a lo reportado en la bibliografía. Sin embargo, los tipos de cáncer fueron distintos a lo publicado. Consideramos que es necesario realizar un protocolo de escrutinio en estos pacientes para diagnosticar de manera oportuna cualquier tipo de neoplasia, debido al mayor riesgo que tienen estos pacientes.

  13. [Orofacial clinical manifestations in adult patients with variable common immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-García, Aurora Alejandra; Moreno-Alba, Miguel Ángel; Elizalde-Monroy, Martín; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda; Romero-Flores, Jovita; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; López-Pérez, Patricia; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficienci primaria más común en adultos. Su prevalencia se estima en 1 por cada 25,000 a 75,000 recién nacidos vivos; existen variaciones por grupos étnicos, se estima en 50 a 70% en pacientes de raza caucásica. Las lesiones de la cavidad oral raramente se describen en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, en niños con esta enfermedad existen informes de lesiones principalmente de origen infeccioso. Objetivo: describir las lesiones orofaciales (cavidad oral, macizo facial y cuello) en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio transversal, prospectivo, efectuado en todos los adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable adscritos a la Clínica de inmunodeficiencias primarias, del Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, que fueron examinados por un cirujano maxilofacial; se realizó el reporte de hallazgos en lista de cotejo y, posteriormente, el análisis descriptivo de las lesiones. Resultados: se incluyeron 26 pacientes, 16 mujeres y 10 hombres, con edad promedio de 38.6 años. En 18 de 26 pacientes estudiados se observaron lesiones orales, con siete lesiones diferentes y predominio en el sexo femenino 2:1. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron: hiperplasia de glándulas salivales menores (19/26), petequias (12/26) y úlceras herpetiformes (7/26). En la cara y el cuello se observaron cuatro lesiones distintas, las adenopatías lesiones de origen infeccioso y probablemente autoinmunitario que afectan la cavidad oral, la cara y el cuello.

  14. Hip pain in adults: MR imaging appearance of common causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg [Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    To determine the exact origin of hip pain can be challenging. Symptoms apparently originating from the hip may arise from the pelvis, the sacroiliac joint, the lumbar spine, periarticular structures such as muscles and bursae, or from unexpected sites such as the abdominal wall, the genitourinary tract, or the retroperitoneal space. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of hip pain arising from the hip and surrounding structures and the role of different imaging methods with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging where most recent advances have occurred. (orig.)

  15. Common overuse injuries in the young athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengel, K Brooke

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes.

  16. Polymylagia rheumatica: common disease, elusive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Diana R

    2015-03-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease with little known about its etiology or incidence. Frequently found in older adult women, this disease can be debilitating, painful, and dangerous. Diagnosing PMR can be elusive due to lack of specific laboratory tests, and treatment with use of long-term glucocorticoids can be difficult due to side effects. The following article describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and treatment of PMR, as well as implications for home healthcare.

  17. The Common HOL Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Adams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and API components, and show how to adapt legacy systems. We also report on the platform's successful application in the hand-translation of a few thousand lines of source code from HOL Light to HOL Zero.

  18. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  19. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...

  20. Representation of the visual field in the primary visual area of the marmoset monkey: magnification factors, point-image size, and proportionality to retinal ganglion cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2013-04-01

    The primary visual area (V1) forms a systematic map of the visual field, in which adjacent cell clusters represent adjacent points of visual space. A precise quantification of this map is key to understanding the anatomical relationships between neurons located in different stations of the visual pathway, as well as the neural bases of visual performance in different regions of the visual field. We used computational methods to quantify the visual topography of V1 in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small diurnal monkey. The receptive fields of neurons throughout V1 were mapped in two anesthetized animals using electrophysiological recordings. Following histological reconstruction, precise 3D reconstructions of the V1 surface and recording sites were generated. We found that the areal magnification factor (M(A) ) decreases with eccentricity following a function that has the same slope as that observed in larger diurnal primates, including macaque, squirrel, and capuchin monkeys, and humans. However, there was no systematic relationship between M(A) and polar angle. Despite individual variation in the shape of V1, the relationship between M(A) and eccentricity was preserved across cases. Comparison between V1 and the retinal ganglion cell density demonstrated preferential magnification of central space in the cortex. The size of the cortical compartment activated by a punctiform stimulus decreased from the foveal representation towards the peripheral representation. Nonetheless, the relationship between the receptive field sizes of V1 cells and the density of ganglion cells suggested that each V1 cell receives information from a similar number of retinal neurons, throughout the visual field.

  1. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than...

  2. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  3. Testing Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the use of common sense testing and measurement as a means of predicting real-world performance. The authors discuss practical versus book knowledge, examine several empirical studies of practical intelligence, describe tacit knowledge and the instruments used for testing it, and present findings from a tacit knowledge research program.…

  4. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  5. Sequential Common Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.; Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    In a common agency game a set of principals promises monetary transfers to an agent which depend on the action he will take. The agent then chooses the action, and is paid the corresponding transfers. Principals announce their transfers simultaneously. This game has many equilibria; Bernheim and Whi

  6. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  7. Formation of infectious dengue virus-antibody immune complex in vivo in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after passive transfer of anti-dengue virus monoclonal antibodies and infection with dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Meng Ling; Ami, Yasushi; Shirai, Kenji; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Suzaki, Yuriko; Saito, Yuka; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Saijo, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ryuji; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2015-02-01

    Infection with a dengue virus (DENV) serotype induces cross-reactive, weakly neutralizing antibodies to different dengue serotypes. It has been postulated that cross-reactive antibodies form a virus-antibody immune complex and enhance DENV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells. We determined whether infectious DENV-antibody immune complex is formed in vivo in marmosets after passive transfer of DENV-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) and DENV inoculation and whether infectious DENV-antibody immune complex is detectable using FcγR-expressing cells. Marmosets showed that DENV-antibody immune complex was exclusively infectious to FcγR-expressing cells on days 2, 4, and 7 after passive transfer of each of the mAbs (mAb 4G2 and mAb 6B6C) and DENV inoculation. Although DENV-antibody immune complex was detected, contribution of the passively transferred antibody to overall viremia levels was limited in this study. The results indicate that DENV cross-reactive antibodies form DENV-antibody immune complex in vivo, which is infectious to FcγR-bearing cells but not FcγR-negative cells.

  8. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  9. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  10. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  11. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  12. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  13. 速度向量成像技术评价健康成人颈总动脉运动力学的研究%Study on velocity vector imaging in the evaluation of common carotid artery kinetics of healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭云蓉; 齐继连; 范国裕; 钟敏; 肖敏

    2016-01-01

    目的:应用速度向量成像(VVI)技术,探讨健康成人颈总动脉管壁运动特点。方法:将400例正常人按年龄分组,用VVI技术分析各年龄组颈总动脉四个侧壁的收缩期最大峰值运动速度(Vs)、最大切向应变(Smax)及最大切向应变率(SRmax),并进行比较。结果:各年龄组运动及弹力指标比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),各项指标均随年龄增长呈下降趋势。结论:VVI技术可以对不同年龄组颈动脉内膜运动进行可靠的量化评价,提供颈动脉弹性指标的正常参考数据,为临床对血管弹性的评估提供帮助。%Objective:To investigate the characteristics of common carotid artery wall motion in healthy adults using velocity vector imaging(VVI).Methods:400 normal persons were grouped according to age,and we analyzed the peak systolic velocity(Vs), maximum tangential strain(Smax) and maximum tangential strain rate(SRmax) of four side walls of common carotid artery in all age groups by velocity vector imaging,and compared the results.Results:There was significant difference in the exercise and elastic index of all age groups(P<0.05),and each index showed a downward trend with age.Conclusion:VVI technology can be a reliable quantitative evaluation for common carotid artery wall motion of all age groups.It can provide normal reference data of carotid elasticity index,and provide help for clinical evaluation of vascular elasticity.

  14. Key to the adults of the most common forensic species of Diptera in South America Chave de identificação para as espécies comuns de Diptera da América do Sul de interesse forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio José Barros de Carvalho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Flies (Diptera, blow flies, house flies, flesh flies, horse flies, cattle flies, deer flies, midges and mosquitoes are among the four megadiverse insect orders. Several species quickly colonize human cadavers and are potentially useful in forensic studies. One of the major problems with carrion fly identification is the lack of taxonomists or available keys that can identify even the most common species sometimes resulting in erroneous identification. Here we present a key to the adults of 12 families of Diptera whose species are found on carrion, including human corpses. Also, a summary for the most common families of forensic importance in South America, along with a key to the most common species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Fanniidae and to the genera of Sarcophagidae are provided. Drawings of the most important characters for identification are also included.Diptera (califorídeos, sarcofagídeos, motucas, moscas comuns e mosquitos é a uma das quatro ordens megadiversas de insetos. Diversas espécies desta ordem podem rapidamente colonizar cadáveres humanos e são de utilidade potencial para estudos de entomologia forense. Um dos maiores problemas com moscas que visitam matéria orgânica animal em decomposição é a falta de taxonomistas ou chaves de identificação disponíveis que possam identificar as espécies mais comuns ou mesmo, algumas vezes podendo resultar em identificações errôneas. Neste artigo é apresentada uma chave para adultos de 12 famílias de Diptera com espécies encontradas em matéria orgânica animal em decomposição, incluindo cadáveres humanos. Também é incluído um sumário das mais importantes famílias com espécies de interesse forense na América do Sul e chave de identificação das espécies mais comuns de Calliphoridae, Muscidae e Fanniidae e dos gêneros de Sarcophagidae. Esquemas dos mais importantes caracteres utilizados para identificação dessas espécies são também incluídos.

  15. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  16. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  17. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  18. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate.

  19. COMMON SENSE BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  20. TMT common software update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  1. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    In opposition to positivism the so called postpositivism reject the emphasis on the empirical truth and proposes an interpretative approach to the social world (Fischer, 1993). Policy analysis begins to address the sense-making constructions and the competing discourses on social meanings whilst...... the implications of the categorization of the immigration that the European Union wants to manage based on the ten common principles. I will attend to the creation of the European immigrant (third-country nationals) and its different categories (economic immigration, labour immigrants, potential immigrants, other...... categories of immigrants) under the more general legal immigrant. The economic discourse defined the immigrant in terms of adequacy to the European labour market through metaphors and new categories (immigration profiles, circular migration, brain waste – opposite brain drain). The new EU narrative...

  2. [Halitosis. A common problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

    2011-12-01

    Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis.

  3. Persistence of various polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in hepatic and adipose tissue of marmoset monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubert, D.; Abraham, K.; Krowke, R. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryonalpharmakologie); Wiesmueller, T.; Hagenmaier, H. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie)

    1990-08-01

    A defined mixture of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was subcutaneously administered to marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). Tissue concentrations in hepatic and adipose tissue were measured at different times after treatment (1-28 weeks). One week after application high concentrations could be detected for the 2,3,7,7,8-substituted congeners only. The percent of the administered dose in whole liver differed for the various 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, ranging from 24.5 {plus minus} 4.5% for 2,3,7,8-TCDD to 74.1 {plus minus} 4.9% for 2,3,4,6,7,8-H6CDF. Therefore, the concentration ratio (liver/adipose tissue) was also very different, ranging from about 1 (2,3,7,8-T4CDD or 2,3,7,8-T4CDF) to > 10 in the case of some higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs. Half-lives of PCDDs and PCDFs were very different for the various 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. For the most toxic compound (2,3,7,8-T4CDD) a t/2 of about 8 weeks in hepatic tissue and about 11 weeks in adipose tissue was found when calculated from data obtained later than 6 weeks after injection. For 2,3,7,8-T4CDD and 1,2,3,7,8-P5CDD the decreases in hepatic concentrations were much faster during the first 6 weeks after administration (t/2 of 4 weeks). This was apparently due to redistribution phenomena. Half-life increased with increasing degrees of chlorination. In some cases (e.g. OCDD, OCDF) no significant decrease in tissue concentrations could be observed after 28 weeks. The shortest t/2 was determined for 2,3,7,8-T4CDF: shorter than 6 days in hepatic tissue and about 10 days in adipose tissue. Calculation of the body burden of the non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs 1 week after injection revealed that all groups of isomers were present at less than 5%. Consequences of these findings for the use of TCDD-toxic-equivalency factors are discussed and a change in strategy is suggested. (orig.).

  4. Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Richard John

    2016-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Richard Macey for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy entitled “Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists”, February 2016.Many adult patients that attend NHS dental practices on a regular basis are asymptomatic and do not need any further treatment other than a routine dental examination (“check-up”). As the oral health of the adult population is predicted to improve further, using the General Dental Practitioner to und...

  5. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  6. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  7. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  8. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  9. Bochdalek hernia in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Daniel Riccioppo C.F. de; Aldo Junqueira Rodrigues Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Bochdalek´s hernia is a congenital malformation of the posterolateral diaphragm region. It is more common on the left and more frequently seen in newborns and rare in adults, with over a few 100 reported cases. We present a case of Bochdalek´s hernia in a 49-year-old patient with long term dyspeptic symptoms. The upper endoscopy showed a gastric fundus herniation sliding into the chest through the diaphragmatic defect. The patient also presented with a rare pulmonary malformation ...

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  11. Nutritional composition of common vegetarian food portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Menal-Puey

    Full Text Available Introduction: A vegan diet can meet nutritional requirements if it is well planned. In this sense, vegans should be advised to choose alternatives to animal products and to select the appropriate respective serving size of them. The nutritional value of traditional plant foods portions is well known, however, the vegetarian market offers other products whose chemical composition is less known, as they are not widely consumed by the population. It is necessary to know both, the nutrient content of portions of these foods, and bioavailability of these nutrients in plant food diets. Objectives: This work aims to refine the available information about the nutritional contribution to the diet of a healthy adult of the main common vegan foods portions. In addition, some points about bioavailability of the most relevant nutrients are discussed, and alternatives proposed to improve nutrient utilization. Methods: Composition data of common vegan foods per 100 g were searched from food composition database, and serving size nutrient composition was calculated. Nutritional data were compared to European dietary reference values for nutrient intakes for adult population, and bioavailability of the most important nutrients was discussed.

  12. The Preliminary Analysis of Quarantine Parameters in Common Marmosets' Infectious Diseases%普通狨猴部分传染性疾病检疫指标的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌乾; 王青松; 张占恒; 刘晓龙; 王星童; 李婷婷; 尹海芳; 刘凤勇

    2014-01-01

    目的 对从南非引进普通狨猴和实验室人工繁殖饲养的狨猴进行传染病的检验,通过比较分析,以获得普通狨猴的传染性疾病的检疫指标.方法 对动物分别进行了血浆甲型肝炎病毒检测、肝脏B超检测、结核杆菌皮肤检测、肠道寄生虫检查、粪常规及肠道致病菌检查、皮肤及口腔疱疹病毒检测等.结果 所有待检狨猴均未出现甲肝、结核杆菌、肠道寄生虫致病菌、疱疹病毒的阳性感染.结论 经该传染病检验方法的检测,所有动物均未感染传染性疾病,且方法安全有效,适合作为普通狨猴的传染病初筛方法.

  13. 一株引起普通棉耳狨猴死亡病毒的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a Lethal Viral Pathogen From Common Cotton-eared Marmosets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建党; 李晓眠; 刘凤勇; 金孟珏; 张国际; 刘民; 李梅

    2003-01-01

    1999年6月,天津医科大学动物中心饲养的珍贵灵长类实验动物--普通棉耳狨猴群体中暴发急性呼吸道传染病,病死率高达33%.在排除细菌感染的基础上,通过死亡狨猴肺组织匀浆接种鸡胚和MDCK细胞的分离培养,分离出一株具有高血凝效价的病毒株.经双份血清试验及动物接种试验,确认该病毒是本次疾病流行的病原体.又进一步通过与常见呼吸道病毒标准毒株及血清进行交叉血凝抑制试验、电镜观察、RT-PCR技术并结合生物信息学方法对该毒株进行鉴定,确认本次疾病流行的病原体是副流感1型病毒中的仙台病毒.

  14. Identification of the virus causing respiratory tract infection in common-cotton-eared marmosets by RT-PCR%一株感染普通棉耳狨猴的呼吸道病毒的 RT-PCR鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建党; 李晓眠; 刘凤勇; 何建民; 金孟珏

    2002-01-01

    目的:鉴定一株在普通棉耳狨猴(Callithrix Jacchus)群体中引起急性呼吸道感染并引起大批狨猴死亡的病毒.方法:根据几种可能的呼吸道病毒的保守基因序列设计合成引物,用RT-PCR方法对分离到的病毒进行鉴定.结果:唯有仙台病毒的引物能够扩增出PCR产物,且与预期扩增片段大小一致.结论:本次狨猴群体中流行的病原体是一株仙台病毒(sendai virus).

  15. Analysis and Disposal of Diarrhea and Wasting in Common Marmosets%普通棉耳狨猴腹泻、消瘦的病例分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 王文誉; 何巍; 丁爽爽; 奚剑飞; 徐皓; 张周

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析引起此次普通棉耳狨猴腹泻、消瘦的原因,制定切实可行的预防控制措施,为规模化狨猴养殖提供值得借鉴的经验.方法 对腹泻、消瘦的狨猴进行病因分析,包括病症、饮食状况、饲喂状况、病理剖检、组织切片、肛门拭子采集检测等.结果 通过实验室诊断、饲养管理改善等进行病因分析,确定了引起狨猴腹泻、消瘦并最终导致2例死亡的原因,是由于饲养环境内部分应激因素(如温度)改变、饲养动物处于空调送风口位置、人员进出频繁等,导致机体内条件致病菌(肺炎克雷伯氏菌)引起动物发病.采取改变饲养管理方式、调整饮食等措施后,逐步控制了病情.结论 科学的饲养管理方式以及良好的兽医护理对防止普通棉耳狨猴腹泻、消瘦疾病的发生具有重要作用.

  16. Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine in Common Marmosets%甲型肝炎灭活疫苗接种普通狨猴的安全性和免疫原性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小琴; 陈统球; 谭顺革; 金炜翔; 阳选祥; 钟光六; 邵聪文

    2000-01-01

    目的观察本实验室研制的甲型肝炎灭活疫苗的安全性和免疫原性.方法甲型肝炎病毒吕-8株在人胚肺二倍体细胞(KMB17)中增殖,收获的病毒液用福尔马林灭活制成实验性疫苗,接种普通狨猴.结果有特异性抗HAV产生,无血清酶活性升高和肝组织病理学改变.接种疫苗的狨猴均能抵抗甲肝病毒强毒株的攻击,而对照组均出现酶活性升高和肝组织病理学改变.结论该疫苗具有良好的免疫原性和可靠的安全性.

  17. Timing of changes from a primitive reflex to a voluntary behavior in infancy as a potential predictor of socio-psychological and physical development during juvenile stages among common marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Karino

    2015-07-01

    Consequently, we found that both subjects expressed climbing-up behavior in the initial early period, but only the female who developed typically later, switched to jumping-down behavior with pre-facing to ‘down’ direction. Meanwhile, the male who would have developmental delay later, clearly did not show the switching pattern. The results suggest that the switch timing from involuntary to voluntary movement may be a possible predictor of juvenile and adolescent physiological and psychological retardation. The results also suggest that the primate model allows more methods to be developed for early detection of developmental disabilities that could be utilized in humans to pave the way for interventions and possible psychological or psychiatric treatment.

  18. Comprehension of Health-Related Written Materials by Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults…

  19. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Bela, E-mail: purohitbela@yahoo.co.in; Kamli, Ali A.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours.

  20. Adult Onset Langerhans’ Cell Histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH is a group of diseases of unknown cause resulting from abnormal proliferation of bone marrow-originated dendritic cells called histiocytes. The incidence is between 0.5-5.4 per million. More common in childhood, it is extremely rare in adults. In adults, pulmonary involvement with Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis usually occurs as a single-system disease. In this article, the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of a 51-year-old male patient with both skin, bone and pulmonary involvement were presented and discussed with recent literature.

  1. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  2. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  4. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Common Sleep Problems Print ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  5. Group B Strep Infection in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and women. Spread to Others The sources of disease caused by group B strep bacteria are unknown. Group B strep bacteria are common ... the body that is infected. Below are common diseases caused by group B strep bacteria in adults and their symptoms. Bacteremia and sepsis ( ...

  6. Common trajectories of physical functioning in the doetinchem cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooth, Vera; Van Oostrom, Sandra H.; Deeg, Dorly J H; Monique Verschuren, W. M.; Picavet, H. Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe common trajectories of physical functioning and their determinants among an adult cohort, followed over a period of 15 years. Methods: The study sample consisted of 4,123 participants (initial ages 26-70 years) from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, who participated in three or four

  7. 布洛伪麻那敏胶囊治疗成人普通感冒的多中心随机双盲对照临床研究%Multi center randomized double-blind clinical comparison of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine chlorphenira-mine capsule in the treatment of adult common cold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓俊; 王宋平; 张睢扬; 孙圣华; 肖贞良; 崔社怀

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate cpasules in the treatment of adult common cold. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, and positive drug parallel-controlled clinical trial was conducted. The trial group and the control group were administered with ibuprofen pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate cpa-sules and paracetamol pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and chlorphenamine maleate tablets, respectively. The medi-cine was taken orally one cpasule (tablet), three times a day for 3 to 5days for each group. Results The total effec-tive rate and control rate of the trial group (n=119) and the control group (n=119) enrolled in the full analysis set (FAS) were 98. 32% vs. 97. 48% and 86. 55% vs. 93. 28%, respectively, while those of the trial group (n=117) and the control group (n=115) enrolled in the per protocol set (PPS) were 98. 29% vs. 98. 26% and 86. 32% vs. 93. 91%, respectively (P>0. 05). After the treatment, the effective rate and control rate of the individual symptom (fever, headache, limb ache, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose) showed no significant difference between the two groups ( P>0. 05 ) . The incidence of adverse drug reactions ( including mild drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, and thirsty) in the trial group and the control group was 13. 45% and 11. 76%, respectively, with no statistical signifi-cant difference between the two groups ( P >0. 05 ) . Conclusion Ibuprofen pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate cpasules is safe and effective in treating adult common cold. Its therapeufic efficacy and safety are similar to paracetamol pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and chlorphenamine maleate tablets.%目的:评价天圣制药集团股份有限公司研制生产的布洛伪麻那敏胶囊治疗成人普通感冒的疗效和安全性。方法采用多中心、随机、双盲、双模拟、阳性药物平行对照

  8. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  9. Adult flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  10. 三伏、三九穴位贴敷对不同体质成人反复感冒的影响%Impacts on repeated common cold for the adults with different constitutions treated by acupoint application in the dog days and the three nine-day periods after the winter solstice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄必丹; 曹越; 潘江; 杨礼白; 章薇; 李金香; 李小屏; 李武; 杨淑荃; 黄香红; 刘兴平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the impacts on repeated common cold for the adults with different constitutions treated by acupoint application in the dog days (the three periods of the hottest days) and the three nine-day periods after the winter solstice (the three periods of the coldest days). Methods One hundred and fifty-two cases of repeated common cold were divided into four zones according to the body constitution. Each zone was sub-divided into a group of the dog days + the three nine-day periods of the coldest days (group A) , and a simple group of the dog periods (group B). In both groups, Dazhui (GV 14), Feishu (BL 13), Tiantu (CV 22), Danzhong (CV 17) , Zhongfu (LU 1) and Shenshu (BL 23) were selected. In group A, the acupoint application was given on the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the hottest days in 2010, as well as the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the coldest days in 2010 separately. In group B, the acupoint application was only given on the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the hottest days in 2010. The follow-up visit was conducted before the acupoint application in the three periods of the coldest days in 2010 and before the acupoint application in the three periods of the hottest days in 2011. Additionally, the frequency of disease attack and the symptom score in sickness were taken as the observation indices for the efficacy assessment in both groups. Results (1) In both groups, the attack frequency was reduced obviously in half a year after the three periods of the hottest days for the patients of qi deficiency constitution, yang deficiency constitution and qi stagnation constitution and the clinical symptom score were reduced apparently (all P<0. 01), which were superior to those for the patients of phlegm damp constitution (P<0. 01, P<0. 05). For the patients of phlegm damp constitution, only the clinical symptom score was reduced (P<0. 01). (2) In group A, the

  11. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  12. Spontaneous common bile duct perforation due to periampullary growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandiaraja Javabal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous common bile duct perforations are an unusual cause of acute abdomen. In spontaneous common bile duct perforation, malignant growth is even rare. It is a rare entity usually reported in infants and children due to congenital anomalies. It is rarely reported in adults. In this case report, a 55 - year - old male patient who was diagnosed as a duodenal perforation in the pre - operative period, but the intra - operative findings was common bile duct perforation due to periampullary growth, is reported

  13. Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

    2005-11-01

    Although research on improving child literacy is converging, no such body of research exists for adult literacy. Yet the need is no less significant. This study extends the knowledge garnered with younger populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. Additionally, adults need to learn how to summarize and draw inferences in order to address higher-level literacy demands. Adult learners also need a metacognitive strategy to self-regulate reading behavior (e.g., choose a strategy to use, evaluate its effectiveness, and abandon and choose another strategy if necessary.) Furthermore, when using a competency-based standardized test, adult learners need to be coincidentally taught test-taking skills to reduce the test-related task demands and produce a better index of a learner's reading comprehension skills.

  14. Music for insomnia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kira V; Koenig, Julian; Jennum, Poul

    2015-01-01

    : To assess the effects of listening to music on insomnia in adults and to assess the influence of specific variables that may moderate the effect. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, nine other databases and two trials registers in May 2015. In addition, we handsearched specific music......BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in modern society. It causes reduced quality of life and is associated with impairments in physical and mental health. Listening to music is widely used as a sleep aid, but it remains unclear if it can actually improve insomnia in adults. OBJECTIVES...... the effects of listening to music with no treatment or treatment-as-usual on sleep improvement in adults with insomnia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened abstracts, selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data from all studies eligible for inclusion. Data on pre...

  15. Septo-temporal distribution and lineage progression of hippocampal neurogenesis in a primate (Callithrix jacchus in comparison to mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons in the hippocampus show species-specific differences in their numbers, the pace of their maturation and their spatial distribution. Here, we present quantitative data on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus that demonstrate parts of the lineage progression and age-related changes. Proliferation was largely (~70% restricted to stem cells or early progenitor cells, whilst the remainder of the cycling pool could be assigned almost exclusively to Tbr2+, intermediate precursor cells in both neonate and adult animals (20-122 months. Proliferating DCX+ neuroblasts were virtually absent in adults, although rare MCM2+/DCX+ co-expression reveals a small, persisting proliferative potential. Co-expression of DCX with calretinin was very limited in marmosets, suggesting that these markers label distinct maturational stages. In adult marmosets, numbers of MCM2+, Ki67+, and significantly Tbr2+, DCX+ and CR+ cells declined with age. The distributions of granule cells, proliferating cells and DCX+ young neurons along the hippocampal longitudinal axis were equal in marmosets and mice. In both species, a gradient along the hippocampal septo-temporal axis was apparent for DCX+ and resident granule cells. Both cell numbers are higher septally than temporally, whilst proliferating cells were evenly distributed along this axis. Relative to resident granule cells however, the ratio of proliferating cells and DCX+ neurons remained constant in the septal, middle and temporal hippocampus. In marmosets, the extended phase of the maturation of young neurons that characterizes primate hippocampal neurogenesis was due to the extension in a large CR+/DCX- cell population. This clear dissociation between DCX+ and CR+ young neurons has not been reported for other species and may therefore represent a key primate specific feature of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  16. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  17. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  18. Indwelling urethral catheters in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on indwelling urethral catheters in adults, their indications for the short and long term use, the types of urinary catheters available in Malta, an overview of the basic structure of a catheter, and the complications of urinary catheter insertion and maintenance. An attempt has been made to address in some depth the most common complication of indwelling catheters – catheter associated urinary tract infection in terms of pathophysiology and its management. Simple but cru...

  19. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  20. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  1. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  2. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  3. The Commons Problem: Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edney, Julian J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews four contrasting theories bearing on the concept of the commons dilemma, which deals with conflicts of individual v group interests over time. Focuses on the threats that commons problems pose to democratic principles in community structure. Discusses alternative directions for the resolution of resource crises. (Author/GC)

  4. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... progressive disorder associated with the destruction of the pancreas. The disease is more common in men and usually develops ... can develop malnutrition and weight loss. If the pancreas becomes destroyed in the latter stages of the disease, patients may develop diabetes mellitus. The most common ...

  5. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  6. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooij Sandra JJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1 What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2 How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3 How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  7. Nonparametric Regression with Common Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Souza-Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a nonparametric regression model for cross-sectional data in the presence of common shocks. Common shocks are allowed to be very general in nature; they do not need to be finite dimensional with a known (small number of factors. I investigate the properties of the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator and determine how general the common shocks can be while still obtaining meaningful kernel estimates. Restrictions on the common shocks are necessary because kernel estimators typically manipulate conditional densities, and conditional densities do not necessarily exist in the present case. By appealing to disintegration theory, I provide sufficient conditions for the existence of such conditional densities and show that the estimator converges in probability to the Kolmogorov conditional expectation given the sigma-field generated by the common shocks. I also establish the rate of convergence and the asymptotic distribution of the kernel estimator.

  8. Common Loon research at Seney National Wildlife Refuge : 2007 field season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the early spring of 2007, after a winter spent on southern waters, adult common loons (Gavia immer) once again returned to the managed impoundments of Seney...

  9. Regulation of intestinal lactase in adult hypolactasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, M.; Mevissen, G; Fischer, M; Olsen, W.; Goodspeed, D; Genini, M; Boll, W; Semenza, G; Mantei, N

    1992-01-01

    Relative deficiency of intestinal lactase activity during adulthood, adult hypolactasia, is a common condition worldwide. We studied the regulation of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in normal and adult hypolactasic subjects by correlating transcript abundance in intestinal biopsies with relative synthetic rates for the protein in cultured intestinal explants. After metabolic labelling studies in six subjects, precursor lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was identified in amounts directly proportional t...

  10. Measuring Quality, Framing What We Know: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Common Inspection Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Carol

    2011-01-01

    In "Measuring quality: framing what we know" I offer a critique of "Success in Adult Literacy, Numeracy and ESOL provision (Success in ALNE)"--a contextualised reworking of the common inspection framework. This document offers a government-sponsored account of what quality means when applied to the teaching of adult language, literacy and…

  11. Adenoid Hypertrophy in Adults: A case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Manas Ranjan; Mohanty, Diganta; Vijaylaxmi, Y; Bobba, Kamlesh; Metta, Chakradhar

    2013-07-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy is common in children. Size of the adenoid increases up to the age of 6 years, then slowly atrophies and completely disappears at the age of 16 years. Adenoid hypertrophy in adults is rare. Present study shows that adenoid hypertrophy is now increasing in adults because of various causes. Study has been conducted in the Department of ENT and Head & Neck Surgery, Alluri Sitarama Raju Academy of Medical science, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India. Study shows that incidence of adenoid hypertrophy is increasing as the cause of nasal obstruction in adults. This study identified the different causes of adenoid hypertrophy in adult patients. The common causes of adenoid hypertrophy in adults are chronic infection and allergy. Pollution and smoking are also important predisposing factors. Sometimes it is also associated with sinonasal malignancy, lymphoma and HIV infection. Study shows that 21 % of adult nasal obstruction is due to adenoid hypertrophy. But in case of the patient with chronic tonsillitis only 9 % were associated with adenoid hypertrophy. Males are more commonly involved (70 %) then female, may be because of out door activities and more commonly exposed to pollutants. And most commonly involved age group is 16-25 years (60 %). Majority of the cases with adenoid hypertrophy are associated with infection and allergy i.e. descending infection in 33.3 % cases, ascending infection in 20 % cases and allergic rhinitis in 30 % cases. Association of malignant sinonasal tumors, non Hodgkin's lymphoma and HIV infections are rare i.e. 3.3 % each. So any cases of adult adenoid hypertrophy should be treated seriously to exclude the dangerous causes.

  12. Learning Commons in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa González Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Like all human creations, institutions transform and evolve over time. Libraries also have changed to respond the needs of its users. Academic libraries physical spaces are one of the turned aspects, an example are the Learning Commons (spaces for collaborative work in academic libraries. The main purpose of this paper is to expose the characteristics of the Learning Commons model with a brief account of the history of planning and construction of academic libraries. This paper also aims to present the manner in which a Learning Commons has been implemented at the library of Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM, Campus Monterrey in Mexico.

  13. An economic model of adult hearing screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morris

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations are ageing and older adults make an increasing contribution to society, yet uncorrected hearing loss is common over the age of 50 years, increasing in prevalence and severity with age. The consequences of uncorrected hearing loss can be profound for hearing-impaired individuals and their communication partners but there is evidence that adults commonly delay 10-15 years before seeking help for hearing difficulty (Stephens et al., 1990; Davis et al., 2007 and the most common reason is the belief that their hearing is not bad enough (Ipsos-Mori/RNID survey, 2005. Hearing aids are currently the mainstay of intervention for hearing loss; evidence shows benefit to social functioning and quality of life even for mild hearing loss (Mulrow et al., 1990; Chisolm et al., 2007 and long term outcomes are better when they are obtained early (Davis et al., 2007. Screening adults for hearing loss would expedite intervention and reduce unmet need, leading to improved quality of life for many older adults. Previous work suggests adult hearing screening (AHS should target adults aged 50-65 years, old enough for prevalence to justify screening but young enough to gain from early intervention...

  14. Medical Countermeasure Models. Volume 4. Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 54(9). 2010. 67 Although this study tested multiple doses of injected...and efficacy of levofloxacin against Francisella tularensis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 54(9...class as ciprofloxacin, was 100% effective in preventing symptoms in marmosets when administered as PEP for 10 days. 149 Although marmosets and

  15. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  16. THE PROBLEM OF COMMON GOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Landowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the understanding of human being and the concept of common good. On the one hand, materialist and spiritualist concepts of man lead to the univocal understanding of bonum commune, on the other hand, dualist anthropology entails a breakdown of the unity of common good. The author reveals weak points of these approaches and undertakes an attempt of examining realist vision of man and its impact on the notion of bonum commune. He starts with analyzing the complex structure of human being, which includes the potential and actual nature of human person. Against the background of the personalist anthropology, the author concludes that the common good has not only a material or instrumental, but above all a personal dimension, which makes this good both common and non-antagonistic. [The article written in Polish

  17. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  18. Approximate common divisors via lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Henry

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the multivariate generalization of Howgrave-Graham's algorithm for the approximate common divisor problem. In the m-variable case with modulus N and approximate common divisor of size N^beta, this improves the size of the error tolerated from N^(beta^2) to N^(beta^((m+1)/m)), under a commonly used heuristic assumption. This gives a more detailed analysis of the hardness assumption underlying the recent fully homomorphic cryptosystem of van Dijk, Gentry, Halevi, and Vaikuntanathan. While these results do not challenge the suggested parameters, a 2^sqrt(n) approximation algorithm for lattice basis reduction in n dimensions could be used to break these parameters. We have implemented our algorithm, and it performs better in practice than the theoretical analysis suggests. Our results fit into a broader context of analogies between cryptanalysis and coding theory. The multivariate approximate common divisor problem is the number-theoretic analogue of noisy multivariate polynomial interpolation, and we ...

  19. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  1. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift...... has been messed up with other logics and that it is this mess that creates contemporary definitions of the common good....

  2. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  3. [Acne tarda. Acne in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, T; Janßen, O E; Plewig, G

    2013-04-01

    Acne is one of the most common skin diseases in the general population, especially among adolescents. Acne tarda (adult acne) is defined as acne that develops (late-onset acne) or continues (persistent acne) after 25 years of age. The disease is more common in women. The clinical features are quite specific: inflammatory acne in the lower facial region or macrocomedones (microcysts) spread over the face. Involvement of the trunk is much more common in men. The etiology of acne tarda is still controversial, as cosmetics, drugs, smoking, stress, diet, and endocrine abnormalities have been implicated. Women with acne tarda and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism have a high probability of endocrine abnormalities such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Treatment is similar to that of acne in adolescence. Long-term treatment over years or decades may be required.

  4. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  5. Meta-analysis on anxiety and depression in adult celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, D F; Gerdes, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We used meta-analysis to test hypotheses concerning whether adult celiac disease is reliably linked with anxiety and/or depression. METHOD: We examined published reports on anxiety and depression in adult celiac disease. RESULTS: Eighteen studies on depression and eleven studies...... on anxiety in adult celiac disease met selection criteria. They show that depression is reliably more common and/or more severe in adults with celiac disease than in healthy adults (overall meta-analysis effect size: 0.97). The fail-safe margin of unpublished reports that would be required to negate...... the finding exceeds 8000. Adults with celiac disease do not, however, differ reliably in terms of depression from adults with other physical illnesses, nor do they differ reliably from healthy adults or adults with other physical illnesses in terms of anxiety. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in adult celiac...

  6. Cutaneous fibroma in a captive common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Bauer, G; Bauer, A; Aguiar, L S; Brito, L T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2012-11-01

    An adult female common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) had a mass on the plantar surface of the right forelimb that was removed surgically. Microscopical examination revealed many spindle cells with mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis and a surrounding collagenous stroma. There were no mitoses. Immunohistochemistry showed that the spindle cells expressed vimentin, but not desmin. A diagnosis of cutaneous fibroma was made. Tumours are reported uncommonly in chelonian species. Cutaneous fibroma has been diagnosed in an alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii), but not previously in a common snapping turtle.

  7. Planar cell polarity signaling: a common mechanism for cellular polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Andreas; Mlodzik, Marek

    2006-09-01

    Epithelial cells frequently display--in addition to the common apical-basolateral polarity--a polarization within the plane of the epithelium. This is commonly referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity. Examples of vertebrate PCP include epithelial patterning in the skin and inner ear, and also the morphogenetic movements of mesenchymal cells during convergent extension at gastrulation. In Drosophila, all adult epithelial structures of the cuticle are polarized within the plane. This review presents recent results and new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of PCP, and compares and contrasts the intriguing similarities between PCP signaling in Drosophila and vertebrates.

  8. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  9. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  10. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  11. Science for common entrance physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, WR

    2015-01-01

    Cover everything required for the 13+ Common Entrance Physics exam with clearly presented content, lively illustrations and challenging end-of-chapter questions. This challenging and stimulating Science course has been reviewed by the ISEB subject editor and covers the content of both Levels 1 and 2 of the 13+ Physics exam. Designed for pupils in Years 7 and 8, it is an indispensable resource that lays the foundations for Common Entrance success. - Explores every Level 1 and 2 topic with clear explanations and examples - Includes topic-based exercises and extension questions - Builds on p

  12. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: Different from the Adult Chronic Pain Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; King, Christopher; Ting, Tracy V; Arnold, Lesley M

    2016-04-01

    While a majority of research has focused on adult fibromyalgia (FM), recent evidence has provided insights into the presence and impact of FM in children and adolescents. Commonly referred as juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), youths, particularly adolescent girls, present with persistent widespread pain and cardinal symptoms observed in adult FM. A majority of youth with JFM continue to experience symptoms into adulthood, which highlights the importance of early recognition and intervention. Some differences are observed between adult and juvenile-onset FM syndrome with regard to comorbidities (e.g., joint hypermobility is common in JFM). Psychological comorbidities are common but less severe in JFM. Compared to adult FM, approved pharmacological treatments for JFM are lacking, but non-pharmacologic approaches (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise) show promise. A number of conceptual issues still remain including (1) directly comparing similarities and differences in symptoms and (2) identifying shared and unique mechanisms underlying FM in adults and youths.

  13. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A;

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc......INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  14. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  15. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

  16. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  17. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...

  18. Autism: Many Genes, Common Pathways?

    OpenAIRE

    Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  19. Autism: many genes, common pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2008-10-31

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.