This study investigated perceptions of 139 familial caregivers of elder adults to answer the question "Is there a significant relationship between appraisal, social distance and the cost of caring for an elder family member?" The cost of caring was analyzed in five dimensions (personal-social restrictions, physical-emotional health, value, care recipient as provocateur and economic cost). Caregivers reported concern for their well-being, feelings of disgust/anger, high social distance and coping by accepting and holding back. Not only were significant relationships found, but caregivers emerged as an at-risk population.
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam
Purpose: Caregiving research has typically relied on cross-sectional data that focus on the primary caregiver. This approach neglects the dynamic and systemic character of caregiver networks. Our analyses addressed changes in adult child care networks over a 2-year period. Design and Methods: The study relied on pooled data from Waves 1 through 5…
Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard;
BACKGROUND: Seriously ill patients often depend on their informal caregivers to help and support them through the disease course. This study investigated informal cancer caregivers' experiences of caregiving tasks and consequences and how caregiver status (primary vs. non-primary caregiver...... consequences, most commonly stress (59%). Some caregivers experienced personal growth, but relatively large proportions did not. Caregiver status and the caregiver's relationship to the patient were associated with some caregiving aspects. Primary caregivers experienced the highest caregiving workload, and non-primary...... is burdensome. The primary and the closest caregivers seemed to take on most caregiving tasks, but, contrary to expectations, regarding the majority of caregiving consequences non-primary and more distant caregivers were affected to the same degree as the primary and closest caregivers. Initiatives...
Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Han, GiBaeg; Anderson, Cristina L.
This study examined similarities and differences between active caregivers (adult children and spouses whose family member had Alzheimer's disease) and not-as-yet caregiving adults (adult children and spouses whose family members are older, but do not as yet suffer from Alzheimer's disease). The objective was to determine what factors predict…
Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard
BACKGROUND: Seriously ill patients often depend on their informal caregivers to help and support them through the disease course. This study investigated informal cancer caregivers' experiences of caregiving tasks and consequences and how caregiver status (primary vs. non-primary caregiver......-primary caregivers experienced most problems with getting time off from work. Spouses/partners and/or parents experienced the highest workload, most lack of time for social relations, most financial difficulties, and had the greatest need for seeing a psychologist. They furthermore experienced the highest degree......) and the caregiver's relationship to the patient (spouse/partner, etc.) are related to these experiences. METHODS: In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, randomly selected cancer patients with a range of diagnoses and disease stages were invited to pass on the 'Cancer Caregiving Tasks, Consequences and Needs...
Enright, Robert B., Jr.
Surveyed 233 family caregivers for brain-impaired adults. Spousal caregivers (both husbands and wives) devoted much time to caregiving. Most caregivers received little assistance from other family members and friends, but husbands received more than others. Employed spouses received more paid help than unemployed spouses; employment did not affect…
J.C. de Schipper; L.W.C. Tavecchio; M.H. van IJzendoorn
In this study, children's attachment relationships with their professional caregivers in center day care were observed for 48 children. We explored whether more positive caregiving was associated with a more secure attachment relationship and whether this association was stronger for more temperamen
Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre
Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…
Shen, Huei-Wern; Pickard, Joseph G; Johnson, Sharon D
Research on the influence of volunteering on mental health outcomes has not placed enough focus on African American female caregivers who are at risk for adverse outcomes such as depression. This study addresses this gap by examining the mechanism through which volunteering might influence depressive symptoms using data collected from 521 African American female caregivers of older adults. Regression results indicate that although volunteering is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, self-esteem mediates this relationship. Findings suggest inclusion in volunteering for African American female caregivers may be relevant to promotion of their mental well-being.
Marina Picazzio Perez Batista
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults, Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos.
Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma
OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163
Gómez-Marcos Manuel Á
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain. Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions.
The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...
Ward-Griffin, C; McKeever, P
Increasing reliance on family care of elderly people at home calls for a critical analysis of the relationship between formal and informal caregivers. Although much has been written about how health professionals and family caregivers should relate to one another, we know very little about the relationships that develop between them. Using data from a qualitative study, this article illustrates that relationships between community nurses and family members caring for frail elders are complex, dynamic, and multifaceted. Shifting boundaries in caring work leads to changes in nurse-family caregiver relationships, which can be categorized as four distinct, yet interconnected, types: (1) nurse-helper, (2) worker-worker, (3) manager-worker, and (4) nurse-patient. Each type is described, and implications for nursing practice and research are discussed.
Wong, Cindy C; Wallhagen, Margaret I
To identify strategies to assist family caregivers of individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in dealing with their caregiving demands, nurses must understand these family members' unique needs and how they currently deal with their demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping and caregiver physical and mental health among FTD family caregivers. Participants were primary caregivers of individuals with FTD (with behavioral symptoms) living at home (N = 61). A small positive association was noted between problem-focused coping and caregiver physical health (r = 0.29, p caregiver mental health (r = 0.21, p = 0.10). However, multiple regression analysis showed that emotion-focused coping (β = 0.46, p caregiver mental health and explained approximately 14% of its variance. These findings support the potential value of emotion-focused coping strategies when dealing with behavioral symptoms manifested by individuals with FTD.
Walker, Alexis J.; Allen, Katherine R.
Qualitative study of 29 pairs of widowed mothers and caregiving daughters employed social exchange theory to identify three relationship types: intrinsic, ambivalent, and conflicted. Found types differed in extent to which women received rewards from interacting with partner, experienced costs in interactions, handled conflicts in relationships,…
Kesner, John E.
Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, which hypothesized that the caregiver-child relationship may play an important role in the social and academic adjustment of the child, this pilot study assessed the attitudes of student teachers regarding attachment issues. The subjects for this study were 38 graduate students in a teacher preparation program.…
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the moderating effect of depression symptoms and coping strategies in the relationship between perceived burden and mental health, among caregivers. A cross-sectional survey research was used. Fifty-two caregivers aged between 21 and 63 (99% women filled out the paper-and-pencil questionnaires.Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the depressive symptoms moderate the relationship between burden and psychological distress. Problem – focused coping was negatively associated with caregiver burden while emotion-focused coping was positively associated with caregiver burden. Still, the results showed that coping strategies are not moderators in the relationship between burden and psychological distress. These findings have practical implications in the adult training area.
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam
Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Orwig, Denise; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michele; Sterling, Robert
Hip fracture is a significant health problem for older adults and generally requires surgery followed by intensive rehabilitation. Informal caregivers (CGs) can provide vital assistance to older adults recovering from hip fracture. Caregiving is a dyadic process that affects both CGs and care recipients (CRs). In a feasibility study, we assessed the effects of using a theory-based online hip fracture resource program for CGs on both CGs and CRs. In this article, we discuss our recruitment process and the lessons learned. Participants were recruited from six acute hospitals, and CGs used the online resource program for 8 weeks. A total of 256 hip fracture patients were screened, and 164 CRs were ineligible. CG screening was initiated when CRs were determined to be eligible. Among 41 eligible dyads, 36 dyads were recruited. Several challenges to the recruitment of these dyads for online studies were identified, including a low number of eligible dyads in certain hospitals and difficulty recruiting both the CR and the CG during the short hospital stay. Field nurses often had to make multiple trips to the hospital to meet with both the CR and the CG. Thus, when a subject unit is a dyad recruited from acute settings, the resources required for the recruitment may be more than doubled. These challenges could be successfully alleviated with careful planning, competent field staff members, collaboration with hospital staff members, and efficient field operations.
Day, Jennifer R; Anderson, Ruth A; Davis, Linda L
Adult daughters face distinct challenges caring for parents with dementia and may experience compassion fatigue: the combination of helplessness, hopelessness, an inability to be empathic, and a sense of isolation resulting from prolonged exposure to perceived suffering. Prior research on compassion fatigue has focused on professional healthcare providers and has overlooked filial caregivers. This study attempts to identify and explore risk factors for compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers and to substantiate further study of compassion fatigue in family caregivers. We used content analysis of baseline interviews with 12 adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia who participated in a randomized trial of homecare training. Four themes were identified in adult daughter caregiver interviews: (a) uncertainty; (b) doubt; (c) attachment; and (d) strain. Findings indicated adult daughter caregivers are at risk for compassion fatigue, supporting the need for a larger study exploring compassion fatigue in this population.
Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Davis, Linda L.
Adult daughters face distinct challenges caring for parents with dementia and may experience compassion fatigue: the combination of helplessness, hopelessness, an inability to be empathic, and a sense of isolation resulting from prolonged exposure to perceived suffering. Prior research on compassion fatigue has focused on professional healthcare providers and has overlooked filial caregivers. This study attempts to identify and explore risk factors for compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers and to substantiate further study of compassion fatigue in family caregivers. We used content analysis of baseline interviews with 12 adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia who participated in a randomized trial of homecare training. Four themes were identified in adult daughter caregiver interviews: (a) uncertainty; (b) doubt; (c) attachment; and (d) strain. Findings indicated adult daughter caregivers are at risk for compassion fatigue, supporting the need for a larger study exploring compassion fatigue in this population. PMID:25259643
Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.
The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
Casale, Marisa; Wild, Lauren; Cluver, Lucie; Kuo, Caroline
Caring for children can be a source of joy and fulfilment, but also a source of stress, especially for caregivers living with illness and/or coping with difficult socio-economic conditions. Risks for poor caregiver mental health are especially salient in many parts of southern Africa affected by a generalised HIV-epidemic, high rates of physical illness, difficult livelihood conditions and an increasing number of orphaned and vulnerable children in need of care. Given limited availability and low uptake of formal mental health services in South Africa, the potential protective role of informal community or "social" resources for caregiver populations requires greater attention. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the relationship between social support and symptomatic anxiety among caregivers of children living in HIV-endemic southern African communities. The data are from household survey interviews with 2477 adult primary caregivers of children aged 10-17 years living in two (urban and rural) resource-deprived HIV-endemic South African communities. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis with interaction terms was conducted to assess whether HIV and other illness were significant stressors for caregiver anxiety, whether social support had main or stress-buffering protective effects on anxiety and whether gender moderated the association between social support and anxiety. Our findings showed significant main effects of social support on caregiver anxiety, but no evidence of stress-buffering effects of support or of gender moderating the support-anxiety relationship. This suggests that social support is a general mental health resource for both male and female caregivers of children in these HIV-endemic communities, regardless of whether they are facing specific stressors related to HIV or other illness. Our results highlight the importance of paying greater attention to the social environment when designing and implementing
Muraco, Anna; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen
This study examines the relationships between friends; a caregiver who provides care to a care recipient, who is a lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adult over age 50 in need of assistance due to chronic physical or mental health conditions. Using a sample of 18 care pairs (n = 36), this work examines qualitative interview data. Findings from the study include: (a) both the care recipient and the caregiver receive benefits from the friendship; (b) caregiving alters and challenges the friendship; and (c) friends assume differential levels of commitment and responsibility in providing care. Studying this population of LGB adults expands our knowledge about the diversity of care arrangements and needs within a relational context.
Rondi, Céline; Berney, Alexandre
The use of social media as a communication tool is rapidly growing in the community, and more specifically in patients, through illness blogs. This has been true for several years in North America, but is becoming a reality in Europe as well. We report here the first results of studies on the putative psychological benefits and risks of illness blogs for their authors. We also explore the possible impact of blogging on the patient-caregiver relationship. Social media are expected to have a growing influence in certain areas of health care. Physicians should therefore stay informed about them, take advantage of their benefits, and anticipate their risks.
El-Mallakh, Peggy; Yates, Brittany Evans; Adkins, Sarah
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common among those with schizophrenia, but little is known about family members' roles in the care of relatives who have both schizophrenia and DM. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine DM knowledge and caregiver burden among 27 family caregivers of people with schizophrenia and DM. Findings indicate that DM knowledge was low. Objective caregiver burden was highest for providing assistance with daily living activities. Subjective burden was highest for preventing the care recipient from keeping people awake at night and dealing with the care recipient's non-adherence to DM care. Family caregivers are in need of education and support in the caregiving role.
Kalmijn, M.; Treas, J.; Scott, J.; Richards, M.
This chapter gives an overview of research on the relationships between parents and their adult, grown-up children. Interest in intergenerational ties has increased again as a result of the aging of Western societies. The chapter discusses the following topics in the literature: (i) the degree to wh
Boaventura, Luiz Carlos; Borges, Heloise Cazangi; Ozaki, Armando Hitoshi
The scope of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the burden of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations on informal caregivers. Sixteen informal caregivers of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations were evaluated, using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scale to evaluate the burden on caregivers, as well as gather data on the care and socio-demographic profile of the caregivers, on the socio-economic data and the degree of functional independence of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations. Student's t-test, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey method and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. The results associated lower education level of the caregiver (p = 0.01) and lower level of information of the affected pathology (p-value = 0.01) to a heavier burden on the caregiver. The therapeutic and social support provided by the support institutions, such as the Physiotherapy Clinic/School of CEUNSP, was revealed as being important to help caregivers to handle situations in an easier manner. Understanding the factors that influence the burden on the caregiver is important for planning and intervention for this specific population group.
Hall, Scott S; Kandiah, Jayanthi; Saiki, Diana; Nam, Jinhee; Harden, Amy; Park, Soonjee
Technological advances in monitoring vulnerable care-recipients are on the rise. Recent and future development of Smart Wear technology (devices integrated into clothing that monitor care-recipients) might assist family caregivers with tasks related to caring for young children, relatives with disabilities, and frail spouses or parents. However, the development and use of this technology in family caregiving contexts is in its infancy. Focus group interviews of family caregivers were conducted to explore perspectives regarding the potential integration of Smart Wear technology into their family caregiving. Responses were analyzed qualitatively for themes related to perceptions of how Smart Wear could impact relationships between caregivers and care-recipients. Three major themes emerged: quality and quantity of interaction, boundary issues, and implications for anxiety. Implications and recommendations are discussed regarding maximizing the potential benefits of Smart Wear technology in ways that promote and protect healthy relationships among caregivers and care-recipients.
Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie
Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…
Greenberg, J S; Seltzer, M M; Greenley, J R
Using a stress process model, we investigated the impact of later-life caregiving on 105 mothers of adult children with mental illness and 208 mothers of adult children with mental retardation. As hypothesized, mothers of persons with mental illness reported higher levels of frustrations and lower levels of gratifications. Whereas the adult child's behavior problems were the strongest predictor of maternal gratifications, the adult child's diagnosis was the strongest predictor of maternal frustrations once all other factors were controlled. In addition, the size of the mother's social network, the family social climate, and the child's participation in an out-of-home program were associated with the effect of caregiver stress.
Athay, M. Michele
This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used…
Wilson Keith G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the majority of stroke survivors return home following their stroke, families play a pivotal role in their care. Few studies have addressed both positive and negative aspects of this role or the broader construct of health-related quality of life (HRQL. Furthermore, little consideration has been given to the context of care in terms of relationship quality, and reciprocity. The present study examined the relationships between caregiver quality of life (HRQL, caregiver role, relationship satisfaction, balance and reciprocity in caregivers of partners who had experienced a stroke. Specific hypotheses were made based on equity theory in social relations. Methods Fifty-six partner caregivers completed a postal survey that included measures of HRQL (SF-36, caregiver role (negative and positive aspects, relationship satisfaction, reciprocity and balance. Data were also collected on the care recipients' quality of life (Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale. Results Compared to a normative sample, caregivers' HRQL was lower for all SF-36 domains. Care recipient and caregiver age, care recipient quality of life and caregiver role (negative significantly predicted physical component summary scores on the SF-36, while care recipient quality of life and caregiver role (negative significantly correlated with mental component summary scores. Relationship satisfaction and intrinsic rewards of caregiving were found to be important predictors of positive aspects of the caregiver role. Caregivers who viewed their relationship as less balanced in terms of give and take had significantly greater caregiver burden than those who viewed their relationship as more equitable. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of taking a broader approach to examining partner caregiving in the context of stroke, in terms of the caregiving relationship and their influence on the health and well-being of caregivers.
Wolff, Jason J.; Clary, Jamie; Harper, Vickie N.; Bodfish, James W.; Symons, Frank J.
Patterns of caregiver responses to client adaptive behavior were compared between adults with intellectual disabilities with and without self-injurious behavior. Participants with moderate to profound intellectual disability and self-injury (n = 89) and age/IQ matched control participants (n = 20) were selected from a large sample of adults living…
Deimling, G T; Bass, D M
Research that has examined the relationship between caregiving stress and elders' symptoms of mental impairment has focused primarily on cognitive incapacity. This research expands the symptoms of mental impairment to include caregivers' reports of problems in elders' social functioning and the presence of disruptive behavior, in addition to the traditional measure of cognitive incapacity. Results from a study of 614 families living with and caring for an impaired elder show cognitive incapacity to have a less important direct effect on caregiving stress than disruptive behavior and impaired social functioning. Cognitive incapacity does have an important indirect effect through its influence on disruptive behavior and social functioning.
Kliewer, Wendy; Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Diehl, Robyn; Parrish, Katie Adams; Walker, Jean M.; Atiyeh, Cynthia; Neace, Brooke; Duncan, Larissa; Taylor, Kelli; Mejia, Roberto
This short-term, longitudinal interview study used an ecological framework to explore protective factors within the child, the caregiver, the caregiver?child relationship, and the community that might moderate relations between community violence exposure and subsequent internalizing and externalizing adjustment problems and the different patterns…
Findlay, Laura; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Baum, Sandra; Scior, Katrina
Background: Caregivers have an intimate knowledge of the individuals they care for and are therefore an important source of information on pain experiences. They are often relied upon to recognize pain-related behaviours and report them, but little is known as to how they experience their role. Methods: Information was collected from 11 caregivers…
Egging, S; de Boer, A H; Stevens, N L
This study compared informal care to older, non-coresiding adults provided by friends and neighbours and informal care by children or their partners. Using data from a Dutch representative survey among informal caregivers conducted by CBS and SCP, caregivers of friends (n=133), neighbours (n=108) and parents (n=1,008) were compared with one another to investigate care that friends and neighbours provide to the elderly non-coresiding adults (age 55 and over). Nine percent of those providing care to someone outside the household were friends and nine percent were neighbours. Friends, like children, usually provide long-lasting care, up to four or five years. Friends are similar to neighbours in the number of hours that they provide care. Friends and neighbours experience a lower caregiver burden than children. However, when fulfilling multiple caring tasks, both friends and children, have a greater chance of experiencing higher levels of burden. When there were other caregivers to help, friends experienced a small reduction in burden. Friends and neighbours deserve to be recognized as informal caregivers by policy makers and they deserve attention and support along with family caregivers.
Lillian Flores Stevens
Full Text Available This was a hypothesis-generating exploration of relationships between caregiver training during TBI/polytrauma rehabilitation and caregiver mental health. In this cross-sectional study, 507 informal caregivers to US service members with TBI who received inpatient rehabilitation care in a Veterans Affairs’ Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center from 2001 to 2009 completed a retrospective, self-report survey. Embedded in the survey were measures of caregiver mental health, including the National Institutes of Health’s Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and the Zarit Burden Short Form. Though no groups endorsed clinical levels, mental health symptoms varied by caregiver training category (Trained, Not Trained, and Did Not Need Training. Caregivers who did not receive training on how to navigate healthcare systems endorsed higher depression and burden and lower self-esteem than those who did. Caregivers who did not receive training in supporting their care recipients’ emotions endorsed higher anxiety, depression, and burden and lower self-esteem than those who did. Analyses also suggested a different association between training and mental health based on caregivers’ relationship to the care recipient and the intensity of care recipient needs. Potential hypotheses for testing in future studies raised by these findings are discussed.
Jirovec Mary M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many caregivers with chronically ill relatives suffer from depression. However, the relationship of depression to other outcomes of chronic caregiving remains unclear. This study tested a hypothesized model which proposed that hours of care, stressful life events, social support, age and gender would predict caregivers' outcomes through perceived caregiver stress. Depression was expected to mediate the relationship between perceived stress and outcomes of chronic caregiving (physical function, self-esteem, and marital satisfaction. Methods The sample for this secondary data analysis consisted of 236 and 271 subjects from the Americans' Changing Lives, Wave 1, 1986, and Wave 2, 1989, data sets. Measures were constructed from the original study. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model, and an exploratory structural modeling method, specification search, was used to develop a data-derived model. Cross-validation was used to verify the paths among variables. Results Hours of care, age, and gender predicted caregivers' outcomes directly or through perceived caregiver stress (p Conclusion Depression predicted psychological outcomes. Whether depression predicts physical health outcomes needs to be further explored.
Kim, Go-en; Chung, Soondool
Background: This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Methods: Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability…
Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S
So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion.
J.M. Roeden; M.A. Maaskant; H.M.Y. Koomen; M.J.J.M. Candel; L.M.G. Curfs
Improvements in client-caregiver relationships may lead to improvements in the quality of life of clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). For this reason, interventions aimed at influencing these relationships are important. To gain insight into the nature and intention of these relationships i
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;
Introduction: Support groups are considered an effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but there are no significant improvements in feelings of stress an...... that through comparison and sharing positive and negative emotions, the members of the support group are able to take on and maintain the role as caregiver.......Introduction: Support groups are considered an effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but there are no significant improvements in feelings of stress...... and burden. It is unclear how support groups can produce a meaningful and optimal outcome for the informal caregivers. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Method: A systematic literature review...
Lindvall, Agneta; Kristensson, Jimmie; Willman, Ania; Holst, Göran
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Informal Care Provided by Family Caregivers: Experiences of Older Adults With Multimorbidity" found on pages 24-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe how older adults with multimorbidity experience care provided from informal
Christina E. Miyawaki
Full Text Available This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice.
Young, Katherine S; Parsons, Christine E; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Woolrich, Mark W; van Hartevelt, Tim J; Stevner, Angus B A; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L
Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100-200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based "caregiving instinct."
Nirbhay N. Singh
Full Text Available Caregivers often manage the aggressive behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities that reside in community group homes. Sometimes this results in adverse outcomes for both the caregivers and the care recipients. We provided a 7-day intensive Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS training to caregivers from community group homes and assessed the outcomes in terms of caregiver variables, individuals’ behaviors, and an administrative outcome. When compared to pre-MBPBS training, the training resulted in the caregivers using significantly less physical restraints, and staff stress and staff turnover were considerably reduced. The frequency of injury to caregivers and peers caused by the individuals was significantly reduced. A benefit-cost analysis showed substantial financial savings due to staff participation in the MBPBS program. This study provides further proof of concept for the effectiveness of MBPBS training for caregivers, and strengthens the call for training staff in mindfulness meditation.
McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin
The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…
Marziali, Elsa; Donahue, Peter
Purpose: The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative, Internet-based psychosocial intervention for family caregivers of older adults with neurodegenerative disease. Design and Methods: After receiving signed informed consent from each participant, we randomly assigned 66 caregivers to an Internet-based…
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;
BACKGROUND Informal caregivers who perform at-home care of older people with dementia might have feelings of a meaningless existence, burden, anxiety, stress and fatigue. Support groups are considered an especially effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers’ stress and burden...... of participants: Informal caregivers of older adults aged 65 years and over with dementia. The informal caregiver was a family member, and care was performed at home. Phenomena of interest: How the informal caregivers perceived the meaningfulness of participating in support groups. The setting was all locations...
Ennis, Naomi; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Canzian, Sonya; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane
A systematic review of studies which evaluated depression and anxiety in parent versus spouse caregivers of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was conducted. Demographic variables of the TBI patients and caregivers, study design, measurement tools used, and outcomes reported were collected. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated for methodological quality. While the majority of studies revealed no significant differences between caregiver types on measures of depression and/or anxiety, there was a great deal of variation in methodology and quality between the studies. Overall, high levels of caregiver distress were exposed, regardless of caregiver type (parent versus spouse). There is a need for qualitative and quantitative research designs in order to elucidate the factors that put caregivers at risk for depression and anxiety.
Roeden, John M.; Maaskant, Marian A.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.
Background: Research studies into the effect of therapies have shown that a good relationship between the client and his caregiver is a key factor in a positive treatment outcome. Methods: The nominal group technique (NGT) has been used in this study to discover what clients with intellectual disabilities feel contributes to a successful working…
Lauritzen, Jette; Bjerrum, Merete; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;
Background: Support groups are considered an effective way to care for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia and relieve their feelings of stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but with no significant...... the future through virtual configurations of group meetings Conclusion: Peer support is meaningful and beneficial for informal caregivers. The support groups provide a source for obtaining positive emotional support, venting negative feeling and gaining help to deal with the everyday life of caring for older...... improvements in feelings of stress and burden. It is unclear how support groups can produce a meaningful outcome for the informal caregivers. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Method...
Zangeneh Pour Zadeh
Full Text Available Background In the recent years, chronic diseases have been identified as challenges of public health and healthcare and are the major causes of death in the female population. Females make up 75% of family caregivers. The sandwich generation females, who care for their aging parents while supporting their own children, encounter an increase in stress related to chronic diseases, but in some studies, the issue of care involves lower depression risk and more constructive psychological effects. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between family caregiving and chronic diseases in sandwich generation females. Patients and Methods This study was a case-control study in Ahvaz in which 360 females including 180 sandwich generation caregivers and 180 caregivers of one generation (i.e. those only taking care of their own child were selected using the random cluster sampling method during six months. The two groups of participants were matched in terms of age, number of children under their care and their socioeconomic status. Data analysis was conducted using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test or KS test and chi-square tests through the SPSS v.22 software. Results A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.001. There was a significant correlation between chronic diseases and number of children (P = 0.03, person receiving care (P = 0.004, educational level (P = 0.001, caregiving duration (P = 0.005, and socioeconomic status (P = 0.14. Chronic diseases in caregivers with more than four children, under diploma educational level, and with unfavorable socioeconomic status were more than others. Additionally, the occurrence of chronic diseases was more in females caring for their grandchildren. There was no significant correlation between chronic diseases and the age of caregivers (P > 0.05. Conclusions The current study revealed that a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the culture of filial piety and due to the Confucianism spirit in China, family caregivers usually undertake the responsibilities of caring for the older adults. They usually suffer from a heavy burden which is believed to impair their mental and physical health. Thus this study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community and explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted through convenience sampling. The study population was composed of 1,144 caregivers of older adults who suffered from one or more types of chronic diseases in 15 communities in 3 eastern cities of China. Family caregivers were interviewed face-to-face using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the ZARIT Caregiver Burden interview (ZBI scales. The Antonovsky's Sense of coherence (SOC scale was also used to measure personal coping capability of the caregivers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR was performed to explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Results The majority of the caregivers were females (60.0% or adult children (66.5%. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that Demographic Characteristics of Caregivers, Patients’ Characteristics, and Subjective Caregiver Burden explained most of the total variance of all aspects of HRQOL. While, Objective Caregiving Tasks was only associated with physical QOL. Subjective Caregiver Burden was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QOL. SOC was also a strong predictor of physical and mental QOL. Conclusions The mental QOL of the caregivers of older adults was disrupted more seriously than physical QOL. Additionally, Subjective Caregiver Burden might decrease caregiver’ health. A decrease in caregiver burden could promote better management of caregiving tasks, and improve
Grover, S; Nebhinani, N; Chakrabarti, S; Shah, R; Avasthi, A
OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. METHODS. A total of 122 caregivers (aged ≥ 18 years, staying with patient ≥ 1 year and involved in patients' care) of consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (according to the ICD-10) were evaluated for their supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact. RESULTS. The first treatment contact was a government or private psychiatrist in slightly more than half (53.3%) of the patients, while it was faith healers in 23.8% of the patients. Around three quarters (74.6%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to ≥ 1 supernatural belief (like sorcery / witchcraft, ghosts, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary influences, evil spirits, and bad deeds in previous life) and more than half (57.4%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to > 1 supernatural belief. It was observed that those who contacted faith healers for their patients' treatment had significantly higher attribution of the symptoms to supernatural causes. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatural beliefs were common in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and the majority attributed their patients' symptoms to these beliefs. It signifies an urgent need for mental health literacy in India.
Full Text Available Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros,1 Antonio Bustillos,2 Marta Santacreu,1,3 Rocio Schettini,1 Pura Díaz-Veiga,4 Carmen Huici2 1Clinical and Health Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM, 2Social Psychology, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED, 3Psychology Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM, 4Matia Instituto Gerontológico, Madrid, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers.Methods: A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care. In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning were applied.Results: Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research.Conclusion: Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their
Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, Shaun S; Evans, Gary W; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E
Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults' neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry versus acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty.
Roeden, John M; Maaskant, Marian A; Koomen, Helma M Y; Candel, Math J J M; Curfs, Leopold M G
Improvements in client-caregiver relationships may lead to improvements in the quality of life of clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). For this reason, interventions aimed at influencing these relationships are important. To gain insight into the nature and intention of these relationships in the ID population, suitable measurement instruments are needed. This study examines the applicability of an existing relationship questionnaire designed for primary education, called the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) on the basis of the following research questions: (1) What is the factor structure of the STRS? (2) Are there associations between STRS scales and other conceptually comparable instruments? (3) Is the STRS reliable? The participants in this study were 46 caregivers, who assessed 350 client-caregiver relationships. Psychometric research was conducted into the factor structure (n=350), construct validity (n=146), internal consistency (n=350) and test-retest reliability (n=177) of the STRS and the reliability of the individual scores (n=350) among a study population of people with moderate and severe ID. The three-factor model of the STRS as used in primary education (1. closeness, 2. conflict, 3. dependency) was, despite minor deviations, also found in the ID population. Research into the construct validity of the STRS showed statistically significant correlations with other scales with which similarities could be expected. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the STRS in the population studied were very good. The 95% confidence intervals of the means were small, and these measurements can be regarded as reliable.
Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina
The role of caregiver gender in the likelihood of institutionalization of Taiwanese older adults was explored in this study. A sample of 78 male and 69 female primary caregivers of elderly patients who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior to the study were interviewed. Logistic regression analyses were applied to examine direct and interaction effects of the elderly adult's functioning the caregiver's available resources, the degree of caregiver burden, perceived public opinion toward institutionalization, and precipitating events on the likelihood of institutionalization among Taiwanese male and female caregivers. Women were more likely to institutionalize the older adult for whom they cared. The proposed model correctly predicted the likelihood of institutionalization of an elderly adult based on male versus female caregivers at the 92% level. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization was the most significant predictor of institutionalization for both genders. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization has a strong influence on whether or not caregivers institutionalize an elderly relative. This is consistent with Chinese culture in which public opinion has a much stronger effect on individual behavior than in the United States. American concepts of "minding one's own business" do not exist in Taiwan. It is logical that the older adults' level of functioning would predict the likelihood of institutionalization regardless of caregiver gender. In terms of caregiver characteristics, working hours in male caregivers is more predictive, and the quality of the relationship with the older adult was more predictive of institutionalization for female caregivers.
Fulcher, Megan; Coyle, Emily F
Participants were 150 school-age boys and girls, 58 high school students, and 145 university students drawn from communities in the Southeastern United States. In this cross-sectional study, family role attitudes and expectations were examined across development. Parental work traditionality (occupational prestige and traditionality, and employed hours) predicted daughters' social role attitudes and plans for future family roles, such that daughters' envisioned families resembled that of their parents. Sons' and daughters' own attitudes about adult family roles predicted their plans to work or stay home with their future children; however, mothers' work traditionality predicted daughters' future plans over and above daughters' own attitudes. The only exception to this was in the case of university daughters, where university women's attitudes about social roles fully mediated this relationship. It may be that, as young women approach adulthood and the formation of families, they adjust their vision of their future self to match more closely their own attitudes about the caregiving role.
Background: We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends) and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses) social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods: We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results: Mult...
Wang, Jing; Carroll, Deidra; Peck, Michelle; Myneni, Sahiti; Gong, Yang
There is an increasing number of wearable trackers and mobile devices in the burgeoning world of digital health, the purpose of the study is to explore the role of these mobile and wearable tools among older adults aging in place. We conducted a cross sectional study using individual interviews with older adults and surveys with their caregivers or providers. We interviewed 29 residents living in a retirement community, and surveyed 6 caregivers or providers. The older adults had an average age of 88 years, most did not express interests on technology and heavily relied on providers for health tracking, while their professional caregivers or providers saw a great need to access older adults' health information collected from these mobile and wearable tools. Educating the older old on the benefits of mobile and wearable tools may address such discrepancy on needs of adopting mobile and wearable tools for aging in place.
... with Alzheimer’s CCAN Peer Network COPD Caregiving Caregiver Statistics Statistics on Family Caregivers and Family Caregiving Caregiving Population ... Health Care Caregiver Self-Awareness State by State Statistics Caregiving Population The value of the services family ...
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E
The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.
Anngela-Cole, Linda; Hilton, Jeanne M
This study evaluated cultural differences in attitudes toward caregiving and the stress levels of family caregivers. Participants included 98 Japanese American and 86 Caucasian American family caregivers caring for frail elders. Analyses using MANOVA and multiple regression analyses revealed that the Caucasian caregivers had more positive attitudes and provided more hours of care than the Japanese caregivers but that both groups had elevated levels of caregiver stress. The stress that family caregivers currently experience could lead to a future generation of care recipients who enter old age in worse condition than their predecessors. Professionals need to work together to develop culturally appropriate, evidence-based interventions to address this issue.
Ryan, Kelly A.; Weldon, Anne; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno
Background Caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) need similar levels of support services as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) caregivers, but it is unclear if this translates to increased caregiver burden. Methods 135 participants and their caregivers (40 MCI, 55 AD and 40 normal controls, NC) completed questionnaires, and the patients were administered neuropsychological tests. Results The MCI caregivers reported significantly more overall caregiving burden than the NC, but less than the AD. They showed similar levels of emotional, physical and social burden as the AD caregivers. Among the MCI caregivers, the neuropsychiatric symptoms and executive functioning of the patients were related to a greater burden, and the caregivers with a greater burden reported lower life satisfaction and social support, and a greater need for support services. Conclusion These results indicate that MCI caregivers are at increased risk for caregiver stress, and they require enhanced assistance and/or education in caring for their loved ones. PMID:23128102
Karen T. Nozoe
Conclusions: This study indicates that caregiving mothers of sons with DMD show major risk for sexual dysfunction and a reduction in their quality of sleep mediated in part by the hormonal changes related to stress. Nozoe KT, Hachul H, Hirotsu C, Polesel DN, Moreira GA, Tufik S, and Andersen ML. The relationship between sexual function and quality of sleep in caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sex Med 2014;2:133–140.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sense of Competence Questionnaire (SCQ was originally developed for informal caregivers of patients with diagnosed dementia. In order to study the validity and usefulness of the SCQ when applied to informal caregivers of older adults with dementia symptoms (i.e. cognitive impairment, pre-diagnostic dementia or dementia in its early stages, we investigated the construct validity, feasibility, subscales, homogeneity, and floor and ceiling effects in this new target population. Methods A psychometric evaluation was performed among 99 informal caregivers. To investigate construct validity, hypotheses were tested, concerning the association between sense of competence and burden, mental quality of life, depressive symptoms, and mastery. To investigate feasibility, response rate and the proportion of missing data were explored for each item. An exploratory principal component analysis was used to investigate whether the SCQ comprises the three subscales established in previous studies. Homogeneity was assessed for each subscale with Cronbach's α and item-total correlations. Floor and ceiling effects were explored. Results Most hypotheses on construct validity were rejected. Only the subscale 'consequences of involvement in care' was found to be partly valid. Feasibility: 93 out of 99 persons completed the SCQ. The proportion of unanswered items per item ranged from 0 – 3%. Subscales: the SCQ comprises the three expected subscales. Homogeneity: Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations of the three subscales were satisfactory. A ceiling effect occurred on the subscale 'satisfaction with the care recipient'. Conclusion The three subscales of the SCQ showed good homogeneity and feasibility, but their validity is insufficient: only the subscale 'consequences of involvement' was found to be partly valid. The two other subscales might not be relevant yet for the new target population, since many of the items on these scales
Full Text Available IntroductionThis study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT in adult primary brain tumor (PBT patients and caregivers in a clinic setting, and ascertain if any high risk sub-groups for PD exist. Material and MethodsFrom May 2012 to August 2013, n=96 patients and n=32 caregivers (CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n=12 patients and n=14 caregivers at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grade, low grade and benign, and English versus non-English speaking. Those with DT score≥4 met caseness criteria for referral to psycho-oncology services. One-way ANOVA tests were conducted to test for between group differences where appropriate.ResultsAt diagnosis and first recurrence, 37.5% and 75.0% (respectively of patients had DT scores above the cut-off for distress. At diagnosis, 78.1% of caregivers met caseness criteria for distress. All caregivers at recurrence met distress criterion. Patients with high grade glioma had significantly higher scores than those with a benign tumor. For patients at diagnosis, non-English speaking participants did not report significantly higher DT scores than English speaking participants.DiscussionPsychological distress is particularly elevated in caregivers, and in patients with high grade glioma at diagnosis. Effective PD screening, triage and referral by skilled care coordinators is vital to enable timely needs assessment, psychological support and effective intervention.
Seto, Atsuko; Dahlen, Penny
This article provides an overview of Japanese women in the role of caregivers of older family members. Cultural influence on women's identity, significance of the caregiver's role, and the struggles and rewards of being caregivers are discussed. Finally, ideas are provided for the use of arts in counseling and implications of their use are…
Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to examine HRQOL depending on whether the participants have family members with disabilities or not. In addition, we examined the relationship between HRQOL and social networks among family caregivers in Japan. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design. Survey forms were distributed to 9205 people aged 30 and older who visited a dispensing pharmacy within fifteen areas of Japan. We collected data on gender, age, job status, and care giving status for persons with disabilities. Moreover, we assessed support size, social support, and HRQOL. Out of the 2029 questionnaires returned, 1763 (male: 663, female: 1100, mean age = 63.06 ± 13.34 were valid for statistical analyses (the available response rate was 19.15%. Results A significant difference in HRQOL was identified between family caregivers and non-family caregivers. Further, in males (N = 101, the results confirmed that only social support predicted the PCS and MCS scores, while other variables did not predict either score. On the other hand, in females (N = 144, it was found from the second step of hierarchical multiple regression analysis that only age explained the PCS score, while job status and support size explained the MCS score. Conclusion It is reasonable to conclude that the HRQOL of family caregivers was lower than that of non-family caregivers, and that the HRQOL of family caregivers was estimated by their social networks.
Blaizot, Alessandra; Hamel, Olivier; Folliguet, Marysette; Herve, Christian; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Trentesaux, Thomas
Background: Cognitively impaired patients often present poor oral health status that may be explained by ethical tensions in oral healthcare management. This participatory study explored such tensions among adults with intellectual disabilities and with caregivers. The second objective was to specify, with caregivers, the points that should be…
Christian J. Hendriksz MD
Full Text Available This international survey performed by direct personal interview or mail evaluated the global burden among primary caregivers of patients with Morquio A syndrome. Collected outcomes included self-reported time spent on caregiving, proportion of daily activities (from the Mucopolysaccharidosis Health Assessment Questionnaire requiring caregiver assistance, and how the patient’s age and wheelchair use affect these. In addition, the impact of caregiving on the caregivers’ relationship with family and friends, physical and mental health, and employment status and income was evaluated. Caregiver burden increased with disease progression. Adult patients always using a wheelchair required substantially more caregiving time and complete assistance with a larger proportion of daily activities than more mobile patients. In children, this was less apparent. Caregivers suffered physically and emotionally and their family and social life and financial situation were considerably impacted. Improvements in patient mobility may substantially reduce the level of caregiver support and the burden of caregiving.
Bevan, Jennifer L; Vreeburg, Sean K; Verdugo, Sherri; Sparks, Lisa
With job markets expanding globally and life expectancy continually increasing, more demands are being placed on distant relatives to provide care for their aging family members, creating a health care situation known as long-distance caregiving. An online survey explored the relations between negative health perceptions by long-distance caregivers and conflict frequency and conflict strategy usage. The authors observed positive significant relations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and conflict frequency and usage of the distributive and avoidance conflict strategies. However, they observed no significant associations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and usage of the two integrative strategies. Implications for long-distance caregiving communication are discussed.
Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno
This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction.
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Hollis-Sawyer, L A
One hundred twenty-two pairs (n = 244) of filial caregivers (daughters) and care recipients (mothers) were interviewed separately, to investigate the factors underlying positive, growth-oriented caregiving relationships. The outcome variable examined was the type of caregiving pair (positive, negative, mixed, and neutral), as determined by "blind" raters. Based on existing research, factors examined as being significant predictors of this outcome variable were perceived roles (role changes, role relations) and individual-difference characteristics (personality dimensions, fluid intellectual ability). The results of the path model tested support the importance of individual-difference factors in understanding positive mother-daughter elder caregiving relationships.
Some experts contend that the increasing prevalence of obesity among patients and caregivers leads to more frequent and serious musculoskeletal injuries among caregivers. Others believe that failure to ensure safe, appropriate equipment and supporting policies leads to the increasing prevalence of caregiver injuries. Health facilities best serve residents, caregivers, and institutions when there is preplanning for extra care and resources; size-appropriate equipment; larger, heavier furniture; and adequate space to accomplish tasks. The challenge to stakeholders is to find ways to prevent injuries that pose direct and indirect cost liabilities to caregivers, institutions, policy makers, and others. Several strategies are available to reduce or prevent caregiver injury and to promote patient safety. Physical environment, equipment, lift team, and necessary policy changes are discussed as possible strategies.
Roisman, Glenn I; Collins, W Andrew; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron
Although attachment theory suggests that childhood experiences with caregivers serve as a prototype for adult love relationships, few explicit tests of this hypothesis exist in the literature. Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort followed from birth to young adulthood, this paper examined correlates and antecedents of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship. Young adults who experienced a secure relationship with their primary caregiver in infancy as assessed in the Strange Situation were more likely to (a) produce coherent discourse regarding their current romantic partnership in the context of the Current Relationship Interview (CRI) and (b) have a higher quality romantic relationship as observed in standard conflict and collaboration tasks. Infant security accounted for variation in CRI security above and beyond the observed quality of participants' current romantic relationship. In contrast, the association between infant and romantic security was partially mediated by individuals' self-reports about their romantic experiences, suggesting that one plausible mechanism by which early experiences with caregivers shape young adults' representations of their attachments with romantic partners is through adults' expectations for and perceptions of love relationships.
Coleman, Jennifer A; Harper, Leia A; Perrin, Paul B; Olivera, Silvia L; Perdomo, Jose L; Arango, Jose A; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C
Although considerable research has been carried out on family caregivers of individuals with various types of disabilities, spinal cord injury (SCI) caregivers have received considerably less attention in terms of research, especially in regions such as Latin America. This study examined the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with SCI and their family caregiver's mental health in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty-four individuals with SCI and their primary caregivers (34 dyads; n=68) from the Foundation for the Integral Development of People with Disabilities in Neiva, Colombia, were included in this study. Individuals with SCI completed eight subscales of the SF-36 that assessed HRQOL. Five aspects of caregiver mental health were assessed, including burden (Zarit Burden Interview), satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). A series of multiple regressions uncovered strong associations among the HRQOL of individuals with SCI and various aspects of caregiver mental health. In these regressions, patient physical functioning and pain were independently related to caregiver burden; patient pain and general health were independently related to caregiver satisfaction with life; and patient pain was independently related to caregiver anxiety. HRQOL in individuals with SCI was robustly related to their caregiver's mental health, suggesting that the two sets of variables are closely linked. These findings suggest that caregiver mental health should be a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, especially in Latin America.
Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris
This report presents data on 9-month-old twin pairs (n[MZ]=172; n[DZ]=333) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, demonstrating that the role of genetic variation among infants is trivial and the shared and nonshared environment is substantial in accounting for the observed quality of infant-caregiver relationships. In contrast, maternal…
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;
. The support groups provide a source for obtaining positive emotional support, venting negative feeling and gaining help to deal with the everyday life of caring for older adults with dementia. Dementia coordinators and primary health care nurses should play an active role as facilitators at the group meetings......Background: Support groups are considered an especially effective and economical way to relieve informal caregiver’s stress and burden, although it is unclear if participating in group meetings produces a meaningful outcome for the informal caregiver. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness...... of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted based on a peer-reviewed and published review protocol. 233 full-text papers were assessed for eligibility. Five qualitative papers met...
Rosalie H. Wang, BSc (OT, PhD
Full Text Available Collision avoidance technology has the capacity to facilitate safer mobility among older power mobility users with physical, sensory, and cognitive impairments, thus enabling independence for more users. Little is known about consumers’ perceptions of collision avoidance. This article draws on interviews (29 users, 5 caregivers, and 10 prescribers to examine views on design and utilization of this technology. Data analysis identified three themes: "useful situations or contexts," "technology design issues and real-life application," and "appropriateness of collision avoidance technology for a variety of users." Findings support ongoing development of collision avoidance for older adult users. The majority of participants supported the technology and felt that it might benefit current users and users with visual impairments, but might be unsuitable for people with significant cognitive impairments. Some participants voiced concerns regarding the risk for injury with power mobility use and some identified situations where collision avoidance might be beneficial (driving backward, avoiding dynamic obstacles, negotiating outdoor barriers, and learning power mobility use. Design issues include the need for context awareness, reliability, and user interface specifications. User desire to maintain driving autonomy supports development of collaboratively controlled systems. This research lays the groundwork for future development by illustrating consumer requirements for this technology.
Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.
Torabi Chafjiri, Razieh; Navabi, Nasrin; Shamsalinia, Abbas; Ghaffari, Fatemeh
Introduction Stroke is a chronic condition that necessitates multidimensional and overwhelming care. The caregivers of stroke patients are faced with various stressors that can threaten different aspects of their health, especially their mental health. Spiritual attitude and being spiritually oriented contribute significantly to mental health and can be used as a strategy for adapting to the stressful events that are part of the role of caregiving. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the relationship between the spiritual attitude of the family caregivers of older patients with stroke and their burden. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. The study population consisted of all the family caregivers of older patients with stroke presenting to health care centers and nursing service companies of Gilan Province in Iran. The participants were selected through convenience sampling and consisted of 407 participants. Data were collected using the Spiritual Attitude Scale and the Caregiver Burden Inventory and were then analyzed in SPSS-18 using Pearson’s correlation coefficient at a significance level of 0.05. Results The results showed that 88.9% of the caregivers were females. The mean age of the participants was 38.3±8.8 years. The duration of caregiving was relatively favorable spiritual attitude (a score of 72–120), 27.8% had high or favorable spiritual attitude; 8.7% had mild burden, 54.4% had moderate burden and 37% had favorable burden. The mean score of burden was 28±12.75. A statistically significant positive relationship was observed in this study between the mean score of spiritual attitude and the total score of burden in all its dimensions, namely, time dependence, as well as the developmental, physical, social and emotional dimensions. Conclusion Providing strategies for improving spirituality, such as teaching spiritual self-care, can improve their burden. Given that such strategies are psychologically
Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric
In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…
Epstein, Richard A.; Jordan, Neil; Rhee, Yong Joo; McClelland, Gary M.; Lyons, John S.
We studied 9,220 children referred to a comprehensive mental health crisis stabilization program to examine the impact of caregiver capacity on crisis worker decisions to refer children for intensive community-based treatment as opposed to inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Due to the different role of caregivers in the child welfare system,…
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;
: A systematic literature review was conducted based on a peer-reviewed and published review protocol. 233 full-text papers were assessed for eligibility. Five qualitative papers were selected and assessed for methodological quality prior to inclusion using The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment...... and Review Instrument. Qualitative research data were extracted and the findings were pooled. This process involved the aggregation of findings to generate a set of statements that represent that aggregation, through assembling the findings rated according to their quality, and categorizing these findings......Background: Support groups are considered an effective way to care for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia and relieve their feelings of stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but with no significant...
Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela
Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.
Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Terhorst, Lauren; Song, Mi-Kyung; Shellmer, Diana A.; Aubrecht, Jill; Connolly, Mary; Dew, Mary Amanda
Self-care behaviors are crucial for following the complex regimen after lung transplantation, yet little is known about recipients’ levels of self-care agency (the capability and willingness to engage in self-care behaviors) and its correlates. We examined levels of self-care agency and recipient characteristics (socio-demographics, psychological distress, quality of relationship with primary lay caregiver, and health locus of control) in 111 recipients. Based on Perceived Self-Care Agency sc...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive evidence shows that well over 50% of people prefer to be cared for and to die at home provided circumstances allow choice. Despite best efforts and policies, one-third or less of all deaths take place at home in many countries of the world. OBJECTIVES: 1. to quantify the effect of home palliative care services for adult patients with advanced illness and their family caregivers on patients' odds of dying at home; 2. to examine the clinical effectiveness of home palliative care services on other outcomes for patients and their caregivers such as symptom control, quality of life, caregiver distress and satisfaction with care; 3. to compare the resource use and costs associated with these services; 4. to critically appraise and summarize the current evidence on cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Search methods: We searched 12 electronic databases up to November 2012. We checked the reference lists of all included studies, 49 relevant systematic reviews, four key textbooks and recent conference abstracts. We contacted 17 experts and researchers for unpublished data. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs, controlled clinical trials (CCTs, controlled before and after studies (CBAs and interrupted time series (ITSs evaluating the impact of home palliative care services on outcomes for adults with advanced illness or their family caregivers, or both. Data collection and analysis: One review author assessed the identified titles and abstracts. Two independent reviewers performed assessment of all potentially relevant studies, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. We carried out meta-analysis where appropriate and calculated numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTBs for the primary outcome (death at home. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 23 studies (16 RCTs, 6 of high quality, including 37,561 participants and 4042 family caregivers, largely with advanced cancer but also congestive heart failure
Lee, Yeonjung; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Kevin H; Albert, Steven M
This study investigated the reciprocal relationship between parental caregiving and labour force participation to determine whether (1) caregiving related to subsequent employment; (2) employment related to subsequent caregiving; (3) caregiving and labour force participation had a reciprocal relationship across time; and (4) gender differences existed in these relationships. A cross-lagged panel design was applied with structural equation modeling. The study sample included adult children aged 51 or older with living parents or parents-in-law. No reciprocal relationship was found between caregiving and labour force participation, but gender differences were evident. Women caregivers in 2006 were less likely to be working in 2008, whereas employment status was not related to subsequent caregiving. In contrast, men working in 2008 were less likely to be caregiving in 2010, whereas caregiving was not related to subsequent employment status. Findings suggest that gender plays an important role in the relationship between caregiving and labour force participation.
Zahid Muhammad A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the burden experienced by families of people with schizophrenia has long been recognized as one of the most important consequences of the disorder, there are no reports from the Arab world. Following the example of the five - nation European (EPSILON study, we explored the following research question: How does the relationship between domains of caregiving (as in the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire - IEQ-EU and caregiver psychic distress on the one hand, and caregiver's/patient's socio-demographics, clinical features and indices of quality of care, on the other hand, compare with the pattern in the literature? Method Consecutive family caregivers of outpatients with schizophrenia were interviewed with the IEQ-EU. Patients were interviewed with measures of needs for care, service satisfaction, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology. Results There were 121 caregivers (66.1% men, aged 39.8. The IEQ domain scores (total: 46.9; tension: 13.4; supervision: 7.9; worrying: 12.9; and urging: 16.4 were in the middle of the range for the EU data. In regression analyses, higher burden subscale scores were variously associated with caregiver lower level of education, patient's female gender and younger age, as well as patient's lower subjective QOL and needs for hospital care, and not involving the patient in outdoor activities. Disruptive behavior was the greatest determinant of global rating of burden. Conclusion Our results indicate that, despite differences in service set-up and culture, the IEQ-EU can be used in Kuwait as it has been used in the western world, to describe the pattern of scores on the dimensions of caregiving. Differences with the international data reflect peculiarities of culture and type of service. Despite generous national social welfare provisions, experience of burden was the norm and was significantly associated with patient's disruptive behavior. The results underscore the need for provision
Domínguez-Guedea, Miriam Teresa; Garcia, Abraham Ocejo
The current study analyzed the influence of burden on the well-being of caregivers by exploring the mediating role of sociocultural and family factors. The study sample comprised 386 Mexican caregivers between ages 19 and 87 (mean age = 49.05; SD =12.41 years). The results from the current research showed that burden scores are negatively associated with well-being, sociocultural, and family scores. However, the effect of burden on subjective well-being is minimized by the mediation effect of sociocultural and family resources between burden and well-being. The complexities of sociocultural and family influences should be taken into account to change the prevailing individualistic approach within the current stress and family caregiver well-being paradigm.
Torabi Chafjiri R
Full Text Available Razieh Torabi Chafjiri,1 Nasrin Navabi,2 Abbas Shamsalinia,2 Fatemeh Ghaffari2 1Gilan University of Medical Sciences, Rudsar Shahid Ansari Hospital, Rudsar, Gilan, Iran; 2Ramsar Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Mazandaran, Iran Introduction: Stroke is a chronic condition that necessitates multidimensional and overwhelming care. The caregivers of stroke patients are faced with various stressors that can threaten different aspects of their health, especially their mental health. Spiritual attitude and being spiritually oriented contribute significantly to mental health and can be used as a strategy for adapting to the stressful events that are part of the role of caregiving. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the relationship between the spiritual attitude of the family caregivers of older patients with stroke and their burden.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. The study population consisted of all the family caregivers of older patients with stroke presenting to health care centers and nursing service companies of Gilan Province in Iran. The participants were selected through convenience sampling and consisted of 407 participants. Data were collected using the Spiritual Attitude Scale and the Caregiver Burden Inventory and were then analyzed in SPSS-18 using Pearson’s correlation coefficient at a significance level of 0.05.Results: The results showed that 88.9% of the caregivers were females. The mean age of the participants was 38.3±8.8 years. The duration of caregiving was <5 years in 84.4% of the participants, while its mean was 4.2±2.5 years. The mean score of spiritual attitude was 108.77±6.20. The majority of the participants (49.3% had moderate and relatively favorable spiritual attitude (a score of 72–120, 27.8% had high or favorable spiritual attitude; 8.7% had mild burden, 54.4% had moderate burden
Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk
The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and…
Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin
Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…
Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan
Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…
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Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk
The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and their caregivers in Korea. The logistic regression results indicated that the period of being in need of another's help among care-recipients, co-residence, caregivers' health condition, previous care experience, and caregivers' free time were correlated with the caregivers' future caregiving. Interestingly, the more experience caregivers had in caring for older adults, the more willing they were to provide care in the future. Thus, the discussion focuses on services for those who are new to providing care for older adults because they tend to have less coping skills.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Wolf, Sharon; Godfrey, Erin B.
This study examined the role that Ghanaian caregivers' values toward education play in shaping students' intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for learning, and the ways these values and motivational orientations predict school attendance and achievement. Study participants included 88 students (M?=?11.63 years; 48% female) from two primary…
Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie
This article provides a synthesis of current theory and research in relation to attachment between infants/toddlers and their caregivers. Worldwide statistics show that there are a significant number of women working in the global labour market. In Australia, recent research also found that over 300,000 children aged 0-5 years are currently…
Conceição, Simone C.O.; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Colby, Holly; Gordon, John
This article describes an initiative to train lay people, predominantly parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN), to teach "Bridge to Independence"--a care coordination curriculum--to other family caregivers of CYSHCN. Using a model based on Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation, the goal…
Nozoe, Karen T.; Helena Hachul, MD, PhD; Camila Hirotsu, PhD; Daniel N. Polesel, MSc; Gustavo A. Moreira, MD, PhD; Sergio Tufik, MD, PhD; Monica L. Andersen, PhD
Introduction: The task of the caregiver, especially a caregiving mother of a son with a chronic and fatal disease, may interfere with their quality of sleep, sexuality, and some hormone levels. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function and the quality of sleep of caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: We evaluated 20 caregiving mothers of sons with DMD and 20 caregiving mothers of sons without any neuromuscular or chronic disease...
Jansen, A.P.D.; Hout, H.P.J. van; Nijpels, G.; Rijmen, F.; Droës, R.M.; Pot, A.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stalman, W.A.B.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van
Background: It is believed that timely recognition and diagnosis of dementia is a pre-condition for improving care for both older adults with dementia and their informal caregivers. However, diagnosing dementia often occurs late in the disease. This means that a significant number of patients with e
Butler, Sandra S; Turner, Winston; Kaye, Lenard W; Ruffin, Leah; Downey, Roberta
Family caregivers of older adults frequently experience feelings of burden and depression though they may not come to the attention to health and service providers until they are at a point of crisis. Through a simple screening tool, the Maine Primary Partners in Caring (MPPC) project identified individuals providing care to older adults through rural primary care practices, in order to provide upstream interventions before caregivers were in crisis. This paper describes a sample (n=62) of rural family caregivers identified through their physicians' offices. High levels of caregiver burden and depression were reported. Family support and knowledge of caregiver tasks predicted decreased caregiver burden and depression, while isolation predicted increased caregiver burden. Implications of these results for gerontological social workers are outlined.
Damen, S.; Kef, S.; Worm, M.; Janssen, M.J.; Schuengel, C.
Background Individuals in group homes may experience poor quality of social interaction with their professional caregivers, limiting their quality of life. The video-based Contact programme may help caregivers to improve their interaction with clients. Method Seventy-two caregivers of 12 individuals
Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Welch, Meghan M.
This naturalistic, qualitative study examines the nature of child- and adult-led interactions in a children's museum. Using dialogic learning as a theoretical framework, the study examines how children and adults engage in interactions while learning at a museum. Findings suggest that children and adults are almost equally likely to lead…
Bernard, Brittany L; Bracey, Lauren E; Lane, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Denisha Y; LaMantia, Michael A; Gao, Sujuan; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M
The objectives of this report are to determine the association between performance-based measures of physical function with caregiver reports of physical function in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine whether those associations vary by the level of patients' cognitive functioning. Subjects included 180 patient-caregiver dyads who are enrolled in a clinical trial testing the impact of an occupational therapy intervention plus guideline-level care to delay functional decline among older adults with AD. The primary caregiver-reported measure is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). Performance-based measures include the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to determine the associations of each physical performance measure with ADCS-ADL, adjusting for cognition function and other covariates. We found significant correlations between caregiver reports and observed performance-based measures across all levels of cognitive function, with patients in the lowest cognitive group showing the highest correlation. These findings support the use of proxy reports to assess physical function among older adults with AD.
Caregivers with greatest supporting need based on the relationship between personality, overload and coping strategies related to caregivers of dependent patients from the hospitable area Virgen Macarena of Seville
Mª Angustias Navarro Arquelladas
Full Text Available Objective: Find a relationship between personality, the overhead of caregivers and the coping strategies that develop these to meet the care, allowing us to detect carers need greater supportMaterial and Methods: There has been realized a descriptive study in which there have taken part 23 carer of major dependent persons admitted to the Hospitable Area "Virgen Macarena" of Seville. Demographic and clinical variables have been collected through: general interview, Revised Eysenck Questionnaire of Personality, brief version (EPQ-RA, Coping Strategies Inventory, Zarit Scale Overload.Outcomes: The majority of caregivers are women (86.96% with an average age of 54.9 years old, with studies of basic education. Among them, 56.52% suffer from some kind of disease and 92.86% of these caregivers have no help. Statistical significance was found for extraversion, neuroticism, pretention-conformity, overload and coping strategies. Conclusions: Caregivers, with high scores on the extroversion scale, perform a proper handling of the situation, while those who obtained higher scores on the neuroticism scale, performed improper handling of the situation.
Leung, Phuong; Whitaker, Chris; Burns, Alistair; Knapp, Martin; Leroi, Iracema; Spector, Aimee; Roberts, Steven; de Waal, Hugo; Orgeta, Vasiliki
Background Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a well-established group psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is evidence that home-based programmes of cognitive stimulation delivered by family caregivers may benefit both the person and the caregiver. However, no previous studies have evaluated caregiver-delivered CST. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based, caregiver-led individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST) program in (i) improving cognition and quality of life (QoL) for the person with dementia and (ii) mental and physical health (well-being) for the caregiver. Methods and findings A single-blind, pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at eight study sites across the United Kingdom. The intervention and blinded assessment of outcomes were conducted in participants’ homes. Three hundred fifty-six people with mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers were recruited from memory services and community mental health teams (CMHTs). Participants were randomly assigned to iCST (75, 30-min sessions) or treatment as usual (TAU) control over 25 wk. iCST sessions consisted of themed activities designed to be mentally stimulating and enjoyable. Caregivers delivering iCST received training and support from an unblind researcher. Primary outcomes were cognition (Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive [ADAS-Cog]) and self-reported QoL (Quality of Life Alzheimer’s Disease [QoL-AD]) for the person with dementia and general health status (Short Form-12 health survey [SF-12]) for the caregiver. Secondary outcomes included quality of the caregiving relationship from the perspectives of the person and of the caregiver (Quality of the Carer Patient Relationship Scale) and health-related QoL (European Quality of Life–5 Dimensions [EQ-5D]) for the caregiver. Intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. At the post-test (26 wk), there were no differences between the iCST and TAU groups
Clark, Patricia C
Hardiness is defined as commitment to life, viewing change as challenge, and having control over one's life. Previous research suggests that hardiness is related to better outcomes in stressful situations. The effects of individual and family hardiness on depression and fatigue of caregivers of disabled older adults (DA) were examined using a descriptive, cross-sectional design. The sample was 67 caregivers of DA with high functional impairment. One-third of caregivers reported moderate to high fatigue, and 40% had scores indicating possible clinical depression. Memory and behavior problems of the DA were positively correlated with caregiver depression and fatigue. Family hardiness was negatively related to memory and behavior problems of the DA. Controlling for covariates, individual hardiness was negatively associated with depression and fatigue; coping strategies did not mediate the relationship. Caregivers with low individual and family hardiness had more depression than those high in both resources. Additional research is needed to determine the relevance of hardiness theory in caregiving research.
Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K; Erlen, Judith A
Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss.
Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.
Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The…
Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.
We investigated whether 3 self-system beliefs--fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem--mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths' general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n = 340 youth) and longitudinal (n = 100 youth) models were tested. In…
Ward, Karen M.; Bosek, Rebecca L.; Trimble, Erin L.
Romantic relationships are important in the lives of adults with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore dating and romantic relationships among these adults and to identify the nature and extent of interpersonal violence in their relationships. A random sample of 47 women and men participated in semistructured…
Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi
The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed.
Bevans, Margaret F; Ross, Alyson; Wehrlen, Leslie; Klagholz, Stephen D; Yang, Li; Childs, Richard; Flynn, Sharon L; Remaley, Alan T; Krumlauf, Michael; Reger, Robert N; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Shamburek, Robert; Pacak, Karel
There is growing evidence linking caregiver stress with an increased risk for morbidity and mortality. While the emotional and practical burden experienced by caregivers is well established, the physiological changes that may affect the caregiver's health are less understood. This study sought to compare self-reported stress, anxiety and depression along with neuroendocrine and immune markers of stress among adult caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients during the acute transplant recovery period to matched non-caregivers controls. Biomarkers and self-reported data were collected at three points during the patient's HSCT: (1) before transplant, (2) after initial transplantation discharge (±7 days) and (3) 6 weeks after initial transplantation discharge. Mixed linear modeling was used to examine differences by group and time. Twenty-one caregivers and 20 controls completed all study procedures. The majority of caregivers were female (57% or 57.1%) and married (95.2%), with a mean age of 52 ± 11.4 years. Caregiver perceived stress, anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher than controls (p 0.05) for either group. Caregivers had significantly lower serum cortisol levels than controls at both discharge (p = 0.013; ES = 0.81) and 6 weeks after discharge (p = 0.028; ES = 0.72) but exhibited no significant relationship between self-reported stress and serum cortisol. In addition, caregivers showed a significant inverse relationship between stress and epinephrine levels (r(s)=-0.654, p = 0.021). These findings support the evidence of the caregiving experience being stressful. The counter-intuitive relationship between cortisol and epinephrine might suggest dysregulation of the HPA axis and central nervous system but additional research on the physiological impact of caregiving is warranted.
We investigated whether three self-system beliefs -- fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem -- mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths’ general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n=340 youth) and longitudinal (n=100 youth) models were tested. In the cross-sectional model, fear of abandonment mediated the effects of stressors and relationship quality on both measures of grief and coping ef...
Hodgson, Nancy A; Granger, Douglas A
Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigators interested in integrating these measures into research on aging. Strategies are presented for instructing family caregivers in collecting saliva in the home, and for conducting laboratory analyses of salivary analytes that have demonstrated feasibility, high compliance, and yield quality specimens. The protocol for sample collection includes: (1) consistent use of collection materials; (2) standardized methods that promote adherence and minimize subject burden; and (3) procedures for controlling certain confounding agents. We also provide strategies for laboratory analyses include: (1) saliva handling and processing; (2) salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase assay procedures; and (3) analytic considerations.
Tyson, Sheryl Y
This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.
Full Text Available Background: We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods: We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results: Multiple linear regression demonstrated that, after controlling for caregivers’ sociodemographic and other characteristics, informal social support was significantly associated with lower caregiver burden (β = −1.59, P < 0.0001, while formal support was not (β = −0.30, P = 0.39. Evaluating the associations by specific sources of social support, informal social supports from the caregiver’s family living together (β = −0.71, P < 0.0001 and from relatives (β = −0.61, P = 0.001 were associated with lower caregiver burden, whereas formal social support was associated with lower caregiver burden only if it was from family physicians (β = −0.56, P = 0.001. Compared to caregivers without informal support, those who had one support (β = −1.62, P < 0.0001 and two or more supports (β = −1.55, P < 0.0001 had significantly lower burden. This association was not observed for formal support. Conclusions: Social support from intimate social relationships may positively affect caregivers’ psychological wellbeing independent of the receipt of formal social support, resulting in less burden.
Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.
Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…
Rose, Harold; Hensley, James
The influence of participation in adult basic education on attitudinal changes among a selected group of adults from rural Appalachia was studied. Specific aims of the study were: (1) to determine the relationship between participation in ABE and change in anomia, (2) to determine the extent of anomia among rural Appalachian adults with…
Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…
Warchol-Biedermann, Katarzyna; Mojs, Ewa; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten; Millán-Calenti, José C; Maseda, Ana
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the world. Most AD patients become dependent on their relatives, i.e. family caregivers. Providing care to a person with AD influences caregiver's life and leads to feelings of grief, which often precede caregiver depression. The purpose of the article was to evaluate the Meuser and Marwit Caregiver Grief Inventory (MM-CGI-50) for use in Polish family caregivers and to find out determinants of grief of family caregivers of AD individuals living in Poland. A sample of 151 spouse and adult child caregivers of community-dwelling AD patients (95 females and 56 males) was interviewed to determine the influence of such factors as caregiver's age, gender, family relation to the care recipient (CR) and caregiving-related changes in caregiver's working time, leisure time and material status to find out the impact of caregiving role on intensity of caregiver grief. Caregiver grief was measured by means of MM-CGI-50. Additionally, carers were administered a questionnaire including patient's and caregiver's demographics. Also, CR's dementia assessment was informant-based and determined with investigator-administered clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Of all analyzed factors, only caregiver's informant dementia rating significantly influenced caregiver grief. To conclude, the effect of caregiver's age, gender, family relation to the CR and caregiving-related changes in caregiver's working time; leisure time and material status could not be found. To add, MM-CGI-50 can be effectively used to assess grief in Polish family caregivers of AD patients.
Smith, Bert Kruger
This document addresses the dilemma faced by families with an aging or disabled member and the stress associated with the role of family caregiver. Emotions experienced by family caregivers, especially when the caregiver is an adult child caring for an elderly or frail parent, are discussed and feelings of desertion, dependence, and sibling…
Sroufe, L. Alan
Temperament and attachment, as defined by Bowlby and his followers, are fundamentally different constructs, and research guided by the attachment perspective cannot meaningfully be assimilated to the temperament construct. Qualitative aspects of relationships simply cannot be reduced to individual behavioral dimensions. (RH)
Julie A Denison
Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, HIV-related mortality among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV increased by 50% from 2005 to 2012 and is attributed in part to a lack of support for adolescent retention to care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. This vulnerability reinforces the need to better understand incomplete ART adherence among ALHIV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the world's 2.1 million ALHIV reside. Methods: From December 2011 to February 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 32 ALHIV (aged 15 to 18 and 23 of their adult caregivers in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. Interviews were transcribed and translated. An iterative qualitative process was used to code and analyze the data and main themes were summarized regarding the barriers to and facilitators of ART adherence. Results: More than a quarter of ALHIV reported missing a day or more of ART (ranging from one day to six months. Barriers to ART adherence included fear of disclosure and anticipated stigma. Few youth were willing to take their drugs outside of the home, which led to missed doses of ART. Similarly, families tended to manage HIV within the home only. As a result, although caregivers and families were often the greatest source of emotional and instrumental support, they coped with HIV in isolation of other potential support from their communities, schools or churches. Factors that supported ART adherence included attending clinic-sponsored youth groups, wanting to maintain one's health and using phone and clock alarms. Involvement of adult caregivers in HIV management varied greatly and was often based on the age and health status of the youth. Some caregivers struggled with letting the adolescents assume responsibility for their medication, and ALHIV had few self-management skills and tools to help them regularly take ART. Conclusions: These data highlight the importance of families and home environments in supporting adherence to
Full Text Available Time perspective is crucial for our present and future plans, and for the way we act in the present. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between time perspective and subjective well-being in older adults. The sample of our questionnaire study consisted of 149 older adults aged between 65 and 96 years. Time perspective was measured with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. The five time perspective dimensions were related to four specific aspects of subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction and depression. Future-oriented older persons had a more positive affect. Older adults who were positively oriented towards the past appeared to be more satisfied with life. A hedonistic view of the present was related to a high positive affect. Older persons with a Past-Negative perspective were more likely to experience negative affect and depressive feelings, along with a lower level of positive affect and satisfaction with life. The Present-Fatalistic time perspective correlated with more depressive symptoms. The findings emphasize the relevance of time perspective styles for the subjective well-being, which has specific implications for the way caregivers could interact with older adults to enhance quality of life.
Reigle, Karen E.
Children's relationships with their childcare teachers and its effects on their subsequent behaviors, attachments, and outcomes have been an interest in the last two or three decades primarily due to the significant increase of young children in full-time childcare. Attachment Theory, and its identifying behaviors in children categorized by the Strange Situation or the Attachment Q-Sort, has been the main focus of previous research. The purpose of my study, using an ethnographic approach, was...
Garry, Mark W.
A study was conducted to explore the relationship between anomia (a feeling of alienation, of being cut off from society), attitude toward adult education, and nonparticipation in formal adult education activities. The subjects of the study were adults who lived in a specific area in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which had the following characteristics:…
Hill, Kathryn T; Warren, Megan; Roth, Tania L
Previous work with various animal models has demonstrated that alterations in the caregiving environment produce long-term changes in anxiety-related and social behaviors, as well as amygdala gene expression. We previously introduced a rodent model in which the timing and duration of exposure to maltreatment or nurturing care outside the home cage can be controlled to assess neurobiological outcomes. Here we sought to determine whether our brief experimental conditions produce changes in gene expression within the developing and adult amygdala. Using a candidate gene approach, we examined fold mRNA changes for the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), Oxytocin receptor (OXTr), and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) genes, which are all highly expressed in the amygdala and play important roles in anxiety-related and social behaviors. In adults, significant group differences were detected for only Bdnf, with higher levels of Bdnf mRNA for females that had been exposed to maltreatment and males exposed to nurturing care outside the home cage relative to littermate controls. For pups, significant group differences were detected for only OXTr, with lower levels of OXTr mRNA in females exposed to maltreatment. Finally, for adolescents, maltreated-females showed significant changes in Bdnf (decreased), OXTr (decreased), and NPY (increased) mRNA relative to controls. These data illustrate the ability of brief, but repeated exposure to different caregiving environments during the first postnatal week to have long-term effects on gene expression within the developing and adult amygdala, especially for females.
Pruchno, Rachel A; Meeks, Suzanne
The interrelationships among health-related stress, positive and negative affect, and depressive symptoms patterned in the dynamic model of affect (J. Reich, A. Zautra, & M. Davis, 2003) were examined using data from 932 women having an adult child with a developmental disability. Results indicate that women experience a moderate inverse correlation between positive and negative affect under conditions of low levels of health-related stress, whereas at high levels of stress, positive and negative affect become more strongly inversely correlated. Under high-stress conditions, both negative affect and positive affect have a stronger relationship to depressive symptoms than they do under low-stress conditions.
A systematic review of prognostic/end-of-life communication with adults in the advanced stages of a life-limiting illness: patient/caregiver preferences for the content, style, and timing of information.
Parker, Sharon M; Clayton, Josephine M; Hancock, Karen; Walder, Sharon; Butow, Phyllis N; Carrick, Sue; Currow, David; Ghersi, Davina; Glare, Paul; Hagerty, Rebecca; Tattersall, Martin H N
Evidence-based recommendations concerning how to discuss dying, life expectancy, and likely future symptoms with patients with a limited life expectancy and their families are lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to review studies regarding prognostic/end-of-life communication with adult patients in the advanced stages of a life-limiting illness and their caregivers. Relevant studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified by searching computerized databases up to November 2004. One hundred twenty-three studies met the criteria for the full review, and 46 articles reported on patient/caregiver preferences for content, style, and timing of information. The majority of the research was descriptive. Although there were individual differences, patients/caregivers in general had high levels of information need at all stages of the disease process regarding the illness itself, likely future symptoms and their management, and life expectancy and information about clinical treatment options. Patient and caregiver information needs showed a tendency to diverge as the illness progressed, with caregivers needing more and patients wanting less information. Patients and caregivers preferred a trusted health professional who showed empathy and honesty, encouraged questions, and clarified each individual's information needs and level of understanding. In general, most patients/caregivers wanted at least some discussion of these topics at the time of diagnosis of an advanced, progressive, life-limiting illness, or shortly after. However, they wanted to negotiate the content and extent of this information.
Full Text Available Christine Cohen, Thomas Kampel, Henk Verloo Department Ra&D, La Source School of Nursing Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland Background: Aging at home rather than in an institution is now considered the gold standard. Public health figures document an important demographic transition to an increasingly elderly society. At the same time, this is accompanied by the emergence of significant numbers of innovative technologies to help and support home-dwelling older adults in declining health who wish to remain at home.Study aim: To explore the acceptability of intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS among home-dwelling older adults in rapidly detecting their health issues.Methods: Data were sourced from a pilot 3-month randomized clinical trial that involved 34 older patients in the experimental group (EG using an IWSS to rapidly detect falls and other health issues at home. The effectiveness of the IWSS was assessed by comparing it to participants’ functional and cognitive status, as measured both before and after the trial. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, Confusion Assessment Method, Cognitive Performance Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Informed Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly were used for the assessments. Acceptability of the IWSS was explored at the end of the study.Results: Both older adults and their informal caregivers considered the performance and usefulness of the IWSS intervention to be low to moderate. A majority of the participants were unsatisfied with its ease of use and found multiple obstacles in using and having an intention to use the IWSS. However, their informal caregivers were more satisfied with the program and gave higher scores for usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use IWSS technology.Conclusion: The IWSS displayed low-to-moderate acceptability among the older participants and their informal caregivers. We
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Kuo, Meng-Ting; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Lai, Chia-Im; Wu, Jia-Lin
The study aim was to determine the extent and determinants of reporting depressive symptoms in caregivers for persons with intellectual disabilities based on assessment of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A cross-sectional study was conducted, recruiting 455 caregivers for adults with ID who were providing care in community residences, with complete PHQ-9 data being analyzed. The results indicated that the mean of each item scored on the PHQ-9 varied from 0.3 (Q9) to 1.1 (Q4). For two items (Q3 - "sleeping difficulties" and Q4 - "fatigue"), the respondents reported occurrence during several days in the previous two weeks. However, after scrutinizing the distribution of each item in the PHQ-9, 3.3-14.5% respondents reported that each item happened nearly every day, and 4.0-17.8% expressed that each happened more than half of the days in the previous two weeks. With respect to difficulties examined on the PHQ, 47% of cases expressed that it was somewhat difficult, 8.2% expressed that it was very difficult, and 4.5% felt that it was extremely difficult to work, care for things at home, or get along with others. Finally, a logistic regression model revealed that only one factor of self-perceived health status (fair/poor vs. excellent/very good, OR=7.519, 95% CI=3.03-18.68, pcaregivers. The study highlights the need to strengthen appropriate health initiatives for monitoring mental health status and to provide necessary services for community caregivers for adults with ID.
Pirli, Myrto; Finken, Sisse; Mörtberg, Christina
In the last decade we have seen a rise of social media. Within this landscape of online services Facebook plays an immense role in facilitating and creating bonds between people. In this paper we enter a qualitative study conducted with a small group of adult Facebookers over 58. We do so...
Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.
Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…
Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a severe distortion in the development of attachment, self, and emotion regulation. Study of children at high risk of developing BPD may inform precursors to BPD. In a low socioeconomic status sample of 30 children aged 4-7 whose mothers have BPD and 30 normative comparisons, representations of the caregiver-child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation were assessed with a story-stem completion measure. In contrast to comparisons and controlling for major depressive disorder, children whose mothers have BPD told stories with the following: (a) more parent-child role reversal, more fear of abandonment, and more negative mother-child and father-child relationship expectations; (b) more incongruent and shameful representations of the self; and (c) poorer emotion regulation indicated by more confusion of boundaries between fantasy and reality and between self and fantasy, more fantasy proneness, less narrative coherence, and marginally more intrusion of traumatic themes. In the sample as a whole, (a) a maladaptive caregiver-child relationship composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance and self-harm; (b) a maladaptive self-composite was associated with maternal self-harm; and (c) a maladaptive emotion regulation composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance, negative relationships, and self-harm. Results are discussed in terms of putative precursors to BPD and preventive interventions.
Halpern-Meekin, Sarah; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.
Young adults' romantic relationships are often unstable, commonly including breakup--reconcile patterns. From the developmental perspective of emerging adulthood exploration, such relationship "churning" is expected; however, minor conflicts are more common in churning relationships. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships…
Dzierzynski, N; Stankovic Stojanovic, K; Georgin-Lavialle, S; Lionnet, F
Sickle cell patients in acute pain situation experiment cognitive, behavioral and emotional changes that can accentuate their pain and disrupt communication with caregivers. On the other hand, caregivers have to face pain assessment difficulties and their own psychological reactions to their patient's pain. The gap between the patient's experience and caregiver's evaluation can lead to conflict and non-adherence treatment, and have a direct impact on the sickle cell disease prognosis. There is nothing inevitable about these phenomena, whose knowledge allows the action and opens up prospects for improving the management of sickle cell disease pain. This article is a narrative review updating the interactions between acute pain and some configurations, such as the inability to discern emotions, catastrophizing, post-traumatic stress or feeling ostracized. The overestimation of patient's addiction by caregivers also influences the pain itself. Open communication, as well as some treatments, medicated or not, a consistent institutional organization and a multidisciplinary approach altogether have an analgesic role by acting on pain cognitive and emotional components.
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Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng
Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults' relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults' genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults' moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults' deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the previous
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;
where support groups for informal caregivers were held and studied. Types of studies Studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. Types of outcomes Subjective accounts...... quality of the qualitative papers was assessed independently by two reviewers using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Data extraction Qualitative data were extracted from papers included in the review using...
Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R
Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.
管锦群; 王鲁宁; 姬萍; 肖顺贞; 孙玉梅; 谭纪萍
目的 探讨痴呆照料者积极感受与其焦虑、抑郁等负性情绪的相关性.方法 采用问卷调查法.调查者通过发放问卷对81位痴呆病人主要照料者的一般情况、照料积极感受和负性情绪进行调查.结果 积极感受总分及维度1(病人积极反馈)与抑郁呈负相关(r=-0.242,P＜0.05),而积极感受总分及各维度得分与焦虑得分相关性无统计学意义(P＞0.05).结论 痴呆照料者能够从痴呆病人身上获得积极反馈,其获得的积极感受与抑郁呈负相关,尤其是来自病人的积极反馈有可能降低照料者的抑郁情绪.%Objective To study the relationship of dementia caregiving uplifts with depression and anxiety. Methods Questionnaire method was used to investigate eighty-one dementia caregivers. Results There was negative correlation between the total score of uplifts of dementia caregiving and depression, also the relationship between the score of patient' s positive feedback to caregivers and depression. But there was no correlation between the uplifts of dementia caregiving and anxiety. Conclusion Dementia caregivers can feel the positive feedback from dementia patients. There is a negative correlation between the uplifts of dementia caregiving and depression, and feeling more positive feedback from dementia patients maybe decrease caregiver depression.
Glaesser, Richard S; Patel, Bina R
LGBT adults face unique risk factors such as social isolation, discrimination, and victimization, and occasionally th ey engage in detrimental behaviors like high alcohol and drug use and risky sexual activity that negatively impacts psychological/physical health. These risks can affect their overall health and stress the relationship with an older caregiver/recipient-partner following exposure to acute medical event. The experience of an acute medical event among a LGBT caregiving partner can result in psychological trauma. In this article the authors present a conceptual framework involving stress process theory, life course theory, and family systems perspective to understand the effect of stressors on LGBT caregiving partners. Implications for social work practice include assessing, coordinating care, counseling and negotiating services at micro level, engaging family-centered approaches to support positive transition to caregiving role at mezzo level, and advocating for policy and cultural shifts to supports and diminish stigma of this group.
Pielage, Suzanne Brenda
In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...
Pielage, Suzanne Brenda
In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult a
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Kennedy, David P; Wallace, Steven P
Little is known about the family care of older adults in Mexico and the role of women in this process. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, this paper describes how a small sample of low-income women in one Mexico City neighborhood conceptualized the caregiver role and identified the forms of assistance they gave to their older relatives on a daily basis. A grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the data. Forty-one semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with female caregivers. The age of participants was between 19 and 83 years, and care recipients between 56 and 92 years. The relationship of caregiver to care recipient was wife, daughter, daughter-in-law, grand-daughter, sibling, and other relative. The mean length of time providing care was 5 years. Most participants were not employed outside the home, and the median monthly household income was 2000 pesos. We found that caregiving was a life-changing event, with 27 of 41 participants viewing themselves as guardians. Caregivers' emphasis was on care recipients' emotional needs in order to provide "the most precious gift" of "time and attention." Two forms of assistance were 'keeping company' and 'watching out' as safeguards against poor health or further decline in health. These findings increase the cultural understanding of caregiving in Mexico. Further research is needed to test the caregiving concepts identified in this study.
Afonso, Pedro; Cañas, Fernando; Bobes, Julio; Bernardo Fernandez, Ivan; Guzman, Carlos
Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL) and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not) sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented significantly worse family support (P = 0.0236), and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers' SWL was significantly correlated to patients' quality of sleep (P < 0.0001 for all domains). Patient' and caregivers' SWL was negatively affected by patients' poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances. PMID:24288609
Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie; Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler
Adults caring for children in HIV-endemic communities are at risk for poor psychological outcomes. However, we still have a limited understanding of how various HIV impacts--including caregiver's own HIV illness, responsibilities of caring for a child orphaned by AIDS, or both--affect psychological outcomes among caregivers. Furthermore, few studies have explored the relationship between stigma, HIV, and psychological outcomes among caregivers of children in HIV-endemic communities. A cross-sectional survey conducted from 2009 to 2010 assessed anxiety among 2477 caregivers of children in HIV-endemic South Africa. Chi-square tested differences in anxiety among caregivers living with HIV, caregivers of a child orphaned by AIDS, and caregivers affected with both conditions. Multivariate logistic regressions identified whether the relationship between HIV impacts and anxiety remained after controlling for socio-demographic co-factors. Mediation analysis tested the relationship between stigma, HIV, and anxiety. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were two and a half times greater among caregivers living with HIV compared to nonaffected caregivers. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were greatest among caregivers living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS. Exposure to AIDS-related stigma partially mediated the relationship between HIV and anxiety. Interventions are needed to address caregiver psychological health, particularly among caregivers affected with both conditions of living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS.
Kurtin, Sandra; Lilleby, Kathryn; Spong, Jacy
Patients living with multiple myeloma (MM) face complex decisions throughout their journey relative to their diagnosis, options for treatment, and how their disease and treatment choices may affect them physically, emotionally, financially, and spiritually. Patients considering a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation face specific self-management challenges. The availability of a reliable caregiver is a prerequisite to transplantation eligibility. Currently, the majority of clinical management is episodic and provided in the outpatient setting. Therefore, the bulk of care for patients living with MM is provided by the patient together with his or her caregivers. Caregivers face similar challenges to those faced by the patient living with MM. They are required to take in complex information, perform often complicated or technical procedures such as line care or injections, assist the patient with activities of daily living, and attend the myriad of appointments required. Understanding the dynamics of the patient-caregiver relationship, the strengths and weaknesses unique to that relationship, common elements of caregiver stress or strain, and available tools and strategies to promote a sense of control and enhance self-management skills may improve the health-related quality of life for both the patient with MM and his or her caregiver.
Kate Taylor Harcourt
Full Text Available The current study examined program outcomes for an understudied population of Relationship Education (RE participants: incarcerated men and women. In addition to relationship functioning, we examined a number of individual and parenting outcomes which had not previously been explored. In a sample of 453 adult inmates, we found improvements in (a trust, (b confidence in the relationship, (c intimacy, (d individual empowerment, (e conflict management, (f help-seeking attitudes, (g self-esteem, (h depression, (i global life stress, (j faulty relationship beliefs, and (k parenting efficacy. Tests of moderation by gender and race indicated minimal differences in change patterns between groups; however, we found a significant time by gender interaction on intimacy and a time by race interaction on parenting efficacy. Implications for research and practice are presented
曹蕾; 董晓欣; 柳春波; 孙彩虹; 冯志仙
Objective: To investigate the depression level and the influencing factors among caregivers of adult leukemia patients, and to provide evidence for clinicians to implement individualized intervention. Method: Totally 207 adult leukemia patients and their primary caregivers were recruited by convenience sampling method in ifve tertiary grade A hospitals in Hangzhou and Ningbo, and were investigated using Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D). Results: The depression level among caregivers of adult leukemia patients was high with the average CES-D score of (20.36±14.22). Totally 113 caregivers (54.59%) were depressive patients or might be depressed patients (CES-D score16 points).The main inlfuencing factors of caregiver depression scores were the patients' education background and the caregivers' education background, age, family monthly income, care time and having helpers or not. Conclusions: This study suggests that the depression among primary caregivers of adult leukemia patients is so serious that the medical staff should pay more attention to these population.%目的：调查成人白血病患者主要照顾者的抑郁水平及其影响因素，为临床医护人员实施个性化干预提供依据。方法：采用中文版抑郁自评量表（CES-D），便利抽取浙江省杭、甬两地5家三级甲等医院血液科收治的207例成人白血病患者主要照顾者进行问卷调查。结果：成人白血病患者主要照顾者群体抑郁水平较高，照顾者CES-D得分为（20.36±14.22)分，可能抑郁及抑郁者（CES-D得分≥16分）113名（54.59%）；回归分析结果显示，照顾者抑郁得分受患者文化程度、照顾者文化程度、照顾者家庭月收入、照顾时间、有无协助者、照顾者年龄的影响。结论：成人白血病患者主要照顾者抑郁情况严重，应引起医务工作者的高度重视。
South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F; Elkins, Irene J; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene × environment interaction (G×E) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of G×E were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: well-being, social potency, negative emotionality, alienation, aggression, constraint, traditionalism, and absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait.
There is a scarcity of systematic analysis of the relation between physical exercise and mental health. To address this gap, we ask whether physical exercise associates with lower levels of depression among older adults. We hypothesize that physical exercise especially if it typically incorporates other forms of socialisation, may be a socially meaningful activity and may create intimacy that provides social uplift. We test this hypothesis against alternative hypotheses that relationship ...
Okamoto, Kazushi; Momose, Yumiko; Fujino, Ayumi; Osawa, Yukari
The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between life worth living and caregiver burden among caregivers in Japan. We used 111 caregivers of frail elders who completed a self-administered questionnaire including the 8 items developed by Arai et al. (J-ZBI) used as a scale to measure subjective burdens and psychological factors used as covariates other than life worth living. Total score (0-32) of the J-ZBI was dichotomized into "high burden" (> or =21 points) and "low burden" (worth living was significantly associated with caregiver burden. The direct effect of life worth living on caregiver burden (92.9%) was much greater than the indirect effect (7.1%). Our findings suggest that the increase of the sense of life worth living may play an important role in the prevention of the development of caregiver burden.
Dubé, Adam K; Robinson, Katherine M
Children's understanding of the mathematical concepts of inversion and associativity are positively related, as measured by the use of conceptually based shortcut strategies on 3-term inversion problems (i.e., a + b - b, d x e / e) and associativity problems (i.e., a + b - c, d x e / f; Robinson & Dubé, 2009; Robinson & Ninowski, 2003). Individuals who use the inversion shortcut (e.g., 3) are more likely to use the associativity strategy (e.g., 3 x 12 / 4. 12 / 4 = 3, 3 x 3 = 9), which is almost never used by an individual who does not also use the inversion shortcut (Robinson & Dubé, 2009). One possible reason for this relationship is that directing attention to the right-most operation during problem solving may be required to prime the conceptually based shortcut strategies for both problem types. This study investigated the relationship between adults' understanding of inversion and associativity. Adults (N = 42) solved inversion and associativity problems in 1 of 2 conditions. The participants were either presented with the left-most operation and then the whole problem or presented with the right-most operation and then the whole problem. A positive relationship between the use of the conceptually based strategies was found, and it was strikingly similar to the relationship found in childhood. There was evidence that the presentation of the right-most operation first primed the inversion shortcut.
Nyirenda, M; Evandrou, M; Mutevedzi, P; Hosegood, V; Falkingham, J; Newell, M-L
This paper examines how care-giving to adults and/or children and care-receiving is associated with the health and wellbeing of older people aged 50+ in rural South Africa. Data used are from a cross-sectional survey adapted from World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in 2009/10 in rural South Africa. Bivariate statistics and multivariate logistical regression were used to assess the relationship between care-giving and/or care-receiving with functional disability, quality of life or emotional wellbeing, and self-rated health status, adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Sixty-three per cent of 422 older people were care-givers to at least one young adult or child; 27 per cent of older people were care-givers due to HIV-related reasons in young adults; 84 per cent of participants were care-recipients mainly from adult children, grandchildren and spouse. In logistic regressions adjusting for sex, age, marital status, education, receipt of grants, household headship, household wealth and HIV status, care-giving was statistically significantly associated with good functional ability as measured by ability to perform activities of daily living. This relationship was stronger for older people providing care-giving to adults than to children. In contrast, care-givers were less likely to report good emotional wellbeing; again the relationship was stronger for care-givers to adults than children. Simultaneous care-giving and -receiving was likewise associated with good functional ability, but about a 47 per cent lower chance of good emotional wellbeing. Participants who were HIV-infected were more likely to be in better health but less likely to be receiving care than those who were HIV-affected. Our findings suggest a strong relationship between care-giving and poor emotional wellbeing via an economic or psychological stressor pathway. Interventions that improve older people's socio-economic circumstances and reduce
de Labra, Carmen; C. Millan Calenti, Jose; Buján, Ana;
relationship with the care recipient, suffering from lower levels of subjective burden, and managing individuals with severe cognitive impairment are the most important predictors of higher caregiving satisfaction. Conclusion: Interventions focused on the enhancement of the caregiving satisfaction...... attention has been paid to the positive aspects of caregiving. The aim of the present work was to study the phenomenon of caregiving satisfaction in informal caregivers of people with dementia by assessing their likely predictors. Methods: A stress process model was used to study caregiver’s satisfaction...... (measured using the Revised Caregiving Satisfaction Scale) on 101 informal caregivers of patients with dementia in relation to the caregiver’s background and context, stress-related factors, and mediators. Results: The regression model has an adjusted R2 of 0.20, which indicates that having a consanguinity...
Peterson, Shelley W; Knox, Natalie C; Golding, George R; Tyler, Shaun D; Tyler, Andrea D; Mabon, Philip; Embree, Joanne E; Fleming, Fiona; Fanella, Sergio; Van Domselaar, Gary; Mulvey, Michael R; Graham, Morag R
Whereas the infant gut microbiome is the subject of intense study, relatively little is known regarding the nares microbiome in newborns and during early life. This study aimed to survey the typical composition and diversity of human anterior nare microflora for developing infants over time, and to explore how these correlate to their primary caregivers. Single nare swabs were collected at five time points over a one-year period for each subject from infant-caregiver pairs. Our study comprised of 50 infants (recruited at 2 weeks, post delivery) and their 50 primary caregivers. Applying the chaperonin-60 (cpn60) universal target (UT) amplicon as our molecular barcoding marker to census survey the microbial communities, we longitudinally surveyed infant nares microbiota at 5 time points over the course of the first year of life. The inter- and intra-subject diversity was catalogued and compared, both longitudinally and relative to their adult primary caregivers. Although within-subject variability over time and inter-subject variability were both observed, the assessment detected only one or two predominant genera for individual infant samples, belonging mainly to phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Consistent with previously observed microbial population dynamics in other body sites, the diversity of nares microflora increased over the first year of life and infants showed differential operational taxonomic units (OTUs) relative to their matched primary caregiver. The collected evidence also support that both temporal and seasonal changes occur with respect to carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPBs), which may influence host predisposition to infection. This pilot study surveying paired infant/caregiver nare microbiomes provides novel longitudinal diversity information that is pertinent to better understanding nare microbiome development in infants.
The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…
“Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship
“Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page
Waters, Everett; Cummings, E. Mark
Examines empirical successes of theory of attachment as a secure base relationship, including nature of infant-caregiver and adult-adult relationships. Maintains that researchers need to continually examine the logic and coherence of attachment theory and redress errors of emphasis and analysis. Suggests that the theory be updated in light of…
Bidwell, Julie T; Vellone, Ercole; Lyons, Karen S; D'Agostino, Fabio; Riegel, Barbara; Juárez-Vela, Raúl; Hiatt, Shirin O; Alvaro, Rosaria; Lee, Christopher S
Disease self-management is a critical component of maintaining clinical stability for patients with chronic illness. This is particularly evident in the context of heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization for older adults. HF self-management, commonly known as HF self-care, is often performed with the support of informal caregivers. However, little is known about how a HF dyad manages the patient's care together. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of patient and caregiver contributions to HF self-care maintenance (daily adherence and symptom monitoring) and management (appropriate recognition and response to symptoms), utilizing an approach that controls for dyadic interdependence. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 364 dyads of Italian HF patients and caregivers. Multilevel modeling was used to identify determinants of HF self-care within patient-caregiver dyads. Patients averaged 76.2 (SD = 10.7) years old, and a slight majority (56.9%) was male, whereas caregivers averaged 57.4 (SD = 14.6) years old, and about half (48.1%) were male. Most caregivers were adult children (48.4%) or spouses (32.7%) of patients. Both patients and caregivers reported low levels of HF maintenance and management behaviors. Significant individual and dyadic determinants of self-care maintenance and self-care management included gender, quality of life, comorbid burden, impaired ADLs, cognition, hospitalizations, HF duration, relationship type, relationship quality, and social support. These comprehensive dyadic models assist in elucidating the complex nature of patient-caregiver relationships and their influence on HF self-care, leading to more effective ways to intervene and optimize outcomes.
Kusaba, Tesshu; Sato, Kotaro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamada, Yukari; Matsui, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ando, Takashi; Sakushima, Ken; Fukuhara, Shunichi
Background. Long-term care for the elderly is largely shouldered by their family, representing a serious burden in a hyper-aging society. However, although family dynamics are known to play an important role in such care, the influence of caring for the elderly on burden among caregiving family members is poorly understood. Objective. To examine the influence of family dynamics on burden experienced by family caregivers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at six primary care clinics, involving 199 caregivers of adult care receivers who need long-term care. Participants were divided into three groups based on tertile of Index of Family Dynamics for Long-term Care (IF-Long score), where higher scores imply poorer relationships between care receivers and caregiving family: best, <2; intermediate, 2 to <5; worst, ≥5. The mean differences in burden index of caregivers (BIC-11) between the three groups were estimated by linear regression model with adjustment for care receiver’s activity of daily living and cognitive function. Results. Mean age of caregivers was 63.2 years (with 40.7% aged ≥ 65 years). BIC-11 scores were higher in the worst IF-Long group (adjusted mean difference: 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 7.5) than in the best IF-Long group. We also detected a positive trend between IF-Long score and BIC-11 score (P-value for trend <0.01). Conclusion. Our findings indicate that family dynamics strongly influences burden experienced by caregiving family members, regardless of the care receiver’s degree of cognitive impairment. These results underscore the importance of evaluating relationships between care receivers and their caregivers when discussing a care regimen for care receivers. PMID:27450988
Full Text Available This study examined links between adult attachment and relationship status (single vs. partnered in Polish young adults. Three hundred and seventeen participants (173 females and 144 males aged 22-27 years old (M = 24.69, SD = 1.87, completed the Polish-language version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS used to measure adult attachment. All the respondents were heterosexual, unmarried and had no children. One hundred and fifty seven (49.50% students declared being in a romantic relationship at the time of the assessment whilst 160 students (50.50% were not. Results indicated that single participants reported higher levels of worry about being rejected or unloved (Anxiety dimension and lower levels of comfort with closeness (Close dimension, and comfort with depending on others (Depend dimension. In terms of attachment categories, analyses indicated that higher proportions of single participants were categorized into fearful and preoccupied attachment styles and a lower proportion of them were categorized into the secure attachment style compared to partnered individuals. Discriminant analysis revealed that worry of being rejected or unloved (Anxiety dimension was the strongest factor discriminating between single and partnered relationship status: the higher the anxiety dimension scores, the higher chances of being single. No gender differences were obtained on attachment dimensions and styles.
Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.
Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…
O'Connor, Brian P.
In a study of relationships and life satisfaction, 82 independently-living older adults and 91 younger adults completed measures of their relationships with family and friends. For elderly people, the quality of relationships with their friends was more important than the quality of relationships with their children. The discussion focuses on how…
Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hyun; Roh, Yong Kyun; Ju, Sang Yhun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu
Abstract This study aimed to estimate the relationship between various lipid abnormalities and albuminuria in hypertensive Korean adults. Data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. The study included 2330 hypertensive participants. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured. Dyslipidemia parameters were defined as high TG ≥200 mg/dL, low HDL-C as HDL-C dyslipidemia may be necessary for hypertensive women to address potential albuminuria. PMID:27100412
Alyne Kalyane Câmara de Oliveira
Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to describe the levels of stress and perceived social support for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP, as well as investigate the relationship between stress, social support, and variables related to caregivers, the environment and children, namely: the number of children, education level of caregivers, family income, behavior, and the child’s motor level. This study comprised 50 children with CP between 3 and 7.5 years old, their 50 caregivers, and 25 rehabilitation professionals who care for children in health institutions from the countryside of São Paulo state, Brazil. The following measuring instruments were used: the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy, the Lipp’s Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults, the Social Support Questionnaire, and a form identifying the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by the following tests: Chi-square, Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Odds Ratio. The results showed stress among the participating caregivers (66%, with predominance of the resistance phase (93.9% and psychological symptoms (69.7%, low perceived social support for caregivers, concomitant with an adequate satisfaction with the support received, as well as significant relationships of stress versus social support (p = 0.017 and education level versus social support (p = 0.037. The data allow analysis of the relationship between the variables investigated and about the impact of having a child with CP in the family regarding the physical, emotional and psychological well-being of caregivers, besides providing subsidies to think of strategies at different levels of care for families of children with disabilities.
Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland
Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate "single" on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child's treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child's diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child's diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child's siblings had gotten worse since their child's diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents.
Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L.; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland
Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate “single” on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child’s treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child’s diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child’s diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child’s siblings had gotten worse since their child’s diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. PMID:26668211
Full Text Available To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB of the caregivers longitudinally.Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS, which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations. SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB and cognitive well-being (CWB, positive (PA and negative affect (NA as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner's mother or partner's father.Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women and mental health (total sample and men, whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables.Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men and cognitive well-being (women. Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed.
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;
quality prior to inclusion using The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative research data were extracted and the findings were pooled. This process involved the aggregation of findings to generate a set of statements that represent that aggregation, through...... assembling the findings rated according to their quality, and categorizing these findings based on similarity in meaning. These categories were subjected to a meta-synthesis that produced a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. Result: The meta-synthesis produced three synthesized findings: 1. Emotional......, venting negative feeling and gaining help to deal with the everyday life of caring for older adults with dementia....
Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D
Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.
Gurwitch, Robin H; Messer, Erica Pearl; Masse, Joshua; Olafson, Erna; Boat, Barbara W; Putnam, Frank W
Child maltreatment impacts approximately two million children each year, with physical abuse and neglect the most common form of maltreatment. These children are at risk for mental and physical health concerns and the ability to form positive social relationships is also adversely affected. Child Adult Relationship Enhancement (CARE) is a set of skills designed to improve interactions of any adult and child or adolescent. Based on parent training programs, including the strong evidence-based treatment, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), CARE was initially developed to fill an important gap in mental health services for children of any age who are considered at-risk for maltreatment or other problems. CARE subsequently has been extended for use by adults who interact with children and youth outside of existing mental health therapeutic services as well as to compliment other services the child or adolescent may be receiving. Developed through discussions with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) therapists and requests for a training similar to PCIT for the non-mental health professional, CARE is not therapy, but is comprised of a set of skills that can support other services provided to families. Since 2006, over 2000 caregivers, mental health, child welfare, educators, and other professionals have received CARE training with a focus on children who are exposed to trauma and maltreatment. This article presents implementation successes and challenges of a trauma-informed training designed to help adults connect and enhance their relationships with children considered at-risk.
Moore, Crystal Dea
A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…
Capp, Gordon; Berkowitz, Ruth; Sullivan, Kathrine; Astor, Ron Avi; De Pedro, Kris; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Benbenishty, Rami; Rice, Eric
Purpose: Adult relationships provide critical support for adolescents because of their potential to foster positive development and provide protective influences. Few studies examine multiple ecological layers of adult relationships in connection with well-being and depression. This study examines the influence of relationships from multiple…
Johnson, Veronica I.
This article explores the impact of relationship education on young adults' optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage whose parents were divorced and offers implications and suggestions for counselors and counselor educators. Previous research in the area of intimate and family relationships has demonstrated that adults who have…
Objective To study the relationship between burden of severe craniocerebral injury patients'caregivers and social support. Methods Fifty caregivers of severe craniocerebral injury patients were investigated with Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) ,and the relationship between caregivers'burden and social support were analyzed. Results Caregivers'burden and social support were in the medium level. The score of subjective support was negatively correlated with the total score of burden and the score of social burden, and the objective support was negatively correlated with the social burden and physiologic burden. The level of utilization of support was negatively correlated with emotional burden, and the total score of social support were negatively correlated with the total score of burden and social burden. Conclusion Caregivers'burden is negatively correlated with social support. The more the caregivers acquire social support, the smaller burden they have.%目的 调查重型颅脑损伤患者照顾者负担及其与社会支持的相关性.方法 采用照顾者负担量表及社会支持评定量表对50例重型颅脑损伤患者的照顾者进行调查.结果 照顾者的负担与社会支持均处于中等水平.主观支持与负担总分、社交性负担呈负相关；客观支持与社交性负担及生理性负担呈负相关；对支持的利用度与情感性负担呈负相关；社会支持总分与社交性负担及负担总分呈负相关.结论 重型颅脑损伤患者照顾者负担与社会支持呈负性相关,即所获得的社会支持越多,照顾者的负担越小.
刘晓鑫; 李乐之; 杨玲风; 刘芳; 陈一川
目的：调查1型糖尿病(T1DM)患者照顾者负担水平与社会支持状况及两者相关性。方法：采用一般资料问卷、照顾者负担量表及社会支持评定量表对65例T1DM患者照顾者进行问卷调查。结果：T1DM患者照顾者负担总分为（33.0±14.9)分，仅13.8%的照顾者无照顾负担；社会支持总分为（35.6±6.6)分，绝大多数(95.4%)照顾者社会支持尚未达到高水平。总社会支持水平与总负担及负担各维度呈显著负相关(P<0.05)；主观支持维度与总负担及负担各维度呈显著负相关(P<0.05)；客观支持维度与总负担及角色负担维度呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。结论：T1DM患者照顾者普遍存在不同程度的照顾负担，社会支持多处于中低水平；所获社会支持程度越高，感知的照顾者负担越轻。护理人员应给予照顾者恰当的社会家庭支持及相关知识的指导，减轻其身心负担，使其能更有效地承担照顾患者的责任，优化患者疾病控制情况。%Objective:To investigate the relationship between social support and caregiver burden among main family caregivers of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) Patients. Methods:Totally 65 main family caregivers of T1DM patients were recruited by convenience sampling method and investigated by demographic questionnaire, Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). Results:The total score of ZBI was (33.0±14.9) and only 13.8%caregivers felt no caregivers burden. The total score of SSRS was (35.6±6.6) and most of them (95.4%) didn’t reach a high level. The total score and each dimension of SSRS were negatively related to the score of ZBI (P<0.05). Dimension of subjective support was negatively related to the total score and each dimension of ZBI (P<0.05) and dimension of objective support was negatively related to ZBI and dimension of role burden (P<0.05). Conclusion:There are different levels of caregiver burden among main
Miller, B; Montgomery, A
Constriction of social and personal activities is one of the most frequently noted consequences of caring for a frail elder. This study analyzed the correlates of perceived limitations in social activities using data from a national sample of the frail elderly and their caregivers. Two research issues were addressed: 1) What differences in demographic, family, and caregiving attributes are associated with variation in perceived restricted social activities? and, 2) How does the process influencing restriction of social activities vary by family relationship of the caregiver? Higher levels of elder dependency and task demands were characteristic of those who reported social limitations, and daughters and wives were more likely to report such limitations than sons and husbands. Subjective assessment of time and task demands, however, were more important influences than objective caregiving activities for all family caregivers.
The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.
Jecker, Nancy S
This paper asks whether adult children have a duty of justice to act as caregivers for their frail, elderly parents. I begin (Sections I. and II.) by locating the historical reasons why relationships within families were not thought to raise issues of justice. I argue that these reasons are misguided. The paper next presents specific examples showing the relevance of justice to family relationships. I point out that in the United States today, the burden of caregiving for dependent parents falls disproportionately on women (Sections III. and IV.). The paper goes on to use Rawls' theoretical tool of the veil of ignorance to argue that caring for parents should not be linked to a person's sex and more generally, that there is no duty of justice to assume the role of caregiver for dependent parents (Sections V.). Although justice does not provide the moral foundations for parent care, I show that it nonetheless places important limits on the instinct to care. I conclude that the voice of justice should be audible, and is intrinsically present, within families.
Petrass, Lauren; Blitvich, Jenny D; Finch, Caroline F
This study reviewed the relationship between recognized dimensions of supervision and children's injuries based on Saluja et al's (Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 2004;11:17-22) hierarchal model of supervision strategies. A systematic review of peer-review studies was done with the earliest records available to 2007. There were 112 potentially relevant articles identified; 31 studies met all inclusion criteria. Reported studies were categorized according to the dimensions of supervision they addressed. Studies were not evenly distributed across the dimensions. There was evidence from the study that directly linking dimensions of supervision to child injury risk and outcomes is scarce. Future studies should consider attention, proximity, and continuity of supervision to provide a holistic understanding of the relationship between supervision and injury.
杜晓; 吴艳凤; 沈军
Objective To explore the relationships between the fatigue of senile dementia caregivers and care burden and positive feelings,so as to make a reference for reducing the fatigue of caregivers.Methods 190 caregivers of senile dementia were investigated by the questionnaires of Caregivers Burden Inventory ( CBI ) , Positive Aspects of Caregiving ( PAC ) and Fatigue Scale-14 ( FS-14 ).Results The mean score of burden,positive feelings and fatigue of dementia caregivers were (51.18±8.90),(29.20±5.48) and(7.95±2.72) respective-ly,and the fatigue of dementia caregivers was positively correlated with burden (r=0.56,P<0.01) and negatively correlated with positive feelings(r=-0.33,P<0.01).Conclusions The fatigue of senile dementia caregivers may be increased by burden and decreased by positive feelings.In order to reduce caregivers'fatigue,further interventions should be provided to senile dementia caregivers ,which may promote the caregiving quality for dementia.%目的：探讨老年期痴呆照顾者的照顾感受与疲劳的相关性。方法运用照顾者负担量表（ CBI）、照顾者积极感受量表（ PAC）和疲劳量表（FS-14）对重庆市190名老年期痴呆照顾者进行问卷调查。结果老年期痴呆照顾者的照顾负担、积极感受和疲劳得分分别为（51.18±8.90）分、（29.20±5.48）分、（7.95±2.72）分；照顾者疲劳与照顾负担呈显著的正相关（r＝0.56，P＜0.01）、与积极感受呈显著的负相关（r＝－0.33，P＜0.01）。结论老年期痴呆照顾者沉重的照顾负担会加重疲劳，而增加积极感受可减轻疲劳。积极采取有效、可行的护理措施减轻照顾者负担、增加积极感受可能会缓解照顾者的疲劳状况，进而提高对老年期痴呆患者的照顾质量。
Joshi, Gungeet; Gezan, Salvador; Delisle, Tony; Stopka, Christine; Pigg, Morgan; Tillman, Mark
As the older adult population increases, the healthcare system is experiencing a shortage of professional health care providers and caregivers. Consequently, the role of family to serve as caregivers will expand to care for older relatives at home. Thus, a larger proportion of adult children will become caregivers, including young adults enrolled…
Wuest, Judith; Hodgins, Marilyn J
Caregiving by family members, particularly women, is a societal expectation that is intensifying in the context of an aging population and health care restructuring. Our program of caregiving research spans two decades, moving from inductive theory development using grounded theory methods to deductive theory testing. In this article, we reflect on the serendipitous development of this program of research methodologically and conceptually. We summarize the key conceptual contributions that the program has made to caregiving knowledge, particularly with respect to the past relationship between care recipient and caregiver, obligation to care, caregiver agency, and relationships between caregivers and the health care system.
Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.
There has been a longstanding interest in adult psychopathy, both in research studies and clinical writings. However, only recently has the study of youth psychopathy garnered attention. Researchers are particularly interested in basic questions about the early course of psychopathy, however little work has investigated the role that attachment plays in this disorder. This dissertation investigated the relationships between adolescent-caregiver attachment patterns and psychopathic traits. Spe...
Full Text Available To assess the direct and indirect effects of patient or caregiver factors on caregiver burden of caring for community-residing people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD.We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with AD from two hospitals and three communities in Taiyuan, China and their caregivers. For this survey, 200 patients with mild AD and their caregivers were selected. Caregivers were asked to provide sociodemographic information including age, gender, relationship with the patient, level of education, and number of contact hours per week with the patient. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Caregivers Burden Inventory. The caregivers also completed other measures including the Positive Aspects of Caregiving, the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve, and the Social Support Rating Scale. The patients with AD completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; their caregivers completed the Activities of Daily Living Scale and a questionnaire about the patients' Behavioral and Psychological symptoms of Dementia. The main outcome in this study was caregiver burden. The care receivers' level of cognitive function, physical function, and behavioral problems were treated as original stress; the primary appraisal variable was measured as the number of hours of caregiving in the previous week reported by the caregiver. Mediator variables included perceived social support, family function, and caregiving experience. Path analysis was used to build the interrelationship among caregiver burden and patient or caregiver factors.A lower level of cognitive function in patients (r = -0.28, p<0.001 and longer hours of caregiving (r = 0.17, p = 0.019 were related to increased caregiver burden. Greater social support (r = -0.23, p<0.001, family function (r = -0.17, p = 0.015 and caregiving experience (r = -0.16, p = 0.012 were related to decreased caregiver burden. Social support (r = 0.16, p = 0.040 and family
Kaizik, Cassandra; Caga, Jashelle; Camino, Julieta; O’Connor, Claire M.; McKinnon, Colleen; Oyebode, Jan R.; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Mioshi, Eneida
The objectives of this observational study were to (1) compare spousal and child caregiver burden; (2) compare co-resident and live-out child caregiver burden; and (3) investigate factors influencing spousal and child caregiver burden. Data was collected from 90 caregivers of people with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) recruited from the Frontotemporal Dementia Research Group (Frontier) at Neuroscience Research, Australia. Of this caregiver group, 43 were spousal caregivers and 47 were child caregivers. Caregiver burden and emotional state were evaluated using the short Zarit Burden Interview and the short version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. The Social Network Index was applied to ascertain the social network of the caregiver, while the Intimate Bond Measure was used to evaluate the current quality of the relationship between the caregiver and the person with dementia. The Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale was used to assess severity of dementia. Spousal and child caregivers experienced similar levels of burden, depression, anxiety, and stress, regardless of disease severity. Co-resident child caregivers had smaller social networks and greater burden than live-out caregivers. Dementia severity was key in spousal caregiver burden, whereas caregiver depression was most important in child caregiver burden. Child and spousal caregivers of individuals with FTD share similar levels of burden, influenced by different factors. Future interventions need to account for these differences. PMID:28106550
Lazelle E Benefield
Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders
Holland, Ashley S.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This study examined the developmental significance of adult attachment security--as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview--for romantic relationship functioning concurrently and approximately 1 year later in a sample of heterosexual dating couples between the ages of 18 and 25 (115 dyads at Time 1 [T1] and 57 dyads at T2, 74% White). The…
Beals, K P; Wight, R G; Aneshensel, C S; Murphy, D A; Miller-Martinez, D
This study examines the role that mid-life and older wives and mothers play in promoting medication adherence among their HIV-infected husbands or adult sons who require daily living assistance. Interviews were conducted with 112 caregiving dyads, with caregivers reporting on their own behaviours and attitudes towards medications, and care-recipients (persons living with HIV [PLH]) providing information about their own adherence practices. By examining how caregiver characteristics, behaviours, and attitudes may influence PLH adherence it is explicitly recognized that caregivers and PLH are linked within a caregiving dyad. Findings indicate that caregivers often remind PLH to take medications, but these reminders are not significantly associated with adherence. Caregivers also report strong attitudes about medication hassles, concerns over treatment failure and general concerns about adherence. Controlling for background characteristics, high perceived adherence hassles on the part of the caregiver were associated with low PLH adherence, providing evidence of shared influence within the caregiving dyad. Adherence interventions may maximize their effectiveness if they consider the role of the family caregiver because these data suggest that caregiver attitudes are linked with PLH adherence behaviours.
Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P<0.001, presented significantly worse family support (P=0.0236, and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers’ SWL was significantly correlated to patients’ quality of sleep (P<0.0001 for all domains. Patient’ and caregivers’ SWL was negatively affected by patients’ poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances.
Hobson, Jessica A; Tarver, Laura; Beurkens, Nicole; Hobson, R Peter
The aim of this study was to examine the relations between severity of children's autism and qualities of parent-child interaction. We studied these variables at two points of time in children receiving a treatment that has a focus on social engagement, Relationship Development Intervention (RDI; Gutstein 2009). Participants were 18 parent-child dyads where the child (16 boys, 2 girls) had a diagnosis of autism and was between the ages of 2 and 12 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed at baseline and later in treatment using the autism severity metric of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Gotham et al. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 693-705 2009). Although the ADOS was designed as a diagnostic measure, ADOS calibrated severity scores (CSS) are increasingly used as one index of change (e.g., Locke et al. Autism, 18, 370-375 2014). Videotapes of parent-child interaction at baseline and later in treatment were rated by independent coders, for a) overall qualities of interpersonal relatedness using the Dyadic Coding Scales (DCS; Humber and Moss The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 128-141 2005), and b) second-by-second parent-child Co-Regulation and Intersubjective Engagement (processes targeted by the treatment approach of RDI). Severity of autism was correlated with lower quality of parent-child interaction. Ratings on each of these variables changed over the course of treatment, and there was evidence that improvement was specifically related to the quality of parent-child interaction at baseline.
This review is an exploration into whether classroom methods similar to those applied by K-12 teachers are valid for adults and can be successfully applied to classrooms for disadvantaged adults: specifically, journal writing as a tool for improving learning and classroom relationships. The literature dispels the myth that teaching adults differs…
Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.
Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…
蒋芬; 李春艳; 王庆妍; 唐四元
目的调查老年期痴呆患者照顾者负担及其与社会支持的相关性.方法采用照顾者负担量表及社会支持评定量表,对153对老年期痴呆患者及其照顾者进行调查.结果照顾者负担处于轻、中度水平,社会支持处于中度水平；照顾者照顾负担总分与患者记忆行为问题总分呈正相关(r=0.336,P<0.01)；与社会支持总分呈负相关(r=-0.348,P<0.01).生活部分自理患者的照顾者,家中无人或有1~2人分担照顾的照顾者,市医保患者的照顾者负担高(P<0.05).结论老年期痴呆患者的照顾者承受轻、中度照顾负担,应关注生活部分自理患者的照顾者、少人/无人分担的照顾者、市医保患者的照顾者,提供足够的社会支持有助于减负.提示应加强社会保障建设,完善医疗保障体系,加快建立支持老年期痴呆患者家庭的服务机构,与患者家庭共同承担照顾任务.%Objective To explore the relationship between burden and social support of caregivers of senile dementia patients. Methods The investigation was conducted among 153 senile dementia patients and their caregivers with Caregiver Burden Inventory and Social Support Rating Scale. Results The burden of caregivers remained in a slight or mediate level and social support in a mediate level. There was positive relationship between the burden of caregivers and patients’ memory (r=0.336,P<0.01) while negative relationship between it and social support (r=-0.348,P<0.01). There was heaven burden among caregivers of patients who couldn’t take care of themselves totally, among those without others or with only one or two persons to share the caring and among those of patients with city medical insurance (P<0.05). Conclusion The burden shared by caregivers of senile dementia patients remains in a slight or mediate level. Sufficient social support would benefit caregivers with heave burden. Sound social security system and medical care system, service
The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…
Pot, A. M.; Deeg, D. J. H.; van Dyck, R.; Jonker, C.
Examines whether the role of caregiving appraisal explains why stressors in the caregiving situation affect caregivers' psychological distress. Results show that for spouse caregivers, perceived pressure explains the association between their caregiving tasks and psychological distress. Results also show clear mediator effects of perceived…
Wallhagen, Margaret I.
Tested model representing hypothesis that perceived control mediates objective and subjective aspects of caregiving and caregiver adaptation. Findings from 60 elderly family caregivers revealed that perceived control had direct relationship with life satisfaction and depression and indirect relationship with subjective symptoms of stress. Wishful…
Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona; Gracey, Carolyn; Canrinus, Maaike; Morris, Susan
Background: Strains on the mental health system and inaccessible services for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often force caregivers to bring individuals with ID to the emergency department (ED) when in psychiatric crisis. The purpose of this study was to understand the experience of caregivers and adults with ID and mental health…
Twenty-nine child/caregiver pairs were observed in a public park without adults' knowledge. Interdependence of children's exploration and ability to walk, effect of age on frequency and length of explorations, and time spent by children of different ages in the vicinity of their caregivers are discussed. (Author/RH)
Goodman, Catherine Chase; Pynoos, Jon
Describes telephone network bringing family caregivers of Alzheimer's victims together over telephone in rotating pattern of twosomes. Explains how five caregiving spouses and five adult children were matched and connected over three months. Describes program's 25 telephone-accessed audiotapes that guided networks and provided information on…
Mioshi, Eneida; Foxe, David; Leslie, Felicity; Savage, Sharon; Hsieh, Sharpley; Miller, Laurie; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier
Caregiver burden is greater in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) than in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, little is known of the impact of the 3 main clinical variants of FTD- behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SemDem), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA)-or the role of disease severity in caregiver burden. The Zarit Burden Inventory was used to measure caregiver burden of bvFTD (n=17), SemDem (n=20), PNFA (n=20), and AD (n=19) patients. Symptom duration, caregiver age, and relationship type were matched across groups. Moreover, a number of caregiver (mood, social network) and patient variables (functional disability, behavioral changes, relationship with caregiver, and dementia stage) were addressed to investigate their impact on caregiver burden. Caregivers of bvFTD patients reported the highest burden, whereas SemDem and PNFA caregivers reported burden similar to AD. A regression analysis revealed that caregiver burden in FTD, regardless of subtype, was explained by a model combining disease staging, relationship changes, and caregiver depression. Burden increased with disease severity in FTD. This study is the first to show that caregivers of SemDem, PNFA, and AD patients show similar burden, while confirming that bvFTD caregivers show higher burden than AD caregivers. More importantly, this study demonstrates that burden worsens with disease progression in FTD.
Feldman, Ruth; Klein, Pnina S.
Examined toddlers' self-regulated compliance to mothers, fathers, and caregivers. Found child emotion regulation and adult warm control in discipline situation related to self-regulated compliance to mother, caregiver, and father. Compliance to parents correlated with parental sensitivity and philosophies. Compliance to caregivers correlated with…
Musil, Carol M.; Gordon, Nahida L.; Warner, Camille B.; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Standing, Theresa; Wykle, May
Purpose: Transitions in caregiving, such as becoming a primary caregiver to grandchildren or having adult children and grandchildren move in or out, may affect the well-being of the grandmother. Design and Methods: This report describes caregiving patterns at 3 time points over 24 months in a sample of 485 Ohio grandmothers and examines the…
Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine
Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…
Waters, Theodore E A; Brockmeyer, Susan L; Crowell, Judith A
Previous research has demonstrated significant links between the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and secure base use and support in marital interactions. The mechanisms underlying such findings have not been examined in detail. This paper examines the hypothesis that script-like attachment representations shape both attachment narratives and attachment-related caregiving behavior and thus helps explain the correlation between them. Crowell et al. ( 2002 ) reported that AAI transcript coherence is significantly related to adults' caregiving and care seeking in couple problem solving interactions. In a random selection of 60 cases from that study, we assessed the extent to which interviewees conceptualized their early attachment experiences in terms of a secure base script. A series of regression analyses demonstrated that approximately 80% of the correlation between AAI coherence and laboratory caregiving and care seeking reported by Crowell et al. ( 2002 ) is accounted for by secure base script knowledge. Scoring secure base script knowledge from AAI transcripts is a useful step toward understanding links between early experience, adult attachment representations, and adults' ability to provide and seek support in close relationships.
Emiliana Gomes de Mello
Full Text Available Anxiety is a common event in children before surgery. Several ways have been proposed to assess the level of anxiety in pediatric patients. The modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-Ypas was developed recently and allows the assessment of anxiety level from the observation of children's attitudes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of variables such as anxiety of caregivers (parents or relatives, preoperative fasting and previous surgical experiences on children's anxiety assessing m-YPAS. METHODS: We evaluated 39 preschool children submitted to elective surgery at a tertiary hospital in Sorocaba-Brazil. After preanesthetic evaluation, performed immediately after admission, children were referred to the pediatric ward where they were observed by the evaluator who applied the scale m-Ypas. Scores above 30 points were considered as anxiety. The level of caregivers's anxiety was evaluated assessing a linear visual scale of 0 to 10 points. Values a bove 3 were considered positive for anxiety. All children were premedicated with oral midazolam. Fasting time and the presence, or absence, of prior surgery were recorded. RESULTS: Thirty nine children were evaluated. The anxiety was observed in 36% of children and in 92% of caregivers. Children's anxiety was not related to caregiver's anxiety (p = 0.70. Fasting time (p = 0.28 or the presence, or absence, of previous surgery (p = 0:09 were not related to children's anxiety as well. CONCLUSION: The caregiver's anxiety, preoperative fasting time and previous surgery were not considered predictive factors for higher or lower level of preoperative anxiety in children.
Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…
Characteristics Associated with Psychological, Physical, Sexual Abuse, Caregiver Neglect and Financial Exploitation in U.S. Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the Population-Based Cohort Study in the Greater Chicago Area
Full Text Available This study examined the socio-demographic and health related characteristics of elder mistreatment (EM in a community-dwelling older Chinese population. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, the PINE study conducted in-person interviews with 3,159 U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011–2013. Participants answered questions regarding psychological, physical and sexual mistreatment, caregiver neglect, and financial exploitation. Definitional approaches for EM subtypes were constructed from least restrictive to most restrictive. Results: The sociodemographic and health-related characteristics associated with EM differed by type of mistreatment and by the operational definition used. Living with fewer people, having been born in countries other than China, poorer health status, and lower quality of life were significantly correlated with physical mistreatment. Only higher education was positively and significantly associated with sexual mistreatment and only poorer health status was consistently correlated with psychological mistreatment among all definitions. Male gender, higher educational levels, higher income, fewer children, and having been in the U.S. for fewer years were significantly correlated with financial exploitation. As for caregiver neglect, older age, having more children, having been in the U.S. for more years, poorer health status, lower quality of life, and worsening health over the past year were consistently correlated with caregiver neglect with different definitions. Conclusions: Prevention and intervention programs on EM should be geared towards specific types of mistreatment. Studies on EM should conduct a thorough analysis to justify the operational definition used.
Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Murphy, Jamie
Childhood abuse (CA) has been found to be related to the development of a variety of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Although CA is also associated with adult loneliness, few studies have investigated the role of loneliness as a mediator in the relationship between CA and adult psychopathology. Using data from a large, general population sample a mediation model was proposed and tested. Controlling for a range of background variables, the results from a series of regression analyses found that loneliness mediated the association between CA and six adult psychiatric disorders. The findings of this study highlight the importance of loneliness to the development of psychopathology. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
曾嵘; 罗家有; 谭彩; 杜其云; 张维敏; 李艳萍
目的:探讨我国农村地区看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系.方法:采用询问调查方法,对随机选择的3361名看护人及其所照看儿童(2～7岁)进行问卷调查；采用logistic回归分析方法分析看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系.结果:看护人营养知识知晓率为57.9％；儿童不良饮食行为发生率:不喝牛奶79.6％,偏食挑食66.0％,吃零食84.1％,不吃早餐24.4％,不按时就餐13.7％; Logistic回归分析结果显示:看护人营养知识水平低是其所照看儿童不饮食行为(吃零食除外),如不喝牛奶(OR=1.665)、偏食挑食(OR=1.338)、不吃早餐(OR=1.330)和不按时就餐(OR=1.582)等的危险因素.结论:看护人营养知识与儿童不良饮食行为有关,应大力开展看护人营养知识健康教育,以促进儿童养成良好的饮食行为.%Objective: To explore the relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and children's dietary behavior in rural areas of China.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted.3361 rural caregivers and their children,aged 2 to 7 years old,were selected randomly and surveyed by questionnaire.Logistic regression models were used to identify the relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and the children's dietary behaviors.Results: The awareness level of nutritional knowledge among rural caregivers was 57.9％; among the children surveyed,79.6％ did not like to drink milk,66.0％ were considered choosy of food,84.1％ regularly snacked,24.4％ frequently skipped breakfast,and 13.7％ did not come to meals on time.Logistic regression models indicated that a caregiver with a low level of nutritional knowledge is a risk factor for a child's unhealth dietary behaviors (snacking excepted): the odds ratios (OR) of not liking to drink milk,being choosy about food,skipping breakfast or not having meals on time are 1.665,1.338,1.330 and 1.582,respectively.Conclusion: Caregivers' nutritional knowledge
Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O
.148 and 3.862, respectively, p70; p<0.01), and BMI (r=0.210; p<0.05). Also, significant relationships were found between weight and TG (r=0.282; p<0.05), waist circumference (WC) and FBG (r=0.264; p<0.05), and WC and TG (r=0.414; p<0.01). The study concluded that SES has significant relationship with metabolic syndrome components such as SBP and fasting blood glucose among adult population in Nigeria.
Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William
The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.
Dasch, Kimberly B; Russell, Heather F; Kelly, Erin H; Gorzkowski, Julie A; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Betz, Randal R; Vogel, Lawrence C
This study examined coping among caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Using a cross-sectional survey study design, 164 caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire and the Brief COPE. Their children, youth with SCI ages 7-18, completed the Kidcope. T-tests were conducted to examine differences in caregiver coping by demographic and injury-related factors. Further, logistic regression models were evaluated to examine predictive relationships between caregiver coping and youth coping. Several demographic and injury-related factors were related to caregiver coping, including caregiver gender, race, and education, as well as youth gender, age at injury, and time since injury. In the logistic regressions, two caregiver coping strategies were related to youth coping: caregiver self-blame coping was related to youth self-criticism, and caregiver behavioral disengagement coping (giving up attempts to cope) was related to youth blaming others coping. The findings suggest that caregiver coping may play a role in the coping of their children, and should be considered when addressing coping among youth with SCI.
Mayra dos Santos Silva
Conclusion: These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography.
Eastern Mennonite University's adult program uses a hybrid governance structure. Functions separated from the traditional program include marketing, admissions, and student advising. Functions that remain connected to the traditional program include the registrar, financial aid, and student business accounts.
Lackey, Steven L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role and relationship of the practice of Christian beliefs and resilience in the context of dementia patient caregivers' lives. The guiding question was "What is the relational nature of the practice of Christian beliefs and resilience in the lived experiences of caregivers of dementia…
Vitaliano, Peter P.; Zhang, Jianping; Young, Heather M.; Caswell, Lisa W.; Scanlan, James M.; Echeverria, Diana
Purpose: Very few studies have examined cognitive decline in caregivers versus noncaregivers, and only 1 study has examined mediators of such decline. We evaluated the relationship between caregiver status and decline on the digit symbol test (DST; a measure of processing speed, attention, cognitive-motor translation, and visual scanning) and…
Emiliana Gomes de Mello; Vivian Brancalione Gonçalves; Neil Ferreira Novo; Eduardo Toshiyuki Moro
Anxiety is a common event in children before surgery. Several ways have been proposed to assess the level of anxiety in pediatric patients. The modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-Ypas) was developed recently and allows the assessment of anxiety level from the observation of children's attitudes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of variables such as anxiety of caregivers (parents or relatives), preoperative fasting and previous surgical experiences on children's anxi...
Soons, J.P.M.; Liefbroer, A.C.
This study examines differences in well-being among young adults across relationship status. Multilevel regression analyses on two waves of data of the Dutch Panel Study of Social Integration (N = 2818) show that singles have the lowest level of well-being, followed by young adults who are steady da
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim
We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by me
Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...
Çakar, Firdevs Savi
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.
While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…
Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.
Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…
Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.
This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict…
Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis
We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…
Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna
This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…
Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.
Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…
Large, Samantha; Slinger, Richard
This article provides a meta-synthesis of studies focusing on grief in caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia. Through a systematic search, 11 articles met the inclusion criteria that care receivers had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or related dementia, caregivers were informal caregivers, and the study focused on caregiver grief. The meta-synthesis followed a meta-ethnography approach based on reciprocal translation. Six themes were identified, namely challenges of caregiving, losses and changes in the relationship, the role of dementia in grief, striving despite dementia, utilising social support and death as a relief from caregiving. Themes are discussed within an integrated framework showing the connected relationships between themes. The devised framework of themes illustrates the general experience of caregiver grief and can be used to devise specific, targeted interventions to help caregivers to identify and work through their grief.
Rozario, Philip A.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Proctor, Enola K.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy
This study--on 100 African American wife and 258 daughter primary caregivers--uses a contextual approach in its examination of the relationship between social resources and caregiver depressive symptoms. At the bivariate level, significant differences in certain key characteristics of primary caregivers and care receivers underscore the…
Chamla, Dick; Asadu, Chukwuemeka; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Davies, Abiola; Ugochukwu, Ebele; Umar, Lawal; Oluwafunke, Ilesanmi; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Onubogu, Chinyere; Tunde-Oremodu, Immaculata; Madubuike, Chinelo; Umeadi, Esther; Epundu, Obed; Omosun, Adenike; Anigilaje, Emmanuel; Adeyinka, Daniel
Caregiver satisfaction has the potential to promote equity for children living with HIV, by influencing health-seeking behaviour. We measured dimensions of caregiver satisfaction with paediatric HIV treatment in Nigeria, and discuss its implications for equity by conducting facility-based exit interviews for caregivers of children receiving antiretroviral therapy in 20 purposively selected facilities within 5 geopolitical zones. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis were performed. Due to the hierarchical nature of the data, multilevel regression modelling was performed to investigate relationships between satisfaction factors and socio-demographic variables. Of 1550 caregivers interviewed, 63% (95% CI: 60.6-65.4) reported being very satisfied overall; however, satisfaction varied in some dimensions: only 55.6% (53.1-58.1) of caregivers could talk privately with health workers, 56.9% (54.4-59.3) reported that queues to see health workers were too long, and 89.9% (88.4-91.4) said that some health workers did not treat patients living with HIV with sufficient respect. Based on factor analysis, two underlying factors, labelled Availability and Attitude, were identified. In multilevel regression, the satisfaction with availability of services correlated with formal employment status (p HIV treatment between adults and children, and across socio-economic groups.
Vogelsang, Eric M
In an aging world, there is increased need to identify places and characteristics of places that promote health among older adults. This study examines whether there are rural-urban differences in older adult social participation and its relationship with health. Using the 2003 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n=3006), I find that older adults living in rural counties are less socially active than their counterparts in more-urban counties. I also find that relationships between social participation and health vary by the type of activity and rural-urban context.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah; Antonucci, Toni C
The present study examined the complex way in which relationships with family and friends shape health and well-being in adulthood over time. Specifically, we explored whether the longitudinal effects of positive and negative family relationship quality on health and well-being differ in the context of varying levels of positive friend relationships. Data were from two waves (1992/1993 and 2005) of the Social Relations, Aging and Health Study. The sample included respondents aged 18 and older at Wave 1 who reported having a best friend at both waves (N = 455), and consisted of 291 (64%) women and 164 (36%) men. Wave 1 friend positivity and family positivity interacted to predict self-rated health but not self-esteem, indicating that among respondents with a less positive friend relationship, more positive family relationships were related to worse health at Wave 2. Wave 1 friend positivity and family negativity significantly interacted to predict self-rated health and self-esteem at Wave 2. The nature of the interactions were consistent in that among respondents with a more highly positive friend relationship, less negative family relationships were linked to better health and self-esteem at Wave 2. Findings provide insight into the complex way in which social relations impact positive outcomes in adulthood. Previous studies have documented the consistent and straightforward manner in which negative relationships impact health and well-being, whereas this study illustrates that the role of positive social relations is more variable and dependent on multiple relationship contexts.
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Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.
The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; McFaul, Adrienne
The present study examines prevalence and correlates of experiencing and perpetrating relational aggression in the context of young adults' romantic relationships. We assess correlates of relational aggression in four domains of risk: (1) Social-cognitive, (2) Relationship, (3) Trait/dispositional, and (4) Mental health. Results indicate that…
Bielderman, A.; de Greef, M. H. G.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.
The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of life, social functioning, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, physical function, and socioeconomic status (SES) in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the relationships. A
Ramsawh, Holly J; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Sullivan, Sarah G; Hitchcock, Carla A; Stein, Murray B
This study investigated the relationship of childhood adversity and adult sleep quality in 327 college students (91 males), with a mean age of 18.9 years (SD = 2.1) and also examined whether neuroticism significantly mediated the observed association. Regression findings indicate that the relationship between childhood adversity and adult sleep quality is significant, and that there is a stronger association in men. Furthermore, a bootstrapping approach to testing the significance of the indirect effect (i.e., mediation) indicated that neuroticism mediated this relationship in both men and women. These data suggest that otherwise healthy young adults with a history of childhood adversity are at increased risk for sleep disturbance. Neuroticism may represent a potential target for change in future insomnia interventions, particularly in adults with a history of childhood adversity.
Full Text Available Alessandro Iavarone,1,2 Antonio Rosario Ziello,3,4 Francesca Pastore,3 Angiola Maria Fasanaro,3 Carla Poderico5 1Neurological and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, 2Italian Association on Alzheimer's Disease (AIMA, 3Memory Clinic, Neurological Unit, AORN Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy; 4Clinical Research, Telemedicine and Telepharmacy Centre, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 5Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes considerable distress in caregivers who are continuously required to deal with requests from patients. Coping strategies play a fundamental role in modulating the psychologic impact of the disease, although their role is still debated. The present study aims to evaluate the burden and anxiety experienced by caregivers, the effectiveness of adopted coping strategies, and their relationships with burden and anxiety. Methods: Eighty-six caregivers received the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Y-1 and Y-2. The coping strategies were assessed by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, according to the model proposed by Endler and Parker in 1990.Results: The CBI scores (overall and single sections were extremely high and correlated with dementia severity. Women, as well as older caregivers, showed higher scores. The trait anxiety (STAI-Y-2 correlated with the CBI overall score. The CISS showed that caregivers mainly adopted task-focused strategies. Women mainly adopted emotion-focused strategies and this style was related to a higher level of distress. Conclusion: AD is associated with high distress among caregivers. The burden strongly correlates with dementia severity and is higher in women and in elderly subjects. Chronic anxiety affects caregivers who mainly rely on emotion-oriented coping strategies. The findings suggest providing support to families of patients with AD through tailored
Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R
The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect.
Dorfman, Lorraine T.; And Others
Investigated correlates of satisfaction and strain in 80 wife caregivers of frail elderly veterans. Support from spouse was the strongest positive predictor of satisfaction with caregiving and the strongest negative predictor of caregiver strain. Self efficacy was the strongest predictor of caregiver life satisfaction. (Author)
The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.
Chen, Jen-Hao; Waite, Linda J; Lauderdale, Diane S
Sleep is a restorative behavior essential for health. Poor sleep has been linked to adverse health outcomes among older adults; however, we know little about the social processes that affect sleep. Using innovative actigraphy data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 727), we considered the role of marriage, positive marital relationship support, and negative marital relationship strain on older adults' (ages 62-90) self-reported and actigraph-measured sleep characteristics. We found that married older adults had better actigraph-estimated but not self-reported sleep characteristics than the unmarried. However, among the married, those who reported more negative aspects of their marital relationship reported more insomnia symptoms, with the association reduced when psychosocial characteristics were added to the model. The married who reported more positive aspects of their marital relationship showed better actigraph-estimated sleep characteristics; taking characteristics of the physical and mental health and home environment into account reduced this association.
... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...
... Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms ... care to a person with cancer. It is a condensed version of our booklet, When Someone You Love Is Being Treated for Cancer . Being a caregiver ...
Zweig, Yael R; Galvin, James E
Lewy body dementia (LBD) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia in older adults, yet there remains a delay in diagnosis that limits healthcare providers' ability to maximize therapeutic outcomes and enhance patient and caregiver quality of life. The impact of LBD on patients includes limiting the potential exposure to medications that may cause adverse outcomes, and addressing how the disease manifestations, such as autonomic features and behavior, affect quality of life. LBD impact on caregivers has been discussed to a greater degree in the literature, and there is clear evidence of caregiver burden and grief associated with disease manifestations. Other common caregiving concerns, such as access to care, prevention of hospitalization, managing behavior, and reviewing prognosis and nursing home placement, are important to comprehensively address the needs of patients with LBD and their caregivers.
Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults.Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63-98 years without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61 and White (n=63 subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities.Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance.For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials.
Sun, Fei; Kosberg, Jordan I; Kaufman, Allan V; Leeper, James D
We studied the coping styles by which family caregivers living in rural areas of Alabama deal with the demands of caring for an older relative with dementia. Data were obtained from a sample of 141 caregivers through the random-digit dialing telephone survey. Two coping styles were identified: deliberate coping and avoidance coping. Deliberate coping was related to higher life satisfaction scores and, avoidance coping was related to lower life satisfaction scores and higher caregiver burden scores. Avoidance coping appeared to moderate the effects of caregiver health on caregiver burden. Social workers should pay greater attention to caregivers with dysfunctional coping styles.
Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.
The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…
Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Buffel, Tine; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte
Ecological models state that physical activity (PA) behaviors can be explained by the interplay between individuals and their surrounding physical and social environment. However, the majority of research on PA-environment relationships has focused upon the physical environment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived social environment and older adults' walking for transportation, while adjusting for individual and perceived physical environmental factors. Questionnaires were used to collect data on walking for transportation, individual, perceived physical and social environmental factors in 50,986 Flemish older adults (≥65 years) in the period of 2004-2010. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the relationships between perceived social environmental factors and the odds of daily walking for transportation. The final models showed significant positive relationships for frequency of contacts with neighbors, neighbors' social support, too many immigrants residing in the neighborhood, neighborhood involvement, participation, and volunteering. These results emphasize the need for including social environmental factors in future studies examining correlates of older adults' physical activity. Current findings suggest that projects stimulating interpersonal relationships, place attachment, and formal community engagement might promote walking for transportation among older adults. Future research should try to further disentangle the complex (inter)relationships and causal mechanisms between older individuals, their environments, and their walking for transportation behavior.
Letice Ericeira Valente
Full Text Available Caring for a demented family member has been associated with burden. Studies concerning health self-perception of family caregivers are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate caregivers perceived health and to look into relationships with patients and caregivers' sociodemographic and clinical data. METHOD: Dyads of dementia outpatients and family caregivers (n=137 were assessed with Mini Mental State Examination, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Clinical Dementia Rating. Caregivers answered Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Zarit Burden Interview and Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Caregivers poor perceived health was associated with emotional exhaustion, burden, depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analyses revealed caregivers' age, anxiety and physical problem as the main predictors of health self-perception. CONCLUSION: Aged family caregivers with anxiety who also report physical problem characterize a group at risk for poor self-perceived health. Evaluation of health self-perception may be useful for designing interventions to improve anxiety and physical health.
Willette-Murphy, Karen; Todero, Catherine; Yeaworth, Rosalee
This descriptive study examined sleep and mental health variables in 37 older wife caregivers for spouses with dementia compared to 37 age-matched controls. The relationships among selected caregiving variables (behavioral problems, caregiving hours, and years of caregiving), appraisal of burden, self-reported sleep efficiency for the past week, and mental health outcomes were examined. Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping framework guided the study. Mental health and sleep were poorer for caregivers. Caregiving and appraisal of burden variables showed direct and indirect effects on mental health. However, caregiving and appraisal of burden variables were not significant for predicting sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency was a good predictor of mental health in this sample of wife caregivers.
Lau, Sabrina; Chong, Mei Sian; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chan, Mark; Chua, Kia Chong; Lim, Wee Shiong
The Zarit Burden Interview allows caregiver burden to be interpreted from a total score. However, recent studies propose a multidimensional Zarit Burden Interview model. This study aims to determine the agreement between unidimensional (UD) and multidimensional (MD) classification of burden, and differences in predictors among identified groups. We studied 165 dyads of dementia patients and primary caregivers. Caregivers were dichotomized into low-burden and high-burden groups based upon: (1) UD score using quartile cutoffs; and (2) MD model via exploratory cluster analysis. We compared UD versus MD 2×2 classification of burden using κ statistics. Caregivers not showing agreement by either definition were classified as "intermediate" burden. We performed binary logistic regression to ascertain differences in predictive factors. The 2 models showed moderate agreement (κ=0.72, P<0.01), yielding 104 low, 20 intermediate (UD "low burden"/MD "high burden"), and 41 high-burden caregivers. Neuropsychiatric symptoms [odds ratio (OR)=1.27, P=0.003], coresidence (OR=6.32, P=0.040), and decreased caregiving hours (OR=0.99, P=0.018) were associated with intermediate burden, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms (OR=1.21, P=0.001) and adult children caregivers (OR=2.80, P=0.055) were associated with high burden. Our results highlight the differences between UD and MD classification of caregiver burden. Future studies should explore the significance of the noncongruent intermediate group and its predictors.
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim
We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by means of a qualitative approach. Participants were 39 emerging adults (51% males), who were interviewed individually or within a focus group. In Study II, we sought to examine how family and friend importance to identity were related to life satisfaction through a quantitative approach. Participants were 474 (47.3% males) emerging adults who filled a self-report questionnaire. Overall, findings indicated solid family ties and a strong impact of family importance to identity for life satisfaction. Results were independent of gender and occupational status (university students vs. workers). Thus, findings highlighted that in the Italian context young people's transition to adulthood is strongly intertwined with family relationships.
Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim
This longitudinal study examined person-environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six wave
Young, Brennan J; Furman, Wyndol
Intimate partner violence often begins during the courtship stage of romantic relationships. Although some relationships dissolve as a result of aggression, other relationships remain intact, increasing the risk for escalated violence. The present study identified factors predictive of individual differences in emerging adults' commitment to physically aggressive or sexually coercive dating relationships. Specifically, Rusbult's Investment Model of romantic relationships (e.g., investment, satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and commitment) was applied to a longitudinal sample of 148 young adult women who reported experiencing aggression or coercion from their current partners. To further explain commitment within aggressive or coercive dating relationships, rejection sensitivity and anxious and avoidant romantic relational styles were included as predictors of the Investment Model variables. A more avoidant romantic style indirectly predicted commitment through relationship satisfaction and investment. Both commitment and rejection sensitivity significantly predicted continuing an aggressive or coercive relationship 6 months later. The present study improves our understanding of the processes involved in relationship commitment. Continuing to understand these processes will inform interventions that seek to help women who have decided to end aggressive or coercive dating relationships.
Woodhouse, S.; Ayers, S.; Field, A.P.
There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N = 9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρ =-.27), and a medium...
Full Text Available Alaa Badawi,1 Suzan Sayegh,2 Eman Sadoun,3 Mohamed Al-Thani,2 Paul Arora,4 Pierre S Haddad51Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Public Health, 3Clinical Research Division, Supreme Council of Health, Doha, Qatar; 4Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: A recent relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and insulin resistance has been established through several studies. Research suggests a correlation between serum vitamin D and glycemic status measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the plasma vitamin D levels (25[OH]D and the factors linked to insulin resistance in a representative sample of Canadians ranging in age from 16–79 years. Data were used from the Canadian Health Measures Survey where direct measures of health and wellness were reported from 1,928 subjects. These data were gathered from March 2007–February 2009 at 15 sites selected through a multistage sampling strategy. An inverse relationship between insulin resistance and plasma vitamin D level in both men and women was observed. This study provides additional evidence for the role of vitamin D in T2DM. If causally associated, the supplementation of vitamin D may help in preventing insulin resistance and subsequent T2DM.Keywords: HOMA-IR, plasma 25(OHD, diabetes
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental care for a child with a developmental disability is an enormous responsibility, one that can far exceed that of typical parental care. While most parents adapt well to the situation of caring for a child with a disability, some do not. To understand parents' adaptations to their children's disabilities, the complex nature of stress processes must be accounted for and the constructs and factors that play a role in the caregiving must be considered. Discussion Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers adapt to their caregiving demands. Many studies have sought to qualify the association between caregiving and health outcomes of the caregivers. Contextual factors such as SES, child factors such as child behaviour problems and severity of disability, intra-psychic factors such as mastery and self-esteem, coping strategies and social supports have all been associated with psychological and/or physical outcome or parents or primary caregivers. In reviewing these issues, the literature appears to be limited by the use of traditional analytic approaches which examine the relationship between a factor and an outcome. It is clear, however, that changes to single factors, as represented in these studies, occur very rarely even in the experimental context. The literature has also been limited by lack of reliance on specific theoretical frameworks. Summary This conceptual paper documents the state of current knowledge and explores the current theoretical frameworks that have been used to describe the caregiving process from two diverse fields, pediatrics and geriatrics. Integration of these models into one comprehensive model suitable for this population of children with disabilities and their caregivers is proposed. This model may guide future research in this area.
Loch, Mathias Roberto; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Martinez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
The present study examined the relationship between indicators of social capital and health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,062 participants representative of the population aged 40 years or older from a city in Southern Brazil. The following indicators of social capital were examined: number of friends, number of people they could borrow money from when in need; extent of trust in community members; number of times members of the community help each other; community safety; and extent of membership in community activities. Also, an overall score of social capital including all indicators was calculated. A poor social capital was associated with insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.07-2.70), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24), and smoking (OR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.21-3.21). No clear association was found between capital social and binge drinking. A score of social capital showed an inverse relationship with the number of prevalent risk behaviors (p social capital.
Gislaine Regina Santos dos Santos
Full Text Available Asymmetric performance of flexor and extensor muscles of the knee may be a risk factor for knee injuries, especially the anterior cruciate ligament. Additionally, asymmetries in power and work may have correlations with fatigue and performance during functional tasks. Among untrained individuals, such asymmetries may be of potential interest for training prescription. Here, we investigated the bilateral performance of knee flexors and extensors muscle groups of untrained individuals. We quantified the torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, as well as work, power and asymmetry indexes in 20 untrained male (25 ± 4 years old; height 1.74 ± 0.05 m; body mass 76 ± 9 kg. No significant asymmetry was observed for torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, work and power output for knee flexor and extensor muscle groups (p < .05. Our results suggest that untrained male present symmetry in the knee flexion and extension bilateral performance. Changes in this behavior due to physical training must be monitored.
Kratz, Anna L; Sander, Angelle M; Brickell, Tracey A; Lange, Rael T; Carlozzi, Noelle E
The objective of this qualitative study was to examine how family caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) describe their quality of life in the context of their caregiving role. Fifty-two caregivers of adults with moderate or severe TBI (n = 31 parents, n = 21 partners/spouses; 77% female; mean age = 57.96 years, range = 34-78 years) were recruited from three data collection sites to participate in focus groups. Thematic content analysis was used to identify two main meta-themes: Caregiver Role Demands and Changes in Person with TBI. Prominent sub-themes indicated that caregivers are (1) overburdened with responsibilities, (2) lack personal time and time for self-care, (3) feel that their life is interrupted or lost, (4) grieve the loss of the person with TBI, and (5) endorse anger, guilt, anxiety, and sadness. Caregivers identified a number of service needs. A number of sub-themes were perceived differently by partner versus parent caregivers. The day-to-day responsibilities of being a caregiver as well as the changes in the person with the TBI present a variety of challenges and sources of distress for caregivers. Although services that address instrumental as well as emotional needs of caregivers may benefit caregivers in general, the service needs of parent and partner caregivers may differ.
Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.
dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva
Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), sleep efficiency with sleepiness (0.004), snoring (0.033) and pause in breathing (p=0.024), awakenings with snoring (p=0.012) and sleep apnea with pauses in breathing (p=0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography. PMID:26483948
Nicholson, Ryan; Graves, Chad; Ellery, Michael; Afifi, Tracie O
Disordered gambling in young adults is hypothesized as being related to mistaken gambling-related cognitions. Few studies have examined the temporal order of this relationship using longitudinal data. The purpose of this study is to understand the directionality of the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity in a longitudinal sample of young adults. Young adults (N = 578), initially aged 18-21 years, completed the Manitoba Longitudinal Survey of Young Adults at two time points approximately 2-3 years apart. Measures of beliefs about randomness related to gambling and gambling severity, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, were utilized. A cross-sectional relationship between gambling severity and gambling-related cognitions was observed with greater gambling severity being associated with increased endorsement of mistaken cognitions. Evidence for a bidirectional longitudinal relationship was observed with faulty gambling cognitions leading to later problematic gambling behaviors and vice versa when examining a total beliefs scale. When examining specific beliefs about randomness, initial gambling group membership predicted later endorsement of certain beliefs about randomness while initial belief ratings did not impact later gambling group membership. The results of this study suggest a bidirectional relationship between gambling severity and erroneous gambling-related cognitions. However, when examining specific beliefs about randomness, evidence was found for problem gambling behaviors leading to erroneous gambling beliefs. These findings suggest that prevention efforts targeting cognitions may not be as effective in impacting those not yet demonstrating disordered gambling behaviors.
Harmell, Alexandrea L; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Roepke, Susan K; Mausbach, Brent T
The recent aging trend in the United States has resulted in exponential growth in the number of informal dementia caregivers. Caring for a family member with dementia has been associated with negative health outcomes that are likely related to physiologic changes resulting from stress. However, caregiving is not always associated with health morbidity. In this review, we highlight resilience factors that appear to have a beneficial relationship with health outcomes. Specifically, we highlight 11 studies that examined the relationship of one of three broad resilience domains (personal mastery, self-efficacy, and coping style) to caregiver health outcomes. Our main findings were that higher levels of personal mastery and self-efficacy, and increased use of positive coping strategies appear to have a protective effect on various health outcomes in dementia caregivers. Continued research is warranted to help guide prospective directions for caregiver interventions focusing on increasing caregiver resilience and the corresponding impact on caregiver health.
Koenig, Harold G; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F; Saxena, Salil; Cohen, Harvey Jay
Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of cellular aging associated with longevity and psychosocial stress. We examine here the relationship between religious involvement and TL in 251 stressed female family caregivers recruited into a 2-site study. Religious involvement, perceived stress, caregiver burden, depressive symptoms, and social support were measured and correlated with TL in whole blood leukocytes. Results indicated a U-shaped relationship between religiosity and TL. Those scoring in the lowest 10% on religiosity tended to have the longest telomeres (5743 bp ± 367 vs. 5595 ± 383, p = 0.069). However, among the 90% of caregivers who were at least somewhat religious, religiosity was significantly and positively related to TL after controlling for covariates (B = 1.74, SE = 0.82, p = 0.034). Whereas nonreligious caregivers have relatively long telomeres, we found a positive relationship between religiosity and TL among those who are at least somewhat religious.
del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia
Romantic relationship loss is associated with significant psychological distress for emerging adults. Intrusive memories of stressful events are typically associated with symptom severity; however, whether spontaneous positive memories of a relationship breakup may also be related to psychological...... symptoms has received little attention. We examined links between breakup-specific distress, depressive symptoms, and relationship memories of different valence. Ninety-one emerging adults (Mage = 20.13) who had experienced a recent romantic breakup recorded the frequency of positive and negative...... spontaneous relationship memories in a four-day online memory diary. Control memories were also recorded. Positive memories were specifically related to breakup distress, whereas negative memories were related to both breakup distress and depression. No such associations were found for the control memories...
Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.
This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…
Relación entre adherencia objetiva al tratamiento en la diabetes infantil y variables psicológicas de los cuidadores Relationship between objective treatment compliance in infantile diabetes and psychological variables of caregivers
Consuelo Arenas Bermúdez
-15 years. Optimism, self-efficacy, neuroticism, copying styles, parental styles, social support, demographic and family variables of caregivers were evaluated. Objective adherence, demographic and family variables of children were also measured. Analyses of data included means, correlations and differences between groups. Caregivers assisted to some psychoeducational sessions during the study, that lasted one year. Results and Conclusions: Caregivers with higher objective adherence are characterized by having a thorough knowledge of diabetes, and being afraid of consequences of bad treatment compliance; they usually use problem-solving copying strategies, they show a positive motivation and attitude and they do not feel guilty. Finally, they exhibit a high level of control and affect in their parent-son relationships (democratic parental style.
As relações familiares e o nível de sobrecarga do cuidador famliar Las relaciones familiares y el nivel de sobrecarga del cuidador familiar The family relationship and the burden level on family caregivers
Maria Fernanda Manoel
.A descriptive study with qualitative approach, realized with the purpose of knowing the meaning of being a caregiver and its relation with the burden level inflicted on family caregivers of chronic patients. Data was collected in July 2011, through semi-structured interview using the Zarit Burden Interview Scale. The information was taken from 10 caregivers who were taking part on a Family Follow-up Program in Londrina - Paraná State. The average score was 54.6 indicating a moderate burden. Four categories emerged allowing to identify that the meaning of being a caregiver is related to the type of family relationship built along the life and with the level of burden that was experienced. It is concluded that there is a need to recognize that family caregivers need guidelines, and above all they need to be taken care of in order to minimize the stress they experience.
Cornelius, T; Earnshaw, V A; Menino, D; Bogart, L M; Levy, S
Substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence have negative long-term health effects, which can be mitigated through successful treatment. Caregivers play a central role in adolescent treatment involvement; however, studies have not examined treatment motivation and pressures to enter treatment in caregiver/adolescent dyads. Research suggests that internally motivated treatment (in contrast to coerced treatment) tends to lead to better outcomes. We used Self-determination theory (SDT) to examine intersecting motivational narratives among caregivers and adolescents in SUD treatment. Relationships between motivation, interpretation of caregiver pressures, adolescent autonomy, and relatedness were also explored. Adolescents in SUD treatment and their caregivers (NDyads=15) were interviewed about treatment experiences. Interviews were coded for treatment motivation, including extrinsic (e.g., motivated by punishment), introjected (e.g., motivated by guilt), and identified/integrated motivation (e.g., seeing a behavior as integral to the self). Internalization of treatment motivation, autonomy support/competence (e.g., caregiver support for adolescent decisions), and relatedness (e.g., acceptance and support) were also coded. Four dyadic categories were identified: agreement that treatment was motivated by the adolescent (intrinsic); agreement that treatment was motivated by the caregiver (extrinsic); agreement that treatment was motivated by both, or a shift towards adolescent control (mixed/transitional); and disagreement (adolescents and caregivers each claimed they motivated treatment; conflicting). Autonomy support and relatedness were most prominent in intrinsic dyads, and least prominent in extrinsic dyads. The mixed/transitional group was also high in autonomy support and relatedness. The extrinsic group characterized caregiver rules as an unwelcome mechanism for behavioral control; caregivers in the other groups saw rules as a way to build adolescent competence
Shahi, Varun; Lapid, Maria I.; Kung, Simon; Atherton, Pamela J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Clark, Matthew M.; Rummans, Teresa A.
Background There are significant burdens associated with providing care for loved ones with cancer. However, caregiver quality of life (QOL) is often overlooked. With the increasing number of older adults with cancer, it is important to determine whether a patient’s age and QOL have any association with the caregiver’s QOL. Objective The objective of our study was to describe caregiver QOL and explore whether patient age and other psychosocial factors impact caregiver QOL. Design Baseline information from patients with advanced cancer undergoing radiation and their caregivers, who were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a structured, multidisciplinary QOL intervention, was analyzed for this study. Measurement Caregivers completed the Caregiver Quality of Life Index—Cancer Scale (CQOLC). Both patients and caregivers completed the Linear Analogue Self-Assessment (LASA) to measure QOL, and Profile of Mood States (POMS) to measure mood states. Results Overall, 131 patient-caregiver pairs participated in the study. At baseline, caregivers of older adults (≥65 years) had higher mental (P=0.01), emotional (P=0.003), spiritual (P<0.01), and social support (P=0.03) LASA QOL scores. Caregivers of older adults also had higher baseline QOL (CQOLC, P=0.003) and mood (POMS, P=0.04) than caregivers of younger adults. Caregivers of patients with higher LASA QOL scores had higher overall (P=0.02), mental (P=0.006), physical (P=0.02), emotional (P=0.002), and spiritual LASA QOL scores (P=0.047). Conclusions Caregivers of older adults with advanced cancer demonstrated better QOL and fewer mood disturbances compared to caregivers of younger patients. When patients have good QOL, caregivers also had good QOL. PMID:24726867
Smeha, Luciane Najar; Oliveira, Micheli Viera de
Abstract: The present study intended to investigate the perception of young adults about loving relationships in the current society. For this research, was made a semistructured interview with eight young people of both sexes, aged between 18 and 23 years, and the data were analyzed in terms of content. As a result, young people showed that the current relationships are based on individuality, freedom, disposability, search for romance, gender equality and superficiality. What they look for ...
Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Christina; Jorgensen-Smith, Tammy; Ehlke, Sarah; Sosinski, Melanie; Monroe, Douglas; Thor, Jennifer
Sustaining a Traumatic Brain Injury results in familial strain due to the significant impact the injury has upon the role and function of individuals and their families at home and in the community. Using the Stress Process Model of Caregiving, a caregiver needs assessment survey was developed and conducted to better understand the needs of individuals with a Traumatic Brain Injury and their caregivers. Survey results indicate that caregivers experience many challenges including unmet needs in areas of relational supports such as maintaining relationships, long-term emotional and financial support for themselves and the survivor, and the need for a patient or caregiver advocate. Implications for future practice are presented.
Robustelli, Briana L; Newberry, Raeana E; Whisman, Mark A; Mittal, Vijay A
Studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have smaller social networks and less satisfying relationships. However, much is still unknown about the typical quantity and quality of social relationships in young adults during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period. Investigating these relationships holds significant importance for improving understanding of etiological processes, mapping the social environment, and highlighting treatment targets in a critical period. A total of 85 participants (44 UHR and 41 healthy controls) completed measures examining the participants' social relationships, social support, and loneliness. Mean differences between the UHR and healthy control participants and associations between social relationships and symptoms and functioning were examined. Results indicated significant differences between groups on several indices. Specifically, the UHR youth reported fewer close friends, less diverse social networks, less perceived social support, poorer relationship quality with family and friends, and more loneliness. Notably, within the UHR group, being lonely and having fewer and worse quality relationships was associated with greater symptom severity and lower overall functioning. This study suggests that youth at high-risk of developing psychosis have fewer and poorer quality social relationships. Interventions that focus on increasing the quantity and quality of young adults' social networks may be beneficial for this population.
Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D
Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.
Fabiola Yonte Huete
Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective is to determine the degree of burden in the main caregivers of dependent patients, to analyse the profile of informal caregivers and dependent patients. Their claims and help received with caring, the influence of mental deteriorate and duration of care giving regarding the burden of caregivers.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study amongst 50 caregivers and dependents. We used descriptive statistics and correlational studies. Results: 86 % of caregivers were women, middle aged, son/daughter of the dependent, married, with basic studies, no work outside the home, the average time in the role of caregiver was 16,96 hours a day and 2,1 free hours a day. 64 % of them received family support and 68 % wish to receive economic aid. It was found that for 38 % of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 34 % of them had a minimum burden and 28 % a greater burden.Conclusion: There are some caregivers with moderate or great burden. Our caregiver wishes to receive economic help. Our research shows that the decrease of mental health and the years of evolution do not have a significant statistically influence on caregivers. It is necessary prioritize the interventions and its recipients, provide solutions for caregivers with a greater burden, trying to keep away “caregiver syndrome”.
Full Text Available Orientation: Corporate survival mechanisms, like mergers, downsizing, restructuring and outsourcing, contribute to unemployment levels amongst adults. Psychological maturity seems to influence the quality of the career decisions that people make in these difficult circumstances. However, we do not know what their behavioural strengths are.Research objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric relationship between career thinking (negative and positive career thoughts and salutogenic functioning (locus of control and sense of coherence amongst unemployed adults.Motivation for study: Career decision research has consistently surveyed students to understand career indecision. Adults are not a homogenous group. Therefore, this trend may not reflect throughout the larger adult population. For this reason, the researchers conducted exploratory research into the nature of career indecision amongst non-student adults.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a quantitative design that included a four-instrument survey on a purposive sample of 225 Canadian unemployed and non-student adults who had not decided on a career. They calculated correlations and regressions.Main findings: The researchers reported significant relationships between the four constructs. They found that a sense of coherence predicted career thinking.Contribution/value-add: A sense of coherence, which includes comprehension, meaningfulness and manageability, acts as a facilitator of effective career thinking.Practical/managerial implications: During career assessment and guidance, the role of sense of coherence as a strength factor will indicate the person’s readiness to make important career decisions.
de Jong Gierveld, J.; Perlman, D.
The main research questions of this study were (1) How long have adults in the Netherlands and the United States known members of their nonkin networks? (2) What are the predictors of long-standing nonkin relationships? and (3) Which predictors are recognizable in both societies? The data came from
Tsai, Chun-Yen; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Cheng, Ying-Yao
This study investigated the relationship among adult affective factors, engagement in science, and scientific competencies. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to select 504 participants between the ages of 18 and 70 years. Data were collected through individual face-to-face interviews. The results of hierarchical regression…
New data from a national Dutch survey are used to examine the effects of divorce and repartnering on the relationships that fathers have with their adult children. Compared with divorced fathers who live alone, repartnered fathers have less frequent contact with their children, they exchange less su
Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven
We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…
J.M. Cramm (Jane); J.M. Hartgerink (Jacqueline); P.L. de Vreede (Paul); T.J.E.M. Bakker (Ton); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractThis study aimed to identify the relationship between self-management abilities, well-being and depression. Our study was conducted among older adults (>65 years of age) who were vulnerable to loss of function after hospital discharge. Three months after hospital admission, 296/456 patie
D.J.H.G. Wiegerink (Diana)
textabstractObjectives: To describe the development of romantic relationships and sexual experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. Regarding the ICF domains we investigated whether this development is associated with
Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.
A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…
Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela
We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…
Bell, Edward V.
Discusses relationships of drug items communicated by teenaged interviewees to teenaged and adult interviewers. The subjects were teenagers in East, Central and West Harlem. A pool of 298 interview tapes was gathered from which 70 tapes were randomly selected. Teenagers' explanations for drug use included 10 categories established by…
Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…
New data from a national Dutch survey are used to examine the effects of divorce and repartnering on the relationships that fathers have with their adult children. Compared with divorced fathers who live alone, repartnered fathers have less frequent contact with their children, they exchange less su
Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas
This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…
Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.
Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.
This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…
Full Text Available Background: Many factors impact caregivers' cognitive health and, by extension, their ability to provide care. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial factors and cognitive performance among dementia caregivers and established a virtual cohort of caregivers for future research. Methods: Data on 527 caregivers were collected via a Web-based survey that assessed cognitive performance. Caregiver data were compared to corresponding data from 527 age-, race-, gender-, and education-matched controls from a normative database. Caregiver self-reported sleep, stress, health, and social support were also assessed. Results: Caregivers performed significantly worse than controls on 3 of 5 cognitive subtests. Stress, sleep, perceived support, self-rated health, years of caregiving, race, and gender were significant predictors of cognitive performance. Conclusion: In this sample of dementia caregivers, psychosocial factors interacted in complex ways to impact cognitive performance. Further investigation is needed to better understand how these factors affect cognitive performance among caregivers. This could be accomplished by the establishment of a virtual cohort that facilitates the development of digital tools to support the evaluation and management of caregiver needs in a manner that helps them remain effective in their caregiving roles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Responding to acute illness symptoms can often be challenging for older adults. The primary objective of this study was to describe how community-dwelling older adults and their family members responded to symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Methods A qualitative study that used face-to-face semi-structured interviews to collect data from a purposeful sample of seniors aged 60+ and their family members living in a mid-sized Canadian city. Data analysis began with descriptive and interpretive coding, then advanced as the research team repeatedly compared emerging thematic categories to the raw data. Searches for disconfirming evidence and member checking through focus groups provided additional data and helped ensure rigour. Results Community-acquired pneumonia symptoms varied greatly among older adults, making decisions to seek care difficult for them and their family members. Both groups took varying amounts of time as they attempted to sort out what was wrong and then determine how best to respond. Even after they concluded something was wrong, older adults with confirmed pneumonia continued to wait for days, to over a week, before seeking medical care. Participants provided diverse reasons for this delay, including fear, social obligations (work, family, leisure, and accessibility barriers (time, place, systemic. Several older adults and family members regretted their delays in seeking help. Conclusion Treatment-seeking delay is a variable, multi-phased decision-making process that incorporates symptom assessment plus psychosocial and situational factors. Public health and health care professionals need to educate older adults about the potential causes and consequences of unnecessary waits. Such efforts may reduce the severity of community-acquired pneumonia upon presentation at clinics and hospitals, and that, in turn, could potentially improve health outcomes.
Strollo, S. E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Ward, R. E.
OBJECTIVE: This review investigates the relationship between leg muscle power and the chronic conditions of osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease among older adults. Current literature assessing the impact of chronic disease on leg power has not yet been comprehensively......), diabetes mellitus (n=5), and cardiovascular disease (n=6). Studies generally supported associations of lower leg power among older adults with chronic disease, although small sample sizes, cross-sectional data, homogenous populations, varied disease definitions, and inconsistent leg power methods limited...... measurements of leg power. Future larger studies of more diverse older adults with well-defined chronic disease using standard measures of leg power and interventions to improve leg power in these older adults with chronic disease are needed....
... back from Iraq, he depends on me.” “My wife has been diagnosed with MS.” We CAN help ... and I’m his primary caregiver.” “Since my wife’s stroke, I handle everything.” “It’s been 10 years ...
This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals. Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 12/23/2009.
Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak
Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.
Shen, April Chiung-Tao
This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…
The dependence scale has been designed to be sensitive to the overall care needs of the patient and is considered distinct from standard measures of functional ability in this regard. Little is known regarding the relationship between patient dependence and caregiver burden. We recruited 100 patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease or mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers through a memory clinic. Patient function, dependence, hours of care, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed. Dependence was significantly correlated with caregiver burden. Functional decline and dependence were most predictive of caregiver burden in patients with mild impairment while behavioral symptoms were most predictive in patients with moderate to severe disease. The dependence scale demonstrated good utility as a predictor of caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden should address patient dependence, functional decline, and behavioral symptoms while successful management of the latter becomes more critical with disease progression.
von Koch Lena
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the life satisfaction of the person with stroke combined with their caregiver, i.e. the dyad, despite the fact that life satisfaction is an important rehabilitation outcome. The aim of this study was to describe the dyads combined life satisfaction and to understand this in relationship to the perceived impact of stroke in everyday life and caregiver burden. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the life satisfaction of persons and their informal caregivers was measured in 81 dyads one year post stroke. Their global life satisfaction, measured with LiSat-11, was combined to a dyad score and the dyads were then categorized as satisfied, dissatisfied or discordant. The groups were compared and analyzed regarding levels of caregiver burden, measured with the Caregiver Burden scale, and the perceived impact of stroke in everyday life, measured with the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS. Results The satisfied dyads comprised 40%, dissatisfied 26% and those that were discordant 34%. The satisfied dyads reported a significantly lower impact of the stroke in everyday life compared with the dyads that were not satisfied. As expected, dyads that were not satisfied reported a significantly greater caregiver burden compared with the satisfied dyads. The discordant group was further broken down into a group of dissatisfied and satisfied caregivers. The caregivers that were not satisfied in the discordant group perceived a significantly greater level of caregiver burden compared with the satisfied group. Even caregivers who were satisfied with life but whose care recipients were not satisfied reported caregiver burden. Conclusions Measuring combined life satisfaction provides a unique focus and appears to be a feasible way of attaining the dyads' perspective. The findings suggest that those dyads with a discordant life satisfaction could be vulnerable because of the caregivers' reported caregiver burden. These findings
Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard
Objective Family caregivers of terminally ill patients are in a vulnerable position, and previous studies show that bereaved caregivers are at risk of psychological distress. Pre-loss grief symptoms seem to predict post-loss psychological distress, while preparedness for a looming loss tends...... to decrease distress. The aim of this nation-wide study was to investigate the association of both anticipatory grief symptoms and preparedness with psychological distress in bereaved family caregivers. Methods A list of all adult patients in Denmark receiving drug reimbursement for terminal illness...... months after the loss. The baseline questionnaire included a pre-loss version of the Prolonged Grief-13 and one question regarding caregiver preparedness, while the follow-up questionnaire contained the Prolonged Grief-13 and Beck’s Depression Inventory II. Results Of the contacted 9,512 patients 3...
Giger, Jarod T; Markward, Martha
This article reviews the literature on adults with serious mental illness, their caregivers, and smart home technology. The article provides compelling evidence for social workers to undertake research aimed at investigating caregivers' perceptions toward using smart home technology for care of adult family members or friends with a serious mental illness. Empirical support for using smart home technologies with adults with serious mental illness is provided, and recommendations for future social work research are offered.
Michael Gabriel Fetterolf
Full Text Available With biomedicine at the forefront of our culture's understanding of illness, true healing is often neglected. It has become common practice to place elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease in nursing homes or long-term care facilities that do not always regard the sufferers' well-being as a top priority. This article draws from familial caregiving roles as a basis for understanding personhood, which I take to be a bridge between the world of a caregiver and the world of an Alzheimer's sufferer. Furthermore, through the modeling of professional caregiving strategies, I show how one might form meaningful relationships in long-term care facilities, and likewise provide the aging and afflicted person with forms of healing.
Leblanc, A J; Driscoll, A K; Pearlin, L I
We present a stress process framework as a model for understanding how religiosity may influence the expansion of stress. Survey data from informal caregivers to a spouse with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia (n = 200) were analyzed to observe the relationships among three variables: (1) care-related stress, (2) religiosity, and (3) depression. This sample, which has a mean age of 73 years, demonstrates high rates of self-described religiosity, church attendance and frequency of prayer. Using these criteria, women and racial/ethnic minority caregivers are the most religious. In a series of multivariate analyses, we found strong evidence to suggest that there is an expansion of care-related stressors leading to depression in this sample. Religiosity, as measured here, appears to be largely unrelated to stress and stress expansion. We found no evidence to suggest that it moderates stress expansion. However, these data do suggest that one stressor--feelings of role overload--is correlated with greater levels of self-perceived religiosity, which among caregivers who have health problems of their own is associated with greater depressive symptomatology. Thus, for a sub-sample of these caregivers, we find weak evidence of a mediation effect wherein one subjective, non-organizational dimension of religiosity is a conduit of the harmful effects of stress (rather than a suppressor). Results and data limitations are discussed in relation to better assessing the role of religiosity and spirituality in the experience of the stress process.
Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H
Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.
Corti, Emily J; Johnson, Andrew R; Riddle, Hayley; Gasson, Natalie; Kane, Robert; Loftus, Andrea M
The present study examined the relationship between executive function (EF) and fine motor control in young and older healthy adults. Participants completed 3 measures of executive function; a spatial working memory (SWM) task, the Stockings of Cambridge task (planning), and the Intra-Dimensional Extra-Dimensional Set-Shift task (set-shifting). Fine motor control was assessed using 3 subtests of the Purdue Pegboard (unimanual, bimanual, sequencing). For the younger adults, there were no significant correlations between measures of EF and fine motor control. For the older adults, all EFs significantly correlated with all measures of fine motor control. Three separate regressions examined whether planning, SWM and set-shifting independently predicted unimanual, bimanual, and sequencing scores for the older adults. Planning was the primary predictor of performance on all three Purdue subtests. A multiple-groups mediation model examined whether planning predicted fine motor control scores independent of participants' age, suggesting that preservation of planning ability may support fine motor control in older adults. Planning remained a significant predictor of unimanual performance in the older age group, but not bimanual or sequencing performance. The findings are discussed in terms of compensation theory, whereby planning is a key compensatory resource for fine motor control in older adults.
Mussolin, Christophe; Martin, Romain; Schiltz, Christine
A large body of evidence indicates clear relationships between number and space processing in healthy and brain-damaged adults, as well as in children. The present paper addressed this issue regarding atypical math development. Adults with a diagnosis of dyscalculia (DYS) during childhood were compared to adults with average or high abilities in mathematics across two bisection tasks. Participants were presented with Arabic number triplets and had to judge either the number magnitude or the spatial location of the middle number relative to the two outer numbers. For the numerical judgment, adults with DYS were slower than both groups of control peers. They were also more strongly affected by the factors related to number magnitude such as the range of the triplets or the distance between the middle number and the real arithmetical mean. By contrast, adults with DYS were as accurate and fast as adults who never experienced math disability when they had to make a spatial judgment. Moreover, number-space congruency affected performance similarly in the three experimental groups. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit of number magnitude representation in DYS with a relative preservation of some spatial mechanisms in DYS. Results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect number-space interactions.
Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew
The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.
López, J; Romero-Moreno, R; Márquez-González, M; Losada, A
Although previous studies indicate a negative association between caregivers' anger and health, the potential mechanisms linking this relationship are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the potential mediating role of optimism in the relationship between anger and caregivers' physical health. Dementia caregivers (n = 108) were interviewed and filled out instruments assessing their anger (reaction), optimism and health (vitality). A mediational model was tested to determine whether optimism partially mediated the relationship between anger and vitality. Angry reaction was negatively associated with optimism and vitality; optimism was positively associated with vitality. Finally, the relationship between angry reaction and vitality decreased when optimism was entered simultaneously. A non-parametric bootstrap approach confirmed that optimism significantly mediated some of the relationship between angry reaction and vitality. These findings suggest that low optimism may help explain the association between caregivers' anger and reduced sense of vitality. The results provide a specific target for intervention with caregivers.
Bird, William A.; Martin, Michael J.; Tummons, John D.; Ball, Anna L.
The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore the day-to-day functioning of a successful urban school-based agriculture veterinary program. Findings indicated student success was a product of multiple youth-adult relationships created through communal environments. Adults served as mentors with whom students felt constant, caring…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine whether different types of caregiver support services are associated with different outcomes for male and female caregivers. Information was obtained on 148 caregivers’ use of three types of support services provided by government-contracted agencies: counseling and education services, respite and supplemental services, and financial services. Five caregiver outcomes were included. Use of counseling and education services and financial services was associated with better caregiver outcomes in female caregivers, but not male caregivers. Among caregivers using respite and supplemental types of services, male caregivers showed better outcomes than did female caregivers. Female caregivers who used respite and supplemental services showed worse outcomes in caregiver mastery and caregiver satisfaction than those who did not use the services. Male and female caregivers responded differently to the caregiver support service. Providing female caregivers with counseling services along with respite services may result in added benefits for female caregivers.
Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L
Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.
Harris, Grant M.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Allen, Rebecca S.; DeCoster, Jamie; Burgio, Louis D.
Purpose: Exemplary care (EC) is a new construct encompassing care behaviors that warrants further study within stress process models of dementia caregiving. Previous research has examined EC within the context of cognitively intact older adult care recipients (CRs) and their caregivers (CGs). This study sought to expand our knowledge of quality of…
Mugisha, Joseph; Scholten, Francien; Owilla, Sebastian; Naidoo, Nirmala; Seeley, Janet; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Boerma, Ties
Older caregivers have major caregiving responsibilities in countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic, but little is known about their own health and well-being. We conducted this study to assess the association of caregiving responsibilities and self-perceived burden with caregivers' health, HIV status, background characteristics and care-receiving among older people in South Western Uganda. Men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from existing cohort studies and clinic registers and interviewed at home. Health was measured through a composite score of health in eight domains, anthropometry and handgrip strength. Summary measures of caregiving responsibilities and self-reported burden were used to analyse the main associations. There were 510 participants, including 198 living with HIV. Four fifths of women and 66% of men were caregivers. Older respondents with no care responsibility had poorer scores on all health indicators (self-reported health score, body mass index and grip strength). Having a caregiving responsibility was not associated with poorer health status or quality of life. Notably, HIV-infected people, whether on antiretroviral treatment (ART) or not, had similar caregiving responsibilities and health status as others. The self-reported burden associated with caregiving was significantly associated with a poorer health score. One third of female caregivers were the single adult in the household with larger caregiving responsibilities. Many of these women are in the poorest wealth quartile of the households in the study and are therefore more likely to need assistance. Physical and financial supports were received by 70% and 63%, respectively. Those with larger caregiving responsibilities more frequently received support. Caregiving responsibilities were associated with better health status, greater satisfaction and quality of life. Older HIV-infected people, whether on ART or not, had similar caregiving responsibilities and self
Lathan, Corinna; Wallace, Angela S.; Shewbridge, Rita; Ng, Nicole; Morrison, Glenn; Resnick, Helaine E.
Background Many factors impact caregivers’ cognitive health and, by extension, their ability to provide care. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial factors and cognitive performance among dementia caregivers and established a virtual cohort of caregivers for future research. Methods Data on 527 caregivers were collected via a Web-based survey that assessed cognitive performance. Caregiver data were compared to corresponding data from 527 age-, race-, gender-, and education-matched controls from a normative database. Caregiver self-reported sleep, stress, health, and social support were also assessed. Results Caregivers performed significantly worse than controls on 3 of 5 cognitive subtests. Stress, sleep, perceived support, self-rated health, years of caregiving, race, and gender were significant predictors of cognitive performance. Conclusion In this sample of dementia caregivers, psychosocial factors interacted in complex ways to impact cognitive performance. Further investigation is needed to better understand how these factors affect cognitive performance among caregivers. This could be accomplished by the establishment of a virtual cohort that facilitates the development of digital tools to support the evaluation and management of caregiver needs in a manner that helps them remain effective in their caregiving roles. PMID:27099613
Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David
Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856
Clemans, Katherine H; Graber, Julia A; Bettencourt, Amie F
This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6 yrs). Factor analysis revealed two primary factors which corresponded to adult-directed and peer-directed respect orientations. Results suggested that adult-directed respect was associated with lower levels of aggression and social manipulation, whereas peer-directed respect was associated with higher levels of these behaviors. The role of peer-directed respect as a risk factor for negative social behavior in adolescence is discussed.
Brandt D Pence
Full Text Available Research has shown that aging is associated with increased systemic inflammation as well as a reduction in the strength of immune responses. However, little evidence exists linking the decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults with other health parameters. We sought to examine the relationship between cell-mediated immunity as measured in vivo by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to candida antigen and demographic and physiological variables in older (65-80 y.o. adults. Candida antigen response was not related to gender or obesity, or to a number of other physiological variables including fitness and body composition. However, positive responders had significantly lower serum C-reactive protein levels (CRP, p4.75 mg•L(-1. Therefore, positive responses to candida antigen in older adults appears to be related to lower levels of systemic inflammation.
Ogden, Lydia P
Shared themes connected to interpersonal relationships across the life courses of older adults with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses were identified in first-person life history narratives and explored in depth. Findings were developed through thematic narrative analysis of 35 interviews with 7 older adults currently in treatment for schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses. A combination of open-ended questions, life history calendars, and time diaries were used to structure interviews, and narrative and analytical development. Themes of relational losses, relational voids, relational adjustments, relational adaptations, and the need for solitude were identified and located as they occurred in patterns across the life course. Specific implications for theoretical development, practice, policy, and future research on interventions that address social recovery for older adults with schizophrenia are discussed.
Krupenevich, Rebecca L; Murray, Nick; Rider, Patrick M; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul
Since vision is used in studies of muscle force control, reduced muscle force control might be related to reduced visual ability. We investigated relationships between steadiness in eye movements and quadriceps muscle torque (a surrogate for force) during isometric contractions of constant and varying torques. Nineteen young adults with an average age of 20.7 years and 18 old adults with an average age of 71.6 years performed three vision tasks, three vision and torque tasks at 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and three vision and torque tasks at 54 nm. Age groups had identical torque steadiness (CV) in 40%-MVC and 54-nm conditions (p > .05). Old had similar vertical (p > .05) but decreased horizontal visual steadiness (SD) (p .05). We were unable to identify a substantial relationship between muscle torque steadiness and eye movement, as a component of visual steadiness, and conclude that reduced visual steadiness does not contribute to reduced muscle torque steadiness.
Woodhouse, Sarah; Ayers, Susan; Field, Andy P
There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N=9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρˆ=-.27), and a medium association, in the opposite direction, between insecure attachment and higher PTSD symptoms (ρˆ=.26). Attachment categories comprised of high levels of anxiety most strongly related to PTSD symptoms, with fearful attachment displaying the largest association (ρˆ=.44). Dismissing attachment was not significantly associated with PTSD symptoms. The relationship between insecure attachment and PTSD was moderated by type of PTSD measure (interview or questionnaire) and specific attachment category (e.g. secure, fearful). Results have theoretical and clinical significance.
McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Hu, Liang; Marquez, David X
We examined the structure of the expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model in a sample of older adults (N = 174; age, M = 66.7 years) across a 4-year period. A panel analysis revealed support for the indirect effects of physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy (SE) on physical self-worth and global esteem through subdomain levels of esteem. These relationships were consistent across the 4-year period. Over time, older adults reporting greater reductions in SE and PA also reported greater reductions in subdomain esteem. This is one of the first studies to examine these relationships longitudinally in the PA domain and offers further support for the hierarchical and multidimensional nature of self-esteem at the physical level. We recommend further testing of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model, with special attention being paid to assessing multiple aspects of PA and SE.
Mahasneh, Ahmad M; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Jawarneh, Mohammad S.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H
It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Cui, Yufei; Niu, Kaijun; Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Guan, Lei; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guo, Hui; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Background Isoflavones comprise a class of phytoestrogens that resemble human estrogen in chemical structure, and have weak estrogenic effects. Because estrogen modulates sleep duration and quality, we hypothesized that isoflavones would have a beneficial effect on sleep status in a way similar to estrogen. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep status in Japanese subjects. Methods Our study included 1076 Japanese adults ...
Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relation...
20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leaveblank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 3 Sep 97 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS HABERMAS ... HABERMAS ’ COGNITIVE INTERESTS: TEACHER AND STUDENT INTERESTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP IN AN ADULT EDUCATION SETTING Stephen Lee Butler Doctor of Education...cognitive interest theory of German philosopher Jhrgen Habermas provided the theoretical foundation for this research. Habernas believes that all
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.
Palazzolo, Kellie E; Roberto, Anthony J; Babin, Elizabeth A
This study examines the relationships between perceived and self-reported parent verbal aggression and their young adult children's intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration. Two hundred undergraduate students completed an in-person self-administered survey measuring IPV victimization and perpetration, as well as perceived parent verbal aggression. Three-hundred and eighty-six mail surveys were also sent to their parents; 79% of parents returned the surveys. Results indicate that perceived mother and father verbal aggression was related to higher levels of victimization and perpetration across several forms of IPV for both daughters and sons. The data appear to support theory that suggests parents of the same sex as their children are stronger models for aggressive behavior (Bandura, 1986). In addition, there were some differences in perceived and self-reported data for ratings of parent verbal aggression. Results of this investigation indicate that perceived parent communication has a significant impact on young adult children's victimization and perpetration of violence in intimate partner relationships. The findings also suggest that interventions aimed at developing and enhancing parent communication skills can help prevent or reduce the risk of young adult children becoming involved in violent relationships, as well as reducing risk factors for other adverse health problems.
Full Text Available Metabolic diseases in China have been on the rise in recent decades, partially due to reduced cereal consumption and excessive intake of low glycemic index (GI foods such as meat and oil. Although the relationship between dietary glycemic load (GL and various metabolic diseases has been extensively studied worldwide, it is unclear whether dietary GL is related to blood lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk in Chinese. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between dietary GL and blood lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk in hospitalized Chinese adults.Dietary GL in 2258 hospitalized Chinese adults was calculated based upon GI, carbohydrate content and daily intake of individual foods. In addition, fasting total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C data were collected. Multiple regression and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between dietary GL and plasma lipid levels or dyslipidemia risk.Dietary GL remained inversely associated with blood total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (P0.05.High GL diet, as represented by traditional Chinese dietary pattern, may contribute to reduced risk of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults.
Full Text Available With the increasing prevalence of people in developing countries who suffer strokes, the long-term care of people who have had a stroke and who are living with disabilities has substantial consequences for caregivers and their respective families. As the caregiver plays a pivotal role in the rehabilitation of the people who have had a stroke, the objectives of this study constitute an investigation into the complexities of caregiving, including both perceptions and experiences of the healthcare system. Semi-structured interviews were utilised to elicit post-stroke experiences of six caregivers. The challenge the South African context adds to these experiences was probed. The data were analysed qualitatively by thematic and content analysis. Prominent themes associated with caregiving included: role changes and relationship disruptions within the family, occupational and social implications, fatigue, anxiety, depression, loneliness, frustration as well as financial problems. Caregiver experiences were exacerbated by the inadequate support structures available. The results are interpreted within a biopsychosocial approach, concluding with the concerns raised by caregivers on the support they require from the healthcare system in order to provide home-based care. Opsomming Met die toenemende voorkoms van beroerte in ontwikkelende lande bring die langdurige versorging van pasiënte met gestremdheid beduidende gevolge vir sorggewers en hulle onderskeie gesinne mee. Aangesien die sorggewer ‘n sleutelrol in die rehabilitasie van die beroertepasiënt speel, behels die doelstellings van hierdie studie ‘n ondersoek na die verwikkeldhede van versorging, wat sowel persepsies as ondervinding van die gesondheidsorgstelsel insluit. Semi- gestruktureerde onderhoude is aangewend om die na-beroerte ondervindings van ses sorggewers te peil. Die uitdaging wat die Suid- Afrikaanse konteks tot hierdie ondervindings meebring is ondersoek. Die data is
Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz
Full Text Available Objectives: This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher plasma levels of phosphatidylcholine are associated with better performance on a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC that have been implicated in cognitive flexibility. Methods: We examined 72 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 in an observational, cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between blood biomarkers of phosphatidylcholine, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test, and gray matter structure of regions within the PFC. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions and we controlled for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index.Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the PFC, the left inferior PFC (Brodmann’s Area 45, mediates the relationship between phosphatidylcholine blood biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that the inferior PFC acts as a mediator of the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and cognitive flexibility in cognitively intact older adults. This report demonstrates a novel structural mediation between plasma phosphatidylcholine levels and cognitive flexibility. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms underlying this mediation, including phosphatidylcholine-dependent cell membrane integrity of the inferior PFC and phosphatidylcholine-dependent cholinergic projections to the inferior PFC.
Rathier, Lucille A; Davis, Jennifer Duncan; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Tremont, Geoffrey
The degree of depression experienced by caregivers of individuals with dementia was examined in relation to religious coping strategies, religious practice, and spirituality in the framework of the stress and coping model. Caregivers of 191 persons with dementia completed the Religious Coping Scale, self-report measures of religious practices and spirituality, burden, and depression. There was no evidence that any religious coping strategy or religious practice moderated the relationship between caregiving stress and depression. Certain types of religious coping strategies had a direct effect on depression. Higher levels of religious coping working with God were associated with decreased depression, whereas higher levels of religious coping working through God were associated with increased depression. Higher burden, lower overall caregiver health rating, and worse reactions to memory and behavior problems were associated with higher levels of depression. Frequency of prayer and the importance of spirituality were weakly associated with lower levels of depression.
Griffin, Joan M; Lee, Minji K; Bangerter, Lauren R; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Friedemann-Sánchez, Greta; Phelan, Sean M; Carlson, Kathleen F; Meis, Laura A
Veterans who survive multiple traumatic injuries, including traumatic brain injuries (TBI), must often rely on family caregivers for ongoing care and support with reintegration. Understanding factors associated with caregiving that help or harm caregivers' health is critical for identifying appropriate and effective interventions that support caregiver health and promote the provision of quality care to veterans. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the Family and Caregiver Experiences Study, a survey of 564 caregivers caring for veterans who served after September 11, 2001, survived TBI/polytrauma during service, and received inpatient rehabilitation care in a Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between caregiver stress (i.e., veterans' neurobehavioral problems and intensity of care required), and caregiver well-being (i.e., caregiver burden and mental health). Analyses also examined how intrapersonal, family or social, and financial resources mediate and moderate the relationship between caregiver stress and well-being. Results indicate that veterans' neurobehavioral problems and intensity of required care were associated with more caregiver burden, and more burden was associated with poor mental health. Intrapersonal and family or social resources mediated the relationship between veteran functioning and mental health. Family or social resources also moderated the relationship between care intensity and burden. The model explained a moderate amount of variability in burden (59%) and a substantial amount in mental health (75%). We conclude that caregivers of veterans with neurobehavioral problems who require intense care are at risk for burden and poor mental health. Increasing resources to bolster family or social resources may reduce risks. (PsycINFO Database Record
Schwandt, Hilary M; Underwood, Carol
Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to protect them. This study evaluates a program aimed at strengthening adult-child relationships to reduce girls' vulnerability to HIV in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. In addition to an extensive process evaluation, a cross-sectional post-intervention survey was conducted in the three countries. The total sample size was 1418 adolescent girls (ages 11-18). Bivariate and multilevel, multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between adult program exposure and adult-child relationship improvement. In Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique, girls whose mothers and fathers participated in the program, as compared to those whose parents did not participate in the program, were significantly more likely to report that their relationships with their parents had improved. Research has shown the important role that adults can play in the mitigation of youth risk taking behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Caregivers constitute an important informal workforce, often undervalued, facing challenges to maintain their caring role, health and wellbeing. Little is known about caregivers in middle-income countries like Thailand. This study investigates the physical and mental health of Thai adult caregivers. Methods This report derives from distance-learning students working and residing throughout Thailand and recruited for a health-risk transition study in 2005 (N=87,134 from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. The cohort follow-up questionnaire in 2009 (N = 60,569 includes questions on caregiver status which were not available in 2005; accordingly, this study is confined to analysis of the 2009 data. We report cross-sectional associations between caregiver status and health. Results Among the study participants in 2009, 27.5% reported being part-time caregivers and 6.6% reported being full-time caregivers. Compared to male non-caregivers, being a part-time or full-time male caregiver was associated with lower back pain (covariate-Adjusted Odds Ratios, AOR 1.36 and 1.67, with poor psychological health (AOR 1.16 and 1.68, but not with poor self-assessed health. Compared to female non-caregivers, being a part- or full-time female caregiver was associated with lower back pain (AOR 1.47 and 1.84, psychological distress (AOR 1.32 and 1.52, and poor self-assessed health (AOR 1.21 and 1.34. Conclusions Adult caregivers in Thailand experienced a consistent adverse physical and mental health burden. A dose–response effect was evident, with odds ratios higher for full-time caregivers than for part-time, and non-caregivers. Our findings should raise awareness of caregivers, their unmet needs, and support required in Thailand and other similar middle-income countries.
Miranda, Darien; Favela, Jesus; Ibarra, Catalina; Cruz, Netzahualcoyotl
Caring for people with dementia imposes significant stress on family members and caregivers. Often, these informal caregivers have no coping strategy to deal with these behaviors. Anxiety and stress episodes are often triggered by problematic behaviors exhibited by the person who suffers from dementia. Detecting these behaviors could help them in dealing with them and reduce caregiver burden. However, work on anxiety detection using physiological signals has mostly been done under controlled conditions. In this paper we describe an experiment aimed at inducing anxiety among caregivers of people with dementia under naturalistic conditions. We report an experiment, using the naturalistic enactment technique, in which 10 subjects were asked to care for an older adult who acts as if she experiences dementia. We record physiological signals from the participants (GSR, HR, EEG) during the sessions that lasted for approximately 30 min. We explain how we obtained ground truth from self-report and observation data. We conducted two different tests using the Support Vector Machine technique. We obtained an average precision of 77.8 % and 38.1 % recall when classifying two different possible states: "Anxious" and "Not anxious". Analysis of the data provides evidence that the experiment elicits state anxiety and that it can be detected using wearable sensors. Furthermore, if episodes of problematic behaviors can also be detected, the recognition of anxiety in the caregiver can be improved, leading to the enactment of appropriate interventions to help caregivers cope with anxiety episodes.
Hafen, Christopher A; Spilker, Ann; Chango, Joanna; Marston, Emily S; Allen, Joseph P
Successfully navigating entry into romantic relationships is a key task in adolescence, which sensitivity to rejection can make difficult to accomplish. This study uses multi-informant data from a community sample of 180 adolescents assessed repeatedly from age 16 to 22. Individuals with elevated levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 were less likely to have a romantic partner at age 22, reported more anxiety and avoidance when they did have relationships, and were observed to be more negative in their interactions with romantic partners. In addition, females whose rejection sensitivity increased during late adolescence were more likely to adopt a submissive pattern within adult romantic relationships, further suggesting a pattern in which rejection sensitivity forecasts difficulties.
Chng, Samuel C W; Fassnacht, Daniel B
The present study explored the relationships between different categories of parental comments (negative, positive, and importance and comparison), body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating concerns in 383 young adults (69% female) in Singapore. Self-report measures of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating were completed with results indicating that females, compared to males, reported significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and negative maternal and positive paternal comments. Although the relationships found between the different categories of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating differed by gender, negative maternal comments emerged as a consistent predictor of disordered eating for both genders. This relationship was partially mediated by body dissatisfaction. The findings highlight the role of parental influence through weight-related comments on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and the need for further exploration of gender-specific pathways of parental influence.
Craig, Jordan J; Bruetsch, Adam; Huisinga, Jessie M
Understanding upper body and lower body segment relationships may be an important step in assessing stability during gait. This study explored the relationship between acceleration patterns at the trunk and at the foot during treadmill walking at self-selected pace in healthy adults. Forty healthy subjects walked on a treadmill for 3 minutes at self-selected speed. Root mean square (RMS) and approximate entropy (ApEn) were derived from the acceleration time series at the trunk and at the foot in the frontal and sagittal plane. RMS of accelerations at the trunk were strongly correlated with RMS values at the foot in the sagittal plane (r=0.883, psegment motion, and assessing relationships between upper and lower body motion may provide a more comprehensive evaluation of overall stability.
Bernabé, E; Vehkalahti, M M; Sheiham, A; Lundqvist, A; Suominen, A L
Dental caries is considered a diet-mediated disease, as sugars are essential in the caries process. However, some gaps in knowledge about the sugars-caries relationship still need addressing. This longitudinal study aimed to explore 1) the shape of the dose-response association between sugars intake and caries in adults, 2) the relative contribution of frequency and amount of sugars intake to caries levels, and 3) whether the association between sugars intake and caries varies by exposure to fluoride toothpaste. We used data from 1,702 dentate adults who participated in at least 2 of 3 surveys in Finland (Health 2000, 2004/05 Follow-up Study of Adults' Oral Health, and Health 2011). Frequency and amount of sugars intake were measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The DMFT index was the repeated outcome measure. Data were analyzed with fractional polynomials and linear mixed effects models. None of the 43 fractional polynomials tested provided a better fit to the data than the simpler linear model. In a mutually adjusted linear mixed effects model, the amount of, but not the frequency of, sugars intake was significantly associated with DMFT throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the longitudinal association between amount of sugars intake and DMFT was weaker in adults who used fluoride toothpaste daily than in those using it less often than daily. The findings of this longitudinal study among Finnish adults suggest a linear dose-response relationship between sugars and caries, with amount of intake being more important than frequency of ingestion. Also, daily use of fluoride toothpaste reduced but did not eliminate the association between amount of sugars intake and dental caries.
Nogueira, Paula Cristina; Rabeh, Soraia Assad Nasbine; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher; Haas, Vanderlei José
A sectional study that had as its objectives to assess caregiver burden of for caregivers of individuals with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) and its association with sociodemographic variables (age and sex), health status (self-reported illnesses) and caregiver characteristics (care time in years and daily hours of care). Data were collected by consultation of patient files and individual interviews at home using the instrument, Caregiver Burden Scale (CBScale). The results showed that most burden occurred in the domains: environment, disappointment and general strain. Presenting health problem (for all domains of the CBScale) and spending more hours per day in care (in the domain disappointment) represented the variables associated with burden. Studies of a more confirmatory nature than exploratory between the variables studied can be used to measure the burden obtained in this population of caregivers of individuals with TSCI.
... and Decision-Making For Seniors: How You Can Help Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... and online resources ( www.nia.nih.gov ) to help older adults, their loved ones, and caregivers manage ...
Cantor, Marjorie H.
Reviews family support to the elderly in America. The seven articles discuss stress factors affecting caregivers, helping behavior of adult children, racial and cohort variables, the family as a support resource in nursing home care, and improving helping skills. (JAC)
Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz
Full Text Available Introduction: Although diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between dietary nutrients and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between a carotenoid important for brain health across the lifespan, lutein, and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher serum levels of lutein are associated with better performance on a task of crystallized intelligence, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the temporal cortex. This investigation aims to contribute to a growing line of evidence, which suggests that particular nutrients may slow or prevent aspects of cognitive decline by targeting specific features of brain aging.Methods: We examined 75 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 to investigate the relationship between serum lutein, tests of crystallized intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and gray matter volume of regions within the temporal cortex. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions to control for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index.Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the temporal cortex, the right parahippocampal cortex (Brodmann’s Area 34, partially mediates the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence. Conclusion: These results suggest that the parahippocampal cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. Prior findings substantiate the individual relationships reported within the mediation, specifically the links between (i serum lutein and temporal cortex structure, (ii serum lutein and crystallized intelligence, and (iii parahippocampal cortex structure
Lucinda K. Bell
Full Text Available Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415. Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities, and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04, 1.29. Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden.
Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B
Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.
Gradari, Simona; Pérez-Domper, Paloma; Butler, Ray G; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G; Trejo, José Luis
The influence of the learning process on the persistence of the newly acquired behavior is relevant both for our knowledge of the learning/memory mechanisms and for the educational policy. However, it is unclear whether during an operant conditioning process with a continuous reinforcement paradigm, individual differences in acquisition are also associated to differences in persistence of the acquired behavior. In parallel, adult neurogenesis has been implicated in spatial learning and memory, but the specific role of the immature neurons born in the adult brain is not well known for this process. We have addressed both questions by analyzing the relationship between water maze task acquisition scores, the persistence of the acquired behavior, and the size of the different subpopulations of immature neurons in the adult murine hippocampus. We have found that task acquisition and persistence rates were negatively correlated: the faster the animals find the water maze platform at the end of acquisition stage, the less they persist in searching for it at the learned position in a subsequent non-reinforced trial; accordingly, the correlation in the number of some new neurons' subpopulations and the acquisition rate is negative while with persistence in acquired behavior is positive. These findings reveal an unexpected relationship between the efficiency to learn a task and the persistence of the new behavior after a non-reinforcement paradigm, and suggest that the immature neurons might be involved in different roles in acquisition and persistence/extinction of a learning task. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available As the population of older adults grows, their economic choices will have increasing impact on society. Research on the effects of aging on intertemporal decisions shows inconsistent, often opposing results, indicating that yet unexplored factors might play an essential role in guiding one's choices. Recent studies suggest that episodic future thinking, which is based on the same neural network involved in episodic memory functions, leads to reductions in discounting of future rewards. As episodic memory functioning declines with normal aging, but to greatly variable degrees, individual differences in delay discounting might be due to individual differences in the vitality of this memory system in older adults. We investigated this hypothesis, using a sample of healthy older adults who completed an intertemporal choice task as well as two episodic memory tasks. We found no clear evidence for a relationship between episodic memory performance and delay discounting in older adults. However, when additionally considering gender differences, we found an interaction effect of gender and autobiographical memory on delay discounting: while men with higher memory scores showed less delay discounting, women with higher memory scores tended to discount the future more. We speculate that this gender effect might stem from the gender-specific use of different modal representation formats (i.e. temporal or visual during assessment of intertemporal choice options.
Full Text Available Objective. Human evidence is limited regarding the interaction between oxidative stress biomarkers and chemokines, especially in a population of adults without overt clinical disease. The current study aims to examine the possible relationships of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation markers with several chemokines in adults. Methods. We assessed cross-sectional associations of total antioxidant status (TAS and two lipid peroxidation markers malondialdehyde (MDA and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS with a suite of serum chemokines, including CXCL-1 (GRO-α, CXCL-8 (IL-8, CXCL-10 (IP-10, CCL-2 (MCP-1, CCL-5 (RANTES, CCL-8 (MCP-2, CCL-11 (Eotaxin-1, and CCL-17 (TARC, among 104 Chinese adults without serious preexisting clinical conditions in Beijing before 2008 Olympics. Results. TAS showed significantly positive correlations with MCP-1 (r=0.15751, P=0.0014, MCP-2 (r=0.3721, P=0.0001, Eotaxin-1 (r=0.39598, P<0.0001, and TARC (r=0.27149, P=0.0053. The positive correlations remained unchanged after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. No associations were found between any of the chemokines measured in this study and MDA or TBARS. Similar patterns were observed when the analyses were limited to nonsmokers. Conclusion. Total antioxidant status is positively associated with several chemokines in this adult population.
Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David
Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder.
Marchant, Caroline; O'Donohoe, Stephanie
The transition to adulthood, often accompanied by an emptying of the family nest, has implications for family relationships, identities and consumption practices. Despite this, the voices and experiences of emerging adults are largely missing from the literature on family consumption. Emerging adult families typically combine digital natives and digital immigrants, but little is known about how their interactions around digital communications technology relate to emerging adult preoccupations...
Epstein, Bernice A.; And Others
Four articles in this special section report on (1) Arizona curriculum for home-based caregivers of the elderly in rural communities (Epstein, Koenig); (2) educational programs for nursing home caregivers (Marsden); (3) extension programs for helping low-income elderly with money management (Koonce); and (4) energy education for the elderly…
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
Jahn, Danielle R.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.
Older adults die by suicide at very high rates, and previous research indicates that perceived burdensomeness may contribute to deaths by suicide. In this study, the impact of the nature of relationships on perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation was examined. Results indicated that older adults' perceptions of burden on younger generations…
Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.
Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…
Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.; Stam, Henk J.; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Roebroeck, Marij E.
Purpose: To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. Method: A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76
Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…
Awadalla Abdel W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research interest in the quality of life (QOL of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS has been spurred by the need to broaden outcome measures. Far less of this interest has been directed at the family caregivers, who bear most of the burden of care. The objectives of the study were: First, to compare the subjective QOL of family caregivers of persons with relapsing remitting and progressive MS, with those of a matched general population sample and caregivers of diabetes and psychiatric patients. Second, to assess the relationship of QOL with caregiver attitudes to MS and patient's variables. Methods Consecutive MS clinic attendees were assessed with the 26 – item WHOQOL Instrument, and for depression and disability. Similarly, caregivers independently rated their own QOL as well as their impression of patients' QOL and attitudes to patients' illness. Results The 170 caregivers, mean age 35.7 years, had no significant diagnostic differences in QOL domain scores and attitudes to MS. Caregivers had significantly lower QOL than the general population control group for five out of six domains and the general facet (P Conclusion Caregivers need specific attention if they are less educated, unemployed, afraid of having MS and caring for patients with longer duration of illness and less education. In particular, attention to patients' depression and disability could improve caregivers' QOL. Caregivers need specific programs to address fear of having MS, negative attitudes to illness and their unmet needs.
Robin L. Marcus
Full Text Available It is intuitive to think that sarcopenia should be associated with declines in physical function though recent evidence questions this assertion. This study investigated the relationship between absolute and relative sarcopenia, with physical performance in 202 nonobese (mean BMI =26.6 kg/ht2 community-dwelling older (mean age = 73.8±5.9 years adults. While absolute sarcopenia (appendicular skeletal mass (ASM/ht2 was either not associated, or weakly associated with physical performance, relative sarcopenia (ASM/kg demonstrated moderate (r=0.31 to r=0.51, P<0.01 relationships with performance outcomes in both males and females. Knee extension strength (r=0.27 and leg extension power (r=0.41 were both related to absolute sarcopenia (P<0.001 in females and not in males. Strength and power were associated with relative sarcopenia in both sexes (from r=0.47 to r=0.67, P<0.001. The ratio of lean mass to total body mass, that is, relative sarcopenia, is an important consideration relative to physical function in older adults even in the absence of obesity. Stratifying these individuals into equal tertiles of total body fat revealed a trend of diminished regression coefficients across each incrementally higher fat grouping for performance measures, providing further evidence that total body fat modulates the relationship between sarcopenia and physical function.
Stewart, Norma J; Morgan, Debra G; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Wickenhauser, Joseph P; Cammer, Allison; Minish, Duane; O'Connell, Megan E; Hayduk, Leslie A
Forecasts of increasing prevalence of dementia in rural settings, coupled with reliance on family caregiver support, indicate that a greater understanding of caregiver distress in these contexts is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine family caregiver burden and severity of distress on the day that a family member was diagnosed with dementia at a memory clinic that serves a rural population. Participants in this retrospective study were 231 primary family caregivers of a rural community-dwelling person with dementia. On the diagnostic day, women reported more burden and severity of distress than men and spouses reported more severity of distress than adult children. A structural equation model was not supported for the entire sample, but was supported for women caregivers only (n = 161). Caregiver distress related to dementia-specific behaviors explained both global distress and burden. Patients' functional decline was related to caregiver burden.
Williams, Rihana S.; Ari, Omer; Dortch, Cedrick
African American adolescents from families with low levels of human capital (i.e., caregiver level of education) are at risk for poor early adult outcomes. The current study examined the relationships among 48 African American high school students' literacy performance (e.g., reading and vocabulary), their implicit views of intelligence, their…
Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara
Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.
Full Text Available Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8% Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5 completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.
This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.
Day, Jennifer R; Anderson, Ruth A
Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue.
Jennifer R. Day
Full Text Available Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue.
Sutter, Megan; Perrin, Paul B; Chang, Yu-Ping; Hoyos, Guillermo Ramirez; Buraye, Jaqueline Arabia; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos
This cross-sectional, quantitative, self-report study examined the relationship between family dynamics (cohesion, flexibility, pathology/ functioning, communication, family satisfaction, and empathy) and mental health (depression, burden, stress, and satisfaction with life [SWL]) in 90 dementia caregivers from Colombia. Hierarchical multiple regressions controlling for caregiver demographics found that family dynamics were significantly associated with caregiver depression, stress, and SWL and marginally associated with burden. Within these regressions, empathy was uniquely associated with stress; flexibility with depression and marginally with SWL; and family communication marginally with burden and stress. Nearly all family dynamic variables were bivariately associated with caregiver mental health variables, such that caregivers had stronger mental health when their family dynamics were healthy. Family-systems interventions in global regions with high levels of familism like that in the current study may improve family empathy, flexibility, and communication, thereby producing better caregiver mental health and better informal care for people with dementia.
Polaro, Sandra Helena Isse; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Nassar, Silvia Modesto; Lopes, Márcia Maria Bragança; Ferreira, Viviane Ferraz; Monteiro, Hellen Karinna
This study aimed to determine the pattern of family functioning on everyday care relationships of adults in the fourth age. This is a study of diagnostic-evaluative nature of adults with 80 or more years old who depend on care, and of their relatives as caregivers. The participants were selected among the registered patients of a Family Health Unit in a district in the suburbs of Belém-PA, Brazil. They were evaluated according to the dynamics of their family, and quality of life related health lifestyle. Most of the elderly rated their families with good functionality. However, data on the elderly and caregivers' quality of life and caregivers' life style only reached the median level, showing some difficulty in the family functioning system. It was concluded that the multiple results obtained through the assessments indicate some practical implications of care to the family unity and confirm the need for multidimensional assessment about the family intervention.
Burgener, S C; Jirovec, M; Murrell, L; Barton, D
This study describes the relationship between caregiver and elder behavior in institutionalized, cognitively impaired, elderly persons. A repeated-measures design was used to observe interactive behaviors between caregivers and demented elders within three caregiving situations (dressing, toileting, and bathing) and an interpersonal contact in two long-term care facilities. During observations, the caregiver's behaviors were rated using the Interaction Behavior Measure and Health Professional's-Geriatric Patient Behavior Rating scale, whereas the elder's behaviors were rated using a modified version of the Interaction Behavior Measure. The study included 116 subjects (58 elders and 58 caregivers), with each unique caregiver/elder pair being observed in the four situations. All elder behaviors varied according to situation type, with the most difficult elder behaviors occurring during bathing. Ten of the 12 caregiver behaviors included in the analysis varied by situation type. Significant relationships were systematically found between the caregiver's relaxed and smiling behavior and the elder's calm/functional behaviors, r = .42 (dressing) to r = .46 (toileting) for caregiver relaxed behavior and r = .34 (bathing) to r = .58 (dressing) for smiling. The elder's behavior did not vary by type of nursing unit (special dementia unit or general nursing unit), or interruptions to the interaction.
MacNeil, Gordon; Kosberg, Jordan I.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Dooley, W. Keith; DeCoster, Jamie; Williamson, Gail M.
Purpose: Caregivers feeling stress and experiencing mental health problems can be at risk for engaging in abusive acts against elderly care recipients. Potentially harmful behavior (PHB) was used as a measure of caregivers' engagement in, or fear of engagement in, behavior that places dependent care recipients at risk of physical and/or…
Kenneth Ayuurebobi Ae-Ngibise
Full Text Available Background: Families and friends who give care to people with mental disorders (MDs are affected in a variety of ways and degrees. The interplay of caregiving consequences: poverty, discrimination and stigma, lack of support from others, diminished social relationships, depression, emotional trauma, and poor or interrupted sleep are associated caregiver burden. Objective: The burden of care on caregivers of people living with MDs was assessed in two districts located in the middle part of Ghana. Coping strategies and available support for caregivers of MDs were also assessed. Design: A qualitative study was carried out involving 75 caregivers of participants with MDs registered within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. Data were gathered from caregivers about their experiences in providing care for their relations with MDs. Results: Caregivers reported various degrees of burden, which included financial, social exclusion, emotional, depression, and inadequate time for other social responsibilities. Responsibilities around caregiving were mostly shared among close relatives but to a varying and limited extent. Religious prayers and the anticipation of cure were the main coping strategies adopted by caregivers, with expectation of new treatments being discovered. Conclusions: Emotional distress, stigma, financial burden, lack of support networks, social exclusion, health impact, and absence of decentralised mental health services were experienced by family caregivers. These findings highlight the need for interventions to support people with MDs and their caregivers. This might include policy development and implementation that will decentralise mental health care provision including psychosocial support for caregivers. This will ameliorate families’ financial and emotional burden, facilitate early diagnosis and management, reduce travel time to seek care, and improve the quality of life of family caregivers of persons
Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success.
Koschorke, Mirja; Padmavati, R; Kumar, Shuba; Cohen, Alex; Weiss, Helen A; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Pereira, Jesina; Naik, Smita; John, Sujit; Dabholkar, Hamid; Balaji, Madhumitha; Chavan, Animish; Varghese, Mathew; Thara, R; Patel, Vikram; Thornicroft, Graham
Stigma associated with schizophrenia significantly affects family caregivers, yet few studies have examined the nature and determinants of family stigma and its relationship to their knowledge about the condition. This paper describes the experiences and determinants of stigma reported by the primary caregivers of people living with schizophrenia (PLS) in India. The study used mixed methods and was nested in a randomised controlled trial of community care for people with schizophrenia. Between November 2009 and October 2010, data on caregiver stigma and functional outcomes were collected from a sample of 282 PLS-caregiver dyads. In addition, 36 in-depth-interviews were conducted with caregivers. Quantitative findings indicate that 'high caregiver stigma' was reported by a significant minority of caregivers (21%) and that many felt uncomfortable to disclose their family member's condition (45%). Caregiver stigma was independently associated with higher levels of positive symptoms of schizophrenia, higher levels of disability, younger PLS age, household education at secondary school level and research site. Knowledge about schizophrenia was not associated with caregiver stigma. Qualitative data illustrate the various ways in which stigma affected the lives of family caregivers and reveal relevant links between caregiver-stigma related themes ('others finding out', 'negative reactions' and 'negative feelings and views about the self') and other themes in the data. Findings highlight the need for interventions that address both the needs of PLS and their family caregivers. Qualitative data also illustrate the complexities surrounding the relationship between knowledge and stigma and suggest that providing 'knowledge about schizophrenia' may influence the process of stigmatisation in both positive and negative ways. We posit that educational interventions need to consider context-specific factors when choosing anti-stigma-messages to be conveyed. Our findings suggest
Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.
The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…
This study used an adaptation of the caregivers' stress model to examine the positive aspects of caregiving with 113 Chinese American family caregivers who provided care to their elderly relatives. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that combination of caregiver background characteristics, stressors, and cultural values had direct effects on positive aspects of caregiving. Unlike previous studies in which cultural values were not measured, this study found that cultural values helped explain positive aspects of caregiving. Specifically, cultural values, caregiver's health, and caregiver's age predicted positive aspects of caregiving. Service implications are discussed based upon the findings.
Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K
A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness.
Pearson, Jane; And Others
Examined aspects of patient status and caregiver perceptions in 46 pairs of elderly psychiatric patients and their caregivers. Found that significant predictors of caregiver burden included disruptive patient behavior, caregiver distress, and patients' functional limitations. Findings suggest that predictors of caregiver burden vary with patient…
Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier
Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are one of the major health problems that effect the quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between quality of life (Short Form-12 and the risk factors of falls (balance, functional mobility, proprioception, muscle strength, flexibility and fear of falling in older adults. Methods One hundred sixteen people aged 65 or older and living in the T.C. Emekli Sandigi Narlidere nursing home participated in the study. Balance (Berg Balance test, functional mobility (Timed Up and Go, proprioception (joint position sense, muscle strength (back/leg dynamometer, flexibility (sit and reach and fear of falling (Visual Analogue Scale were assessed as risk factors for falls. The quality of life was measured by Short Form-12 (SF-12. Results A strong positive correlation was observed between Physical Health Component Summary of SF-12, General Health Perception and balance, muscle strength. Proprioception and flexibility did not correlated with SF-12 (p > 0.05. There was negative correlation between Physical Health Component Summary of SF-12, General Health Perception and fear of falling, functional mobility (p Conclusion We concluded that the risk factors for falls (balance, functional mobility, muscle strength, fear of falling in older adults are associated with quality of life while flexibility and proprioception are not.
Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.
Geoffrey A Kerchner
Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.
Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C
Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope.
Jennifer T. S. Penafortes
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a hereditary condition in which lung disease affects all patients. In addition to pulmonary involvement, the multisystemic components of CF cause significant physical limitations. However, the impact of lung function on balance control in CF has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess body balance in adults with CF and to test its possible associations with lung function, nutritional status, and functional capacity. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which 14 adults with CF underwent pulmonary function testing (spirometry, body plethysmography, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco, respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD, Berg balance scale (BBS, nutritional analysis (body mass index and bioelectrical impedance, and stabilometry. Body balance was quantified using stabilometry; all participants performed the following two trials: opened base, eyes open (OBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. RESULTS: In stabilometry, the median for the lateral range and anterior-posterior range in the CBEC trial was 0.10 (0.08-0.11 and 0.13 (0.11-0.22, respectively (p<0.05. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP correlated inversely with the lateral standard deviation (ρ=–0.61; p<0.05 as the DLco correlated positively with the anterior-posterior range (ρ=0.54; p<0.05. There were significant relationships between body composition indexes and almost all stabilometric variables measured. There were no relationships of the BBS and 6MWD with the stabilometric variables. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with CF, imbalance occurs mainly in the anterior-posterior direction and is especially associated with body composition.
Rui Wu; Xilong Zhang; Ling Hu; Enzhi Jia
Objective:To investigate the relationship between sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS) and some cardiovascular disorders in adult habitual snorers as well as the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure(NCPAP) on those with OSAHS.Methods:With the use of polysomnography,262 adult habitual snorers were examined and divided into the OSAHS group and the Non-OSAHS group (control).Using ambulatory electrocardiogram and blood pressure measurement,daily nocturnal rhythm of blood pressure,hypertension,heart rate variability,some arrythmias and angina pectoris of coronary heart disease were monitored and compared between the two groups,before and after 14 days of treatment with NCPAP in the OSAHS group.Results.This study indicated a higher incidence (39.6%) of OSAHS in adult snorers and demonstrated that there was a significantly higher incidence of hypertension,disappearance of the daily nocturnal rhythm of blood pressure,poor effectiveness of nitrate on angina pcctoris of coronary heart disease,decreased heart rate variability during sleep,increased arrythmias and lower SpO levels in the OSAHS group than in the Non-OSAHS group.After NCPAP treatment during sleep,snoring control,significantly higher SpO and lower apnea hypopnea indices were achieved in the OSAHS group;heart rate variability and dally nocturnal rhythm of blood pressure returned to normal levels.Conclusion:The results of this research suggested that there was a close relationship between the development of OSAHS and some cardiovascular disorders.Furthermore,NCPAP treatment was effective not only on OSAHS but also on coexisting cardiovascular disorders.
Røthing, Merete; Malterud, Kirsti; Frich, Jan C
's illness may be unpredictable or not well understood by some of those involved in the treatment and care. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and expectations of family caregivers for persons with Huntington's disease concerning collaboration with healthcare professionals. METHODS......BACKGROUND: Collaboration between family caregivers and health professionals in specialised hospitals or community-based primary healthcare systems can be challenging. During the course of severe chronic disease, several health professionals might be involved at a given time, and the patient......: To shed light on collaboration from the perspectives of family caregivers, we conducted an explorative, qualitative interview study with 15 adult participants experienced from caring for family members in all stages of Huntington's disease. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation, a cross...
Foster, Rebecca H; Kozachek, Stephanie; Stern, Marilyn; Elsea, Sarah H
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder characterized by numerous challenges, including intellectual disability, speech delay, decreased pain sensitivity, sleep disturbances, hyperactivity, mood instability, and self-injury. Caregivers must readily adapt to the ever-changing needs of the child. Due to these demands, caregivers may encounter difficulties maintaining their own level of well-being. Thus, a total of 112 primary caregivers (i.e., parents) of individuals diagnosed with SMS responded to online questionnaires to assess demographic and psychosocial factors, such as perceptions of child health vulnerability, benefit finding, sleep behaviors, anxiety and depression symptomatology, and caregiver satisfaction and self-efficacy, which may be related to caregiver well-being. Results show that, among mothers, caregiver well-being was directly related to perceived child health vulnerability, caregiver satisfaction, and benefit finding, and a significant moderating effect was observed for depression/anxiety counseling after beginning the caregiver role on the relationship between anxiety symptomatology and caregiver well-being. Results further suggest that maternal caregivers who report high levels of anxiety but do not seek counseling fair the worst in terms of well-being. Among fathers, lower depression symptoms and greater benefit finding were related to higher levels of caregiver well-being. These data show that many factors play roles in influencing coping and well-being among SMS caregivers. Investigating these variables and relationships may reveal additional resources and interventions to assist primary caregivers.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined associations between providing caregiving for a biological or adoptive parent and clinically assessed biological risk factors (allostatic load and its three subscales—inflammatory dysfunction, metabolic dysfunction, and neuroendocrine dysfunction, as well as moderation of these associations by gender. Methods: Regression models were estimated using telephone and self-report data from 962 men and women who participated in the National Survey of Midlife in the United States in 2005. Results: Filial caregivers demonstrated higher levels of neuroendocrine dysfunction. No gender difference in biological risks was found. Discussion: Filial caregiving is the most prevalent form of family caregiving, and results indicating the presence of greater neuroendocrine dysfunction among filial caregivers in contrast to noncaregivers suggest an important public health concern. Future research needs to continue to examine different relationship types of caregivers and include a range of biological risk measurement to further the understanding of how family caregiving is linked to biological health risks.
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the relationship between having a child with a DSD including ambiguous external genitalia, as well as the decision of whether or not to have early genitoplasty for that child, on the mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers. Materials and Methods. Caregivers were recruited from centers that specialize in DSD medicine and completed the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2, Beck Anxiety Index (BAI, Parent Protection Scale (PPS, Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF. Results and Conclusions. Sixty-eight caregivers provided informed consent and completed the study. Among female caregivers whose children never received genitoplasty, greater parenting stress was reported . For male caregivers, those whose children received genitoplasty within the first year of life reported more overprotective parenting and parenting stress than those whose children received genitoplasty later than 12 months of age ; , respectively.
Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C
The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of adolescents' relationships influence early adult well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gainful activity, intimate partner violence, and relationship quality). Our analysis of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study showed that the number of adolescent dating and sexual partners does not uniformly influence indicators of young adult well-being, which is at odds with a risk framework. The number of dating partners with whom the individual was sexually active, and not the number of "casual" sex partners, increased the odds of intimate partner violence during young adulthood. Relationship churning and sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence were associated with lower relationship quality during young adulthood. Sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence influenced self-reports of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem among young adults. Future research should develop more nuanced conceptualizations of adolescent dating and sexual relationships and integrate adolescent dating and sexual experiences into research on early adult well-being.
Williams, Christine L; Parker, Carlo
There have been few reported studies of communication between spouses with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia. An observer rating scale for verbal and nonverbal behavior, Verbal-Nonverbal Interaction Scale for Caregivers (VNVIS-CG), was developed to study caregiver communication in couples affected by AD. Preliminary psychometric testing showed that the VNVIS-CG evidenced good reliability and validity. Researchers observed both common caregiver communication strategies and novel strategies that have not been reported in the literature. In future studies, researchers can examine the relationship between caregiver communication and indicators of mental health. Everyday conversations provide fertile ground for nurses to influence family relationships. Nurses can teach caregivers to use strategies that promote engagement and avoid those that discourage participation.
Holmberg, Michelle D; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Zhang, Yuan; Qamili, Shpend; Punnett, Laura
Focus groups were conducted with over 150 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) in seven nursing homes to obtain their opinions on how the work environment supported or impeded their caregiving to residents. Strong opinions emerged about work environment interference with CNAs' ability to provide quality and comprehensive care. Participants also believed that their supervisors did not respect the value of the care and nurturing that CNAs provided. This contrasted with the respect that CNAs voiced for residents. The findings highlight the need for improved relationships between CNAs and management and suggest some desirable features of work organization in nursing homes.
Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung
Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles. PMID:27783655
Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A
Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...
Vérez Cotelo N
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the profile of family caregivers of Alzheimer´s disease patients, identify any signs of psychopathology, quantify the level of perceived burden on the caregiver, and determine the caregiver’s relationship with their pharmacist. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a community pharmacy in Pontevedra, Spain. Demographic variables were collected, and the following questionnaires were administered: the Beck Depression Inventory-II, STAI-Anxiety Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Scale, family APGAR scale, and the Duke-UNC questionnaire. Results: The typical caregiver profile consists of a 55-year old first degree relative (mostly daughters with a primary education who belongs to a functional or mildly dysfunctional family. Nearly one quarter (24% of caregivers had a high perception of burden, with anxiety in 20% of caregivers and symptoms of depression in 20%. Family caregivers usually went to the same pharmacy as the patients (96%, were treated with psychotropic drugs (68%, and interacted with the pharmacist (92%. Conclusion: This study confirmed that psychological distress and burden is present among family caregivers. Care for caregivers should be integrated into patient care as part of a national plan, including grants and subsidies, which will result in better care of Alzheimer's patients. Pharmacists are the most accessible health care professionals and can provide information about Alzheimer's disease management to caregivers to ease the burden of care.
Barr, Ashley B; Culatta, Elizabeth; Simons, Ronald L
With trends in delayed marriage, scholars have begun to explore how a wide range of romantic relationships contribute to health. Although a welcome shift, this largely cross-sectional work ignores potential (in)stability in relationship supports and stressors thought to affect health. Using Family and Community Health Study data on 634 African American young adults, we extend this work by demonstrating the value of a holistic, multidimensional assessment of relationship quality for understanding the link between relationships and health. In addition, however, we also show that there is substantial instability in both the presence and quality of romantic relationships during the transition to adulthood. Importantly, particular patterns of instability are uniquely associated with changes in mental and physical health. Given persistent racial inequalities across both relationships and health, such findings prove theoretically and practically important. In particular, they highlight the need for more contextualized, life course-sensitive approaches in future work.
Kennedy, Janet Krone; Bolger, Niall; Shrout, Patrick E
We examined the consequences of witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood for daily conflict processes in adult intimate relationships. Both partners in 73 heterosexual couples provided daily diary reports of relationship conflict over a 28-day period. Partners' reports of witnessing mother-to-father and father-to-mother psychological aggression were used to predict exposure to daily relationship conflicts and reactivity to those conflicts (as reflected in end-of-day anger). Results showed no evidence of exposure effects: Witnessing interparental psychological aggression was unrelated to the number of conflict days reported by either partner. Reactivity effects emerged for males only, with father's aggression predicting increased reactivity and mother's aggression predicting the opposite. However, we found evidence of direct or unmediated effects of interparental conflict on daily anger for both males and females. Mirroring the reactivity pattern, the same-sex parent's psychological aggression predicted greater daily anger, whereas the opposite-sex parent's aggression predicted less daily anger. These effects emerged independently of Big Five measures of personality; moreover, Big Five measures did not predict outcomes independently of interparental aggression.
Song, Y.; Groeneveld, B.S.; Boess, S.U.; Freudenthal, A.
Informal caregivers, who are usually family members or friends of care recipients, provide unpaid assistances to help care recipients remain in their homes. However, they may be prone to depression, grief, fatigue and changes in social relationships. This paper presents the development process of a
McWilliams, Lachlan A; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Despite the prominence of fear-avoidance models of chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding the origins of pain-related fear. Based on the premise that insecure attachment could be a developmentally based origin of elevated fear of pain, associations between adult attachment dimensions and constructs included in fear-avoidance models of chronic pain were investigated. Consistent with Bartholomew and Horowitz's [Bartholomew K, Horowitz LM. Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991;61:226-44.] model, attachment was conceptualized as being comprised of a model of self dimension (i.e., degree of anxiety regarding rejection based on beliefs of personal unworthiness) and a model of others dimension (i.e., degree of interpersonal mistrust and discomfort with interpersonal closeness). A large university student sample free of chronic pain (N=278) completed a measure of adult romantic attachment (i.e., Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire; [Brennan KA, Clark CL, Shaver PR. Self-report measurement of adult attachment: an integrative overview. In: Simpson JA, Rholes WS, editors. Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: The Guilford Press, 1998. p. 46-76.]), the Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III [McNeil DW, Rainwater AJ. Development of the fear of pain questionnaire - III. J Behav Med 1998;21:389-410.], the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [McCracken LM. Attention to pain in persons with chronic pain: a behavioural approach. Behav Ther 1997;28:271-84.], and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale [Sullivan MJ, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess 1995;7:24-532.]. It was hypothesized that insecure attachment would be positively associated with reports of pain-related fear, hypervigilance, and catastrophizing and that the model of self dimension would be the attachment variable most strongly associated with these variables
Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis;
.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.41), but the excess risk was not more than expected from joint exposure to caregiving and job strain. Neither job strain nor informal caregiving predicted sickness absence for men. CONCLUSIONS: High job strain and informal caregiving predicted long-term sickness absence among women......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the individual, joint and interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence with special attention to gender differences. METHODS: The study comprised a prospective cohort study of 6798 working adults from...... France, 14 727 from Finland, and 5275 from the UK. A total of 26 800 participants, age 52 (interquartile range 47-56) years participated in the study. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model. Informal caregiving was defined as care for a sick, disabled, or elderly person. Long...
Full Text Available Friendship is considered one of the pillars of satisfying, long-term, romantic relationships and marriage. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the role of friendship in heterosexual romantic relationships. Eight single participants, ages 18 to 29, were selected from two West Coast metropolitan areas in the United States to explore whether or not friendship facilitates future long term relationships. Participants reported that friendship helped establish economic independence, adult identity and improved communication skills. Participants also reported that the development and stability of long term relationships was tenuous and temporal in their lives. Late adolescents and young adults in our study believed that their selection of partners was very different than their parents and that the success of their long term relationships was enhanced by a strong friendship with their partner.
Ang, Rebecca P.; O, Jiaqing
The association between caregiving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction was examined in sample of 519 older Asian adults beyond 50 years of age. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine age as moderator of the associations between caregiving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction. Age moderated the association…
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.
Norton, Maria C; Piercy, Kathleen W; Rabins, Peter V; Green, Robert C; Breitner, John C S; Ostbye, Truls; Corcoran, Christopher; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Tschanz, Joann T
Applying Rusbult's investment model of dyadic relationships, we examined the effect of caregiver-care recipient relationship closeness (RC) on cognitive and functional decline in Alzheimer's disease. After diagnosis, 167 participants completed up to six visits, observed over an average of 20 months. Participants were 64% women, had a mean age of 86 years, and mean dementia duration of 4 years. Caregiver-rated closeness was measured using a six-item scale. In mixed models adjusted for dementia severity, dyads with higher levels of closeness (p Alzheimer's dementia (AD) decline with closer relationships, particularly with spouse caregivers, are consistent with investment theory. Future interventions designed to enhance the caregiving dyadic relationship may help slow decline in AD.
O'Brien, Thomas D; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N
The present study examined the effect of agonist activation and antagonist co-activation on the shape of the knee extension moment-angle relationship in adults and children. Isometric knee extension maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were performed at every 5 degrees of knee flexion between 55 degrees and 90 degrees (full extension = 0 degrees) by ten men, ten women, ten boys and ten girls. For each trial, the knee extensors' voluntary activation level was quantified using magnetic stimulation and the level of antagonist co-activation was quantified from their electromyographical activity. Peak MVC moment was greater for men (264 +/- 63 N m) than women (177 +/- 60 N m), and greater for adults than children (boys 78 +/- 17 N m, girls 91 +/- 28 N m) (p architecture, and the pattern of the moment arm-angle relationship may in combination occur so that as children develop and mature into adults the shape of the moment-angle relationship is not altered.
Roig, Matilde E.
Minority college students have varied learning styles and process information from distinct background and cultural perspectives, which influences their learning. Accordingly, the way faculty approach teaching affects student achievement. Few minorities are in scientific fields, with a shortage of scientists predicted. A problem exists in understanding the relationship between learning style preferences and achievement of minority college students. The purpose of the study was to investigate this relationship in adult minority students in a South Florida college's biology courses. Research questions pertained to relationships between learning style preferences, race, ethnicity and grades. This quantitative study used the online Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles with a 73% response comprised of 162 White, Black-African American, Hispanic, and Asian students. Variables included grades, race, ethnicity, and learning styles. Relative frequency analysis revealed students preferred sensing, visual and sequential learning. ANOVA analysis showed no significant differences between learning style preference and achievement, nor between race-ethnicity and grades. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between Black-African Americans and Hispanics for sensing, visual and sequential learning, but not for visual. Black-African American students had the lowest passing rate in biology courses, with Asians having the highest. Increased educator and advisor knowledge of learning styles could result in social change and educational reform from this study, through the adoption of best methods for teaching minority groups enrolled in science courses. Knowing the potential shortage of minorities in the sciences, increased achievement in science courses might encourage these students to enter into scientific careers.
Miriam Lucia Ojeda Arredondo
Full Text Available The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC methods. Correlation analyses were performed between the studied variables and a positive correlation was found in most cases. However, none of the correlations was statistically significant. In all cases p-value was >0.05. The quantification of nutrient intake is not an adequate predictor of plasma antioxidant capacity in individuals over fifty
Sporrborn, Janni L; Knudsen, Gertrud B; Sølling, Mette;
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that changes in brain ventricle size are key events in bacterial meningitis. This study investigated the relationship between ventricle size, clinical condition and risk of poor outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed...... with bacterial meningitis admitted to two departments of infectious diseases from 2003 through 2010 were identified. Clinical and biochemical data as well as cerebral computed tomographic images were collected. The size of the brain ventricles were presented as a Ventricle to Brain Ratio (VBR). Normal range......-day mortality, Mortality Rate Ratio: 6.03 (95 % confidence interval: 1.61-22.64, p = 0.008) for highest versus lowest tertile. A VBR deviating more than 2 standard deviations from the normal range was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Brain ventricles are commonly subject to marked...
van den Tweel, Xandra W; Hatzmann, Janneke; Ensink, Elske; van der Lee, Johanna H; Peters, Marjolein; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Grootenhuis, Martha
Caring for a child with sickle cell disease poses extra demands on parents, both practically and psychologically, which may influence their quality of life. Since families of children with sickle cell disease in the Netherlands usually belong to immigrant communities with a low socio-economic status, there may be an additional strain on caregivers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life of caregivers of children with sickle cell disease. The quality of life of female caregivers of sickle cell disease patients, measured with the TNO-AZL Adult Quality of Life questionnaire, was compared to the norm data of healthy Dutch females (n=700) and female caregivers of healthy children with the same socio-economic status and ethnic background (socio-economic status control group). Groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals of the median difference are presented. The results of questionnaires of 54 caregivers of children with sickle cell disease and 28 caregivers of a control group of the same socio-economic status were analyzed. Caregivers of patients with sickle cell disease had a significantly lower quality of life on all subscales compared to the Dutch norm population. Compared to the control group of the same socio-economic status, the quality of life of caregivers of patients with sickle cell disease was significantly lower on the subscales depressive moods, daily activities and vitality. In this first study reporting on the quality of life of caregivers of children with sickle cell disease, we demonstrate a reduced quality of life in these caregivers compared to the healthy Dutch female population and caregivers of healthy children with the same socio-economic status.
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Corominas-Roso, M; Armario, A; Palomar, G; Corrales, M; Carrasco, J; Richarte, V; Ferrer, R; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A
There is preliminary evidence that the immune system's cytokines may have impact on ADHD in children. Nevertheless, studies exploring the possible role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adults with ADHD are lacking. This study aimed to assess differences in serum IL-6 and TNF-α between patients and controls and their possible relationship to resting cortisol. 108 adults with ADHD (DSM-IV), 44 inattentive and 64 combined, age ranging between 18 and 55 years, and 27 healthy controls were included. Major psychiatric disorders and organic comorbidities were excluded. Serum samples for IL-6 and TNF-α and salivary samples to assess cortisol awakening response were collected on the same day. Analysis of variance was applied to study differences in IL-6 and TNF-α between groups. Pearson correlations were used to study associations between IL-6, TNF-α, and CAR. There were no significant differences in serum IL-6 or TNF-α levels between patients and controls or between combined and inattentive patients. Negative associations between IL-6 (r=-0.386, p=0.020), TNF-α (r=-0.372, p=0.023) and cortisol awakening response were found in the inattentive subtype, whereas no association was seen in the combined subtype. A negative correlation between IL-6 and cortisol was also present in the control group (r=-0.44, 0.030). The peripheral pro-inflammatory markers, IL-6 and TNF-α, do not appear to be primarily involved in ADHD in adults, although the role of other inflammatory markers cannot be ruled out. The differences regarding the association between IL-6 and TNF-α and morning cortisol response suggest possible underlying neurobiological differences between the inattentive or combined patients that merit further studies.
Minna Maria Pöysti
Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.
Ekuni, Daisuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Murakami, Takashi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Ogura, Toshio; Morita, Manabu
Identifying risk factors is important to prevent a wide range of health-damaging behaviours and to improve the quality of life of young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress in healthy young Japanese adults. Medical and oral health data were collected during a cross-sectional examination conducted by the Health Service Center of Okayama University. Systemically healthy non-smoking students aged 18 and 19 years (n = 641; 329 males and 312 females) were included. Malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress were assessed using self-reported questionnaires, the condition-specific oral impacts on daily performances (CS-OIDP), and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Mann-Whitney U- and chi-square tests and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used for statistical analysis. Forty per cent of subjects had a malocclusion (n = 255). Subjects with impacts on daily performance had a significantly higher prevalence of malocclusion than those without impacts (P malocclusion. Negative impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion may contribute to psychological stress in young Japanese adults.
Hashimoto, Megumi; Igari, Kazuko; Hanawa, Soshi; Ito, Ayumi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ishida, Naoko; Koyama, Shigeto; Ono, Takahiro; Sasaki, Keiichi
In individuals with Down syndrome, hypotonicity of the tongue and an underdeveloped maxilla may lead to poor oral motor coordination, which adversely affects the oral phase of swallowing. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of pressure produced by the tongue against the hard palate during swallowing in individuals with Down syndrome. In addition, the relationship between tongue pressure and palatal morphology was examined. We studied nine adults with Down syndrome and ten healthy adults as controls. Tongue pressure while swallowing 5 mL water was recorded by a sensor sheet system with five measuring points attached to the hard palate. Palatal length, depth, width, curvature, and slope were measured by three-dimensional digital maxillary imaging. The order of onset of tongue pressure on the median line of the hard palate was the same in all participants, except for three with Down syndrome. The duration and maximal magnitude of tongue pressure on the median line in nine participants with Down syndrome were significantly shorter and lower than those of controls. In participants with Down syndrome, significant positive correlations were observed between the duration of tongue pressure at the mid-median part of the hard palate and palatal depth and width, and between the duration and maximal magnitude of tongue pressure at the posterior-median part and palatal length. These findings suggest that impaired tongue activity, poor tongue control, and constrained tongue motion due to a short and narrow palate contribute to swallowing difficulty in individuals with Down syndrome.
Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R
The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.
Rosane Silvia DAVOGLIO
Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Sense of Coherence (SOC and oral health clinical variables (number of teeth present and absence of need for dental prostheses. The sample consisted of 720 adults and elderly Brazilians. The data were collected at home using the SOC-13 scale – a form of clinical examination for the evaluation of oral conditions – and a questionnaire evaluating socioeconomic aspects and the use of dental services. Statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate, was performed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment. The average age of the participants was 60.2 years, and they were predominantly female (57.8%. Among the participants who had a strong SOC, the absence of the need for dental prostheses was 34% higher than among those with a weak SOC, demonstrating a significant difference between the groups (PR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.06–1.70; p = 0.015. Individuals who had a strong SOC had a 5% higher prevalence of 14 or more existing teeth than those with a weak SOC, which was statistically significant after adjustment for co-factors (PR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.01–1.11, p = 0.033. A strong personal Sense of Coherence has a beneficial influence on the oral health of adults and older people in Brazil.
Moreira, Helena; Martins, Teresa; Gouveia, Maria João; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
The Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures questionnaire (ECR-RS) is one of the most recent measures of adult attachment. This instrument provides a contextual assessment of attachment-related anxiety and avoidance by measuring these dimensions in various close relationships (mother, father, partner, friend). To further explore its psychometric properties and cross-cultural adequacy, this study presents the validation of the ECR-RS in a sample of Portuguese community individuals (N = 236). The Portuguese version showed adequate reliability and construct validity. The original 2-factor structure was confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis. The ECR-RS is a psychometrically robust measure of attachment, representing an important advance in the measurement of adult attachment.
Cheak-Zamora, Nancy C; Teti, Michelle
Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis often have complex comorbid physical and mental health conditions. These youth rely heavily on their medical providers and struggle through the often rocky transition out of pediatric care into adulthood and adult-centered care. This study is among the first to qualitatively examine the health care transition experiences of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their caregivers. We conducted four focus groups with youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (n = 13) and their caregivers (n = 19) and used thematic analysis strategies to identify key themes. Parents' discussions emphasized (a) loss of relationship with provider and lack of support transitioning from pediatric to adult care, (b) providers' lack of knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorder, and (c) concerns about losing guardianship. Youth emphasized their confusion and anxiety around (a) medical providers' role, especially in the transition to adulthood; and (b) managing their medical lives independently. Our findings are important because they not only improve our understanding of health care transition needs among youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their caregivers but demonstrate a sound methodological procedure to facilitate input from youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Gillette, Brandon A.
During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education
B P Nirmala
Full Text Available Background: Family′s expressed emotion has been shown to be predictive of outcome in mental and physical illnesses in a variety of cultural settings. The relationship between caregiver burden and high level of expressed emotions has demonstrated a high level of relapse among the psychiatric patients in the West. Aim: The current study explores the relationship between caregivers′ burden and level of expressed emotions by the patients with schizophrenia in Indian setting. Materials and Methods : The sample for the study consisted of totally 70 subjects comprising 35 schizophrenic patients and 35 caregivers. The schizophrenic patients who were attending the Day Care Center run by Department of Psychiatric and Neuro Rehabilitation Unit at National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS in Bangalore, India (a tertiary care center and their primary caregivers were included. Family emotional involvement and criticism scale and The burden assessment schedule were administered to assess the expressed emotions and caregivers′ burden. Carl Pearson Correlation test used to study the relationship between the variables. Results and Conclusion: The study highlighted the need for addressing expressed emotion in comprehensive psychosocial intervention plan. More attention should be paid to the needs of the caregivers in order to alleviate their burden in managing mentally ill patients.
Musso, Pasquale; Inguglia, Cristiano; Lo Coco, Alida; Albiero, Paolo; Berry, John W
Few studies examine intercultural relations in emerging adulthood. Framed from the perspective of the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies (MIRIPS) project, the current paper examined the mediating role of tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Additionally, the moderating role of context was analysed. A two-group structural equation modelling was performed on data collected from 305 Italian emerging adults living both in northern and in southern Italy with different socio-political climates towards immigrants. In both groups, tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration mediated the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Also, this indirect relationship was significantly higher for the northern than southern Italians. These findings provide provisional evidence of mediating and moderating processes in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants and suggest important implications for practitioners interested in promoting intercultural relations among emerging adults.
Aquilante, Christina L; Kosmiski, Lisa A; Knutsen, Shannon D; Zineh, Issam
Recent data suggest that resistin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has a putative role in inflammatory processes and metabolic derangements. In vitro data suggest that resistin stimulates the production of inflammatory chemokines, yet the relationship in vivo is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between plasma resistin concentrations, plasma inflammatory chemokine aged concentrations (ie, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] and epithelial neutrophil activator 78 [ENA-78]), and components of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma samples were obtained from nondiabetic subjects (N = 123) aged 18 to 55 years without known CVD or CVD risk equivalents. The presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed using consensus guidelines. Fasting plasma resistin, MCP-1, ENA-78, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were analyzed. The study population consisted of 67.5% women and 68.3% Caucasians (mean age = 44 +/- 7 years and mean body mass index = 33.3 +/- 6 kg/m(2)). The metabolic syndrome was present in 46.3% of study participants. Resistin concentrations were significantly correlated with white blood cell count (r = 0.326, P metabolic syndrome compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (P = .003). In stepwise regression analysis, white blood cell count (P metabolic syndrome, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data from our cross-sectional study demonstrate that plasma resistin concentrations are associated with circulating chemokine markers of inflammation, namely, MCP-1, and white blood cell count in nondiabetic adults without CVD. Future studies examining the causal relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, chemokine markers of inflammation, CVD, and diabetes are warranted.
Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As
Full Text Available Sustaining a Traumatic Brain Injury results in familial strain due to the significant impact the injury has upon the role and function of individuals and their families at home and in the community. Using the Stress Process Model of Caregiving, a caregiver needs assessment survey was developed and conducted to better understand the needs of individuals with a Traumatic Brain Injury and their caregivers. Survey results indicate that caregivers experience many challenges including unmet needs in areas of relational supports such as maintaining relationships, long-term emotional and financial support for themselves and the survivor, and the need for a patient or caregiver advocate. Implications for future practice are presented.
Full Text Available IntroductionAlthough research has shown that many cancer patients report positive life changes following cancer diagnosis, there are few data in the literature related to PTG in caregivers of cancer patients. However, the few studies available have shown that this kind of positive changes can also be experienced by family members. The aims of this study were to explore PTG in caregivers of cancer patients and to investigate correlations between the Posttraumatic growth, psychological status and QoL of caregivers and those of patients, taking into account also clinical and socio-demographic aspects.Methods We enrolled 60 patient/caregiver pairs in the Department of Medical Oncology of the National Research Center ‘Giovanni Paolo II’ in Bari. Both patients and caregivers were assessed using the following scales: Posttraumatic growth Inventory (PTGI; Hospital anxiety and depression scale; Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36; ECOG Performance Status. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected. ResultsCaregivers showed significantly higher scores than patients in the dimension of personal strength. Furthermore, we found a significantly close association between anxiety and depression of caregivers with those of patients. Younger caregivers were better than older ones in terms of physical activity, vitality, mental health, and social activities. Although the degree of relationship with the patient has no significant effect on the dependent variables of the study, it was found that caregivers with a degree of kinship more distant to the patient have less physical pain than the closest relatives.ConclusionResults of the present study show that caregivers of cancer patients may experience post-traumatic growth as the result of their caregiver role. It would be interesting to investigate in future research which factor may mediate the presence of post-traumatic growth.
Luana Porto Barbosa
Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.
Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette
Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael
Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, pAdolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, psmoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.
Robinson, Carole A; Pesut, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan L
There is urgent need to effectively support the well-being of rural palliative family caregivers (FCGs). A mixed method study was conducted with 23 FCGs. Data collection included completion of an assessment questionnaire and semistructured interviews. The most prevalent needs identified by questionnaire were caring for the patient's pain, fatigue, body, and nourishment; FCG's fatigue and need for respite. Yet few FCGs wanted more attention to these needs by healthcare providers. FCGs resisted considering their own personal needs. Instead, they focused on needs related to providing care including to be(come) a palliative caregiver, be skilled and know more, navigate competing wishes, needs, demands, and priorities, and for "an extra pair of hands." Gaps in rural palliative services contributed to low expectations for assistance; reluctance to seek assistance was influenced by FCGs' resourcefulness and independence. Findings suggest that supporting FCGs will most likely be successful when framed in relation to their caregiving role.
Rankin, Wendy M.
This exploratory study examined the relationships among strengths use, spirituality, religion, and positive mental health of 109 traditional undergraduate, college-attending emerging adults in a public university in the southern region of the United States, often referred to as the Bible-Belt. Constructs of the study were guided by a student…
Laot, Francoise F.
This paper uses a socio-historical approach to explore the emergence in French theoretical literature in the mid-1960s of a new notion, the "relationship to knowledge" ("rapport au savoir"), and its success in the emerging field of professional adult education within the Complex of Nancy, France. The increasing use of this…
Proulx, Christine M.; Helms, Heather M.
Guided by contemporary feminist revisions of individual theories on adolescent development, interviews with 142 parent dyads were conducted to better understand the variation in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of changes and continuities in their relationships with their firstborn young adult sons and daughters. A between-families content…
Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.
Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic…
Smeekens, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Verhoeven, E.W.M.
Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social fun
Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor
While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND – This study examined the relationship between alcohol misuse and different types of childhood maltreatment in a sample of young adults while controlling for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and current mental disorders. This study further examined if these associations were different for males and females.
Borde, Ron; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Granacher, Urs
Background Resistance training (RT) is an intervention frequently used to improve muscle strength and morphology in old age. However, evidence-based, dose-response relationships regarding specific RT variables (e.g., training period, frequency, intensity, volume) are unclear in healthy old adults. O
Feigelman, William; Gorman, Bernard S.; Lesieur, Henry
Although many clinical studies document a relationship between gambling and suicidality, evidence of this association in general population surveys has been mixed. Probing this association in a nationally representative sample of young adults with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, we made same gender comparisons of…
... and Reproductive Health Smoking and Tobacco Traumatic Brain Injury PEARLS Gives Seniors with Minor Depression New Hope Administration on Aging (AOA) Medicare (CMS) Family Caregiver Alliance (FCA) National Family Caregivers Association (NFCA) National ...
Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min
Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.
De Vito Elisabetta
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease presents a social and public health problem affecting millions of Italians. Those affected receive home care from caregivers, subjected to risk of stress. The present investigation focuses on stress, anxiety and depression in caregivers. Methods Data on 200 caregivers and their patients were collected using a specific form to assess cognitive, behavioural, functional patient (MMSE, and ADL-IAD and caregiver stress (CBI. The relationship between stress, depression and disease has been assessed by means of a linear regression, logistic analysis which reveals the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and cognitive problems, age, the patient's income. Results The caregivers are usually female (64%, mean age of 56.1 years, daughters (70.5%, pensioners and housewives (30%, who care for the sick at home (79%. Of these, 53% had little time for themselves, 55% observed worsening of health, 56% are tired, 51% are not getting enough sleep. Overall, 55% have problems with the patient's family and/or their own family, 57% at work. Furthermore, 29% feel they are failing to cope with the situation as they wish to move away from home. The increase in the degree of anxiety and depression is directly proportional to the severity of the illness, affecting the patient (r = 0.3 stress and depression r = 0.4 related to CBI score. The memory disorders (OR = 8.4, engine problems (OR = 2.6, perception disorders (OR = 1.9 sick of the patient with Alzheimer's disease are predictive of caregiver stress, depression is associated with the presence of other disorders, mainly behavioural (OR = 5.2, low income (OR = 3.4, patients Conclusion The quality of life of caregivers is correlated with the severity of behavioural disorders and duration of the Alzheimer's disease. The severity of the disease plays an important role in reorganization of the family environment in families caring for patients not institutionalised. It is
Ruth Molina Fuillerat
Full Text Available In January 2005 the Andalusian Health Service Improvement Plan prepared: Caring for the Caregiver include actions to be taken to promote equity, to recognize and facilitate the work of family carers. From our perspective of formal caregivers, it seems necessary to consider not only themselves need care patients with the disease, but also makes it mandatory caring individuals usually relatives, facilitators of the provision of care. In the Unit of Neurology, the daily observation of these family situations, has guided and network relationship between the two formal and informal systems of care, and we have tried the approach of the caregivers as clients to treat them as co-participants the experience of caring. Hypothesis: The Implementation of Functional Plan caregiver positive impact on hospitalization decreased anxiety and improved quality of life of caregivers of a dependent patient. Overall objective: To determine the effect of applying functional caregiver Plan on anxiety and quality of life of family caregivers of dependent people with neurological disorders. Study Design: Experimental study of the clinical trial such an intervention group and a control group randomly assigned.
Full Text Available Research to date suggests that physical activity (PA is associated with distinct aspects of sleep, but studies have predominantly focused on sleep quality, been carried out in younger adults, and have not accounted for many covariates. Of particular interest is also the reported relationship between physical activity and depression in older adults and as such, their associations with sleep duration. Here we examine the cross-sectional relation between physical activity and sleep duration in a community-dwelling sample of 5265 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We analysed the data using multiple regression, with physical activity as a categorical exposure and sleep duration a continuous outcome, as well as testing the interaction between physical activity and depressive symptoms, which was significant (p 0.05. Our findings suggest that a potentially effective way of improving sleep in older adults with depressive symptoms is via physical activity interventions.
Maria Clara Drummond Soares de Moura
Full Text Available Objective The relationship between functional dependence and quality of life (QOL in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients and burden and QOL in caregivers is not clear. This study investigated possible relationships between functional dependence/QOL of DMD patients and QOL/burden of caregivers. Method This study included 35 boys (6-17 years and respective caregivers (above 21 years. Caregivers answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life and Zarit Burden Interview questionnaires. Patients were assessed with the Motor Function Measure and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were run to investigate relationships between the variables. Results The occurrence of lower QOL and higher burden among the caregivers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy was evidenced. The functional dependence of patients was not considered a determinant factor. Higher caregivers’ burden was related to lower caregivers’ QOL and to higher patients’ ages.
Miller, Baila; Cafasso, Lynda
Conducted meta-analysis of 14 studies to determine gender differences in caregiving stressors and burden. Found essentially no significant gender differences in functional impairment of frail care recipient or total caregiver involvement in care or in money management tasks. Female caregivers were more likely to carry out personal care and…
Eifert, Elise K.; Adams, Rebecca; Dudley, William; Perko, Michael
Background: Despite the multitude of available resources, family caregivers of those with chronic disease continually underutilize support services to cope with the demands of caregiving. Several studies have linked self-identification as a caregiver to the increased likelihood of support service use. Purpose: The present study reviewed the…
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.
Bianca Marques Santiago
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of contextual social capital (neighborhood empowerment and individual social capital (social support and social network with dental caries experience in adolescents and adults. METHODS: A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 573 subjects, 15-19 and 35-44 years of age, from 30 census tracts in three cities of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. Caries experience was assessed using the DMFT index (decayed, missing and filled teeth and participants were divided into two groups according to the median of the DMFT index in low and high caries experience. Demographic, socioeconomic, behaviors, use of dental services and social capital measures were collected through interviews. Neighborhood empowerment was obtained from the mean scores of the residents in each census tract. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience. RESULTS: High caries experience was inversely associated with neighborhood empowerment (OR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.33 - 0.99. Individual social capital was not associated with caries experience. Other associated factors with caries experience were age (OR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.18 and being a female (OR = 1.72; 95%CI 1.08 - 2.73. CONCLUSION: The association between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience suggests that the perception of features of the place of residence should be taken into account in actions of oral health promotion.
Preminger, Jill E; Montano, Joseph J; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe third-party disability experienced by adult-children as a result of hearing impairment (HI) in a parent. DESIGN: Using semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to describe the impact of a parent's HI on their relationship and communication...... factors of family relationships, communication situations, and the parent's personality, adult-children considered their coping strategies and feelings that arose as a result of the HI. Coping strategies included putting forth effort in communication, yelling as an ineffective communication strategy......, and providing support to the parent with HI. The described feelings included frustration, uncertainty, and loss surrounding their communication and relationship with their parent with HI. These feelings arose as a result of implementing coping strategies, plus these feelings drove the employment of coping...
Nelson, Melissa M.; Smith, Maureen A.; Martinson, Brian C.; Kind, Amy; Luepker, Russell V.
Purpose: Caregivers of stroke patients may adapt to changes in patient functioning over time. If adaptation occurs, then caregiver burden and health may be influenced more by worsening in patient functioning than by static levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between patients' baseline and changes in functioning and…
Carter, Patricia A
Depression is a normal response when a family member receives a diagnosis of cancer. However, this response may be exacerbated by other factors such as chronic sleep loss that are amenable to intervention. This pilot study described caregiver sleep and depression patterns over time and explored the feasibility of data collection methods and instruments. The stress and coping framework of Lazarus and Folkman guided this study. A descriptive correlational design was used for this 10-week pilot study. Ten adult family caregivers of patients with cancer were recruited from outpatient oncology clinics. Sleep quality and depression were measured weekly. Actigraphs were worn for 72 hours during weeks 1, 5, and 10. Individual sleep quality and depression scores were generated. Actigraph latency, duration, and efficiency scores were generated. Actigraph and sleep quality scores were compared. Individual caregiver sleep and depression plots show large variance over time. Discrepancies were noted between Actigraph and sleep quality latency, duration, and efficiency scores. Sleep and depressive symptoms fluctuate widely over time. Therefore, accurate assessment and treatment of caregiver problems require repeated assessments. Self-reports of sleep and depression appear to underestimate problems and must be evaluated carefully within this context.
Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia
Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…
Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M
Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.
Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W
Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.
崔璨; 李强; 张一娜; 张巾超
Objective.To identify the A3243G mutation of mitochondrial(mt) DNA in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA) of Han nationality in the northeast area of China. Methods.Seventy nine diabetics of Han nationality,whose families have resided in the northeast area of China for more than 3 generations,were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (22 cases of type 2 diabetes with maternal inheritance history),Group 2 (34 cases of LADA),Group 3 (23 cases of type 1 diabetes in adolescents).The A3243G of mt DNA was detected in these 79 subjects with the method of PCR RFLP. Results.None of the 79 diabetics studied was positively identified for the A3243G mutation of mt DNA. Conclusion.The A3243G mutation of mt DNA might not be related to the onset of LADA in diabetic population of Han nationality in northeast area of China and there might not be close relationship between A3243G mutation of mt DNA and autoimmunity.
Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.
This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…
... of Mental Disorders--Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) of GAF scores in the 21-30 range is the minimum... family member no longer serving as a Primary Family Caregiver. Under section 1720G(a)(3)(A)(ii)(V), VA... explains the formula in paragraph (c)(4)(v),...
... your feelings with friends or joining a support group may be a good way to ease the pressure you feel as a caregiver. The Well Spouse Association wellspouse.org A nonprofit group formed to provide support and advocacy for the ...
Naismith, Sharon L; Pereira, Marilia; Shine, James M; Lewis, Simon J G
Using the Cambridge Behavior Inventory-Revised, this study evaluated the relationship between caregiver ratings of cognitive change and neuropsychological performance. In sixty-one nondemented patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD; mean age = 64.5 years, MMSE = 28.7), 62% met criteria for mild cognitive impairment. This group were rated as having more overall change as well as memory and behavior change. Caregiver ratings were related to poorer psychomotor speed, learning/memory, language, and executive functioning. The capacity for caregivers to rate mild cognitive change in PD may be useful to assist in early screening and intervention approaches.
Unson, Christine; Flynn, Deborah; Glendon, Mary Ann; Haymes, Elayne; Sancho, Diane
The Reconceptualized Uncertainty in Illness Theory (RUIT) was used to investigate antecedents to, appraisals of, and ways of coping with stressful caregiving. Four focus groups with caregivers (8 males and 16 females) of relatives with dementia were conducted; 15 cared for their parents and the remainder cared for their spouses. They were recruited from an adult care center and other community settings in a metropolitan area in New England. The discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently coded the transcripts. Thematic analysis was structured according to the RUIT. The study is unique in its application to caregivers as opposed to patients and to all of the elements of the RUIT. Caregivers experience uncertainty in similar ways to patients with life-altering illness. Symptom severity--lack of personal boundaries, repetitive and aggressive behaviors, and the need for constant care--was the most frequent source of stress. The appraisals were mostly negative and included feelings of resentment, a lack of support from family members, financial strains, and loss of freedom. Self-improvement and self-care were important aspects of coping. Spirituality and humor were other coping skills that respondents used. Not all respondents said they were coping and some also reported that support from health care providers was not always helpful. Nurses can help improve coping by explaining the factors that contribute to caregiver strain and uncertainty, and by assisting caregivers to anticipate the effects of the caregiving role.
Raquel Farias Diniz
Full Text Available Objective: To explore what informal caregivers of elderly with AIDS think about the disease itself, the infection in elderly people, and about being a caregiver. Methods: A qualitative study in which the thematic content analysis of interviews resulted in the emergence of three categories: “conceptions about AIDS”, “AIDS in old age” and “being a caregiver”. Results: We observed the emergence of issues related to the three aspects, which must be considered in a broader analysis within the patient-caregiver relationship. Such questions involve information about the disease, living with the patient, gender differences and the specificities resulting from the infection at this stage of life. Conclusion: From this study, it is expected that greater attention be given to relationships of care provided by informal network of support to elderly people living with AIDS, in order to foster researches on social, affective, motivational and behavior aspects of caregivers.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate caregiver burden based on Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI and depression in caregivers on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II. METHODS: Literate individuals, 18 years or older, who spoke Spanish as their native language were included. Demographic characteristics: Age, sex, education, relationship to person with dementia, length of time caregiving, other sources of help for caring, impact on the household economy, family support, and perception of impaired health; and Clinical data on care-recipients: type of dementia, time since diagnosis, treatment, and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS; the ZBI and BDI-II. Descriptive and analytical statistics were employed to assess caregiver burden and predictors of higher burden in caregivers. RESULTS: A total of 92 informal caregivers were evaluated. Regarding care-recipients, 75% were 69 years old or over, 75% had at least one year since diagnosis, 73.9% had Alzheimer's disease, 84.8% received treatment, 75% scored 5 or over on the GDS. For caregivers, 75% were 55.5 years old or over, predominantly female (81.5%, married (83.7%, the spouse of care-recipients (60.87%, had at least 10 years of education (75.0% and one year of caregiving (75%, reduced entertainment time (90.2% and self-perception of impaired health (83.7%. Median score on the ZBI was 37.5 (minimum value = 3; and maximum value = 74. The coefficient of BDI was 1.38 (p-value <0.001. CONCLUSION: This sample of Peruvian informal caregivers showed elevated ZBI values. Self-perception of worsened health, repercussion on the family economy and time caregiving were the main determinants of ZBI, although only BDI was a consistent predictor of ZBI.
Irwin, M; Hauger, R; Patterson, T L; Semple, S; Ziegler, M; Grant, I
The association between Alzheimer caregiving and natural killer (NK) cell activity and basal plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, beta-endorphin, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y was determined in 100 spousal Alzheimer caregivers and 33 age- and gender-comparable control volunteers upon intake into a study of the psychological and physiologic impact of caregiving. The relationship between these physiologic measures and individual characteristics such as age, gender, medical status, severity of stress, severity of depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden was tested. In addition, the association between NK activity and alterations of the neuroendocrine measures was investigated. As compared to controls, the Alzheimer caregivers had similar levels of NK activity and of basal plasma neuroendocrine hormones and sympathetic measures. While older age and male gender status were associated with increased levels of ACTH, neither medical caseness, severity of life stress, nor severity of depressive symptoms was associated with alterations in any of the multiple physiologic domains. Classification of Alzheimer caregiver burden identified caregivers who were mismatched in terms of the amount of care they were required to provide and the amount of respite time received. The mismatched caregivers had significantly higher basal plasma ACTH but no change in other physiological measures, as compared to non-mismatched caregivers. NK activity was negatively correlated with plasma levels of neuropeptide Y but not with any of the other neuroendocrine measures. Based on this cross-sectional evaluation of NK activity and neuroendocrine and sympathetic measures, we conclude that most Alzheimer caregivers do not show evidence of altered basal physiology.
Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.
Vérez Cotelo N; Andrés Rodríguez NF; Fornos Pérez JA; Andrés Iglesias JC; Ríos Lago M.
Objectives: To evaluate the profile of family caregivers of Alzheimer´s disease patients, identify any signs of psychopathology, quantify the level of perceived burden on the caregiver, and determine the caregiver’s relationship with their pharmacist. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a community pharmacy in Pontevedra, Spain. Demographic variables were collected, and the following questionnaires were administered: the Beck Depression Inventory-II, STAI-Anxiety Questionnair...
Munk, Niki; Zanjani, Faika
Physical and emotional decline in older adults is a serious issue affecting not only quality of life but also susceptibility to injury. Non-pharmacological interventions addressing the needs of older adults are important for reducing medication burden and possible drug interactions. This study (N=144) examines the potential of massage therapy as such an intervention for older adults by comparing self-reported health outcome scores among adults 60 and older who have and have not utilized massage therapy in the past year. When controlling for age and cumulative morbidities, older adults who reported massage therapy usage in the past year had significantly better health outcome scores in the following domains: 1) emotional well-being, 2) limitations due to physical issues, and 3) limitations due to emotional issues. Because previous massage therapy research has not included or focused on older adults, studies examining massage therapy and emotional health, specifically among this population, are warranted.
Objective: To explore the relationship between mental health and coping style in primary caregiver of brain injury.Methods: SAS, SDS and MCMQ were used to investigate the mental health status and quality of life in 75 cases of primary caregiver of brain injury.Results: The scores of SAS and SDS were considerably higher in the primary caregiver of brain injury than norms in our country, while the scores of avoidance and obedience were much higher and facing score was much lower, with statistically significant differences (all P＜0.01).The scores of SAS and SDS were negatively associated with facing score, while positively related to avoidance and obedience scores (all P＜0.01).Conclusion: The mental health status may relate to coping style in the primary caregiver of brain injury, and the nursing staff should implement the effective psychological nursing care and guide them to adopt the positive coping strategies.%目的:探讨颅脑损伤患者主要照顾者心理健康和应对方式的相关性.方法:分别采用Zung焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)和医学应对问卷(MCMQ)对75名颅脑损伤患者主要照顾者的心理健康状况和生活质量水平进行调查分析.结果:颅脑损伤患者主要照顾者的SAS和SDS评分均明显高于国内常模,回避和屈服等维度评分明显高于国内常模,面对评分明显低于国内常模,差异均有高度统计学意义(均P<0.01);颅脑损伤患者主要照顾者的SAS和SDS评分与面对评分呈显著负相关,而与回避和屈服评分呈显著正相关(均P<0.01).结论:颅脑损伤患者主要照顾者的心理健康状况与应对方式密切相关,护理人员应对其实施有效的心理护理干预,引导其采用积极的应对方式.
张开利; 王建萍; 唐四元
目的 了解长沙市糖尿病患者生活质量(QOL)及其主要照顾者的KAP现状,探索二者的相关性,为提高糖尿病患者的生活质量及其主要照顾者的照顾水平提供有效依据.方法 采用自行设计的一般情况调查表、KAP问卷,丁元林等设计的糖尿病特异性生存质量量表(CN-ADD QOL)对长沙市3所医院和6个社区的300例糖尿病患者及其主要照顾者进行调查.结果 照顾者的KAP得分为(67.2±11.17),糖尿病患者QOL KAP得分与糖尿病患者QOL得分相关系数r=0.191,P＜0.01.结论 长沙市糖尿病患者的生活质量及其主要照顾者的KAP水平均较低,二者呈正相关.%Objective To study the current situation of diabetes's quality of life(QOL) and their caregiver＇s knowledge,attitude and practice(KAP),and to explore the co-relationship between QOL and KAP, to provide effective proof to improve diabetes's QOL and their caregiver's KAP level. Method 300 pairs of diabetics and their caregivers from 3 hospitals and 6 community was surveyed by CN-ADD QOL and self-designed general condition questionnaire and KAP questionnaire. Result The score of caregiver's KAP is (67.92±11.17),and the score of diabetic' s QOL is-(40.84±23.16). The correlation coefficient is 0. 191 (P＜0.01). Conclusion Diabetes's QOL and caregiver's KAP was at a low level,and positively correlated.
Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel;
Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model......, 0.78/0.80 for stuttering, and 0.53/0.65 for cluttering. For each trait, the same genes were suggested to affect liability in males and females. Furthermore, high genetic correlations between the traits were obtained; the estimates for childhood speech-language disorders and stuttering were 0.......71/0.79 for males/females, for childhood speech-language disorders and cluttering 0.73/0.56, and for stuttering and cluttering 0.53/0.57. Substantial unique environmental correlations between the traits were also found in both genders. Conclusion: With the limitations related to self-reporting from adult age...
Guo, Wei; Wang, Biye; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Qin; Shi, Zhihao; Ren, Jie
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in healthy older adults. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 111 healthy older adults were enrolled in the study. They were classified by the exercise-related questionnaire to be in an open-skill group, closed-skill group or sedentary group. In experiment 1, the participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that both closed-skill (p visuospatial short-term memory task and visuospatial mental rotation task, respectively. The results showed that the open-skill (p visuospatial short-term memory task, whereas the group difference in the visuospatial mental rotation task was not significant. These findings combined to suggest that physical exercise was associated with better visuospatial working memory in older adults. Furthermore, open-skill exercises that demand higher cognitive processing showed selective benefit for passive maintenance of working memory.
Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos
of positive and negative partner interactions and social networks with depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation. METHODS: Nationally-representative, cross-sectional data of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 4988 community dwelling adults aged >50...... regression was used to assess the association between social relationships and depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, negative partner interactions were significantly associated with increased likelihood of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, while...... of directions of causality. CONCLUSION: By assessing the available social network of older adults, as well as the areas in their social relationships that need to be addressed, it may be possible for practitioners and policy makers to maximize the benefits of network integration and minimize the potentially...
Jawad Ghaleb Obaidi
Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis has a significant impact not only on women, but also on their Primary caregivers. Understanding the effects of a breast cancer diagnosis on physical and mental health outcomes in caregivers is important because these variables are key components of quality of life. Quality of life is a multi-dimensionalconstruct measuring overall enjoyment of life. This study intends to describe the impact of caring for women with breast cancer on the quality of life among their primary caregivers.Method: We conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed, MEDLINE andCINAHL. In addition, we used the web search engine “Google” for abstracts from 2007 to 2012. A total of eight studies were reviewed that met the following inclusion criteria: adult women with breast cancer, research conducted in English. Studies ranged from 2007-2011. The total sample size in the eight studies on adult caregivers totaled 789 participants. The average age of participants in all of the studies was 49.55 years.There were seven studies that had a quantitative focus,which mainly used a questionnaire and survey to estimate quality of life among primary caregivers. The qualitative approach included in-depth interviews and a focus group.Results: Accumulating evidence has supported the concept that cancer affects not only the patients but also their primary caregiver's quality of life.They face multiple challenges in caring for women with breast cancer, including physical, emotional, social, and financial stress that affects the caregiver's quality of life.Conclusion: Breast cancer diagnosis not only affects the patient's quality of life, but in parallel, also affects the quality of life of the primary caregiver. Thus more focus should be placed on providing moral and social support, and educational resources to improve the level of the caretaker's quality of life.
Mediation is a process through which a third party facilitates discussion among disputing parties to help them identify interests and ideally reach an amicable solution. Elder mediation is a growing subspecialty to address conflicts involving older adults, primarily involving caregiving or finances. Mediation is theorized to empower participants but critics argue that it can exacerbate power imbalances among parties and coerce consensus. These contested claims are examined through study of a national caregiver mediation demonstration project. Study implications underscore the importance of gerontological social work expertise to ensure the empowerment of vulnerable older adults in mediation sessions.
Adi-Bensaid, Limor; Michael, Rinat; Most, Tova; Gali-Cinamon, Rachel
This study examined the parental and spousal self-efficacy (SE) of adults who are deaf and who are hard of hearing (d/hh) in relation to their speech intelligibility. Forty individuals with hearing loss completed self-report measures: Spousal SE in a relationship with a spouse who was hearing/deaf, parental SE to a child who was hearing/deaf, and…
Hughes, K; Lowey, H; Quigg, Z; Bellis, MA
BACKGROUND: Individuals' childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. METHODS: A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885) measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Men...
Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a paradigmatic disorder of adult attachment, with high rates of antecedent childhood maltreatment. The neurocognitive correlates of both attachment disturbance and maltreatment are both presently unknown in BPD. This study evaluated whether dimensional adult attachment disturbance in BPD is related to specific neurocognitive deficits, and whether childhood maltreatment is related to these dysfunctions. An outpatient BPD group (n=43) performed nearly 1 SD below a control group (n=26) on short-term recall, executive, and intelligence functions. These deficits were not affected by emotionally charged stimuli. In the BPD group, impaired recall was related to attachment-anxiety, whereas executive dysfunction was related to attachment-avoidance. Abuse history was correlated significantly with executive dysfunction and at a trend level with impaired recall. Neurocognitive deficits and abuse history exhibited both independent and interactive effects on adult attachment disturbance. These results suggest that (a) BPD patients' reactivity in attachment relationships is related to temporal-limbic dysfunction, irrespective of the emotional content of stimuli, (b) BPD patients' avoidance within attachment relationships may be a relational strategy to compensate for the emotional consequences of frontal-executive dysregulation, and (c) childhood abuse may contribute to these neurocognitive deficits but may also exert effects on adult attachment disturbance that is both independent and interacting with neurocognitive dysfunction.
Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy
Canadians travelling abroad for privately arranged surgeries paid for out-of-pocket are engaging in what has come to be known as medical tourism. They are often accompanied by friends or family members, who we call caregiver-companions. Caregiver-companions provide care in and across a variety of formal and informal settings, such as in hotels, airplanes and at home. This qualitative study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism to learn more about the lived experiences or 'experiential resources' they draw upon to cope with providing care and avoiding caregiver burden. The care-giving literature has demonstrated that such burden can negatively impact caregivers' well-being. The unique, transnational context of care-giving in medical tourism and recent growth in popularity of this practice means that there are few supports or resources currently in place to assist informal caregivers. In this article, we report on an analysis that sought to detail how caregiver-companions draw upon their previous lived experiences to cope with providing transnational care and to minimise or avoid the onset of caregiver burden. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery between September 2013 and January 2014. Thematic analysis revealed the ways that participants had developed practical strategies to deal with the challenges they faced in medical tourism. The interviews revealed three important experiential resources drawn upon by participants: (i) previous experiences of international travel; (ii) previous experiences of informal care-giving; and (iii) dimensions of the existing relationship with the care recipient. Differences in access to and use of these experiential resources related to participants' perspectives on medical tourism and the outcomes of the trip. By identifying the experiential resources drawn upon by informal caregivers in medical tourism
孙玉静; 王丽娜; 周郁秋; 宇虹
Objective To investigate the relationship between care burden and health status in primary caregivers for patients with schizophrenia mental disability and its influencing factors. Methods We enrolled 150 primary caregivers and 150 corresponding patients with schizophrenia mental disability who received regular clinic treatment in Anding Hospital of Chifeng and were in recovery from September 2012 to March 2014. By using simple randomized sampling method,150 healthy people were selected from local healthy population. A cross -sectional survey was made using questionnaires including general information questionnaire,positive and negative syndrome scale ( PANSS ), short form 36 health survey questionnaire ( SF-36 ) and Chinese version of Zarit caregiver burden interview ( ZBI ) . Correlation relevancy analysis was carried out on the relationship between care burden and health status. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to analyze influencing factors for care burden. Results Questionnaires were returned by 146 patients( 97. 3%),146 primary caregivers (97. 3%)and all 150 healthy people. Primary caregivers were in poor health condition,with SF-36 score of each factor lower than healthy controls,especially the factors of emotion functions〔(48. 86 ± 13. 26)vs. (68. 67 ± 19. 29)〕,energy〔(39. 35 ±12. 13)vs. (50. 23 ± 19. 11)〕and mental health〔(51. 27 ± 16. 96)vs. (65. 17 ± 21. 16)〕;the differences were significant(P﹤0. 05). The number of caregivers who had light,medium and heavy burden was 111( 76. 0%),and highly negative correlation existed between care burden and health status(r = -0. 92,P ﹤0. 01). Among the factors of patients, times of hospitalization,age,symptoms of mental disorder( positive symptoms and negative symptoms)had influence on the care burden of primary caregivers(P ﹤0. 05). Among the factors of primary caregivers,gender,education background,relation with patients,vacation and marital status
Full Text Available Past work has shown relationship between the ability to discriminate spectral patterns and measures of speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of both children and young adults to discriminate static and dynamic spectral patterns, comparing performance between the two groups and evaluating within- group results in terms of relationship to speech-in-noise perception. Data were collected from normal-hearing children (age range: 5.4-12.8 years and young adults (mean age: 22.8 years on two spectral discrimination tasks and speech-in-noise perception. The first discrimination task, involving static spectral profiles, measured the ability to detect a change in the phase of a low-density sinusoidal spectral ripple of wideband noise. Using dynamic spectral patterns, the second task determined the signal-to-noise ratio needed to discriminate the temporal pattern of frequency fluctuation imposed by stochastic lowrate frequency modulation (FM. Children performed significantly poorer than young adults on both discrimination tasks. For children, a significant correlation between speech-in-noise perception and spectral- pattern discrimination was obtained only with the dynamic patterns of the FM condition, with partial correlation suggesting that factors related to the childrenâ€™s age mediated the relationship.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Caregiver burden has been associated to both caregiver and patient factors, but little is known about their relationship to burnout. We aimed at investigating burnout correlations to the sociodemographic and clinical variables of a sample of caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD outpatients. Methods: AD patients (n=69 and their caregivers completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Patients were administered the Mini Mental State Examination, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Clinical Dementia Rating and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. Burnout and each dimension (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment were correlated to caregivers’ sociodemographic characteristics, burden of care, anxious and depressive symptoms as well as to the patients’ behavioral, functional and cognitive profile. Results: Burden of care was the only variable that associated to caregiver burnout. Emotional exhaustion was the most prevalent dimension and associated to all caregivers’ and patients’ clinical variables. Conclusions: Caregiver burden associated to burnout, and emotional exhaustion is the dimension mostly associated to dementia severity and psychiatric morbidity in caregivers.
Pompili, Maurizio; Harnic, Désirée; Gonda, Xenia; Forte, Alberto; Dominici, Giovanni; Innamorati, Marco; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Serafini, Gianluca; Sher, Leo; Janiri, Luigi; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo
The aim of the present review was to examine objective and subjective burdens in primary caregivers (usually family members) of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and to list which symptoms of the patients are considered more burdensome by the caregivers. In order to provide a critical review about caregiver's burden in patients with bipolar disorder, we performed a detailed PubMed, BioMedCentral, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Elsevier Science Direct and Cochrane Library search to identify all papers and book chapters in English published during the period between 1963 and November 2011. The highest levels of distress were caused by the patient's behavior and the patient's role dysfunction (work, education and social relationships). Furthermore, the caregiving role compromises other social roles occupied by the caregiver, becoming part of the heavy social cost of bipolar affective disorder. There is a need to better understand caregivers' views and personal perceptions of the stresses and demands arising from caring for someone with BD in order to develop practical appropriate interventions and to improve the training of caregivers.
Hsieh, Julie; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Luo, Sitong; Ji, Guoping
This study examined the burden experienced by various roles of family caregivers of people living with HIV (PLH), in particular spouses vs. non-spouses. A total of 475 family members of PLH were recruited from Anhui Province, China. Participants responded to a survey using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview method. The assessment collected data on demographic characteristics and their perceived caregiver burden, which was compared between spouses and non-spouses. Multiple regression models were built to identify factors associated with caregiver burden. About 64.4% of our study participants were female and the mean age was 42.1 years. Among various relationships to PLH, almost half reported being a spouse. Spouses reported significantly higher caregiver burden than non-spouses. In addition, older age and lower family income were significantly associated with higher level of caregiver burden. Among the subsample of spouses, significantly higher level of caregiver burden was identified among wives. Future studies should give special consideration to address the needs of female spouses in order to reduce their caregiver burden.
Juan Miguel Rodríguez Caballero
Full Text Available The chronic character of the liver cirrhosis and its severe complications, including the patient inability to take care of himself, makes recommendable the availability of a caregiver living with the patient. This caregiver should be able to recognize the usual disorders associated to the cirrhosis. Additionally, an adequate information about the dietary habits and other recommended measures is mandatory for both the caregiver and patient to keep under control all the complications which appears once the illness has been diagnosed.The objective of the present study was to explore the knowledge of the cirrhotic patient’s caregiver regarding this illness. This was intended as a first step in order to develop education protocols that might reduce illness complications and the eventually avoidable hospital admissions. It also tried to explore and determine the fatigue of the personal caregiver in her role, as a diagnosis of the NANDA.We found a significant percentage of caregivers who were not aware of the relationship between constipation and encephalopaty as well as other data indicating insufficient education of the caregivers.