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Sample records for adult body mass

  1. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  2. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management.

  3. Body mass index and regular smoking in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Nelson, Elliot C; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR's for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes. PMID:20634004

  4. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...

  5. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit;

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.......To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  6. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  7. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  8. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI, indepen......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  9. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study

    OpenAIRE

    Milla S Linna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. Methods FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionna...

  10. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  11. EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BONE-FREE LEAN BODY MASS AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ADULTS

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    Yusuke Osawa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training with whole-body vibration (WBV is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to conventional resistance training or as supplementary training. Despite its growing popularity, the specific effects of WBV training on muscle morphology, strength, and endurance are not well understood, particularly in young adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of WBV training on bone-free lean body mass (BFLBM, and maximal muscle strength and endurance in healthy, untrained, young individuals. Eighteen healthy men and women (21-39 years were randomly assigned to either a body-weight exercise with WBV (VT group or a control exercise group without WBV (CON. Participants performed eight exercises per 40- min session on a vibration platform (VT group, frequency = 30-40 Hz; amplitude = 2 mm twice weekly for 12 weeks. Anthropometry, total and regional BFLBM (trunks, legs, and arms measured by dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength and endurance measured by maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength, and the number of sit- ups performed were recorded and compared. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes between the groups in any of the measured variables. We conclude that 12 weeks of body weight vibration exercise compared to body weight exercise alone does not provide meaningful changes to BFLBM or muscle performance in healthy young adults.

  12. In vivo organ mass of Korean adults obtained from whole-body magnetic resonance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo organ mass of the Korean adult, male and female were presented for the purpose of radiation protection. A total of 121 healthy volunteers (66 males and 55 females), whose body dimensions were close to that of average Korean adults, were recruited for this study. Whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained, and contours of 15 organs (brain, eye, gall bladder, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, stomach, spleen, testes, thymus, thyroid, urinary bladder and uterus) and 9 bones (femur, tibia + fibula, humerus, radius + ulna, pelvis, cervical spine, thoracic and lumber spine, skull and clavicle) were segmented for organ volume rendering by anatomists using commercial software. Organ and bone masses were calculated by multiplying the Asian reference densities of the corresponding organs and bones by the measured volumes. The resulting organ and bone masses were compared with those of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Asian reference data. Significantly large standard deviation was shown in the moving organs of the respiratory and circulatory systems and in the alimentary and urogenital organs that are variable in volume in a single person. Gall bladder and pancreas showed unique Korean organ masses compared with those of ICRP and the Asian reference adults. Different from anatomical data based on autopsy, the in vivo volume and mass in this study can more exactly describe the organ volume of a living human subject for radiation protection. A larger sample size would be required for obtaining statistically more reliable results. It is also needed to establish the reference organ mass of younger age groups for which it is difficult to recruit volunteers and to immobilise the subjects for long-time MR scanning. At present, the data from this study will contribute to the establishment of a Korean reference database. (authors)

  13. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: whole-body bioimpedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bioimpedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Berkhout, van F.T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage estimated from BMI, skinfolds, or leg-to-leg bioimpedance are good indicators of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Body fat percentage measured by whole-body bioimpedance was used as the reference

  14. Developmental expression of drop-dead is required for early adult survival and normal body mass in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Christine Lynn; Blumenthal, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations in the gene drop-dead (drd) result in early adult lethality, with flies dying within 2 weeks of eclosion. Additional phenotypes include neurodegeneration, tracheal defects, starvation, reduced body mass, and female sterility. The cause of early lethality and the function of the drd protein remain unknown. In the current study, the temporal profiles of drd expression required for adult survival and body mass regulation were investigated. Knockdown of drd e...

  15. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Pancreas Volume in Japanese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsei Kou; Yoshifumi Saisho; Hiroshi Itoh; Masahiro Jinzaki

    2014-01-01

    Context The volume of the pancreas increases with obesity. Objective This study was aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and pancreas volume in Japanese. Methods The pancreas volume was examined in a total of 103 (60 men and 43 women) Japanese adults who had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. The pancreas was outlined by hand in each CT image and the pancreas volume was computed by summing the product of pancreas area of each image and the CT section...

  16. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 fema...

  17. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

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    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  18. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-...

  19. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m2. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged ≥50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  20. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults

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    Vicente Romo-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity (PI are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486. The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03, and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes. 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week. According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations.

  1. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzenius, Jacob D.; Laidlaw, David H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Conturo, Thomas E.; McMichael, Amanda R.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Salminen, Lauren E.; Baker, Laurie M.; Scott, Staci E.; Cooley, Sarah A.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, commonly measured with body mass index (BMI), is associated with numerous deleterious health conditions including alterations in brain integrity related to advanced age. Prior research has suggested that white matter integrity observed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is altered in relation to high BMI, but the integrity of specific white matter tracts remains poorly understood. Additionally, no studies have examined white matter tract integrity in conjunction with neuropsychological evaluation associated with BMI among older adults. The present study examined white matter tract integrity using DTI and cognitive performance associated with BMI in 62 healthy older adults (20 males, 42 females) aged 51 to 81. Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus, though there was no evidence of an age by BMI interaction relating to FA in this tract. No relationships were observed between BMI and other white matter tracts or cognition after controlling for demographic variables. Findings suggest that elevated BMI is associated with lower structural integrity in a brain region connecting frontal and temporal lobes and this alteration precedes cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should examine biological mechanisms that mediate the relationships between BMI and white matter tract integrity, as well as the evolution of these abnormalities utilizing longitudinal designs. PMID:25448431

  2. Risk of asthma in adult twins with type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Duffy, D L; Kyvik, K O; Skytthe, A; Backer, V

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index (BMI) in adult twins. METHODS: We performed record linkage between questionnaire-defined asthma and BMI, and hospital discharge diagnoses of type 2 diabetes in 34,782 Danish twins, 20-71 years of age....... RESULTS: The risk of asthma was increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes relative to nondiabetic subjects both in men (13.5%vs 7.5%), P = 0.001 and in women (16.6%vs 9.6%), P = 0.001. The result remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, marital status...... between asthma and type 2 diabetes, 0.20 (0.01-0.40), P = 0.047; between asthma and BMI in women, 0.15 (0.07-0.22), P < 0.000; and between BMI and type 2 diabetes, 0.40 (0.29-0.43), P < 0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased BMI are strongly associated in adults, particularly in women...

  3. Obesity in young Dutch adults: II, daily life-style and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecke, J A; Burema, J; Frijters, J E; Hautvast, J G; van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between aspects of daily life-style and age, level of education, and body mass index (BMI; weight/height) were studied in young adult males (n = 1765) and females (n = 2092) in three age groups (19-21, 24-26 and 29-31 yr) in a Dutch population. By means of principal-components analysis five conceptually meaningful factors could be distinguished within the aspects of daily life-style which were considered. These factors were interpreted as constructs of: (1) slimming behaviour; (2) behaviour characterized by the consumption of coffee and alcohol, smoking habits and the number of hours sleep per night (CASS behaviour); (3) eating sweet and savoury snacks between meals; (4) health-conscious behaviour; and (5) physical activity. After adjustments were made for age and level of education, multiple regression analysis showed that slimming behaviour was positively related to BMI in both sexes, CASS behaviour was positively related to BMI in males, and health-conscious behaviour was inversely related to BMI in both sexes. An observed positive relationship between BMI and occupational physical activity in males could be explained by a confounding effect of socio-economic status. The observed weak positive relationship between number of hours active sport per month and BMI in males is possibly due to a difference in lean body mass. The consumption of sweet and savoury snacks was not related to BMI in either sex. These findings suggest that the daily life-style variables should be interpreted as indicators of more general types of behaviour, some of which may be important determinants of obesity. PMID:6840963

  4. The Effect of Body Mass Index on Relapse of Pilonidal Sinus Disease in Adult Patients

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    Jalal Poorghasem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pilonidal disease occurs either as a secreting sinus or in the form of an acute abscess in the coccygeal area and is an underlying cyst associated with granulomatous and fibrosis tissue which commonly contains heaps of hair, for which inherited and acquisitive hypotheses are proposed. Body mass index (BMI is the objective indicator of obesity according to height and weight. This study aims to examine the relationship between BMI and the role of obesity in development and relapse of pilonidal cyst disease.Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study examined 126 patients with primary or recurrent pilonidal sinus within a year. A separate questionnaire was formed and recorded in the computer for each patient based on the disease type and body mass index.Results: One hundred out of 126 studied patients (79.4% underwent primary Pilonidal Sinus surgery and 26 patients (20.6 had recurrent Pilonidal sinus surgery. 36 patients (28.6 were female and 90 patients (71.4% were male. Among patients with recurrent Pilonidal sinus, 18 patients (69.2% had BMI above 30 and 8 patients (30.8% had BMI of 25 to 30 kg/m2. The patients whose BMI was estimated to be 20 to 25 or less than 20 kg/ m2 per square meter, had no recurrence of disease. Conclusion: In this study, high BMI was associated with relapse of pilonidal sinus disease. Supporting the previous studies, the incidence of disease in this study was also higher in young adults.

  5. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women

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    Marcela de Freitas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2. A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2. Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7. The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women.

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Anupi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.

  7. Increasing trends in central obesity among Chinese adults with normal body mass index, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Central obesity is thought to be more pathogenic than overall obesity and studies have shown that the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality was strongest in those with a normal body mass index (BMI). The objective of our study was to determine secular trends in the prevalence of central obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) among Chinese adults with normal BMI from 1993 to 2009 and to examine the impact of performance of combined BMI and WC on the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted from 1993 to 2009. From which we included a total of 52023 participants aged ≥ 18 years. Results The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity among Chinese adults with BMI < 25 kg/m2 increased from 11.9% in 1993 to 21.1% in 2009 (P for linear trend <0.001). The upward trends were noted in both genders, all ages, rural/urban settings, and education groups (all P for linear trend <0.001), with greater increments in men, participants aged 18–64 years, and rural residents (P for interaction terms survey × sex, survey × age, and survey × rural/urban settings were 0.042, 0.003, and < 0.001, respectively). Trends in the prevalence of central obesity were similar when a more stringent BMI < 23 kg/m2 cut point (Asian cut point) was applied. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. More than 65% individuals with obesity would be missed if solely BMI was measured. Conclusions We observed an upward trend in the prevalence of central obesity among participants with normal BMI irrespective of sex, age, rural/urban settings, and education level. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. Approximately two thirds of the individuals with obesity would be missed if WC was not measured. It is, therefore, urgent to emphasize the importance of

  8. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. ...

  9. Modifiable environmental influences on body mass index shared by young adult brothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, B; Silventoinen, K; Tynelius, P; Sørensen, T I A; Rasmussen, F

    2013-01-01

    Twin and adoption studies suggest that family environment has little, if any, influence on body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. We investigated the hypothesis that the differences in the years of birth between siblings influence their similarity in BMI at comparable ages, which would give evidence...

  10. Quality of life and body mass index in overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a lifestyle modification program

    OpenAIRE

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; STUYVER, ISABELLE; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...

  11. Perceived Stress, Behavior, and Body Mass Index Among Adults Participating in a Worksite Obesity Prevention Program, Seattle, 2005–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Ceballos, Rachel M.; Bishop, Sonia K.; McGregor, Bonnie A.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Stress in numerous contexts may affect the risk for obesity through biobehavioral processes. Acute stress has been associated with diet and physical activity in some studies; the relationship between everyday stress and such behavior is not clear. The objective of this study was to examine associations between perceived stress, dietary behavior, physical activity, eating awareness, self-efficacy, and body mass index (BMI) among healthy working adults. Secondary objectives were to...

  12. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  13. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral...

  14. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of bo...

  15. Television viewing is not predictive of Body Mass Index in Black and Hispanic young adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney; Holly C. Gooding; Field, Alison E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have observed that television viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between television viewing and body mass index (BMI) varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for socio-demogra...

  16. The Super Size of America: An Economic Estimation of Body Mass Index and Obesity in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Inas Rashad; Michael Grossman; Shin-Yi Chou

    2005-01-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States stresses the pressing need for answers as to why this rapid rise has occurred. This paper employs micro-level data from the First, Second, and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to determine the effects that various state-level variables have on body mass index and obesity. These variables, which include the per capita number of restaurants, the gasoline tax, the cigarette tax, and clean indoor air laws, display man...

  17. The Effect of Body Mass Index on Relapse of Pilonidal Sinus Disease in Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Poorghasem; Alireza Mahoori

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pilonidal disease occurs either as a secreting sinus or in the form of an acute abscess in the coccygeal area and is an underlying cyst associated with granulomatous and fibrosis tissue which commonly contains heaps of hair, for which inherited and acquisitive hypotheses are proposed. Body mass index (BMI) is the objective indicator of obesity according to height and weight. This study aims to examine the relationship between BMI and the role of obesity in development and relapse ...

  18. Body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  19. SCREENING OF BODY MASS INDEX AND FUNCTIONAL FLATFOOT IN ADULT: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Chougala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a relation between flatfoot and increased Body Mass Index (BMI. Increased weight leads to increase plantar pressure causing reduced distance between ground and arches of the foot. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of flat feet in college going students, to determine the relationship between flat foot and Body Mass Index (BMI, and to compare prevalence of flat foot among college boys and girls. Materials and Method: Samples were taken according to willingness for participation; informed consent was given and signed from them. Height and weight of subjects were measured by using standard apparatus. Total numbers of males screened were 46 and females were 182. BMI was considered as the index of obesity .The international BMI cut–off values were used to determine obesity (BMI> 95th percentile, and foot structure assessment was performed with Denis Method. Significant relationship between obesity and flatfoot was observed. Result: A significant relationship (P≤0.01 was found between the prevalence of flatfoot and BMI. Also males were found to have higher prevalence of flatfoot than women in the age group of 18-25 years. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there is relationship between increased weight of person and structure of the foot. Males are more prone to flatfoot than females in the age group of 18-25 years.

  20. Ultrasonography assessment of renal size and its correlation with body mass index in adults without known renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many conditions affect renal size. To evaluate abnormalities in renal size, knowledge of standardised values for normal renal dimensions is essential as it shows variability in the values of normal renal size depending on body size, age and ethnicity. Ultrasound, being an easily available, non-invasive, safe and less expensive modality, is widely used for evaluation of renal dimensions and repeated follow-ups. The objectives of this study were to determine renal size by ultrasound in adults without any known renal disease, and to determine the relationship of renal size with body mass index. Methods: Study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shifa International Hospital and PIMS Islamabad. Renal size was assessed by ultrasound in 4,035 adult subjects with normal serum creatinine and without any known renal disease, between November 2002 and December 2010. Renal length, width, thickness and volume were obtained and mean renal length and volume were correlated with body mass index and other factors like age, side, gender, weight and height of the subjects. Results: Mean renal length on right side was 101.6+-8.9 mm, renal width 42.7+-7.1 mm, and parenchymal thickness 14.4+-2.9 mm. On left side, mean renal length was 102.7+-9.2 mm, width 47.6+-7.0 mm, and parenchymal thickness 15.1+-3.1 mm. Mean renal volume on right was 99.8+-37.2 cm/sup 3/ and on left was 124.4+-41.3 cm/sup 3/. Left renal size was significantly larger than right in both genders. Relationship of mean renal length was significant when correlated with age, side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index. Renal volumes also showed a similar relationship with side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index; but with age such a relationship was seen only for left kidney. Conclusion: Pakistani population has mean renal size smaller than reference values available in international literature. Renal length and volume have a direct relationship with body mass index. Mean renal

  1. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  2. Temporal Relationship Between Childhood Body Mass Index and Insulin and Its Impact on Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Ying; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Qi, Lu; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Xue, Fuzhong; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with Pchildhood insulin on the childhood BMI-adult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (Pchildhood, and this 1-directional relation plays a role in the development of hypertension. PMID:27432860

  3. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27213419

  4. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwang Rao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585, overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756, and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104 were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001 in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864, overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793, and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017 were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001. The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia.

  5. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  6. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  7. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  8. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  9. The effects of food shortage during larval development on adult body size, body mass, physiology and developmental time in a tropical damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cortés, J Guillermo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition--phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) "rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) "poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species. PMID:22085821

  10. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G; Simons, Jon S; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18-35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what-where-when style episodic memory test: the "Treasure-Hunt Task". This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what-where-when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  11. Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego Augusto Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body fat percentage (%BF estimated by equations using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC to identify hypertension and estimate measures of association between high %BF and hypertension in adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 1,720 adults (20–59 years from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of cutoffs for %BF were calculated. The association between %BF and hypertension was analyzed using Poisson regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI. Results The %BF equations showed good discriminatory power for hypertension (area under the ROC curve > 0.50. Considering the entire sample, the cutoffs for %BF with better properties for screening hypertension were identified in the equation with BMI for men (%BF = 20.4 and with WC for women (%BF = 34.1. Adults with high %BF had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The use of simple anthropometric measurements allowed identifying the %BF, diagnosing obesity, and screening people at risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful diagnostic evaluation.

  12. Association between body mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Ren, Xiaoxia; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Youren; Yang, Xinchun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease; however, the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all-cause mortality is controversial. We prospectively examined the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in 123,384 Chinese men and women who participated in the Kailuan health examination study from 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2009. Cases included 6218 deaths (5770 men and 448 women) that occurred during a mean follow-up period of 7.39 years. Relative risk was adjusted for factors such as age, serum lipid levels (ie, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), history of smoking and drinking, and physical activity, as well as a medical history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Within the cohort, the lowest risk of all-cause mortality was seen among persons with a BMI of 24 to 28 kg/m in male, and the risk was elevated among persons with BMI levels lower or higher than that range. Moreover, all-cause mortality was greatest in the group with a BMI of <18.5 kg/m. In contrast, in female, a high BMI was associated with increased mortality, and a BMI of <18.5 kg/m was associated with the lowest risk. Further, a U-shaped association was seen between BMI and the risk of death from any cause among men and women, even after adjusting for confounding factors. In conclusion, underweight was associated with a substantially increased risk of all-cause mortality in males. The excess risk of all-cause mortality with a high BMI, however, was seen among females. PMID:27512844

  13. Relationship between Body Mass Index Reference and All-Cause Mortality: Evidence from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variation in body mass index (BMI reference and 5-year all-cause mortality using data from 87151 adult Open University students nationwide. Analyses focused on BMI reference bands: “normal” (≥18.5 to <23, “lower normal” (≥18.5 to <20.75, “upper normal” (≥20.75 to <23, and “narrow Western normal” (≥23 to <25. We report hazard ratios (HR and 95% Confidence Intervals adjusting for covariates. Compared to lower normal, adults aged 35–65 years who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 were twice as likely to die during the follow-up (HR 2.37; 1.01–5.70. For the same group, when using narrow Western normal as the reference, the results were similar (HR 3.02; 1.26–7.22. However, different combinations of BMI exposure and reference band produce quite different results. Older age persons belonging to Asian overweight BMI category (≥23 to <25 were relatively protected from mortality (HR 0.57; 0.34–0.96 and HR 0.49; 0.28–0.84 when assessed using normal (≥18.5 to <23 and upper normal (≥20.75 to <23 as reference bands. Use of different “normal” reference produced varying mortality relationships in a large cohort of Thai adults. Caution is needed when interpreting BMI-mortality data.

  14. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Drumond Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006, were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental activity of daily living (IADL, and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages.

  15. Body Mass Index and Chronic Energy Deficiency among Adult Santals of Purulia District, West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subal Das

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the overall prevalance of undernutrition using BMI (kg/m2 among the Santal adult tribes of  Purulia District, West Bengal, India. Present study is based on the data of height and weight of adults aged 18 years and above from 10 villages of Purulia. A total of 513 (196 males and 317 females adults aged 18 years and above were measured. One commonly used indicator i.e., BMI were used to evaluate the nutritional status of the subjects. Females were found more underweight than their male counterpart (30.6% & (63.4%, which is found to be significant (p < 0.001. There is highly significant gender differences in CED (x2= 55.96a; df= 4; p< 0.001. Tribal females of west Bengal were in highly critical situation than other states of the same country (64.2%. Valuable health and nutritional promotion programs can be formulated based on these findings of such researches with the ultimate objective of reducing overall nutritional problem in a population.

  16. Association of body mass index and waist circumstance with risk of hypertension and diabetes in Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the influences of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC on hypertension and diabetes among Chinese adults. Methods Seventy-nine thousand and twelve adults, aged 20-80 years old, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure (BP, and fasting blood glucose (FBG level were measured, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was calculated with reference to BMI and WC distributions. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors. Results BMI is positively associated with hypertension and diabetes, and WC showed the similar pattern. The adjusted odds ratios (OR of hypertension and diabetes were 1.7 and 1.7, respectively, for 1 s.d. increase in BMI; the corresponding ORwere 1.7 and 2.0, respectively, for 1 s.d. increase in WC. Younger obese people and women were at higher risk of hypertension and diabetes when BMI(≥30kg/m2 and WC increased. Diabetes showed a higher raising rate with BMI and WC increase than that of hypertension. The combined indicators of BMI and WC were more strongly associated with hypertension and diabetes in both men and women. Conclusion Obesity or central obesity is associated with an increased risk of hypertension and diabetes, implying a practical need of developing strategies to prevent and control obesity and related chronic diseases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.10.07

  17. Associations between Body Mass and the Outcome of Surgery for Scoliosis in Chinese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ziqiang; Yi, Honglei; Li, Ming; Wang, ChuanFeng; Zhang, Jingtao; Yang, Changwei; Zhao, Yingchuan; Lu, Yanghu

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study we intended to prove that being overweight has an unfavorable impact on the surgical treatment outcome of adult idiopathic scoliosis (AdIS). Methods This is a retrospective study on the surgical treatment of seventy-one more than 30 years old (58 females and 13 males; mean age 42.9±12.2) idiopathic scoliotic patients with a minimum follow up of at least 2 years. The patients were divided into an overweight group (BMI≥23) and a non-overweight group (BMI

  18. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Anupi; Marami

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test), is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS) and handgrip endurance (HGE). AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible ...

  19. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude;

    2016-01-01

    categories (<18·5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18·5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), ≥40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior...... probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue. FINDINGS: We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates...

  20. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Smith, Lindsey P; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although BMI and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. Objectives Describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. Subjects/Methods Data on adults aged 20–59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. Results There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent amongst obese versus lean individuals and amongst younger versus older women. Conclusions For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMI was higher in 2009, compared to their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC. PMID:24813367

  1. Relationship of body mass index and waist to hip ratio measurement with hypertension in young adult medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the BMI profile and waist to hip ratio measurements of young adult medical students of Lahore medical and dental college and its relationship with hypertension. All the students of Lahore medical and dental college were asked to undergo physical examination. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The partial correlation coefficient was used to quantify the association between BMI and waist-to-hip circumference ratio with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio on the variance of systolic and diastolic BP. Mean BMI was 23.24 (SD+-4.31). Descriptive analysis revealed that 103 (21.3%) of the study population were classified as underweight, 251 (52 %) as normal weight, 99 (20.5%) as overweight, and 30 (6.2 %) as obese. Abdominal adiposity, as measured by increased WHR, was present in 56 subjects (11.59 %). Partial correlation controlled for age revealed strong positive correlation between BMI and WHR for males. 7.24% had high systolic blood pressure, minimum systolic BP was 90 while maximum being 160 mmHg. Same was the value for high diastolic blood pressure i.e. 35 (7.24%), range was from 60 to 100mm Hg. Results of the partial correlation coefficient controlled for age, indicated a significant positive correlation between SBP and DBP. Stepwise linear regression analysis controlled for age revealed that both body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were independently correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The present results suggest that prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students is higher than in general population. Those with either higher BMI or central adiposity distribution are potential candidates of increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (author)

  2. A longitudinal study of systemic inflammation and recovery of lean body mass among malnourished HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Blevins, M; Woodd, Susannah; Rehman, A M; Jeremiah, Kidola; Friis, Henrik; Kelly, P; Changalucha, John; Heimburger, D C; Filteau, Suzanne; Koethe, J R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The effects of inflammation on nutritional rehabilitation after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well understood. We assessed the relationship between inflammation and body composition among patients enrolled in the Nutritional Support for African Adults Starti......-free mass gains. Further studies are warranted to determine whether interventions to reduce systemic inflammation will enhance gains in fat-free mass.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 20 January 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.221....... Antiretroviral therapy (NUSTART) trial in Tanzania and Zambia from 2011 to 2013. SUBJECTS/METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults with body mass index (BMI) of <18.5 kg/m(2) enrolled in the NUSTART trial were eligible for this study. Anthropometric and body composition data were collected at recruitment and 6...

  3. Assessment of serum trace metals and body mass indices in rural and urban healthy adult population: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavana Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited community-based data are available on the serum zinc and copper levels and factors affecting their levels in the adult healthy population of rural and urban India. Hence, the present study is conducted to evaluate and compare the serum levels of zinc and copper with body mass indices (BMI in rural and urban healthy adult population. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from the rural and urban population in the age group of 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Subjects having past medical histories of major diseases and with acute infections were excluded. Their anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, hip, and waist circumference were measured, and the BMI calculated. Venous samples collected from them were used to determine the levels of zinc and copper. Results: Both the subject groups had optimum levels of zinc, but the urban subjects were deficient in copper. The levels of serum zinc were higher in the urban population while the levels of copper were higher in the rural population. In addition, the levels of serum zinc and copper were negatively correlated with each other but were not statistically significant. Considering each of the population individually, there was no gender wise difference between the serum zinc and copper levels and were almost the same. The BMI had a strong positive correlation with the serum zinc levels in the rural population (P = 0.026. However, it did not have any correlation with the copper levels. Conclusion: Our study brought out the association between serum zinc levels and BMI and the fact that serum zinc levels were higher in the urban population and copper levels in the rural population. Emphasis on the diet rich in these trace elements can help in maintaining adequate and balanced levels of zinc and copper.

  4. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Lee

    Full Text Available Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61, P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75, P for trend < 0.001 in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2, male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80, P for trend = 0.009. Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49, P for trend = 0.002. After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25, P for trend = 0.013. Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post

  5. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  6. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  7. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  8. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors. PMID:26005202

  9. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  10. Reduced body mass, food intake, and testis size in response to short photoperiod in adult F344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Paul D

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although laboratory rats are often considered classic nonseasonal breeders, peripubertal rats of two inbred strains, F344 and BN, have both reproductive and nonreproductive responses to short photoperiods. Unmanipulated adult rats have not been reported to have robust responses to short photoperiod alone, although several treatments can induce photoperiodic responses in adults. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that unmanipulated F344 rats retain responses to short photoperiod as adults and that they have the necessary elements for an endogenous circannual rhythm of sensitivity to short photoperiod. Results Relative to rats kept in long photoperiods (L16:D8, adult F344 rats transferred at 4.5 months of age to short photoperiods (L8:D16 had significantly lower testis size, food intake, and body weight. In a second experiment, newly weaned F344 rats underwent an initial period of inhibition of reproductive maturation, lower food intake, and lower body weight in short photoperiod or intermediate photoperiod (L12:D12 relative to rats in long photoperiod. By 18 weeks of treatment, rats in the two inhibitory photoperiods no longer differed from long photoperiod controls. In short photoperiod, rats underwent a second period of slight reproductive inhibition between weeks 35 and 48, but there was an effect on body weight and slight inhibition of food intake only in an intermediate photoperiod. Conclusion Male F344 rats retain photoresponsiveness as adults, with less reproductive inhibition but equivalent nonreproductive responses. There was only weak evidence for an endogenous timer controlling a circannual cycle of sensitivity to short photoperiod.

  11. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitlock, G.; Lewington, S.; Sherliker, P.; Clarke, R.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background - The main associations of body-mass index (BMI) with overall and cause-specific mortality can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. The Prospective Studies Collaboration aimed to investigate these associations by sharing data from many studies. M

  12. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Whitlock, Gary; Lewington, Sarah;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main associations of body-mass index (BMI) with overall and cause-specific mortality can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. The Prospective Studies Collaboration aimed to investigate these associations by sharing data from many studies....

  13. Lifetime body mass index and later atherosclerosis risk in young adults: examining causal links using Mendelian randomization in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, Mika; Smith, George Davey; Nic J. Timpson; Debbie A. Lawlor; Batty, G. David; Kähönen, Mika; Juonala, Markus; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T

    2008-01-01

    Aims Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants related to environmentally modifiable risk factors in an attempt to improve causal inference from observational data. We examined the effect of lifetime body mass index (BMI) on adult carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and various atherosclerotic risk factors by using both Mendelian randomization and conventional analyses. Methods and results A total of 2230 individuals (1218 women), aged 3–18 at study induction, took part in clinical exam...

  14. Incidence of Adult-onset Asthma After Hypothetical Interventions on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity: An Application of the Parametric G-Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Danaei, Goodarz; Camargo, de, B.; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased asthma risk, but uncertainty persists about the role of physical activity. We estimated the independent and joint associations of hypothetical interventions on BMI and physical activity with the risk of adult-onset asthma in 76,470 asthma-free women from the Nurses’ Health Study who were followed between 1988 and 1998. Information about asthma, BMI, physical activity, and other factors was updated ...

  15. Measured adolescent body mass index and adult breast cancer in a cohort of 951,480 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levine, Hagai; Derazne, Estela; Molina-Hazan, Vered; Kark, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, studied predominantly as a self-reported risk factor for breast cancer (BC), may have been subjected to recall bias. We examined the association between measured BMI in adolescence and the incidence of BC by menopausal status. 951,480 Jewish Israeli females aged 16-19 who underwent anthropometric measurements in 1967-2011 were followed up to 31.12.2012 for BC incidence. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between adolescent BMI (as age-specific CDC percentiles) and time to BC diagnosis, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. The analysis was also subdivided by age at diagnosis. 9619 BC cases diagnosed during 18,078,941 person-years of follow-up were included in multivariable analyses: 4901 premenopausal, 3809 perimenopausal, and 909 postmenopausal. Compared with 'healthy' BMI (5th-country of origin, education, and height, adolescent BMI was largely negatively associated with BC: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.057 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.955-1.169, p = 0.286) in underweight (<5th percentile); HR = 0.918 (95 % CI 0.849-0.993, p = 0.032) in overweight (85th-<95th percentiles); and HR = 0.682 (95 % CI 0.552-0.843, p = 0.00004) in obese (≥95th percentile) women. In premenopausal, but not peri- and postmenopausal BC, associations were statistically significant; underweight was associated with increased risk of premenopausal BC (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.01-1.31, p = 0.037), and overweight and obesity with significantly lower risk. Adolescent thinness was associated with increased risk for early BC. Overweight and obesity were protectively associated with premenopausal but not postmenopausal BC. The lack of an association of adolescent overweight/obesity with increased peri- and postmenopausal BC suggests a causal role for adult weight gain. PMID:27306419

  16. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  17. The variations of body mass index and body fat in adult Thai people across the age spectrum measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittawatanarat K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweesak Chittawatanarat1,2, Sakda Pruenglampoo3, Siriphan Kongsawasdi4, Busaba Chuatrakoon4, Vibul Trakulhoon5, Winai Ungpinitpong6, Jayanton Patumanond21Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Clinical Epidemiology Unit, 3Research Institute for Health Sciences, 4Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 5Department of Surgery, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Bangkok, 6Surgical Unit, Surin Hospital, Surin, ThailandBackground: The measurements of body mass index (BMI and percentage of body fat are used in many clinical situations. However, special tools are required to measure body fat. Many formulas are proposed for estimation but these use constant coefficients of age. Age spectrum might affect the predicted value of the body composition due to body component alterations, and the coefficient of age for body fat prediction might produce inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to identify variations of BMI and body fat across the age spectrum as well as compare results between BMI predicted body fat and bioelectrical impedance results on age.Methods: Healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Body fat was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The age spectrum was divided into three groups (younger: 18–39.9; middle: 40–59.9; and older: ≥60 years. Comparison of body composition covariates including fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM, percentage FM (PFM, percentage FFM (PFFM, FM index (FMI and FFM index (FFMI in each weight status and age spectrum were analyzed. Multivariable linear regression coefficients were calculated. Coefficient alterations among age groups were tested to confirm the effect of the age spectrum on body composition covariates. Measured PFM and calculated PFM from previous formulas were compared in each quarter of the age spectrum.Results: A total of 2324 volunteers were included in this study. The overall body composition and weight

  18. Body mass index, chronic atrophic gastritis and heartburn: a population-based study among 8936 older adults from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lei; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obesity and overweight have been positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It has been suggested, that this relation is due to an increased gastric acid reflux which is caused by an enhanced intra-abdominal pressure. Aim: We aimed to assess potential interaction of the association between body mass index (BMI) and GERD by chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) which goes along with reduced acid production. Methods: In the baseline examinat...

  19. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai Hiroshi; Ojima Toshiyuki; Nakade Miyo; Nakaya Tomoki; Kondo Katsunori; Hanibuchi Tomoya; Kawachi Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006...

  20. Semen quality and reproductive hormones according to birthweight and body mass index in childhood and adult life: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hansen, Maj; Jensen, Cecilie Rutkjaer;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and adulthood BMI, and adult semen quality and level of reproductive hormones. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: From a pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987. PATIENT(S): 347 out of 5,109 sons were...... BMI were significantly associated with semen quality. Men with the 33% highest childhood BMI had 15% lower sex hormone binding globulin, 8% lower testosterone, and 16% lower FSH than men with the 33% lowest childhood BMI. Men with high adulthood BMI had 14% lower testosterone, 9% lower inhibin B, 31......% lower sex hormone binding globulin, and 20% higher estradiol than men with low adulthood BMI. CONCLUSION(S): The results do not indicate an effect of childhood BMI, birth weight, or adult BMI on semen quality, but the exposure contrast in our study was limited. The hormonal status was affected by adult...

  1. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with...... = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (~6-7 cm) and BMI (~1.5-2 kg...

  2. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3–20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II–III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm2; p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm2; p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm2; p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  3. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von StengelInstitute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, GermanyBackground: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally.Methods: Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week, elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23 which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23. Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates.Results: After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary endpoints of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025 and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038. Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033, while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050. With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010.Conclusion: In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the

  4. Association of breakfast consumption with body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a nationally-representative survey of Canadian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Susan I.; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined the association of breakfast consumption, and the type of breakfast consumed, with body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and prevalence rates and odds ratios (OR) of overweight/obesity among Canadian adults. These associations were examined by age group and sex. Methods We used data from non-pregnant, non-lactating participants aged ≥ 18 years (n = 12,377) in the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, a population-based, nationally-representative, cross-sectional st...

  5. Body mass index, muscle strength and physical performance in older adults from eight cohort studies: the HALCyon programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hardy

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations of body mass index (BMI and grip strength with objective measures of physical performance (chair rise time, walking speed and balance including an assessment of sex differences and non-linearity.Cross-sectional data from eight UK cohort studies (total N = 16,444 participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon research programme, ranging in age from 50 to 90+ years at the time of physical capability assessment, were used. Regression models were fitted within each study and meta-analysis methods used to pool regression coefficients across studies and to assess the extent of heterogeneity between studies.Higher BMI was associated with poorer performance on chair rise (N = 10,773, walking speed (N = 9,761 and standing balance (N = 13,921 tests. Higher BMI was associated with stronger grip strength in men only. Stronger grip strength was associated with better performance on all tests with a tendency for the associations to be stronger in women than men; for example, walking speed was higher by 0.43 cm/s (0.14, 0.71 more per kg in women than men. Both BMI and grip strength remained independently related with performance after mutual adjustment, but there was no evidence of effect modification. Both BMI and grip strength exhibited non-linear relations with performance; those in the lowest fifth of grip strength and highest fifth of BMI having particularly poor performance. Findings were similar when waist circumference was examined in place of BMI.Older men and women with weak muscle strength and high BMI have considerably poorer performance than others and associations were observed even in the youngest cohort (age 53. Although causality cannot be inferred from observational cross-sectional studies, our findings suggest the likely benefit of early assessment and interventions to reduce fat mass and improve muscle strength in the prevention of future functional limitations.

  6. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects...... with diabetes. METHODS: Data comprised level of leisure time PA (inactive; moderate active; medium active; high active); smoking; BMI; and alcohol consumption, provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys. Participants older than 45 years with or without diabetes were included from cross...... reduced from 27.2% to 16.4%, p=0.015, in women with diabetes. In men with diabetes, BMI increased from 27.2 ± 4.0 to 28.6 ± 5.1 kgm(-2), p=0.003, and men who exceeded the maximum recommendation for alcohol consumption increased from 9.4% to 19.0%, p=0.007. The leisure time PA level was reduced in...

  7. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders.

  8. 成年人身高与去脂组织重的关系%Relationship between body height and fat-free mass in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣欣; 刘新焕; 滕俊英; 郑子新; 王伟琴; 薛长勇

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between body height and fat-free mass (FFM) in order to derive an approximation formula of FFM in healthy adults.METHODS: Totally 955 healthy adults were divided into obesity group and non-obesity group according to body mass index (BMI) and redivided into two groups by the age of 45, and the relation of FFM with age and obesity was analyzed. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to assess the allometric relation of FFM with body height.RESULTS: For the healthy adults aged 18-45 years old, the body height was(1.65 ±0.07) m, body mass was(11.28 ±6.75) kg, the fat mass was (11.28 ±6.75) kg, the body fat percentage was(17.91±8.67)%, the FFM percentage was(82.02 ± 8.87)% and the BMI was(22.85 ± 2.99) kg/m2,but for the healthy adults aged 46-74 years old, the body height was ( 1.65 ± 0.07) m, the body mass was(66.08 ± 10.21 ) kg, the fat mass was (14.56 +6.44) kg, the body fat percentage was(22.09 ±9.23)%, the FFM percentage was(77.58 ± 10.07)% and the BMI was(25.19 ± 2.95) kg/m2,the differences were significant ( P < 0.05 ) . There was no significant difference in FFM between those aged 18-45 [(50.93 ± 10.23) kg] and those aged 46-74[(51.53±10.07) kg] (P> 0.05) .The values forFFM in healthy adults increased with age and did not differ between obesity and non-obesity groups. The equations obtained by non-linear regression analysis that provided the best approximation of FFM for males was FFM(kg)=24.98 × Height1.68 and for females was FFM(kg) = 22.84 × Height1.42.CONCLUSION: The exponential of body height as a predictor variable can be used to estimate the approximation of FFM.%目的:研究成年人去脂组织重(fat-free mass,FFM)与身高之间的关系,并建立预测FFM的简单方程.方法:对955名健康成年人进行人体测量和生物电阻抗测量,按BMI分为肥胖组和非肥胖组,按年龄分别45岁以下组和45岁以上组,分析FFM与年龄和肥胖的关系.根据FFM是身高的异速

  9. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  10. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population. PMID:26797054

  11. Relationship between Body Mass Index, C-Peptide, and Delta-5-Desaturase Enzyme Activity Estimates in Adult Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, C. Austin; Matsuo, Karen H.; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme activity estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 μg/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ≤ 3.62 μg/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ≥ 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ≤ 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ≤ 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF- α was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-α. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway. PMID:27023786

  12. LUNG FUNCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY (FVC) AND BODY MASS INDEX IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    MR Swaroop

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a serious public health issue and is related to lung dysfunction. This study was planned to assess the correlation between the pulmonary function like FVC and increasing BMI in young adult males. This study was undertaken in normal weight and overweight young adult males of Balagangadaranatha nagara. The study and control groups were comprised of 120 male subjects between the age group 18-24 years randomly selected from the population of Balagangadarana...

  13. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  14. Effect of Body Mass Index on All-cause Mortality and Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases - Report for Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To verify the optimal cut-off points for overweight and obesity in Chinese adults based on the relationship of baseline body mass index (BMI) to all-cause mortality, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases from pooled data of Chinese cohorts. Methods The prospective study data of existing cohort studies in China were collected, and the age-adjusted all-cause mortality stratified by BMI were estimated. The similar analysis was repeated after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and after excluding smokers. The incidence of age-adjusted coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke stratified by BMI were also analyzed. Multiple Cox regression coefficients of BMI for the incidence of CHD and stroke after controlling other risk factors were pooled utilizing the methods of weighting by inverse of variance to reveal whether BMI had independent effect and its strength on the incidence of CHD and stroke. Results The data of 4 cohorts including 76 227persons, with 745 346 person-years of follow-up were collected and analyzed. The age-adjusted allcause mortality stratified by BMI showed a U-shaped curve, even after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and excluding smokers. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality increased when BMI was lower than 18.5 and higher than 28. The incidence of CHD and stroke, especially ishemic stroke increased with increasing BMI, this was consistent with parallel increasing of risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed that BMI was an independent risk factor for both CHD and stroke. Each amount of 2 kg/m2 increase in baseline BMI might cause 15.4%, 6.1% and 18.8 % increase in relative risk of CHD, total stroke and ischemic stroke. Reduction of BMI to under 24 might prevent the incidence of CHD by 11% and that of stroke by15 % for men, and 22 % of both diseases for women. Conclusion BMI ≤18.5, 24-27.9 and ≥28 (kg/m2) is the appropriate cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity in

  15. Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Risk Factors of Certain Related Diseases in Chinese Adults - Study on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (<24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for

  16. LUNG FUNCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY (FVC AND BODY MASS INDEX IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a serious public health issue and is related to lung dysfunction. This study was planned to assess the correlation between the pulmonary function like FVC and increasing BMI in young adult males. This study was undertaken in normal weight and overweight young adult males of Balagangadaranatha nagara. The study and control groups were comprised of 120 male subjects between the age group 18-24 years randomly selected from the population of Balagangadaranatha nagara. Anthropometric measurements and spirometry was performed in all subjects. FVC was used as a measure of lung function. There was significant differences in FVC in the study group and there was inverse relationship between FVC and increase in BMI.

  17. Lack of association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and body mass index change over time in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Mustapic, Maja; Pavlovic, Mladen; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Barisic, Ivan; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela

    2013-06-17

    Obesity is becoming the epidemic health problem worldwide with a very complex etiology. The interaction between diverse genetic and environmental factors contributes to development of obesity. Among myriad of functions in central and peripheral tissues, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also regulates energy homeostasis, food intake and feeding behavior, and has a role in obesity and increased body mass index (BMI). BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism is associated with BMI gain, but both positive associations and non-replications are reported. Since BMI changes over time and since genetic influences on BMI vary with age, the aim of the study was to evaluate association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and BMI gain in healthy subjects with middle or old age. The study included a cohort of 339 adult healthy Caucasians of Croatian origin, free of eating and metabolic disorders, evaluated in three time periods in the year 1972, 1982 and 2006, when the subjects were around 40, 50 and 70 years old, respectively. The results revealed a significant effect of smoking on BMI, but a lack of significant association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and overweight or obesity, and no significant association between BDNF Val66Met and BMI changes over time. These results did not confirm the major role of BDNF Val66Met in the regulation of BMI changes in adult and old healthy subjects. PMID:23643991

  18. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  19. Oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Chu, YiFang; O'Shea, Marianne; Slavin, Joanne L; DiRienzo, Maureen A

    2015-12-01

    Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period. Multiple regression analysis, after transforming variables to normality and using appropriate sample weights to ensure national representation, was used to assess differences between oatmeal consumers and nonconsumers in terms of demographics, and covariate-adjusted analysis of variance was used to assess differences between consumers and nonconsumers in nutrient intakes, diet quality (calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010), and physiological measures. Our results show that oatmeal consumers were older than nonconsumers and more likely to be female; they also were less likely to smoke and consumed less alcohol. Consumers had higher intakes of protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, selenium, and potassium and lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and saturated fats; cholesterol; and vitamin B12. Oatmeal consumers had higher Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and lower body weights, waist circumferences, and body mass indices. To conclude, our results suggest that consuming oatmeal is consistent with better nutrient intakes and a higher diet quality. PMID:26494025

  20. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...

  1. Índice de massa corporal e indicadores antropométricos de adiposidade em idosos Body mass index and measures of adiposity among elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Martins dos Santos

    2005-04-01

    index (BMI=kg/m² with measures of adiposity and fat distribution among elderly and middle-aged adults. METHODS: Elderly persons (N=699; 60 years or older and middle-aged adults (N=1,306; 40-59.9 years participating in a population-based survey conducted in 1996 in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated as to body mass index, arm, waist, and hip circumferences, skinfolds, and arm fat and muscle areas using standardized procedures. The cutoff points proposed by the World Health Organization for waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index were used. Analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression adjusted for age. RESULTS: About 50% of elderly subjects were classified as overweight and more than 50% of women in all age groups had waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio outside the normal range. Among men, these percentages were about 40% for waist circumference and 20% for waist-to-hip ratio. Among elderly subjects, the partial correlation (adjusted for age between body mass index and measures of adiposity (waist circumference, skinfolds, and arm fat area ranged from 0.45 to 0.85 for men and 0.55 to 0.86 for women. Weight and waist circumference were the variables more strongly correlated with body mass index among both elderly persons and adults. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight among elderly persons was high for both men and women. Body mass index shows a similar relationship with adiposity regardless of ageing.

  2. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  3. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, M; Bentham, J.; Stevens, G.A.; Zhou, B.; Y. Lu; Bixby, H.; Cowan, M J; Riley, L. M.; Hajifathalian, K; Fortunato, L.; Taddei, C.; Bennett, J E; Miranda, J.J.; Paciorek, C.J.; Ezzati, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. / Methods: We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarch...

  4. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, M; Bentham, J; Stevens, GA; Zhou, B.; Lu, Y; Bixby, H.; Cowan, MJ; Riley, LM; Hajifathalian, K.; Fortunato, L; Taddei, C; Bennett, JE; Paciorek, CJ; Ezzati, M; Abdeen, ZA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. Methods: We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierar...

  5. Incidence of Adult-onset Asthma After Hypothetical Interventions on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity: An Application of the Parametric G-Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Danaei, Goodarz; Camargo,, Carlos A.; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased asthma risk, but uncertainty persists about the role of physical activity. We estimated the independent and joint associations of hypothetical interventions on BMI and physical activity with the risk of adult-onset asthma in 76,470 asthma-free women from the Nurses’ Health Study who were followed between 1988 and 1998. Information about asthma, BMI, physical activity, and other factors was updated every 2 years. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 10-year asthma risk in the following 4 scenarios: no intervention, 5% BMI reduction in a 2-year period for those who were overweight or obese, at least 2.5 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and both of the previous 2 interventions. At baseline, women had a mean age of 55 (standard deviation, 7) years and a mean BMI of 25.4 (standard deviation, 4.8). Median time spent in physical activity was 0.7 hours/week. During follow-up, 1,146 women developed asthma. The 10-year asthma risk under no intervention was 1.5%. Compared with no intervention, the population risk ratios were 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.99) under the BMI intervention, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.10) under the physical activity intervention, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06) under the joint intervention. Interventions on BMI and physical activity may have a modest impact on the risk of adult-onset asthma in this population of US women. PMID:24107616

  6. Self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity by body mass index in US Hispanic/Latino adults: HCHS/SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between obesity and physical activity has not been widely examined in an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. A cross-sectional analysis of 16,094 Hispanic/Latino adults 18–74 years was conducted from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL. Body mass index (BMI was measured and categorized into normal, overweight, and obese; underweight participants were excluded from analyses. Physical activity was measured using the 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and by an Actical accelerometer. Minutes/day of physical activity and prevalence of engaging in ≥150 moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA minutes/week were estimated by BMI group and sex adjusting for covariates. No adjusted differences were observed in self-reported moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA, or MVPA across BMI groups. Accelerometry-measured MPA, VPA, and MVPA were significantly higher for the normal weight (females: 18.9, 3.8, 22.6 min/day; males: 28.2, 6.1, 34.3 min/day, respectively compared to the obese group (females: 15.3, 1.5, 16.8 min/day; males: 23.5, 3.6, 27.1 min/day, respectively. The prevalence of engaging in ≥150 MVPA minutes/week using accelerometers was lower compared to the self-reported measures. Efforts are needed to reach the Hispanic/Latino population to increase opportunities for an active lifestyle that could reduce obesity in this population at high risk for metabolic disorders.

  7. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Feng

    Full Text Available Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36. At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged. Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  8. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI) widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total) were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36). At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged). Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:26496435

  9. Light Intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study

    OpenAIRE

    Bann, D; Hire, D.; MANINI, T.; Cooper, R; Botoseneanu, A.; McDermott, M. M.; PAHOR, M.; GLYNN, N.W.; Fielding, R; King, A. C.; Church, T.; Ambrosius, W. T.; Gill, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly understood. We evaluated associations of light intensity physical activity and sedentary time—assessed both objectively and by self-report—with body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in a large sampl...

  10. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied the ...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  11. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44 vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12 and 1.12 (0.99-1.26; 5.70 (5.24-6.19 vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65 and 1.69 (1.57-1.82; and 3.73 (3.42-4.07 vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35 and 1.33 (1.25-1.40, respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

  12. Body mass of late Quaternary mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, F. A.; Lyons, S.K.; Ernest, S.K. Morgan; Jones, K E; Kaufman, D M; Dayan, T.; Marquet, P. A.; Haskell, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this data set was to compile body mass information for all mammals on Earth so that we could investigate the patterns of body mass seen across geographic and taxonomic space and evolutionary time. We were interested in the heritability of body size across taxonomic groups (How conserved is body mass within a genus, family, and order?), in the overall pattern of body mass across continents (Do the moments and other descriptive statistics remain the same across geographic space?)...

  13. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts KidsHealth > For Parents > Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Print A A A Text ... same age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation that uses ...

  14. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus;

    2003-01-01

    A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a substantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from ei...

  15. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and...... (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.24). These...

  16. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index as indices of cardiometabolic risk among 36,642 Taiwanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Cheng; Chen, I-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Che; Loke, Song-Seng; Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiometabolic risk. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 21,038 men and 15,604 women who participated in a health check-up were included. Results In both men and women, the area under the curve (AUC) of WHtR was significantly greater than that of BMI or WC in the prediction of diabetes, hypertension, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, and low H...

  17. Contributions of body mass index and exercise habits on inflammatory markers: a cohort study of middle-aged adults living in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Strohacker, Kelley; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Determine whether body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) above, at or below MET minute per week (MMW) levels recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines interact or have additive effects on interleukin (IL)-6, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin6 (IL-6) soluble receptor (IL-6sr), soluble E-selectin and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. Design Archived cohort data (n=1254, age 54.5±11.7 year, BMI 29.8±6.6 kg/m2) from the National Sur...

  18. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire;

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...

  19. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body fat is above normal range, we talk about sarcopenic obesity. In order to evaluate presence of sarcopenic obesity, a group of 140 normal weight students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad were measured. Apart from standard anthropometrical parameters the amount of body fat was also determined by using the method of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed in 25.71% of examined students. By using body mass index values this type of obesity cannot be diagnosed, and knowing that a higher amount of body fat in normal weight persons can lead to complications, especially metabolic, it is of great importance to evaluate the amount of body fat accurately.

  20. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. PMID:23933684

  1. Effect of Resistance Training and Various Sources of Protein Supplementation on Body Fat Mass and Metabolic Profile in Sarcopenic Overweight Older Adult Men: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Mathieu L; Perreault, Karine; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Lagacé, Jean Christophe; Barsalani, Razieh; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2016-02-01

    The decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat oxidation with aging is associated with an increase in fat mass (FM), and both could be prevented by exercise such as resistance training. Dairy consumption has also been shown to promote FM loss in different subpopulations and to be positively associated with fat oxidation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resistance exercise combined with dairy supplementation could have an additive impact on FM and energy metabolism, especially in individuals with a deficit in muscle mass. Twenty-six older overweight sarcopenic men (65 ± 5 years old) were recruited for the study. They participated in 4 months of resistance exercise and were randomized into three groups for postexercise shakes (control, dairy, and nondairy isocaloric and isoprotein supplement with 375 ml and ~280 calories per shake). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and REE by indirect calorimetry. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammatory profile, and blood lipid profile were also measured. Significant decreases were observed with FM only in the dairy supplement group; no changes were observed for any other variables. To conclude, FM may decrease without changes in metabolic parameters during resistance training and dairy supplementation with no caloric restriction without having any impact on metabolic properties. More studies are warranted to explain this significant decrease in FM. PMID:26894503

  2. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  3. Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young adults at risk for psychosis - The Oulu Brain and Mind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, Jenni; Björnholm, Lassi; Tervonen, Osmo; Miettunen, Jouko; Nordström, Tanja; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Mäki, Pirjo; Mukkala, Sari; Moilanen, Irma; Barnett, Jennifer H; Jones, Peter B; Nikkinen, Juha; Veijola, Juha

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotic medications and psychotic illness related factors may affect both weight and brain structure in people with psychosis. Genetically high-risk individuals offer an opportunity to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and brain structure free from these potential confounds. We examined the effect of BMI on white matter (WM) microstructure in subjects with familial risk for psychosis (FR). We used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to explore the effect of BMI on whole brain FA in 42 (13 males) participants with FR and 46 (16 males) control participants aged 20-25 years drawn from general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. We also measured axial, radial and mean diffusivities. Most of the participants were normal weight rather than obese. In the FR group, decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial diffusivity were associated with an increase in BMI in several brain areas. In controls the opposite pattern was seen in participants with higher BMI. There was a statistically significant interaction between group and BMI on FA and radial and mean diffusivities. Our results suggest that the effect of BMI on WM differs between individuals with FR for psychosis and controls. PMID:27474847

  4. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart. PMID:25494547

  5. Using doubly labeled water to validate associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and body mass among White and African-American adults

    OpenAIRE

    Emond, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Jardack, Patricia M.; Arab, Lenore

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence is mixed regarding sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and adiposity among adults, perhaps due to reporting bias. OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of reporting bias on any associations between increased SSB intake and overweight/obesity. DESIGN Beverage intake and overweight/obese status (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was examined among adults from a dietary assessment and doubly labeled water study (n=250). Four web-based, 24-hour recalls assessed dietary intake. SSB intake was categ...

  6. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between these factors...

  7. Effects of a Pragmatic Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Body Mass in Obese Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    James Moss; Garry Alan Tew; Robert James Copeland; Martin Stout; Catherine Grant Billings; John Michael Saxton; Edward Mitchell Winter; Stephen Mark Bianchi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention in obese adults with continuous positive airway pressure-treated obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Sixty patients were randomised 1 : 1 to either a 12-week lifestyle intervention or an advice-only control group. The intervention involved supervised exercise sessions, dietary advice, and the promotion of lifestyle behaviour change using cognitive-behavioural techniques. Outcomes were assessed at baseli...

  8. Body mass index in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi M; Schou, Morten; Goetze, Jens P; Faber, Jens; Frystyk, Jan; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kistorp, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF). An inverse association between BMI and adiponectin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether novel markers of...

  9. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  10. Correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e os indicadores antropométricos de distribuição de gordura corporal em adultos e idosos Correlation between body mass index and body fat distribution anthropometric indices in adults and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ramos Sampaio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e indicadores antropométricos de distribuição de gordura em adultos e idosos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, constituído por 634 indivíduos (316 adultos e 318 idosos de ambos os sexos, atendidos nos ambulatórios do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal da Bahia (Salvador, BA. Mediram-se em cada indivíduo: peso, altura, pregas cutâneas triciptal e subescapular, circunferências de quadril e cintura, segundo técnicas propostas por Lohman, em 1988. Utilizou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson para avaliar a correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e os indicadores antropométricos de distribuição de gordura. RESULTADOS: As correlações entre o índice de massa corporal e a circunferência da cintura nos dois grupos etários do sexo masculino foram: de adultos (r = 0,93; pOBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigates the correlation between the body mass index and the fat distribution anthropometric indices in adults and the elderly. METHODS: Upon ambulatory visits to the Medical School Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 634 male and female patients (316 adults and 318 elderly subjects were measured individually, to determine weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, and waist and hip circumferences, according to Lohman's guidelines, 1988. Pearson's correlation test was used to get the correlation, in this sample, between body mass index and fat distribution anthropometric indices. RESULTS: The correlations between body mass index and waist in both age groups for male were: adults (r = 0.93; p<0.001 and elderly (r = 0.89; p<0.001. For the female groups, these correlations were: adults (r = 0.93; p<0.001 and elderly (r = 0.86; p<0.001. The correlation between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio was smaller, but statistically significant, between these

  11. Body mass index bias in defining obesity of diverse young adults: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Andrew S.; Ellis, Kenneth J; MCFARLIN, BRIAN K.; Sailors, Mary H.; Bray, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The BMI cut-score used to define overweight and obesity was derived primarily using data from Caucasian men and women. The present study evaluated the racial/ethnic bias of BMI to estimate the adiposity of young men and women (aged 17–35 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) determination of percentage body fat (DXA-BF%) as the referent standard. The samples were 806 women and 509 men who were tested from one to three times over 9 months providing 1300 observations for women and...

  12. Chronic green tea consumption decreases body mass, induces aromatase expression, and changes proliferation and apoptosis in adult male rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosário; Assunção, Marco; Andrade, José P; Neves, Delminda; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Isabel

    2008-11-01

    Green tea (GT) and its components have been shown to possess antiobesity properties and the corresponding mechanisms of action are being investigated, given the epidemic proportions of obesity incidence. In the current work, we used 12-mo-old male Wistar rats to test the effect of 6 mo of treatment with GT as the sole drinking beverage (52.8 +/- 6.4 mL/d) on adipose tissue (AT). AT aromatase expression was determined by Western blotting, plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone were determined by RIA, and adipocyte size determined by measuring diameter in tissue sections. Proliferation and apoptosis were also assessed by Ki67 immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, respectively. Evaluations were made in subcutaneous (sc) AT and visceral (v) AT. Body weight increased over time in both groups (P rats had a higher percentage of proliferating cells (204.1 +/- 19.5% of control in scAT, P adipocytes (78.3 +/- 1.7% of control in scAT, P < 0.001, and 87.9 +/- 3.2% of control in vAT, P < 0.05). GT also increased the number of apoptotic cells in vAT (320.4 +/- 21.9% of control; P < 0.001). These results suggest new mechanisms for GT on body weight and highlight its potential benefit to prevent or treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18936213

  13. VLCD compliance and lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Quaade, F

    1989-01-01

    occur after cycles of weight loss and regain have not been clarified. After weight cycles with weight losses obtained by conventional diets, obese women have lower lean body mass than obese non-dieting controls. Hence, more information about the changes in body composition during dieting on conventional......Very low calorie diets (VLCD) have many advantages, as they are inexpensive, safe and easy to comply with, and give rapid and encouraging weight loss. On the other hand, many patients complain of hunger and constipation. We have shown that these drawbacks can be reduced by the supplementation of 30...... diets and VLCD are needed....

  14. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Prince

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Canadian research examining the combined effects of social and built environments on physical activity (PA and obesity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among built and social environments and PA and overweight/obesity in 85 Ottawa neighbourhoods. Self-reported PA, height and weight were collected from 3,883 adults using the International PA Questionnaire from the 2003-2007 samples of the Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained from the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study; a large study of neighbourhoods and health in Ottawa. Two-level binomial logistic regression models stratified by sex were used to examine the relationships of environmental and individual variables with PA and overweight/obesity while using survey weights. Results identified that approximately half of the adults were insufficiently active or overweight/obese. Multilevel models identified that for every additional convenience store, men were two times more likely to be physically active (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.43 and with every additional specialty food store women were almost two times more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20. Higher green space was associated with a reduced likelihood of PA (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99 and increased odds of overweight and obesity in men (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19, and decreased odds of overweight/obesity in women (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89. In men, neighbourhood socioeconomic scores, voting rates and sense of community belonging were all significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Intraclass coefficients were low, but identified that the majority of neighbourhood variation in outcomes was explained by the models. Findings identified that green space, food landscapes and social cohesiveness may play different roles on PA and overweight/obesity in men and women and future prospective studies are needed.

  15. Body mass index evaluation in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Magalhães da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension prevalence is approximately three times higher in obese people. This study analyzed the Body Mass Index (BMI in 200 hypertensive women in follow up treatment in a public hypertension center in the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sixty-one percent or 122 have incomplete primary school levels; 118 (59% had family incomes from 1 to 2 minimum wages, (US$90.00-US$190.00. Sixty one percent were obese and 30% were overweight; 150 (75% had hypertension cases in the family, as well as 98 (49% had cases of acute myocardium infarct and 97 (48% of vascular cerebral stroke in the family. Our results indicate variation of Body Mass Index especially in obese and then in overweight women. An efficient follow up treatment is fundamental specifically for those patients due to cardiovascular and cardio cerebral risks.

  16. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetta Harbron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire, psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire. The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores, a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  17. A relationship between body height and fat free mass in healthy adults%成年人身高与去脂组织重的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣欣; 刘新焕; 滕俊英; 郑子新; 王伟琴; 薛长勇

    2004-01-01

    目的: 研究成年人身高与去脂组织重(fat free mass,FFM)之间的关系,并建立预测 FFM 的简单方程.方法:对 955 名健康成年人进行人体测量和生物电阻抗测量,按 BMI 分为肥胖组和非肥胖组,按年龄分为 45 岁以下组和 45 岁以上组,分析FFM与年龄和肥胖的关系.根据FFM是身高的异速生长指数的模型关系,进行非线性回归,建立指数曲线回归方程.结果: 健康成年人的 FFM 并不随年龄增加,非肥胖组与肥胖组的 FFM 也是相对不变的.预测男性 FFM 的适宜方程为:FFM (kg)=24.98×Height1.68,女性为:FFM(kg)=22.84 × Height1.42.结论: 以身高为变量能估计出正常成年人 FFM 的近似值.

  18. Surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults: waist circumference and body mass index are more accurate than waist hip ratio, model of adipose distribution and visceral adiposity index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Borruel

    Full Text Available Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, model of adipose distribution (MOAD, visceral adiposity index (VAI, and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression, and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99 and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85-0.98 probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis.

  19. Adult onset xanthogranuloma presenting as laryngeal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shawn; Weidenbecher, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders can be classified according to the distribution pattern of the lesions and the organs involved. Non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis is a rare group of diseases that have varied clinical presentations ranging from isolated masses to diffuse systemic eruptions. We discuss a patient who initially presented with a vocal cord lesion and was ultimately diagnosed with adult onset xanthogranuloma. PMID:26954863

  20. L-carnitine increases body lean in adult dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, D; Hahn, K.

    2010-01-01

    L-carnitine has been shown to be a repartitioning agent (i.e.,setting metabolism toward more protein and less fat accretion) in animals used for food production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on body composition repartitioning (i.e.,increasing lean body mass) of added dietary L-carnitine in adult dogs and cats.

  1. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  2. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  3. Adult phantoms as function of body mass, height and posture by using caucasian anthropomorphic statistics; Fantomas adultos em funcao da massa corporal, da altura e da postura usando estatisticas antropometricas caucasianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.b, E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Milian, Felix Mas, E-mail: felix_mas_milian@yahoo.co [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2011-10-26

    The CALLDose{sub X} 4.0 computer program uses conversion coefficients for the MASH and FASH adult phantoms on the vertical and supine postures, representing the standard man and woman according to ICRP 90 and are called 'basic phantoms'. For improving the representation of real patients in the CALLDose{sub X}, this paper developed adults phantoms as function of mass and height by using anthropometric data from nine of them prevailing caucasian countries

  4. The Role of Muscle Mass, Muscle Quality, and Body Composition in Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Topical Collection on Nutrition, Obesity, and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); S.D. Anton (Stephen D.); M. Aubertin-Leheudre (Mylene)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Age-related body composition changes include both loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increase in fat mass, which jointly contribute to a decline in metabolic functions. Muscle quality is positively related to functional capacity and a lower risk for the development of the meta

  5. The Role of Muscle Mass, Muscle Quality, and Body Composition in Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Topical Collection on Nutrition, Obesity, and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mankowski, Robert T.; Anton, Stephen D.; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Age-related body composition changes include both loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increase in fat mass, which jointly contribute to a decline in metabolic functions. Muscle quality is positively related to functional capacity and a lower risk for the development of the metabolic syndrome in aging populations. Muscle quality and muscle strength have become more reliable measures of functional capacity and mobility disability than muscle mass quantity. Recent reports a...

  6. An alternative to body mass index for standardizing body weight for stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, A; Walley, T

    2000-09-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) has been adopted by WHO as an international measure of obesity, it lacks a theoretical basis, and empirical evidence suggests it is not valid for all populations. We determined standard weight-for-height using a model calibrated by multivariate analysis of observational data on body dimensions and health status in the USA (NHANES III). A multiple linear regression model based on a simple mathematical formulation accurately described the observed weight variations in this normal adult population. A standardized reference model using just two measurements (upper arm length and sitting height), readily applied in both clinical and research settings using lookup tables, improved explanatory power substantially compared to the best BMI formulation (r(2) increased 16.3% for males, 21.1% for females). Physical dysfunction and self-reported poor health showed strong trends with excess body weight. These findings need confirmation from larger population samples. PMID:10984553

  7. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  8. Dynamics of bodies with time-variable mass

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the problem of dynamics of bodies with time-variable mass and moment of inertia. Mass addition and mass separation from the body are treated. Both aspects of mass variation, continual and discontinual, are considered. Dynamic properties of the body are obtained applying principles of classical dynamics and also analytical mechanics. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. Dynamics of constant body is adopted, and the characteristics of the mass variation of the body is included. Special attention is given to the influence of the reactive force and the reactive torque. The vibration of the body with variable mass is presented. One and two degrees of freedom oscillators with variable mass are discussed. Rotors and the Van der Pol oscillator with variable mass are displayed. The chaotic motion of bodies with variable mass is discussed too. To support learning, some solved practical problems are included.

  9. Lean body mass and total body fat by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for measuring the lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat (FAT) by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (DPA). Lean percent determination on limb phantoms, revealed precision and accuracy errors below 2.0%. The in vivo precision of the LBM of duplicate measurements on five healthy subjects was 2.2%. The accuracy error in vivo of measuring the total mass of soft tissues was 1.4%, thus yielding an overall accuracy error of the LBM of about 2.5%. Measurements on 100 healthy subjects revealed high correlations between FAT, FAT% or LBM by DPA versus FAT, FAT% or LBM calculated from anthropometric measurements. From DPA measurements of 228 normal adults, multiple regression equations of LBM and FAT based on age, height, and weight were computed. They conclude that DPA measurements of LBM and FAT in vivo is a reliable estimation of the gross body composition, and that LBM and FAT in normal adults can be calculated solely from age, height, and weight with reasonable accuracy for many purposes

  10. Prediction Equation for Calculating Fat Mass in Young Indian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Accurate measurement or prediction of fat mass is useful in physiology, nutrition and clinical medicine. Most predictive equations currently used to assess percentage of body fat or fat mass, using simple anthropometric measurements were derived from people in western societies and they may not be appropriate for individuals with other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We developed equations to predict fat mass from anthropometric measurements in young Indian adults. Methods Fat mass was measured in 60 females and 58 males, aged 20 to 29 yrs by using hydrostatic weighing and by simultaneous measurement of residual lung volume. Anthropometric measure included weight (kg, height (m and 4 skinfold thickness [STs (mm]. Sex specific linear regression model was developed with fat mass as the dependent variable and all anthropometric measures as independent variables. Results The prediction equation obtained for fat mass (kg for males was 8.46+0.32 (weight − 15.16 (height + 9.54 (log of sum of 4 STs (R2= 0. 53, SEE=3.42 kg and − 20.22 + 0.33 (weight + 3.44 (height + 7.66 (log of sum of 4 STs (R2=0.72, SEE=3.01kg for females. Conclusion A new prediction equation for the measurement of fat mass was derived and internally validated in young Indian adults using simple anthropometric measurements.

  11. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults. PMID:23774283

  12. Body mass index and poststroke mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Petersen, Hans Gregers; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality after stroke. Methods: A registry started in 2001 with the aim to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark now includes 21,884 patients in...... whom BMI was recorded. There are five BMI groups: underweight (BMI <18.5), normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), obese (BMI 30.0-34.9) and severely obese (BMI 6 35). All patients underwent an evaluation including stroke severity, computed tomography, and cardiovascular risk factors....... Survival was followed up to 5 years after stroke (median 1.5 years). Independent predictors of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 13,242 individuals with a complete data set. Results: Compared to normal- weight patients, mortality was lower in overweight [hazard rate (HR) 0.73, 95...

  13. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  14. Environment-dependent genetic correlations between development time and body mass in a scorpionfly

    OpenAIRE

    Engqvist, Leif

    2007-01-01

    Development time and body mass at maturation are two important fitness traits fundamental for our understanding of life history theory. Generally, fast development is associated with small adult body mass, as it will take longer to grow large. However, the strength of this trade-off may depend on average food availability, as the potential benefit of long development will depend on the rate of food intake. Here, I report results of a food manipulation experiment during larval development of t...

  15. A STUDY OF ASSOCIATION OF BODY MASS INDEX WITH SEVERITY OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN 132 PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaykumar; Mahavir; Dattatray; Rakhi

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of both obesity and severity of asthma are in increasing trend, we study association between body mass index (BMI) and asthma severity in cross sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To study association between Body mass index and Asthma severity METHODOLOGY- We included adults (age >13yrs), who are diagnosed as patients of asthma by Pulmonologist and who are non -smoker, without any other lung pathology, are not on long term systemic steroids. Total of 132 patient...

  16. The relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being - the moderating role of body dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdarić Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excess bodyweight and obesity are widespread health problems throughout the world. In Serbia, over 50% of the adult population is overweight and the Province of Vojvodina is one of the regions with the highest percentage of obesity. The relationship between obesity and health complications has been consistently demonstrated. However, research on the relationship between obesity and subjective well-being has not provided clear results. Body dissatisfaction is considered to be an important factor for understanding this relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being. Material and Methods. The study sample included 731 respondents (72.6% women, with the mean age 28.93 years (SD = 8.47 from the Province of Vojvodina who had completed an online set of tests consisting of Body Shape Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience and a self-assessment of bodyweight and body height. Results. The results indicate that the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and indicators of subjective well-being is statistically significant in both sexes. Specifically, the women with higher body mass index values who expressed lower body dissatisfaction reported lower levels of emotional distress and higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with lower body mass index. On the other hand, the men with higher bodyweight preoccupation and low body mass index reported significantly higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with higher body mass index values. Conclusion. These results suggest the necessity of a more detailed study of this relationship on both clinical and general population samples from Serbia.

  17. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovée, M.J.; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this ...

  18. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  19. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  20. Association between waist circumference/body mass index and blood triglyceride level in adults%成人腰围、体重指数与高三酰甘油血症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新宜; 汪毓诚; 林钟芳; 吴琦; 何毓箐; 王建英; 张莲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between body mass index(BMI)/waist circumference (WC)and blood triglyceride(TG)level in adults. To evaluate the value of the BMI and WC in diagnosing the hypertriglyceridemia by the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve.Methods A total of 1 093 adults(707men and 356 women)were examined in our hospital from July to September in 2008.Height,weight,WC and blood triglyceride were measured and analyzed.The ROC curve was drawn to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the threshold values.Results The hypertriglyceridemia rate was 33.5%among men and 8.3%among women.The BMI and WC of hypertriglyceridemia group were significantly higher than those of normal TG group for both men and women(P<0.01).The area under ROC curve was 0.728±0.041 for men and 0.708±0.021 for women when using BMI to predict hypertriglyceridemia.The optimal threshold value was 24.5 for men and 22.5 for women.The area under ROC curve was 0.790±0.042 for men and 0.714±0.020 for women when using WC to predict hypertriglyceridemia.The optimal threshold value was 86 cm for men and 77 cm for women.Conclusions Both BMI and WC are associated blood triglyceride level. WC and BMI are useful parameters in predicting hypertriglyceridemia.%目的 探讨体重指数(BMI)、腰围(WC)与三酰甘油水平之间的关系,并用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线评价BMI和WC对诊断高三酰甘油血症的价值.方法 以2008年7至9月在我院进行常规体检的1 093人(男性707人、女性386人)为研究对象,检测身高、体重、腰围和血三酰甘油水平.比较三酰甘油正常组与异常组BMI和WC的差异.建立BMI和WC的ROC曲线,获得曲线下面积及曲线上各界值点的灵敏度和特异度.结果 男女性三酰甘油异常率分别为33.5%和8.3%.三酰甘油异常者的BMI和WC明显大于三酰甘油正常者(P<0.01).以BMI诊断高三酰甘油血症的ROC曲线下面积:男性为0.728±0.041、女性为0.708±0.021,

  1. Hypothalamic digoxin and regulation of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus produces digoxin, an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmission. Digoxin being a steroidal glycoside, is synthesised by the isoprenoid pathway. In view of the reports of elevated digoxin levels in metabolic syndrome X with high body mass index, the isoprenoid pathway mediated biochemical cascade was assessed in individuals with high and low body mass index. It was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the relationship between digoxin status, body mass index and hemispheric dominance. The isoprenoid pathway metabolites, tryptophan / tyrosine catabolic patterns and membrane composition were assessed. In individuals with high body mass index an upregulated isoprenoid pathway with increased HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin and dolichol levels and low ubiquinone levels were observed. The RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium levels were decreased. The tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, morphine, epinephrine and norepinephrine were reduced and the tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine and nicotine were increased. There was an increase in membrane cholesterol : phospholipid ratio and a reduction in membrane glycoconjugates in individuals with high body mass index. The reverse patterns were seen in individuals with low body mass index. The patterns in individuals with high body mass index and low body mass index correlated with right hemispheric dominance and left hemispheric dominance respectively. Hemispheric dominance and digoxin status regulates the differential metabolic pattern observed in individuals with high and low body mass index.

  2. Effects of photoperiod on body mass, thermogenesis and body composition in Eothenomys miletus during cold exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. miletus decreased body mass. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to LD, which the average difference between body masses of LD and SD voles was 4.76 g. This 14.74% increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. After correcting body composition and organ morphology data for the differences in body mass, only livers, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to photoperiod treatment during cold exposure. E. miletus increased RMR and energy intake exposure to LD, but maintained a stable level to SD after 28 days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, RMR as well as energy intake. All of the results indicated that E. miletus may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at organism levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis in E. miletus during cold exposure.

  3. Stagnation in body mass index in Denmark from 1997/1998 to 2004/2005, but with geographical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Knudsen, Nils Jacob; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the trend in body mass index (BMI) as well as in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Danish adults, mainly women, from 1997/1998 to 2004/2005 and evaluated any regional differences....

  4. Neighbourhood built environment associations with body size in adults: mediating effects of activity and sedentariness in a cross-sectional study of New Zealand adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Melody; Witten, Karen; Blakely, Tony; Parker, Karl; Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant; Ivory, Vivienne; Pearce, Jamie; Mavoa, Suzanne; Hinckson, Erica; Sweetsur, Paul; Kearns, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the associations between body size and built environment walkability variables, as well as the mediating role of physical activity and sedentary behaviours with body size. Methods Objective environment, body size (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)), and sedentary time and physical activity data were collected from a random selection of 2033 adults aged 20–65 years living in 48 neighbourhoods across four New Zealand cities. Multil...

  5. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 as Predictor of Body Mass Index and Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis: Neuroplasticity and the Metabolic Milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Shariful Syed; Perera, Tarique D.; Sasha L Fulton; Mary Ann Banerji; Dwork, Andrew J.; Kral, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates carbohydrate metabolism and promotes neurogenesis. We reported an inverse correlation between adult body mass and neurogenesis in nonhuman primates. Here we examine relationships between physiological levels of the neurotrophic incretin, plasma GLP-1 (pGLP-1), and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence to adult neurogenesis and associations with a diabesity diathesis and infant stress. Morphometry, fasting pGLP-1, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles ...

  6. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  7. Enhanced UV-B radiation during pupal stage reduce body mass and fat content, while increasing deformities, mortality and cell death in female adults of solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-08-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the oogenesis and morpho-anatomical characteristics of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were tested under laboratory conditions. Cocooned females in the pupal stage were exposed directly to different doses (0, 9.24, 12.32, and 24.64 kJ/m(2) /d) of artificial UV-B. Our experiments revealed that enhanced UV-B radiation can reduce body mass and fat body content, cause deformities and increase mortality. Following UV exposure at all 3 different doses, the body mass of bees was all significantly reduced compared to the control, with the highest UV dose causing the largest reduction. Similarly, following UV-B radiation, in treated groups the fat body index decreased and the fat body index was the lowest in the group receiving the highest dose of UV radiation. Mortality and morphological deformities, between untreated and exposed females varied considerably and increased with the dose of UV-B radiation. Morphological deformities were mainly manifested in the wings and mouthparts, and occurred more frequently with an increased dose of UV. Cell death was quantified by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (DNA fragmentation) during early stages of oogenesis of O. bicornis females. The bees, after UV-B exposure exhibited more germarium cells with fragmented DNA. The TUNEL test indicated that in germarium, low doses of UV-B poorly induced the cell death during early development. However, exposure to moderate UV-B dose increased programmed cell death. In females treated with the highest dose of UV-B the vast majority of germarium cells were TUNEL-positive. PMID:24644123

  8. The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of body mass in the calculation of power and the subsequent effect on the load-power relationship in the jump squat, squat, and power clean. Twelve Division I male athletes were evaluated on their performance across various intensities in all the 3 lifts. Power output was calculated using 3 separate techniques: (a) including the contribution of body mass in force output (IBM), (b) including the contribution of the mass of body less the mass of the shanks and feet in force output (IBMS), and (c) excluding the contribution of body mass in force output (EBM). Peak power, peak power relative to body mass, and peak force calculated using EBM were significantly (p power curve was affected when derived via the EBM method as a result of the underrepresentation of power output at light loads. This was due to the majority of the load being neglected when the mass of the body was removed from the system mass used in the calculation of force. This study indicates that not only is the actual power output significantly lower when body mass is excluded from the force output of a lower body movement, but the load-power relationship is altered as well. Therefore, it is imperative that the mass of the individual being tested is incorporated into the calculation of force used to determine power output during lower-body movements. PMID:18076268

  9. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  10. #602025 BODY MASS INDEX QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 9; BMIQ9 [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 602025 FIELD TI #602025 BODY MASS INDEX QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 9; BMIQ9 ;;OBESITY, SU ... North American adults (889 severely obese and 932 lean ... controls) from 2 cohorts, and did not find an asso ... of MC3R in 839 severely obese individuals and 967 lean ... controls of French or Italian origin and performed ...

  11. Segmental Body Composition Assessment for Obese Japanese Adults by Single-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with 8-point Contact Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Susumu; Demura, Shinichi; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu; Noguchi, Takanori

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of segmental body composition variables estimated by singlefrequency BIA with 8-point contact electrodes (SF-BIA8), compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were 72 obese Japanese adults (43 males and 29 females) aged 30 to 66 years. Segmental body composition variables (fat free mass : FFM, fat mass : FM, and percent fat mass : %FAT) were measured by these techniques. The correlations between impedance values and FFM measured b...

  12. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-10-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  13. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Laus; Telma M. Braga Costa; Sebastião S. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass inde...

  14. Urinary Triclosan is Associated with Elevated Body Mass Index in NHANES

    OpenAIRE

    Lankester, Joanna; Patel, Chirag; Cullen, Mark R.; Ley, Catherine; Parsonnet, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Background Triclosan—a ubiquitous chemical in toothpastes, soaps, and household cleaning supplies—has the potential to alter both gut microbiota and endocrine function and thereby affect body weight. Methods We investigated the relationship between triclosan and body mass index (BMI) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2003–2008. BMI and spot urinary triclosan levels were obtained from adults. Using two different exposure measures—either presence vs. absence ...

  15. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  16. What Is Your Body Mass Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Memis, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent each year in efforts to prevent and treat diseases caused by unhealthy eating habits. Promoting awareness among young children regarding the importance of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is crucial for preparing them to sustain healthy lives as adults. This article aims to highlight ways to help students…

  17. Effects of bariatric surgery on the body composition of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Wally Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.

  18. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    OpenAIRE

    S Kalra; Mercuri, M.; Anand, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical im...

  19. Association between body composition and khat chewing in Ethiopian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Girma, Tsinuel; Mossie, Andualem; Getu, Yesufe

    2015-01-01

    Background Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a psychostimulant herb widely cultivated and used in Ethiopia. The link between khat use and body composition is little known. Objective The aim was to determine the association between body composition and khat use. Methods We recruited 415 individuals 18–78 years of age from Jimma Town. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected using structured questionnaires. Fat mass (FM, kg) and fat-free mass (FFM, kg) were estimated from whole-body bio im...

  20. Tracking of body mass index from 7 to 69 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Bjerregaard, L G; Gamborg, M; Ängquist, L; Tjønneland, A; Overvad, K; Linneberg, A; Osler, M; Mortensen, E L; Gyntelberg, F; Lund, R; Tia, Sørensen; Baker, J L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heavy children have an increased risk of being overweight young adults. Whether this risk remains in late adulthood is not fully elucidated. We investigated body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) tracking from childhood to late adulthood. METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records...... patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: BMI tracking was weaker at late adult ages than young ages. Although BMI tracks across the life course, childhood BMI is relatively poor at identifying later adult overweight or obesity at ages when chronic diseases generally emerge.International Journal of Obesity...... accepted article preview online, 11 May 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.88....

  1. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration con

  2. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  3. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  4. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  5. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  6. File list: Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_body [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. Female's Characteristic Index of Upper Body for Apparel Mass Customization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhi-ying; CONG Shan; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The measurements of female aged from 18 to 50 in the East China are taken by TC2 3D-body scanner. The first five factors are obtained by factor analysis of SPSS from 25items of the upper body which influence the body shape,that is, circumference factor, height factor, side shape factor, frontal shape factor, and shoulder slope factor.Then characteristic indices of upper body are chosen by analyzing body scan data. This study will be useful for developing pattern more fitting and faster and helpful for realizing apparel mass customization.

  14. Muscle Strength and Body Cell Mass in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Callie Griggs

    2001-01-01

    It has been observed that the normal process of aging is associated with a decline in muscle strength and mass. It has also been observed that total body potassium and intracellular water (ICW) decrease with age, reflecting a loss of body cell mass (BCM), 60% of which is the skeletal muscle. It is generally accepted that traditional high-intensity strength training (ST) regimens can not only attenuate, but in some cases, reverse some of these aging-related changes. Periodization, a nontradi...

  15. Misperceptions of Body Mass: Analysis of NSW Health Survey 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cronin; Marion Haas; Elizabeth Savage; Minh Vu

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity continue to contribute to increased risk of chronic diseases, including higher lifetime health expenditures and impacting on individuals? quality of life. Whilst international studies have compared individuals? perceptions of their body mass with more objective measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) few Australian studies have examined this relationship in any detail. This study uses unit record data from the 2003 NSW Health Survey to identify factors associated with th...

  16. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of fun...

  17. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  18. Comparison of the Body Adiposity Index to Body Mass Index in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Yeon-Ah; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is a major public health issue and is associated with many metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, the assessment of obesity is very important. A new measurement, the body adiposity index (BAI), has recently been proposed to provide valid estimates of body fat percentages. The objective of this study was to compare the BAI and body mass index (BMI) as measurements of body adiposity and metabolic risk. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis performed on Korean...

  19. Childhood body mass index and multiple sclerosis risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munger, Kassandra L; Bentzen, Joan; Laursen, Bjarne; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils Iørgen; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity in late adolescence has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it is not known if body size in childhood is associated with MS risk. METHODS: Using a prospective design we examined whether body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years was...

  20. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C R

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size. PMID:26063751

  1. Mass-imbalanced Three-Body Systems in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.;

    2013-01-01

    demonstrate that mass-imbalanced systems that are accessible in the field of ultracold atomic gases can have a rich three-body bound state spectrum in two dimensional geometries. Small light-heavy mass ratios increase the number of bound states. For 87Rb-87Rb-6Li and 133Cs-133Cs-6Li we find respectively 3 and...

  2. Body mass index a better predictor of insulin resistance than waist circumference in normoglycemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Preethi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body Mass Index (BMI is the most common method of measuring obesity. Many studies have reported that waist circumference is a stronger predictor of insulin resistance in non-type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI is a better predictor insulin resistance. Method: 79 normal young adult volunteers in the age range of 18 to 25 years were enrolled for the Study. All subjects underwent a detailed general physical examination including Blood Pressure, body weight, height, hip & waist circumference. BMI (Body Mass Index, waist and hip circumference & waist hip ratio calculated. 2hr OGTT with serum Insulin was performed and Insulin resistance calculated. Result: Simple clinical measures of obesity like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and their indexes like BMI (body mass index, WHR (waist hip ratio were evaluated and correlated with the measures of Insulin resistance (IR and insulin sensitivity. BMI was found to significantly correlate with most of the IR parameters and there was a trend towards significance with weight. Waist circumference did not correlate significantly with IR parameters. Conclusion: Body Mass Index (BMI is a useful tool in evaluating obesity in normoglycemic subjects. BMI is a better predictor of Insulin Resistance and risk stratification than waist circumference.

  3. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y Krakauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI, it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 18 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths. We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI ≡ WC/(BMI(2/3height(1/2. ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of +33% per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: +20%-+48%, whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. 22% (8%-41% of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to 15% (3%-30% for BMI and 15% (4%-29% for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity, and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors.

  4. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  5. A Solvable Model of Species Body Mass Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    We present a quantitative model for the biological evolution of species body masses within large groups of related species, e.g., terrestrial mammals, in which body mass M evolves according to branching (speciating) multiplicative diffusion and an extinction probability that increases logarithmically with mass. We describe this evolution in terms of a convection-diffusion-reaction equation for ln M. The steady-state behavior is in good agreement with empirical data on recent terrestrial mammals, and the time-dependent behavior also agrees with data on extinct mammal species between 95 - 50 million years ago.

  6. Masses of Small Bodies: Mass estimation of small solar system bodies using Radio Science data from close flybys

    OpenAIRE

    Andert, Thomas Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Radio Science technique enables to estimate the mass and other gravitational parameters of a solar system body from spacecraft observations very precisely. It uses the radio link between ground station and spacecraft. The frequency shift of the radio signal is proportional to the relative velocity change between spacecraft and ground station. If a spacecraft performs a close flyby at a solar system body, the velocity of the spacecraft is changed by the gravitational attraction of the body...

  7. Effects of Photoperiod and Temperature on Growth and Reproductive Organ Mass in Adult Male Mongolian Gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent GÜNDÜZ

    2002-01-01

    Rates of growth and sexual maturation of Mongolian gerbils vary in response to photoperiod. Previous work has shown that the responses of the testes and body weight of juvenile and adult gerbils are influenced not only by the photoperiods but also by other factors. The present work sought to determine if Mongolian gerbils alter body mass, body composition and/or reproductive organ mass in response to different photoperiods and temperatures. Male Mongolian gerbils were raised under long (14L) ...

  8. 中国成年人红肉摄入量对体重指数、体重及超重危险性影响的多水平纵向研究%Study on the multilevel and longitudinal association between red meat consumption and changes in body mass index, body weight and risk of incident overweight among Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏; 张兵; 王惠君; 张继国; 杜文雯; 苏畅; 张伋; 翟凤英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between red meat consumption and changes in body mass index (BMI),body weight and overweight risk in Chinese adults.Methods Data from the open,prospective cohort study ‘ China Health and Nutrition Survey '(CHNS),18 006 adults (47.5% males) were chosen as the study subjects who participated in at least one wave of survey between 1991 and 2009.Three-level (community-individual-measure occasion) mixed effect modeling was performed to investigate the effect of red meat consumption on BMI,body weight changes and risk of overweight.The average daily red meat intake was assessed using consecutive 3 d 24 h recalls.Results In general,participants with higher red meat intake appeared to be those with younger age,higher personal income and higher education level,lower physical activities,higher total energy intake,smokers and alcohol drinkers.3-level mixed-effects linear regression models showed that red meat intake was positively associated with changes in BMI and body weight.Compared to those who consumed no red meat,men and women in the highest quartile of red meat intake showed an increase of 0.17(95%CI:0.08-0.26,P<0.0001)and 0.12 kg/m2(95%CI:0.02-0.22,P<0.05) on BMI and increase of 596 g(95%CI:329-864,P<0.0001) and 400 g (95%CI:164-636,P< 0.0001) on body weight,respectively,after adjustment for potential confounders (age,income,education,smoking,alcohol,physical activity level,community urbanization index and total energy intake).After adjustment for above confounders and baseline BMI,results from the 3-level mixed effect logistic model indicated that the odds ratios of being overweight in males and females who had the highest quartile of red meat intake were 1.21 (95%CI:1.01-1.46,P<0.05) and 1.18 (95% CI:1.01-1.37,P<0.05) in comparison with non-consumers of red meat,respectively.Conclusion Higher red meat intake was associated with increased BMI and body weight,as well as increased overweight

  9. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  10. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  11. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  12. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran, C.; Bihari, V.; N. Mathur

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods: Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results: Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers showed ...

  13. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran C; Bihari V; Mathur N

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims : A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods : Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results : Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers ...

  14. Collagen fragment biomarkers as serological biomarkers of lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, A.; Dalgas, U.; Primdahl, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of muscle mass and function is an important complication to ageing and a range of pathologies, including, but not restricted to, cancer, organ failures, and sepsis. A number of interventions have been proposed ranging from exercise to anabolic pharmacological therapy, with varying...... success. Easily applicable serological biomarkers of lean and/or muscle mass and change therein would benefit monitoring of muscle mass during muscle atrophy as well as during recovery. We set out to validate if novel peptide biomarkers derived from Collagen III and VI were markers of lean body mass (LBM...

  15. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Borade; Gauri Shashank Kadam; Gayatri Bhide; Ram Dhongade

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screene...

  16. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M Warrington; Howe, Laura D; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kaakinen, Marika; Herrala, Sauli; Huikari, Ville; Wu, Yan Yan; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Pourcain, Beate St; Davey Smith, George; Tilling, Kate; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  17. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, N.; Howe, L; Paternoster, L.; Kaakinen, M.; Herrala, S. (Sauli); Huikari, V.; Wu, Y.; Kemp, J.; Timpson, N.; St Pourcain, B.; Smith, G.; Tilling, K; Jarvelin, M; Pennell, C; Evans, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  18. Spontaneous contralateral pneumothorax in a patient with low Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAZAWA, KENSUKE; OHARA, GEN; KAGOHASHI, KATSUNORI; KURISHIMA, KOICHI; Ishibashi, Atsushi; SATOH, HIROAKI

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is most common in adolescents and young adults. Some of them develop contralateral pneumothorax. In this paper, we report the case of a patient with spontaneous contralateral pneumothorax, whose body mass index (BMI) was 18.8 kg/m2. For either chest physicians or thoracic surgeons, follow up with recognition of increased risk of the contralateral pneumothorax is important especially in patients with contralateral bullous lesions and low BMI.

  19. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) u...

  20. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin; Pearson, Amber L.; Graham Bentham; Peter Day; Simon Kingham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI), d...

  1. Mortality attributable to excess body mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the comparative risk assessment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Djalalinia; Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam; Niloofar Peykari; Amir Kasaeian; Ali Sheidaei; Anita Mansouri; Younes Mohammadi; Mahboubeh Parsaeian; Parinaz Mehdipour; Bagher Larijani; Farshad Farzadfar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25-65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; is...

  2. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Visscher, P M; Erbas, B;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition in women and men, and to assess the impact of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 325 female and 299 male like-sex healthy twin pairs, on average 38 y old (18-67 y......), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program....... Further, these variance components were analysed as linear functions of age. RESULTS: In both women and men genetic contributions were significant for all phenotypes. Heritability for body mass index was 0.58 and 0.63; for body fat%, 0.59 and 0.63; for total skinfolds, 0.61 and 0.65; for extremity...

  3. Indice de masa corporal y percepción de la imagen corporal en una población adulta mexicana: la precisión del autorreporte Body mass index and body image perception in Mexican adult population: The accuracy of self-reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Osuna-Ramírez

    2006-04-01

    corporal fue 5 (percentil 25= 4; percentil 75= 6. Las correlaciones entre la talla, el peso y el IMC medidos y autorreportados para todos los sujetos fueron de 0.94, 0.96, y 0.90, respectivamente. La correlación entre el IMC y la percepción de la imagen corporal fue de 0.64 (0.67 para las mujeres, y 0.59 para los hombres. La media de lo autorreportado no tuvo variación mayor de 1.3 cm con la talla medida, y no más de 3.17 kg con el peso medido. Los errores de estimaciones de peso, talla e IMC disminuyeron en relación con el nivel de educación. La sensibilidad y la especificidad, antes de ajustar el autorreporte del IMC con las categorías de sobrepeso y obesidad que se colapsaron en una, fueron 94.8 y 83.0%, respectivamente. Para la percepción de la imagen corporal esos valores fueron de 87.6 y 48.9%. DISCUSIÓN: Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren que el IMC y la percepción de la imagen corporal autorreportados pueden ser indicadores útiles acerca de la condición de sobrepeso en adultos mexicanos. Las sensibilidades y especificidades asociadas con las categorías autorreportadas corregidas de IMC pueden utilizarse para ajustar razones de momios y riesgos relativos, calculados de los niveles derivados del IMC autorreportado. La percepción de imagen corporal permitió la correcta clasificación de individuos con IMC > 25, y mostró que puede ser un estimado válido para utilizarse en estudios epidemiológicos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the self-reported body mass index and body image perception in a population of Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 1998, in the state of Morelos, Mexico, participants in the longitudinal study of Mexican Social Security Institute workers "IMSS Cohort Study" responded to a baseline, self-administered questionnaire designed to collect a large variety of lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. Participants self-reported their body image by selecting the silhouette that best portrayed them, from a set of

  4. Correlation between body mass index and faecal microbiota from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, A; Fernandes, M R; Rodrigues, V A A; Groppo, F C; Cardoso, A L; Avila-Campos, M J; Nakano, V

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem at the global level and considered as a risk factor for obesity development and the associated co-morbidities in adult life. In this study, the occurrence of Bacteroides fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli in 84 faecal samples from 30 obese, 24 overweight and 30 lean children was verified by culture technique and quantitative determination by quantitative PCR. In addition, Lactobacillus spp. and Methanobrevibacter smithii were also analysed. A correlation between the body mass index (BMI) and these bacteria was sought. Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium perfringens and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were most prevalent in all samples evaluated by culture-method. The B. fragilis group were found at high concentrations in obese and overweight children when compared with the lean ones (p 0.015). The obese and overweight children harboured higher numbers of Lactobacillus spp. than lean children (p 0.022). The faecal concentrations of the B. fragilis group (r = 0.24; p 0.026) and Lactobacillus spp. (r = 0.44; p 0.002) were positively correlated with BMI. Bifidobacterium spp. were found in higher numbers in the lean group than the overweight and obese ones (p 0.042). Furthermore, a negative correlation between BMI and Bifidobacterium spp. copy number (r = -0.22; p 0.039) was observed. Our findings show some difference in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of obese children compared with the lean ones and a significant association between number of Lactobacillus spp. and B. fragilis group and BMI. PMID:26551842

  5. Body mass index and dynamic lung volumes in office workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the association of body mass index (BMI) to lung volumes assessed by spirometer. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from February to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and twenty-five apparently healthy adult office workers of either gender aged > 20 years were recruited. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated as kg/m2. Subjects were categorized as normal (BMI=18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2); overweight (BMI=25 to 29.9 kg/m2); and obese Class 1 (BMI=30 to 34.9 kg/m2) on the basis of BMI. Lung volumes were measured by digital spirometer and were reported as percentage of predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1%) and ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1:FVC). Groups were compared using t-test and ANOVA, correlation was assessed by Pearson's 'r'. Results: Significant differences in lung volumes were found in different BMI categories. Obese subjects had significantly lower FVC% (p < 0.0001), as well as significantly lower FEV1% (p = 0.003) as compared to normal subjects. There were significant linear relationships between obesity and PFTs. BMI had significant negative linear association with FVC% in overweight (r = -0.197) and obese (r = - 0.488); and with FEV1% in obese subjects (r = -0.510). Gender and age had no significant effect on mean values of PFTs. Conclusion: Obese individuals in this sample had significant decline in lung volumes. (author)

  6. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Sexual Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Rada

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The limited number of studies on sexual quality of life in obesity suggests that this is an area in need of further study.Objectives: We intended to identify how the BMI (Body Mass Index affects the subjects’ sexual dynamics. Methods: A questionnaire with items regarding the sexual life and BMI measurements was used in a sample of 1493 subjects, aged 18-90, randomly selected from urban Romanian areas. Results: The sample was characterized by average: weight of 72.11 kilograms, height of 1.71 m and a BMI of 24.30. The incidence of cases diagnosed with arterial hypertension is higher in overweight (51.3% or obese (19.7% subjects (p<0.001. In the overweight category the men’s proportion was twice higher (p<0.001. As the age increased the proportion of the overweight persons increased (p<0.001. In the entire sample the weekly sexual contacts prevailed (49.1%, most of the subjects reported an average duration of sexual contacts in the last year (without prelude and postlude of 5-15 minutes (39.1%. The latent class analysis indicated that sexual life quality decrease with age and BMI. The univariate binary logistical regression showed a fragile association between high BMI values and sexual insatisfaction. With no doubt the most influencing variable over BMI and sexual satisfaction is the age, followed by marital status. Although the BMI increases by age yet at adult age (40-50 years the overweightness and obesity are less frequent to the persons who do not share the household environment. Conclusion: For the obese people the benefits of weight loss to improve sexual life may be a way to motivate them to start and continue a special nutritional and physical activity program.

  7. EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON BODY MASS, THERMOGENESIS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN EOTHENOMYS MILETUS DURING COLD EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-long Zhu; Shengchang Yang; Jin-hong Cai; Lihua Meng; Zheng-kun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C) in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D) to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D). During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. mil...

  8. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women. PMID:23283598

  9. Variability of adult cerebrum mass of the Saratov-city residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Nikolenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the age-gender variability and extreme variants of individual cerebrum mass of Saratov citizens. Material and methods – Cerebrum preparations from 191 dead bodies of adults of 21-90 years were used as a material for the research. The whole material was divided into 4 age groups: the 1st group – the 1st adult period and 43 cerebrum preparations (26 male, 17 female; the 2nd group – the 2nd adult period – 82 preparations (66 male, 16 female; the 3rd group – the elderly age period – 34 preparations (16 male, 18 female; the senium age – 32 preparations (16 male and 16 female. The cerebrum was taken apart from the spinal cord at the border with the medulla oblongata and was weighed on analytical balance to within the accuracy of 1.0 g. Results – The cerebrum mass of Saratov adult citizens was 1323.69±19.81 g (M±SD (without including gender and age groups. For men it was 1371.05±20.39 g, for women – 1236.05±32.51 g, i.e. the cerebrum mass of men is more than the women’s one in average for 135 g (10.9 % (Р>0.05. The cerebrum mass decrease is registered at the 2nd adult period, which becomes more evident at the senium age. Thus the cerebrum mass at the 1st and the 2nd adult periods differs authentically from its value at the senium age, and at the 1st adult period it differs from its value at the elderly age as well (P<0.05. Considerable individual cerebrum mass variability has aroused the necessity to specify the groups of its extreme variables. An average cerebrum mass is at 47.1 % of Saratov citizens. Small, extremely small, and below average cerebrum mass is registered at 25.2 % of Saratov citizens, and large, above average, and extremely large mass – at 13.6 %. Conclusion – Thus the cerebrum mass of Saratov citizens subjected to age-gender variability which lies in the fact that male cerebrum is heavier comparing with female cerebrum, and the cerebrum mass is been decreased from the 2nd adult

  10. Estimating liver weight of adults by body weight and gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau Lo; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer.METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of body weight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein. Liver weights were calculated from the right lobe graft weight obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on the computed tomography.RESULTS: The subjects, all Chinese, had a mean age of 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and a female to male ratio of 118:41. The mean volume of the right lobe was 710.14 ±131.46 mL and occupied 64.55%±4.47% of the whole liver on computed tomography. Right lobe weighed 598.90±117.39 g and the estimated liver weight was 927.54 ± 168.78 g. When body weight and body height were subjected to multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, body height was found to be insignificant. Females of the same body weight had a slightly lower liver weight. A formula based on body weight and gender was derived: Estimated standard liver weight (g) = 218 + BW (kg) x 12.3 + genderx 51 (R2 = 0.48)(female = 0, male = 1). Based on the anthropometric data of these 159 subjects, liver weights were calculated using previously published formulae derived from studies on Caucasian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.All formulae overestimated liver weights compared to this formula. The Japanese formula overestimated the estimated standard liver weight (ESLW) for adults less than 60 kg.CONCLUSION: A formula applicable to Chinese males and females is available. A formula for individual races appears necessary.

  11. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  12. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    G Ruben H Regterschot; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Lara Tucha; Janneke Koerts; Oliver Tucha; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the ...

  13. The variations in Body Mass Index of different types of cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Agnihotri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of both active and second hand smoking on Body Mass Index of adult smokers in rural areas of Chandigarh. The relationship of body mass index with smoking status was also assessed in current daily and intermittent smokers. The male subjects (N=240 of 20-30 years and 30-40 years age category were divided into four groups of 30 subjects each based on Global Adult Tobacco Survey Questionnaire, India as follows: Group 1 - Current daily cigarette smokers, Group 2 - current intermittent cigarette smokers, Group 3 - Second hand cigarette smokers and Group 4 - Non-smokers (Control group. One way ANOVA test showed non-significant differences between and within all the groups in body mass index (F=1.11, p>0.05 in 20-30 years age category. In 30-40 years age category, significant differences (F=4.11, p<0.05 were observed between and within all the groups. Post hoc Scheffe test in 30-40 years category also revealed significant mean differences between current daily smokers and non-smokers. Karl Pearson’s correlation test showed a highly significant inverse linear relationship (p<0.001 between pack years and BMI in both current daily and intermittent smokers. Current smoking of moderate intensity has an effect to alter relative fatness (or BMI of the body. There may be no substantial difference in BMI with moderate and light smoking as well as exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in younger adults. The greater the number of cigarettes smoked, the lower the adult smoker's BMI in both current moderate and intermittent light smokers.

  14. Nuclear mass fluctuations with two body random ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass errors associated to different nuclear mass formulas are shown to decrease with increasing atomic number. Full shell model calculations are devoted to study the fluctuations of the nuclear masses, its dependence on the size of the Hilbert space and on the width of the two-body interaction. Ground state energy fluctuations are calculated for 39 nuclei in the sd and pf shells, using a combination of realistic and random interactions. The fluctuations have widths that follow a A-1/3 pattern. (Author)

  15. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  16. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed ...

  17. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  18. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  19. Depression and body mass index, a u-shaped association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de L.M.; Straten, van A.; Herten, van M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Results of studies concerning the association between obesity and depression are conflicting. Some find a positive association, some a negative association and some find no association at all. Most studies, however, examine a linear association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depression

  20. High frequency body mass measurement, feedback, and health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Scherpenzeel, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze weight and fat percentage measurements of respondents in an online general population panel in the Netherlands, collected using wireless scales, with an average frequency of 1.6 measurements per week. First, we document the existence of a weekly cycle; body mass is lowest on Fridays and h

  1. Imaging features of retrorectal masses in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrorectal masses have several etiologies. They could be of congenital origin owing to the complexity of the embryogenesis in this area. This report concerns a semiological analysis based on a series of 46 cases with a review of literature. The different pathological features are described. The actual imaging technics have much improved diagnostic criterias, thus providing a better therapeutic choice. (19 figs)

  2. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27625904

  3. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R

    1986-05-01

    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations. PMID:23906357

  4. Modeling of Body Mass Index by Newton's Second Law

    CERN Document Server

    Canessa, E

    2008-01-01

    Since laws of physics exist in nature, their possible relationship to terrestial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an...

  5. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  6. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  7. Body-esteem, body mass index, and risk for disordered eating among adolescents in synchronized swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Magnan, Claire; Philippe, Roberta Antonini

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dimensions of body-esteem, Body Mass Index, and their relations with eating disorder symptoms among 42 elite adolescent athletes engaged in competitive synchronized swimming (M = 15.4 yr., SD = 1.2) and to compare them with 40 athletes in sports with no emphasis on leanness (M = 16.5 yr., SD = .93), and 50 nonathlete college female students (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.1). They completed the Body-esteem Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Body Mass Index was computed. Analysis showed synchronized swimmers reported greater negative feelings about their appearance than the two other groups and low perceptions of how others evaluate their physical appearance. Participants did not differ on the EAT-26. Regression analyses showed that Body Mass Index and Body-esteem Appearance accounted for 38% of the variance in log-transformed Dieting scores of synchronized swimmers. Results are discussed in relation to the literature. PMID:16491692

  8. Multi-mass schemes for collisionless N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Mimi

    2007-01-01

    We present a general scheme for constructing Monte Carlo realizations of equilibrium, collisionless galaxy models with known distribution function (DF) f_0. Our method uses importance sampling to find the sampling DF f_s that minimizes the mean-square formal errors in a given set of projections of the DF f_0. The result is a multi-mass N-body realization of the galaxy model in which ``interesting'' regions of phase-space are densely populated by lots of low-mass particles, increasing the effective N there, and less interesting regions by fewer, higher-mass particles. As a simple application, we consider the case of minimizing the shot noise in estimates of the acceleration field for an N-body model of a spherical Hernquist model. Models constructed using our scheme easily yield a factor ~100 reduction in the variance in the central acceleration field when compared to a traditional equal-mass model with the same number of particles. When evolving both models with a real N-body code, the diffusion coefficients ...

  9. Association between body mass index and in-hospital outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Meng, Qingrui; Vin-Raviv, Neomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Importance: Over one-third of American adults (36%) are obese and more than two-thirds (69%) are overweight. The impact of obesity on hospitalization outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific in-hospital mortality; postsurgical complications; and hospital length of stay (LOS). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Representative sample of US hospitals included in the Health Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Participants: We obtained data for patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of cancer, COPD, asthma, and CVD. Main Outcome: In-hospital mortality, postsurgical complications, and hospital LOS. Results: A total of 800,417 patients were included in this analysis. A higher proportion of Blacks (26.8%; 12.5%) and Whites (23.3%; 8.7%) had BMI of 40 to 49.9 and ≥50, respectively, compared with Hispanics (20.4%; 7.3%). Compared with normal BMI patients, the odds of in-hospital mortality increased 3.6-fold (odds ratio [OR] 3.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37–3.89) for preobese patients, 6.5-fold (OR: 6.52, 95% CI: 5.79–7.34) for patients with BMI: 30 to 31.9, 7.5-fold (OR: 7.57, 95% CI: 6.67–8.59) for patients with BMI: 34 to 35.9, and 1.6- fold (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.56–1.79) for patients with BMI ≥ 50. Compared with normal BMI patients, preobese and overweight patients had shorter hospital stays (β preobese: −1.58, 95% CI: −1.63, −1.52); however, no clear trends were observed for postsurgical complications. Conclusions: The majority of hospitalized patients in this analysis had a BMI > 30, and higher BMI was associated with increased risk of mortality and longer hospital stay. PMID:27428218

  10. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Prediction Equation for Calculating Fat Mass in Young Indian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu; Gupta; Shenoy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Accurate measurement or prediction of fat mass is useful in physiology, nutrition and clinical medicine. Most predictive equations currently used to assess percentage of body fat or fat mass, using simple anthropometric measurements were derived from people in western societies and they may not be appropriate for individuals with other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We developed equations to predict fat mass from anthropometric measurements in young Indian adul...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan M; Uher-Koch, Hannah; Kovach, Kristin A; Long, Darwin; Perkins, Christopher; Schoch, Nina; Evers, David C

    2016-09-15

    We captured 93 wintering adult and subadult Common Loons (Gavia immer) in coastal Louisiana from 2011 to 2015 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We tested blood samples for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and measured physiological variables including hematocrit, hemoglobin and total blood protein. PAH concentrations in loon blood differed from year to year and by age class. High PAH concentrations were significantly related to lower body masses in both adult and subadult birds and higher serum protein levels in adults only. PAH concentrations had marginal relations with both hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. The types of PAHs detected also underwent a major shift over time. The PAHs detected in 2011, 2012, and 2015 were primarily low molecular weight (three carbon rings); however, in 2013, most detected PAHs were high molecular weight (four carbon rings). It is unclear what events led to the increase in PAH concentrations and the shift in type of PAHs over time. PMID:27177142

  13. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  14. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002-2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations. ?? 2007 NRC.

  15. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, L G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, K F;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult b...... first month of life.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.108....

  16. Surrogate Markers of Visceral Adiposity in Young Adults: Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Are More Accurate than Waist Hip Ratio, Model of Adipose Distribution and Visceral Adiposity Index

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Borruel; Moltó, José F.; Macarena Alpañés; Elena Fernández-Durán; Francisco Álvarez-Blasco; Manuel Luque-Ramírez; Héctor F Escobar-Morreale

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53...

  17. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  18. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao; L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.R. Jarvelin; M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  19. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measureme...

  20. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  1. Stagnation in body mass index in Denmark from 1997/1998 to 2004/2005, but with geographical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Knudsen, Nils Jacob; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the trend in body mass index (BMI) as well as in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Danish adults, mainly women, from 1997/1998 to 2004/2005 and evaluated any regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were drawn from two cross-sectional population-base...

  2. Body Mass Index and the Measurement of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of measuring obesity using Body Mass Index (BMI) data. Conventional measures which simply count the number of individuals with BMI in excess of an upper limit ignore the extent by which individuals exceed BMI limits and also the increased risk ratios for various conditions associated very high levels of BMI. This paper suggests that measures currently used in the poverty literature can be usefully applied to measure obesity and provide us with measures which m...

  3. Is Age of Menarche Related with Body Mass Index?

    OpenAIRE

    Kazem Mohamad; Leila Jamshidi; Keramat Nouri Jelyani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Prediction of the onset of menstruation (menarche age) using height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) is a major health procedure. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between anthropometric indices and menarche age in 488 girls 11-17 years in southern Iran (Kish Island) in 2011. Methods Data was collected using questionnaires as well as measurements of the children’s height and weight. This data was analyzed using t-test and logistic regression. R...

  4. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo; Helder Miguel Fernandes; Miriam Mano; Edith Martins

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI). The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female) with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001). The results suggested a negative correlation be...

  5. Modeling of Body Mass Index by Newton's Second Law

    OpenAIRE

    Canessa, E.

    2008-01-01

    Since laws of physics exist in nature, their possible relationship to terrestial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gen...

  6. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Pregnancy Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Pakniat; Fatemeh mohammadi; Fatemeh Ranjkesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Pre-pregnancy obesity is considered as a significant predictor for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Several studies have indicated conflicting associations between body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods:Thiscohort study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in Qazvin province, Iran. BMI was measured in a total of 1376 pregnant women before their 12th week of pr...

  7. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic sc...... with normal weight, while BMI was not related to screening in premenopausal women. Effect of BMI on mammographic screening participation was not significantly modified by HT, previous screening participation, or morbidities....

  8. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  9. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  10. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  11. Trends in body mass index distribution and prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in two cohorts of Surinamese South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Zandbergen-Harlaar, S.; Buuren, S. van; Middelkoop, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Asians have a smaller muscle mass and a larger fat mass at the same body mass index (BMI) than most other ethnic groups. Due to a resulting higher cardiometabolic risk, the BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity were lowered for adults. For Asian children universal criteria apply. The o

  12. The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P

    1994-01-01

    Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. If expressed relative to body mass, the frontal drag of small cyclists is considerably greater than that of large cyclists. The difference in frontal drag (energy cost) is not made up for by the advantage to small cyclists in relative VO2max (energy supply), since the mass exponent for drag (1/3) is closer to zero than that for VO2max (2/3). Thus, small cyclists should be at a disadvantage in flat time trials, which field data support. The energy cost of riding uphill slightly favors the large cyclist, because the weight of the bicycle represents a relatively smaller load than it does to a small cyclist. The mass exponent is 0.79. Since this exponent is greater than that for VO2max, the small cyclists have an advantage in climbing, which is supported by field data. PMID:8133740

  13. Full-body motion-based game interaction for older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gerling, Kathrin M.; Livingston, Ian J.; Nacke, Lennart E.; Mandryk, Regan L.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults in nursing homes often lead sedentary lifestyles, which reduces their life expectancy. Full-body motion-control games provide an opportunity for these adults to remain active and engaged; these games are not designed with age-related impairments in mind, which prevents the games from being leveraged to increase the activity levels of older adults. In this paper, we present two studies aimed at developing game design guidelines for full-body motion controls for older adults experi...

  14. Mathematical model of a phantom developed for use in calculations of radiation dose to the body and major internal organs of a Japanese adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of a phantom simulating the body and major internal organs of a Japanese adult has been developed for use in computer calculations of radiation dose. The total body height of the mathematical phantom is 162 cm, and the total body mass is 55 kg based on densities of 0.3, 1.4, and 1.0 g/cm3 for the lung, skeleton, and bulk tissues of the body, respectively

  15. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass and bone mass in breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Melinda L; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G.; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M. Tish; DiPietro, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Re...

  16. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. PMID:25771958

  17. Body Mass Index and Body Fat Status of Men Involved in Sports, Exercise, and Sedentary Activites

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups ...

  18. Age at menarche in the Korean female: secular trends and relationship to adulthood body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ju Hyun; Lim, Se Won; Song, Bong Sub; Seo, Juhee; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to estimate the trend in age at menarche in the Korean female and evaluate the relationship between age at menarche and adult body mass index (BMI), which is a indicator of later-life health. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample (self-reported age at menarche and measured height and weight) of 11,065 females aged 15 and older. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examinati...

  19. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 as Predictor of Body Mass Index and Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis: Neuroplasticity and the Metabolic Milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Coplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 regulates carbohydrate metabolism and promotes neurogenesis. We reported an inverse correlation between adult body mass and neurogenesis in nonhuman primates. Here we examine relationships between physiological levels of the neurotrophic incretin, plasma GLP-1 (pGLP-1, and body mass index (BMI in adolescence to adult neurogenesis and associations with a diabesity diathesis and infant stress. Morphometry, fasting pGLP-1, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles were measured in early adolescence in 10 stressed and 4 unstressed male bonnet macaques. As adults, dentate gyrus neurogenesis was assessed by doublecortin staining. High pGLP-1, low body weight, and low central adiposity, yet peripheral insulin resistance and high plasma lipids, during adolescence were associated with relatively high adult neurogenesis rates. High pGLP-1 also predicted low body weight with, paradoxically, insulin resistance and high plasma lipids. No rearing effects for neurogenesis rates were observed. We replicated an inverse relationship between BMI and neurogenesis. Adolescent pGLP-1 directly predicted adult neurogenesis. Two divergent processes relevant to human diabesity emerge—high BMI, low pGLP-1, and low neurogenesis and low BMI, high pGLP-1, high neurogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid elevations. Diabesity markers putatively reflect high nutrient levels necessary for neurogenesis at the expense of peripheral tissues.

  20. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth. PMID:17692872

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  2. Impact of maternal body mass index on neonatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Kalk P; Guthmann F; Krause K; Relle K; Godes M; Gossing G; Halle H; Wauer R; Hocher B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Maternal body mass index has an impact on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome. An increased maternal BMI is known to be associated with admission of the newborn to a neonatal care unit. The reasons and impact of this admission on fetal outcome, however, are unknown so far. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of maternal BMI on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome with special focus on the children admitted to a neonatal care unit. Methods A coho...

  3. Body mass index and age of menarche in young girls

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Olivia; Melda Deliana; Supriatmo; Hakimi; Siska Mayasari Lubis

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the age at onset of menarche is earlier than in the past. Nutritional status has an important role in the onset of menarche. Past studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) in young girls and earlier onset of menarche. Objective To assess an association between BMI and age at onset of menarche. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in young girls aged 10 to 15 years from Immanuel Elementary and Junior High School, Medan in June 2010...

  4. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...... Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...

  5. The Effect of Body fat Mass and Fat Free Mass on Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity seems to be associated to migraine headache. Increase in body fat, especially in gluteofemoral region, elevates adiponectin and leptin secretion which in turn impair inflammatory processes that could be contributing to migraine risk. This study was designed to assess the relationship between body composition and risk of migraine for the first time.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1510 middle-aged women who were visited in a weight reduction clinicof university were recruited. Migraine was diagnosedwith HIS criteria. Body composition parameters including total fat mass (FATM, total fat free mass (FFM, truncal fat mass (TFATM, and truncal fat free mass (TFFM was assessed using bioelectric impedance. We further assessed cardiovascular risk factors and smoking as confounding factors. To determine the real association between different variables and risk of migraine, the associations were adjusted by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: Elevation in fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, FFM, TFFM, and waist-to-hip ratio increased the risk of migraine. When the associations were adjusted for other factors, only the association between migraine and FFM remained statistically significant.Conclusion: Lower FFM increased the risk of migraine in overweight and obese individuals. In the other words, higher fat free mass could be a protective factor for migraine.

  6. Statistics of n-body simulations; 3, unequal masses

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, M; Giersz, Mirek; Heggie, Douglas C

    1995-01-01

    We describe results from large numbers of N-body simulations containing from 250 to 1000 stars each. The distribution of stellar masses is a power law, and the systems are isolated. While the collapse of the core exhibits the expected segregation of different masses, we find that the post-collapse evolution is, at a first approximation, homologous. This is quite surprising because there is no reason for supposing that mass segregation should not continue to have a substantial effect on the evolution of the cluster. In fact the spatial distribution of the mean stellar mass is nearly static throughout the post-collapse regime, except for the overall expansion of the systems, and this helps to explain why the post-collapse evolution is nearly self-similar. Self-similarity is also exhibited by the distribution of anisotropy and the profile of departures from equipartition, which show little change during the post-collapse phase. The departures from energy equipartition and isotropy are small in the core and incre...

  7. Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult...... oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Analyses included 255 053 children born during 1930-1971. Danish Cancer Registry linkage provided outcomes. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression....... RESULTS: During 5.4 million person-years of follow-up, 254 (216 males) incident oesophageal adenocarcinomas occurred. At each examined age, cancer risk increased linearly per unit BMI z-score, although associations were only statistically significant for ages 9-13. The HR for the age of 13 years was 1...

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone

    Full Text Available Total body mass (TBM is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils. This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs. Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  9. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  10. Evaluation of Body Mass Index and Survival of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Propensity-Matched Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    OuYang, Pu-Yun; Zhang, Lu-Ning; Jie TANG; Lan, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Yao; Gao, Yuan-Hong; Jun MA; Xie, Fang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effect of pretreatment body mass index on survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains contradictory. All patients (N = 1778) underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Body mass index was categorized as underweight (

  11. Body mass index and daily physical activity in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouten, C V; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Westerterp, K R

    1996-08-01

    The level of daily physical activity in 11 non-hospitalized women with anorexia (age: 21-48 yr, body mass index (BMI): 12.5-18.3 kg.m-2), compared with 13 normal-weight women (age: 20-35 yr, BMI 19.2-26.7 kg.m-2), was studied in relation to BMI. Daily physical activity over a 7-d period was determined from movement registration and by combining measurements of average daily metabolic rate (measured in a respiration chamber). Group averages of daily physical activity were similar for subjects with anorexia and control subjects. However, women with anorexia had either a low or a high level of daily physical activity, whereas most control subjects had a moderate level of daily physical activity. In the women with anorexia, daily physical activity was significantly related to BMI (r = 0.84). Subjects with a BMI > or = kg.m-2 were equally or more active compared with control subjects, while subjects with a BMI active compared with control subjects. The increased physical activity at BMI > or = 17 kg.m-2 is considered to be facilitated by an improving physical capacity combined with the advantages of a low body mass during weight-bearing activities. At lower BMI, undereating and declining physical capacity may have caused the observed decrease in daily physical activity. PMID:8871905

  12. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  13. Effect of body mass index on outcome of labour induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Farheen; Naru, Tahira; Sheikh, Sana

    2016-05-01

    The retrospective study to explore the adverse effect of obesity on pregnancy and labour was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and comprised data of all patients booked between 12-14 weeks and required induction of labour from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Women were grouped into two body mass index categories: normal weight (23 kg/m2). Obesity increased the risk of development of gestational hypertension and diabetes. Therefore obese women were more likely to be induced due to medical indication whether primiparous or multiparous adjusted odds ratio =2.89(95% confidence interval 1.29-6.48) and 2.77 (95% confidence interval 1.07-7.19) respectively. There was increased chance of having caesarean section in primigravida adjusted odds ratio = 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.72-2.92), duration of caesarean section and blood loss during the procedure were not significantly associated with high body mass index (p>0.05). Obesity may lead to a lot of problems in primigravida, but it did not have major impact. PMID:27183944

  14. Study on Dosimetry Used TLD Dosimeter and Body Mass Index at Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of study is to expose a more uniform dose depending on the relationship between a body mass index in patients who underwent radiation therapy and an acquired dosimetric information by using a thermoluminescent dosimeter. Since 2006 to August 2011 we investigated 28 people who underwent radiation therapy were enrolled in AMC. Each patient was measured on the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, thigh, knee joint, and ankle joint using the thermoluminescent dosimeter. The measurement value of each points compared with the prescribed center point, abdominal point, and dose measurements of points on which to base the abdomen and the patient's body mass index (BMI) were compared with reference point, abdomen dose. 28 patients on prescribed dose in the abdomen by which the center point, an average dose was 100.6±5.5, and the other seven measuring points with the average maximum difference among the head, neck, chest, pelvic, thigh, knee, and ankle were 92.8±4.2%, 97.6±6.2%, 96.4±5.5%, 102.6±5.3%, 103.4±7.9%, 95.8±5.9%, 96.1±5.5%. The relationship of abdominal point dose and the patient's body mass index (BMI) was analyzed a scatter plot, and the result of linear relationship analysis by regression method, the regression of the dose (y) was -1.009 BMI (x) plus 123.3 and coefficient of determination (R2) was represented 0.697. The total body irradiation treatment process was evaluated the dose deviation and then the prescribed dose by which the average abdominal dose was satisfied with 100.6±5.5%. Results of the relationship analysis between BMI and dose, if we apply the correction value for each patients, it can be achieved more uniform dose delivery.

  15. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Ulrich, L G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...... childhood ages. Height at all ages was statistically significant and positively associated with all endometrial cancers, except non-oestrogen-dependent cancers. At 7 years, per ~5.2 cm (1 z-score), the risk of endometrioid adenocarcinoma was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.28). Among non-users of...... unopposed oestrogens, associations between BMI and endometrioid adenocarcinoma strengthened, but no effects on height associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial carcinogenesis is linked to early-life body size, suggesting that childhood BMI and height may be useful indicators for the risk of later...

  16. Exploring emotion recognition in adults and adolescents with anorexia nervosa using a body motion paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, K.; Dapelo, M. M.; Khondoker, M.; Morris, R.; Surguladze, S; Treasure, J; Tchanturia, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is consistent evidence of difficulties in social cognition in adults with anorexia nervosa (AN), but less is known about adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to recognise emotion expressed in body movement in adults and adolescents with AN. Method: One hundred and ninety-three females participated in the study (AN = 97: 61 adults and 36 adolescents). The performance of participants with AN on a body emotion recognition task was compared...

  17. Body mass of wild Bornean orangutans living in human-dominated landscapes: Implications for understanding their ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayadin, Yaya; Spehar, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. PMID:25682922

  18. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value

  19. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  20. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner.......To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner....

  1. The Effects of Body Composition, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity on Calcaneus Quantitative Ultrasound in Spanish Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Rio-Valle, Jacqueline Schmidt; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2016-07-01

    Identifying modifiable factors that influence bone gain during early adulthood in order to maximize peak bone mass (PBM) is a potential primary strategy in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. The present study examined the relationships between body composition, dietary intake and physical activity (PA), and bone health measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the right calcaneus. The study population consisted of 781 Spanish men and women (age 19.1 ± 3.6). Body composition, dietary intake, PA, and bone strength were assessed. Calcaneus QUS was significantly correlated with age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, protein intake, and moderate and high PA. No significant correlation between calcium intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz) was detected. Linear regression analyses revealed that independent variables accounted for 18.8% of the total variance of calcaneus BUA (p = .000). Lean mass and high PA were significant predictors of BUA variance in young adults (p = .000 and p = .045, respectively). Results indicate that lifestyle choices and their consequences during early adulthood could influence bone mass, particularly PA and lean mass. Furthermore, this study provides novel data about bone mass as indicated by the QUS measurements at the time of PBM acquisition. PMID:26933147

  2. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  3. Intraspecific variation in avian pectoral muscle mass: constraints on maintaining manoeuvrability with increasing body mass

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Piersma, Theunis; Hedenstrom, Anders; Brugge, Maarten; Hedenström, Anders; Jackson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    1. Within a single year, long-distance migrants undergo a minimum of four cycles of fuel storage and depletion because their migrations have at least one stopover. Each cycle includes an almost twofold change in body mass (m(b)). Pervasive predation threats beg the question whether escape flight abilities keep up with such large changes in m(b). 2. We derive aerodynamic predictions how pectoral muscle mass (m(pm)) should change with m(b) to maintain constant relative flight power. 3. We teste...

  4. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  5. Effects of Body Mass Index and Full Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis KH; Keung, Jackie HK; Lau, Newman ML; Ng, Douglas KS; Chung, Joanne WY; Chow, Daniel HK

    2014-01-01

    Effective training to improve serve speed is important for competitive tennis players. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of anthropometric factors and whole body kinematics of elite players on ball speed and to propose possible training strategies for improving the quality of tennis serves. Body and racket kinematics of tennis serves of 12 male elite Hong Kong players were investigated. The tennis serve was divided into four phases: I) Back-Swing Phase, II) Lead-Leg-Drive Phase, III) Forward-Swing Phase, and IV) Follow-Through Phase. It was shown that racket-side knee range of motion during phases II and III (r=0.705; p<0.05), racket-side knee peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.751; p<0.01), racket-side hip peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.657; p<0.05), racket-side shoulder range of motion in the coronal plane during phase III (r=0.616; p<0.05), racket-side elbow peak extension velocity during phase III (r=0.708; p<0.01) and body mass index (r=0.577; p<0.05) were significantly correlated with ball speed. Body mass index and the identified kinematic parameters that were significantly correlated with ball speed could be used as training guidelines for coaches and players to improve serve speed. Players should pay particular attention in training to increasing the extension velocity and range of motion of the identified joints. PMID:25031669

  6. Foreign bodies in the chest: how come they are seen in adults?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiologic and clinical findings of foreign bodies in the chest of children are well recognized. Foreign bodies in adults are infrequent, however, and the radiologic findings of these unusual circumstances have rarely been described. We classified various thoracic foreign bodies into three types according to their cause: Type I, Aspiration, Type II, Trauma or Accident; Type III, Iatrogenic. This pictorial essay will illustrate the radiologic findings and consequences of thoracic foreign bodies in adults, which have rarely been described in the radiologic literature. The clinical significance of thoracic foreign bodies will be also be discussed

  7. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  8. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  9. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  10. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147

  11. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  12. Effect of aging on bone mass in adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body calcium was measured in 40 adult women by total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA). Procedures for normalizing the absolute calcium measurements for the parameters of size and age were developed in order to effect a direct comparison of women of age 30 to 78 yr. The normal total-body calcium (TB/sub Ca/) for an individual can be predicted by a formula developed in the present study to within +- 11 percent (1.62 SD) at the 90 percent confidence level. The TB/sub Ca/ loss can be characterized by two components: one with a slower rate, 0.37 percent/yr, and the other with a faster rate, 1.08 percent/yr. The latter, a more rapid postmenopausal loss, started at 50 to 60 yr and was superimposed on the slower rate of loss that started in the fourth decade and continued throughout life. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the radius, measured by the absorptiometric technique, correlated well with the total-body skeletal calcium in this population (r = 0.813, P less than .001). However, for intercomparisons of the BMC values of individuals, normalization of the BMC values for size and age is required, as it is for the TB/sub Ca/ data. Normalization provided by the ratio of BMC to radius width is not adequate for comparative studies

  13. Body fatness, relative weight and frame size in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baecke, J.A.H.; Burema, J.; Deurenberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    1. Body-weight, body height, knee width, wrist width and skinfold measurements were made on males (n 139) and females (n 167) in three age-groups (20–22, 25–27 and 30–32 years). Percentage of body fal was calculated from skinfold thicknesses using regression equations according to Durnin & Womersley

  14. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  15. Effect of photoperiod on body mass, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in young rats

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, P.; Visser, H.; DAAN, S

    1997-01-01

    In this experiment we investigate the effect of photoperiod on locomotor activity, body mass, food intake, growth efficiency (relationship between body mass change and food intake), energy expenditure, and body composition in growing Wistar rats. Two groups of animals were subjected to either a long, LD 18:6 (II = 8), Or Short photoperiod, LD 6:18 (n = 7), during a period of 190 days after weaning. Activity, body mass, food intake, and energy expenditure were measured during the study, as wel...

  16. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Klaas R Westerterp

    2015-01-01

    Aim Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. Methods An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is m...

  17. Concordance of the Recently Published Body Adiposity Index With Measured Body Fat Percent in European-American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, William; Chumlea, William C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W

    2011-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI; hip circumference (cm)/height (m)1.5 − 18) has recently been shown to demonstrate a stronger correlation with percentage body fat (%fat) than that between the BMI and %fat in Mexican-American adults. Here, we compare the concordance between %fat from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BAI, and between %fat and BMI, in European-American adults (n = 623). Agreement between BAI, BMI, and %fat was assessed using Lin’s concordance coefficients (ρc), where val...

  18. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Lin Hsieh; Min-Li Chen; Chiu-Mieh Huang; Wen-Chyuan Chen; Chun-Huei Li; Li-Chun Chang

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed...

  19. Seasonal variation in body mass and energy budget in Chinese bulbuls (pycnonotus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengsi; Wu; Yuchao; Xiao; Fang; Yang; Limeng; Zhou; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Seasonal adjustments in body mass and energy budget are important for the survival of small birds in temperate zones. Seasonal changes in body mass, body temperature, gross energy intake(GEI), digestible energy intake(DEI), body fat content, as well as length and mass of the digestive tract, were measured in Chinese Bulbuls(Pycnonotus sinensis) caught in the wild at Wenzhou, China.Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. The caloric contents of the dried food and feces were then determined using a oxygen bomb calorimeter. Total fat was extracted from the dried carcasses by ether extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. The digestive tract of each bird was measured and weighed, and was then dried to a constant mass.Results: Body mass showed a significant seasonal variation and was higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn. Body fat was higher in winter than in other seasons. GEI and DEI were significantly higher in winter.The length and mass of the digestive tract were greatest in winter and the magnitude of both these parameters was positively correlated with body mass, GEI and DEI. Small passerines typically have higher daily energy expenditure in winter, necessitating increased food consumption.Conclusions: This general observation is consistent with the observed winter increase in gut volume and body mass in Chinese Bulbuls. These results suggest that Chinese Bulbuls adjust to winter conditions by increasing their body mass, body fat, GEI, DEI and digestive tract size.

  20. Seasonal variation in body mass and energy budget in Chinese bulbuls (pycnonotus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengsi Wu; Yuchao Xiao; Fang Yang; Limeng Zhou; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Seasonal adjustments in body mass and energy budget are important for the survival of small birds in temperate zones. Seasonal changes in body mass, body temperature, gross energy intake (GEI), digestible energy intake (DEI), body fat content, as well as length and mass of the digestive tract, were measured in Chinese Bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) caught in the wild at Wenzhou, China. Methods:Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. The caloric contents of the dried food and feces were then determined using a oxygen bomb calorimeter. Total fat was extracted from the dried carcasses by ether extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. The digestive tract of each bird was measured and weighed, and was then dried to a constant mass. Results:Body mass showed a significant seasonal variation and was higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn. Body fat was higher in winter than in other seasons. GEI and DEI were significantly higher in winter. The length and mass of the digestive tract were greatest in winter and the magnitude of both these parameters was positively correlated with body mass, GEI and DEI. Small passerines typical y have higher daily energy expenditure in winter, necessitating increased food consumption. Conclusions:This general observation is consistent with the observed winter increase in gut volume and body mass in Chinese Bulbuls. These results suggest that Chinese Bulbuls adjust to winter conditions by increasing their body mass, body fat, GEI, DEI and digestive tract size.

  1. Anorexia Nervosa and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Further Explorations of the Relation Between Anxiety and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Laura M.; Dellava, Jocilyn E.; Root, Tammy L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    We explore comorbidity of anorexia nervosa (AN) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and their relation with body mass index (BMI) and evaluate the presence of fasting and excessive exercise which both have anxiolytic and weight loss effects. All participants were female: 32 with AN only, 607 with GAD only, 22 with AN and GAD (AN+GAD), and 5,424 with no history of AN or GAD (referent) from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE). Lowest adult BMI differed significant...

  2. Changes of body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri during cold exposure and rewarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while showed a significant increase in body mass and body temperature after rewarming. The decrease of body temperature can reduce the difference in temperature in environment, save energy consumption. The increase in body mass after rewarming was associated with the higher energy intake. Together, these data supported our hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce changes in body mass and metabolism in A. chevrieri.

  3. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  4. Mortality Attributable to Excess Body Mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25–65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), stroke, hypertensive heart diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), colon cancer, cancer of the body of the uterus, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Results: In 2011, in adults of 25–65 years old, at the national level, excess BMI was responsible for 39.5% of total deaths that were attributed to 9 BMI paired outcomes. From them, 55.0% were males. The highest mortality was attributed to IHD (55.7%) which was followed by stroke (19.3%), and DM (12.0%). Based on the population attributed fractions estimations of 2011, except for colon cancer, the remaining 6 common outcomes were higher for women than men. Conclusions: Despite the priority of the problem, there is currently no comprehensive program to prevention or control obesity in Iran. The present results show a growing need to comprehensive implications for national and sub-national health policies and interventional programs in Iran. PMID:26644906

  5. Association of a body mass index genetic risk score with growth throughout childhood and adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available While the number of established genetic variants associated with adult body mass index (BMI is growing, the relationships between these variants and growth during childhood are yet to be fully characterised. We examined the association between validated adult BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and growth trajectories across childhood. We investigated the timing of onset of the genetic effect and whether it was sex specific.Children from the ALSPAC and Raine birth cohorts were used for analysis (n = 9,328. Genotype data from 32 adult BMI associated SNPs were investigated individually and as an allelic score. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of the growth parameters and measures of adiposity peak and rebound were derived.The allelic score was associated with BMI growth throughout childhood, explaining 0.58% of the total variance in BMI in females and 0.44% in males. The allelic score was associated with higher BMI at the adiposity peak (females  =  0.0163 kg/m(2 per allele, males  =  0.0123 kg/m(2 per allele and earlier age (-0.0362 years per allele in males and females and higher BMI (0.0332 kg/m(2 per allele in females and 0.0364 kg/m(2 per allele in males at the adiposity rebound. No gene:sex interactions were detected for BMI growth.This study suggests that known adult genetic determinants of BMI have observable effects on growth from early childhood, and is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic determinants of adult susceptibility to obesity act from early childhood and develop over the life course.

  6. Changes of arterial blood ketone body ratio following hypoperfusion in old and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YE; Shiwen WANG; Songtao YU; Wei CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of arterial ketone body ratio as an indicator for multiple organ failure.Materials and methods The experimental model of multiple organ failure was made in adult and old rats by hypoperfusion-induced hemorrhagic shock. After blood sampling, the arterial acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, total ketone body, ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine at 2, 4, 8 hr in hypoperfusion were examined to compare the differences of ketone body ratio and organ failure between adult and old rats. Hepatic and mitochondrial metabolism were assessed by comparing ketone body ratios (AcAc/β-OHB) and free NAD+/NADH ratios. Results Ketone body ratio in old rats at 2, 4, 8 hr after the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased from 0.68 to 0.31, 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. In adult rats, it decreased from 1.12 to 0.17, 0.12 and 0.09, respectively. Changes of ketone body ratio in the adult group were larger than in the elderly group ( P < 0.001). The development of multiple organ failure is associated with the time of hemorrhagic shock development. Conclusions There was a different ketone body ratio between multiple organ failure in the elderly (MOFE) and multiple organ failure (MOF) in general adults. Ketone body ratio is a better indicator than ALT and AST in reflecting hepatic function in the early status of MOF. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :125-128. )

  7. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  8. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet F Grant

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128 from Stage 3 (2008-10 of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999-2003, baseline n = 4056 to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR and waist height ratio (WHtR of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67-2.76 and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14-1.98. There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.93. The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14, followed by WC (OR 1.78, WHtR (OR 1.71 and WHR (OR 1.45. WHtR (42-45% and BMI (35-36% provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults.

  9. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Rosenfalck, A M; Frandsen, E;

    1999-01-01

    Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH...... persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults....

  10. EFFECT OF BODY MASS INDEX ON COLORECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霁; 苏向前; 郑俊全; 顾晋; 宗祥龙; 王怡; 季加孚

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer. Methods: 331 patients with rectal cancer and 175 with colon cancer who accepted surgical operation at Beijing Cancer Hospital during 1995 and 2002 were enrolled. Data were collected by reviewing the pathology materials and hospital records. 258 healthy people who accepted health examination at Beijing Cancer Hospital during 2000 and 2002 were also enrolled as control. Data of height, weight and gender at the time of examination were also collected. Obesity was estimated by body mass index (BMI), computed as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2). The degree of obesity was compared between the two groups using BMI(18.5, 24-27.9 and (28 (kg/m2) as the cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity. Associations with obesity were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All ORs were adjusted for age and sex. Results: Obesity was significantly prevalent in female patients with rectal cancer. All the patients with colon cancer showed lower level of BMI than control subjects. The ORs for rectal cancer rose with increasing BMI in women. Meanwhile, the ORs for colon cancer dropped with increasing BMI in both men and women. Obesity was an independent risk factor for rectal cancer, but not an independent risk factor for colon cancer. Conclusion: Rectal cancer and colon cancer may have different biological behavior. Obese women have relatively high risk for rectal cancer.

  11. Is Age of Menarche Related with Body Mass Index?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Mohamad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prediction of the onset of menstruation (menarche age using height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI is a major health procedure. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between anthropometric indices and menarche age in 488 girls 11-17 years in southern Iran (Kish Island in 2011.Methods: Data was collected using questionnaires as well as measurements of the children’sheight and weight. This data was analyzed using t-test and logistic regression.Results: Median age of menarche of menstruated girls as inferred from the age of menarche cumulative distribution was 12.9 years. Mean (SD BMI in menstruated and non-menstruated girls were 21.97 (4.5 and 19.17 (3.7, respectively. Mean (SD weight and height of the menstruated girls were 53.65 (12.3 kg and 156.06 (5.5 cm, respectively which are higher than respective figures of the non-menstruated participants 43.70 (10.7 kg and 150.21 (6.3 cm, respectively. Our results revealed a significant correlation between BMI and menarche age.Conclusion: Menarche age and BMI are significantly correlated with higher BMI related to lower menarche age.

  12. Association between Asthma and Body Mass Index in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been reported to be associated with an increase in asthma in children. If there is any association, it could be attributed to an effect of obesity on lung volume and thus airway’s obstruction. Data from 2413 children aged 7–12 years in Isfahan were analyzed. The subjects were included in this study if data were available for: height, weight, age, lung volume, and any measure of asthma, including history of diagnosed asthma, wheeze, chronic cough, and medication as obtained by questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI percentiles, divided into quintiles per year age, were used as a measure of standardized weight.After adjusting for, sex, age, smoking and family history, BMI was a significant risk factor for wheeze ever (p = 0.000 and asthma ever (p = 0.000, diagnosed asthma (P=0.000 and current asthma (p = 0.000. There was no significant correlation between BMI and obstructive spirometry. Increased BMI was significantly associated with an increased airway resistance.Despite the fact that higher BMI is a risk factor for, wheeze ever, wheeze and dyspnea in the last 12 months, and diagnosed asthma, higher BMI is not a risk factor for obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.

  13. Effects of body mass index on sleep patterns during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile sleep patterns during pregnancy according to body mass index (BMI) and to correlate labour outcomes with both BMI and hours sleep. Data were collected from 200 postpartum women detailing sleep characteristics before and during pregnancy. A validated sleep questionnaire was employed, which comprised of questions about sleep apnoea, snoring, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication and daytime dysfunction. Descriptive analyses were used. With advancing gestation, the mean (SD) number of hours sleep per night declined: pre-pregnancy 8.1 (SD 1.4); 1st trimester 8.3 (SD 1.8); 2nd trimester 7.7 (SD 1.7) and 3rd trimester 6.7 (SD 2.2). In the 18.5-24.9 BMI group, there was a marked difference in hours sleep per night from pre-pregnancy to 1st (8.6 h, p = 0.007), 2nd (7.9 h, p = 0.023) and 3rd (6.4 h, p = 0.000) trimesters in primiparous women. In the 25-29.9 BMI group, there was a difference from pre-pregnancy to 3rd trimester (p = 0.000). These changes were not reflected in a clinically significant difference in birth weight or mode of delivery.

  14. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  15. Body mass index and risk of autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Andersson, Mikael;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A possible aetiological link between obesity and certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) has been suggested. We investigated the associations between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and 43 ADs. METHODS: 75,008 women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed during a median......-up, 2430 women (3.2%) developed a total of 2607 new-onset ADs. Risk of any autoimmune disease was increased in obese women (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.46) compared with normal weight women (18.5-≤25 kg/m2). Obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were at increased risk of sarcoidosis (HR 3.59; 95% CI, 2.31 to 5.......57) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (HR 2.67; 95% CI, 1.71 to 4.17). Risk of dermatitis herpetiformis increased by 14% (95% CI, 1% to 30%) per BMI unit. Conversely, risk of celiac disease and Raynaud's phenomenon decreased by 7% (95% CI, 1% to 13%) and 12% (95% CI, 4% to 19%) per BMI unit, respectively...

  16. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  17. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  18. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  20. Body Mass and Fat Mass in Refractory Asthma: An Observational 1 Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bafadhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ, body mass index (BMI, and fat mass index (FMI derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r=0.9, P<.001. FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r=0.3, P=.01. After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV1 change (r=−0.3, P=.03, but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  1. Energy expenditure economy induced by decrease in lean body mass in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, J C; Rigaud, D; Rozen, R; Malon, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1989-11-01

    In anorexia nervosa, the low energy input associated with the classic overactivity during the malnourished state needs a sparing of energy expended at rest and also during physical activity. Therefore, we measured energy expenditure, both at rest and during moderate bicycling exercise (30W, 6 min), in 11 adult anorectic patients (weight 35.15 +/- 4.30 kg, mean +/- s.d.) at the beginning of their treatment and again after a mean weight gain of about 8.4 kg. During the malnourished state, the resting energy expenditure (REE) was lower than that predicted according to Harris and Benedict (P less than 0.001). Although it was significantly increased after weight gain (P less than 0.05), the REE per kg of lean body mass remained unchanged after repletion. The total oxygen consumption related to exercise remained unchanged after refeeding (2114 +/- 487 ml/15 min, basal vs 2168 +/- 394 ml/15 min, repletion) (n.s.). Thus in anorexia nervosa, weight loss and malnutrition did not induce economy either in energy expended at rest per unit of lean body mass nor in the energy expended in moderate cycling activity. PMID:2627927

  2. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Petersen, Mette H; Larsen, Tine B;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...

  3. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad. PMID:26252427

  4. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  5. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  6. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one sub

  7. Estimating the size of European rabbits consumed by predators: Relationship between body mass and tooth dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Javier; Haydon, Daniel T; Palomares, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    A method for estimating body mass of European rabbits Oryctolagus cunicnlus (Linnaeus, 1758) based on tooth dimensions is proposed. Regression models identified significant relationships between the body mass of 87 rabbits and individual tooth length, breadth, product of tooth length and breadth, and whether or not the individual was infected with myxomatosis. Dimensions of 10 of 14 different teeth explained over 80% of variation in body mass, and those teeth were ...

  8. %612729 LEAN BODY MASS QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 1; LBMQTL1 [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 612729 FIELD TI %612729 LEAN ... BODY MASS QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 1; LBMQTL1 FIELD TX MAP ... bSNP rs7832552, were significantly associated with lean ... body mass (LBM; corrected p = 7.55 x 10(-8) and 7. ... n studies identified TRHR as an important gene for lean ... body mass. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 84: 418-423, 2009. F ...

  9. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  10. State Requirements and Recommendations for School-Based Screenings for Body Mass Index or Body Composition, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We present a comprehensive picture of state requirements and recommendations for body mass index (BMI) and body composition screening of children and explore the association between pediatric obesity prevalence and state screening policies. Methods Researchers completed telephone interviews with contacts at the departments of education for all 50 states and reviewed state content standards for physical education. Results Twenty states (40%) require BMI or body composition screeni...

  11. Body Mass Index and Percentage of Body Fat as Indicators for Obesity in an Adolescent Athletic Population

    OpenAIRE

    Etchison, William C.; Bloodgood, Elizabeth A.; Minton, Cholly P.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Collins, Mary Ann; Hunter, Stephen C.; Dai, Hongying

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is widely accepted in determining obesity. Skinfold thickness measurements have been commonly used to determine percentage of body fat. Hypothesis: The authors hypothesize that because BMI does not measure fat directly but relies on body weight alone, a large percentage of athletic adolescents will be misclassified as obese by BMI. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: To compare BMI and skinfold measurements as indicators for obesity in the adolescent athl...

  12. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  13. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  14. The Joint Effects of Body Mass Index and MAOA Gene Polymorphism on Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the joint effects of the body mass index and the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms. In two independent Chinese samples, we measured adolescents' depressive symptoms and body mass index and collected their DNA. The results indicated that the main effects of the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms were significant. However, the main effects of body mass index and the interaction of the MAOA gene polymorphism and body mass index on depressive symptoms were not significant. By using Chinese adolescents, this study confirmed that the MAOA gene polymorphism directly influenced adolescents' depressive symptoms. PMID:26207137

  15. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  16. Relationship between mass density, electron density, and elemental composition of body tissues for Monte Carlo simulation in radiation treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: For Monte Carlo simulation of radiotherapy, x-ray CT number of every system needs to be calibrated and converted to mass density and elemental composition. This study aims to formulate material properties of body tissues for practical two-step conversion from CT number. Methods: We used the latest compilation on body tissues that constitute reference adult male and female. We formulated the relations among mass, electron, and elemental densities into polylines to connect representative tissues, for which we took mass-weighted mean for the tissues in limited density regions. We compared the polyline functions of mass density with a bi-line for electron density and broken lines for elemental densities, which were derived from preceding studies. Results: There was generally high correlation between mass density and the other densities except of C, N, and O for light spongiosa tissues occupying 1% of body mass. The polylines fitted to the dominant tissues and were generally consistent with the bi-line an...

  17. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Pakniat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pre-pregnancy obesity is considered as a significant predictor for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Several studies have indicated conflicting associations between body mass index (BMI and pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods:Thiscohort study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in Qazvin province, Iran. BMI was measured in a total of 1376 pregnant women before their 12th week of pregnancy. The subjects were followed-up until the termination of their pregnancy and childbirth. Data collection was performed through checklists prepared by the researchers, which consisted of three parts: demographic features, obstetric history, and subsequent pregnancy outcome. For data analysis, Chi-square, ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. In addition, adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were measured. Results: The risk of preeclampsia (OR: 5.36, CI: 2.505-11.49, gestational diabetes mellitus (OR: 5.092, CI: 1.67-15.46, cesarean section (OR: 1.959, CI: 1.37-2.79, and large for gestational age (OR: 4.735, CI: 1.402-15.98 was higher in overweight (25≤BMI≤29.9 kg/m2 and obese groups (BMI>30 kg/m2, compared to women with below-normal and average weight. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy obesity is strongly associated with certain pregnancy complications and perinatal conditions. Therefore, these complications implicate the need for pre-pregnancy counseling and weight loss in this group of women.

  18. DOES BODY MASS INDEX INFLUENCE NASAL MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilselvan K, Latha R, Nirmala N, Susiganeshkumar E, Thananjayam A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory system is constantly exposed to particulate matter suspended in the inhaled air and one among the efficient mechanisms to trap and expel the particulate substances is the nasal and bronchial mucociliary clearance mechanism. This mucociliary clearance mechanism is influenced by both physiological and pathological factors that alter the functioning of the respiratory cilia and the overlying mucosal layer that traps the particulate agents. As Body mass index (BMI determines the health of a person by influencing various physiological parameters, this study has been planned to study the effect of normal and abnormal BMI (overweight and obese range on the nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC. Aim: To evaluate the effect of BMI on nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC. Materials & Methods: NMC was measured in 20 volunteers with normal BMI (18.5-22.9 Kg/m2 and 20 volunteers with BMI in overweight and obese range (23 Kg/m2 and above. The NMC time was recorded by the time the volunteers appreciated the sweet taste following the placement of ¼ of saccharin tablet (1mm x 1mm in the nostril referred as saccharin transit time (STT.Results: NMC was found to be prolonged in overweight and obese population and BMI has positive correlation with NMC as calculated by Pearson correlation with r value of 0.591 and p value 0.001 which is statistically significant. Conclusion: NMC time is prolonged in abnormal BMI referring to the impairment in the mucociliary escalator mechanism thus predisposing to disease states.

  19. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT ± indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: 30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT ± indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: 30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0× (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06–1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT ± indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  20. Correlation of Gastrophageal Reflux Disease symptoms with Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim was to find a correlation between symptoms of gastrophageal refluxdisease (GERD) and body mass index (BMI). A total of 603 patients whopresented at Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital and Surgimed Hospital Lahore withsymptoms of GERD, were included and interviewed according to a validated GERDquestionnaire. It included questions regarding GERD symptoms and theirseverity/frequency. Symptoms were defined: frequent if occurred daily;occasional if weekly and severe if they were sufficiently intense to changelife style. Height and weight were also recorded and their BMI calculated. Weused logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associationbetween the presence of each specific GI symptom and BMI. The odds ratios(OR) for a given specific symptom and 95% confidence intervals (CI) werecomputed from the coefficients in logistic regression models. The prevalenceof obesity was 25.3%, while 38.1% were overweight. There was an increase inreporting of GI symptoms in obese individuals compared to those with normalBMI who were taken as reference group. Frequent nausea, vomiting, earlysatiety, epigastric pain, heart burn, regurgitation, postprandial fullnessand dysphagia were present in 10.4, 5.6, 8.9, 17.2, 10.2, 22.1, 23.5 and21.7%, respectively, of obese subjects compared to 7.9, 1.2, 6.5, 3.5, 4.4,17.1 and 16.6% of normal BMI subjects. BMI showed a positive relationshipwith frequent vomiting (P=0.02), epigastric pain (P=0.03), regurgitation offood (P=0.02) and postprandial fullness (0.01). The majority of GERD symptomshave a greater likelihood of occurring with increasing BMI. (author)

  1. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  2. Leptin and body mass index in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Nasrin; Haghnazari, Lida; Rasolinia, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with obesity. Human and animal studies showed a direct relationship between leptin level and obesity, however, results from different studies were mixed. This study investigated the status of leptin level in PCOS and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) in a group of Iranian women with PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 women with PCOS and 36 healthy women were assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Those in the PCOS group were not prescribed any medications for 3 months prior to the study. Fasting blood samples were then collected during the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation for laboratory measurement of serum total leptin, blood glucose (fasting blood sugar), serum insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: Mean BMI of the PCOS and control groups were 26.62 ± 4.03 kg/m2 and 23.52 ± 2.52 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean total leptin in the PCO group was also 10.69 ± 5.37 ng/mL and 5.73 ± 2.36 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.0001). A significant relationship was found between leptin level and BMI as well as LH level among women with PCOS (P 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated an increased leptin level among women with PCOS that positively associated with BMI and LH. PMID:27186548

  3. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  4. Histology of two rice bodies isolated from the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Nicole; Heimann, Marianne; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Verwilghen, Denis R.V.G.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette P.; Serteyn, Didier A.

    2006-01-01

    In the human and equine species, different kinds of free floating intra-articular particles are related to certain disorders. Osteochondral fragments formed during osteochondrosis dissecans are the most common finding in the equine species, whereas in humans rice bodies due to rheumatoid arthritis are more frequent. Herein we report a third type of floating body inside the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion, in macroscopic appearance similar to articular rice bodies known in humans. As...

  5. Childhood body size and associations with prostate and endometrial cancer risks and adult body size (Ph.D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Dansk: Prostata og livmoder carcinogenese er relateret til tidlig kropsstørrelse, hvilket indikerer, at disse sygdomme kunne opstå tidligt i livet. Selvom disse sammenhænge kunne forklares via tracking, er det ikke sandsynligt, at kropsstørrelse i voksenlivet fuldstændigt forklarer disse resultat...... of later prostate and endometrial cancer, childhood may be the period of time that mechanistic investigations should focus on in their search for links between body size and the risk of these cancer forms....... barndommen en periode hvor mekanistiske undersøgelser af disse sammenhænge skal fokusere. Engelsk: Prostate and endometrial cardinogenesis is linked to early life body size, suggesting that these diseases have early origins. Even though these associations may operate through adult body size, it is not likely...... that adult size entirely explains these findings. Overweight children have a high risk of being overweightas adults, however, these associations are weak at late adulthood, when most cancer forms emerge. Taken together, these findings highlight that, in addition to childhood body size indicating a risk...

  6. A general purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element for application to rotary wing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, B. K.; Straub, F. K.; Ruzicka, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System employs the present formulation of the general-purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element, which represents the hub masses, blade tip masses, and pendulum vibration absorbers. The rigid body mass element has six degrees of freedom, and accounts for gravitational as well as dynamic effects. A consequence of deriving the element's equations from various physical principles is that, prior to the transformation which couples the rigid body mass element to the rotor blade finite element, the forces obtained for each element are fundamentally different; this is true notwithstanding the degrees-of-freedom of each element are parameterized using the same coordinates.

  7. Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

  8. Relationship of Body Mass Index with periodontal health status of green marble mine laborers in Kesariyaji, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident from literature that an increased body mass index (BMI may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. Association between BMI and periodontitis has been ascribed to unhealthy dietary patterns with insufficient micronutrients and excess sugar and fat content. The present study population has been plagued by unhealthy nutritional practices, hence the present study intended to assess the relation between BMI and periodontal status among green marble mine laborers of Kesariyaji, in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. The study sample comprised of 513 subjects aged 18-54 years, drawn using the stratified cluster sampling procedure. BMI was calculated as the ratio of the subject's body weight (in kg to the square of their height (in meters. Periodontal status was recorded using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was executed to assess the relation between body mass index and periodontitis. The dependent variable for logistic regression analysis was categorized into control group (scores 0 - 2 of the CPI and periodontitis group (scores 3 and 4 of the CPI. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was 98.2%. Caries status and mean number of teeth present deteriorated with the poor periodontal status. Subjects had an increased risk of periodontitis by 57% for each 1kg/m² increase in the body mass index, which means that a higher body mass index could be a potential risk factor for periodontitis among the adults aged 18 to 54 years. In conclusion, evaluation of the body mass index could be used in periodontal risk assessment.

  9. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A.; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F.; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M.; Landa, Blanca B.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C.; López-Miranda, José

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  10. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unjin Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. METHODS: We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. RESULTS: Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05. BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05. Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068 and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227 (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of

  11. Effect of body mass index on adenocarcinoma of gastric cardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhang; Xiang-Qian Su; Xiao-Jiang Wu; Ya-Hang Liu; Hua Wang; Xiang-Nong Zong; Yi Wang; Jia-Fu Ji

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Obesity has been proved as one of the main risk factors for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in the West.The objective of our research was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and the risk of GCA in people from North China.METHODS: A total of 300 patients who had been diagnosed as GCA and had accepted surgical operation at Beijing Cancer Hospital from 1995 to 2002 were enrolled. Data were collected from pathology materials and hospital records. Two hundred and fifty-eight healthy people who had accepted health examination at the same hospital during the same period were enrolled as controls. Height, weight and gender of them at the time of examination were also collected.Obesity was estimated by body mass index (BMI), computed as weight in kilograms per square surface area (Kg/m2).The degree of obesity was determined by using BMI≤ 18.5,24-27.9 and ≥28 (Kg/m2) as the cut-off points for underweight/normal, overweight and obesity, respectively.Associations with obesity were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). All ORs were adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: The mean level of BMI was significantly lower in the patient group than that in the control group. The ORs for obesity in age groups 30-59 and 60-79 were 1.15 (95 %CI=0.37-3.65) and 0.16 (95 % CI=0.05-0.44) for males and 0.78 (95 % CI=0.26-2.36) and 0.28 (95 % CI=0.04-2.05)for females, respectively. The ORs for underweight were 2.42 (95 % CI=0.56-10.53) and 4.68 (95 % CI=1.13-19.40)for males in age subgroups 30-59 and 60-79 and 40.7 (95 %CI=9.32-177.92) for females older than 60 yrs. BMI was significantly associated with GCA (P<0.01). Underweight people were at high risk for GCA.CONCLUSION: BMI is an independent risk factor for GCA.Underweight is positively associated with GCA.

  12. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  13. Role of body mass index on physical fitness index in two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroonrashid M.Hattiwale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is an index of weight adjusted for hieght. It is one of the useful tools for diagnosing obesity or malnutrition; however, such diagnosis should take into account a person's age, gender, fitness, and ethnicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the BMI and physical fitness index (PFI of healthy subjects consists of early part and late part of youth of north interior Karnataka, India and also to find out the influence of BMI on PFI in same subjects as such study in this area is least done by competent researchers. Twenty five young, healthy adults belonging to age group of 17-21 years were selected as Group I and fifteen young healthy adults belonging to age group of 29-40 were selected as Group II subjects in this study. The present study reveals that physical anthropometric parameters were found to be within the expected range of normal in both Group I and Group II subjects of north interior Karnataka which reflects the adequate nutrition, socioeconomic status and normal life style of these individuals. In this study, no correlation was found between BMI and PFI score and a positive correlation was observed between BMI and waist hip ratio in both the age groups

  14. Energy Cost of Walking in Boys Who Differ in Adiposity but Are Matched For Body Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Beatriz Volpe; Bar-Or, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Compared the energy cost of treadmill walking in pairs of obese and lean adolescent boys matched for total body mass. Results found no intergroup differences in the net energy cost at the two lower speeds, but obese boys expended more energy at a higher speed. Heart rate was considerably higher in obese boys. Body mass, rather than adiposity, was…

  15. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  16. Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

  17. Bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in adults: experience with 62 patients from 1974-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeljak, A; Sorli, J; Music, E; Kecelj, P

    1999-10-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with therapeutic bronchoscopy for removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in the adult. Bronchoscopy records and collection of foreign bodies in the endoscopic department were retrospectively examined. Among 37,466 bronchoscopies performed between 1974-1998, 62 (0.2%) were performed for the removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Medical history was suggestive of foreign body aspiration in 33 patients and the chest radiograph was suggestive in 10 patients. The procedure was performed with the flexible bronchoscope in 42 patients (68%), rigid bronchoscope in 4 (6%), and with both in 16 (26%) patients. Foreign bodies were found in the right bronchial tree on 42 occasions, in the left on 20 and in the trachea once. In 39 patients, inflammatory granulations were found around the foreign body. The origins of the foreign bodies included: bone fragments (n=31), vegetable (n=10), broncholith (n=8), a part of dental prosthesis (n=7), endodontic needle (n=2), a metallic (n=2), or plastic (n=1) particle, a tracheostomy tube (n=1) and a match (n=1). In one patient, 2 foreign bodies were found. The foreign bodies were successfully removed in all but 2 patients (3%). The most useful instruments for removal were alligator forceps and the wire basket. Foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial system are rare in adults. They can be successfully removed in the majority of patients under either flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:10573222

  18. Body composition analyses by air displacement plethysmography in adults ranging from normal weight to extremely obese

    OpenAIRE

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Anthony, Steven J.; Thornton, John C; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI≥40.0kg/m2), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Design and Methods Fat free mass (FFM,kg), fat mass (FM,kg) and body fat (BF,%) were analyzed with both technologies. Results All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r≥0.95,P

  19. A study on body mass index and its correlation with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chand Jain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and increases in body weight are among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index is also known as obesity index. Body mass index is a strong and independent risk factor for being diagnosed in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a high risk of type 2 diabetes in those who have a higher body mass index. The present study has been done with the objective of finding correlation between BMI and type 2 diabetes. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1638-1641

  20. A study on body mass index and its correlation with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and increases in body weight are among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index is also known as obesity index. Body mass index is a strong and independent risk factor for being diagnosed in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a high risk of type 2 diabetes in those who have a higher body mass index. The present study has been done with the objective of finding correlation ...

  1. Contribution of the BMI Level or the Body Fat Percentage Level to Bone-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    高畑,陽子; 穴井,孝信

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear which body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage level has the strongest effect on the bone mass in young women.We examined the data gathered from 233 adolescent girls in a junior high,high school,and university to ascertain the relationship between BMI or body fat percentage and bone mass. The transmission index (TI) of the calcaneus was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer. The subjects were classified into 3 groups by BMI and body fat percentage se...

  2. Body composition and bone mineral mass in normal and obese female population using dual X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that a greater percentage of body fat is associated with augmented bone mineral mass. Objective: The goal of this work was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD in g/cm2) and content (BMC in g) and soft tissue components, fat and lean mass (in g) in whole body of adult female population in Chile. Method: We studied 185 volunteers, asymptomatic, excluding those using estrogens, regular medication, tobacco (>10 cigarettes/day), excessive alcohol intake or with prior oophorectomy. They were separated in 111 pre and 74 post menopausal and according to body mass index (BMI) they were 37 women > 30 kg/m2 and 148 2. A Lunar Dual X-Ray absorptiometer was used to determine whole BMD and BMC. Results: Post menopausal women were older and smaller [p:0.0001], with higher body mass index [p:0.0007] and with lower BMD and BMC and higher fat mass than the pre menopausal group; In the whole group, women with BMI ≥ 30 (obese) were compared with normal weight observing no difference in BMD. The fat mass incremented significantly with age. Obese women > 50 years presented greater BMC than the non-obese. The percentage of fat corresponded to 48% in the obese group and to 39% in the non-obese [p<0.0001]. Conclusion: Fat mass somehow protect bone mineral loss in older normal population, probably associated to multifactorial causes including extra ovaric estrogen production. Postmenopausal women presented lower mineral content than premenopausal, as it was expected

  3. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K;

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p < 0.000001, < 0.000002 and p < 0.001, respectively). In predialysis uremic patients the plasma leptin concentration was slightly elevated as compared with controls 10...

  4. Structural brain differences and cognitive functioning related to body mass index in older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Katrin; Birdsill, Alex C; Glisky, Elizabeth L; Ryan, Lee

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of obesity on brain structures and cognition in healthy older adults. This study examined the association between body mass index (BMI), regional volume differences in gray and white matter measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cognitive functioning in older females. Participants included 95 community-dwelling older females (ages 52-92 years) who underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and high-resolution MRI scanning. Optimized voxel-based morphometry techniques were employed to determine the correlation between BMI and regional gray and white matter volumes. Volumes of significant regions were then correlated with cognitive functioning. Higher BMI was associated with decreased gray matter volumes in the left orbitofrontal, right inferior frontal, and right precentral gyri, a right posterior region including the parahippocampal, fusiform, and lingual gyri, and right cerebellar regions, as well as increased volumes of white matter in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, even when hypertension was considered. Compared to normal weight women, obese women performed poorer on tests of executive functioning. Smaller gray matter volume in the left orbitofrontal region was associated with lower executive functioning. Additionally, despite the lack of significant group differences in memory and visuomotor speed, gray and white matter volumes predicted performance on these measures. The results provide additional evidence for a negative link between increased body fat and brain functioning in older females. PMID:19998366

  5. Relationship of Heath and Carter's Second Component to Lean Body Mass and Height in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, M. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Heath and Carter approach to determining somatotypes is less accurate than is regression analysis, mainly because of the lack of association between skeletal widths and lean body mass as measured by body density and whole-body fat percentage, holding constant muscle circumference. (Author)

  6. CHANGES OF BODY MASS AND THERMOGENESIS IN APODEMUS CHEVRIERI DURING COLD EXPOSURE AND REWARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wan-long; Zheng Jia; Zhang Di; Zhang lin; Wang Zheng-kun

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR), nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while sho...

  7. Validade de peso, altura e índice de massa corporal autorreferidos na população adulta de Brasília Validity of self-reported height, weight and body mass index in the adult population of Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Marcondelli Dias Thomaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade do peso, altura e índice de massa corporal (IMC autorreferidos em adultos de Brasília e identificar os fatores associados às diferenças entre os valores medidos e autorreferidos. MÉTODOS: Em amostra por conglomerados de 250 domicílios foram aferidos peso e altura de todos os adultos residentes, após entrevista. A concordância entre os parâmetros medidos e autorreferidos foi feita por Bland & Altman (B&A. Utilizou-se análise de variância múltipla e estimou-se a sensibilidade e especificidade para o excesso de peso (IMC ? 25 kg/m2, estratificado por anos de estudo e faixa etária. RESULTADOS: As entrevistas e mensurações foram feitas em 469 indivíduos. Os resultados de B&A mostram viés (diferença dos valores medidos e autorreferidos não significativo para o peso (-0,17 kg, p = 0,1 e significativo para a altura (-1 cm, p OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of self-reported weight, height and body mass index (BMI estimates from adults in Brasilia and to identify factors associated to differences between measured and self-reported values. METHODS: In a cluster sampling 250 household´s were selected and weight and height were measured in all adults after an interview. Bland & Altman (B&A was used to determined agreement between measured and self-reported parameters. The multiple analysis of variance was used to determine the associated factors. Sensitivity and specificity were used for excess weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. RESULTS: Interviews and measurements were done in 469 individuals. B&A showed bias (difference between measured and self-reported values was not significant for weight (- 0.17 kg, p = 0.1 and significant for height (- 1 cm, p < 0.001. The limits of agreement (LA were wide: from ± 4 kg for weight and - 6 cm to 4 cm for height. BMI presented a non significant bias of - 0.06 kg/m2 (p = 0.08 and LA of - 1.5 to + 1.4 kg/m2. Men with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 overestimated weight, while overweight or obese

  8. Small differences in thyroid function may be important for body mass index and the occurrence of obesity in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Bulow, I.; Perrild, H.; Ovesen, Lars; Jorgensen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Increasing prevalence of overweight in the population is a major concern globally; and in the United States, nearly one third of adults were classified as obese at the end of the 20th century. Few data have been presented regarding an association between variations in thyroid function seen...... in the general population and body weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and body mass index (BMI) or obesity in a normal population. Design: A cross-sectional population study (The DanThyr Study) was conducted. Participants: In all, 4649...... gain during 6 months ( P = 0.17). There was an association between obesity ( BMI > 30 kg/m2) and serum TSH levels ( P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that thyroid function ( also within the normal range) could be one of several factors acting in concert to determine body weight in a...

  9. Body mass growth in common marmosets: toward a model of pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Suzette D; Power, Michael L; Ross, Corinna N; Rutherford, Julienne N

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about adult obesity in nonhuman primates, very little is known regarding development of childhood adiposity. As small monkeys that are easy to handle and have a relatively fast life history, common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) offer interesting opportunities to examine the question of fat versus lean mass growth in a nonhuman primate. This article provides an overview of our understanding of early life growth in mass in marmoset monkeys, based primarily upon our past 20 years of research, culminating in our recent findings on early life obesity in this species. Common marmosets display variance in early life growth patterns that is related to both pre- and postnatal factors and the marmoset uterine environment is exquisitely designed to reflect resources available for the gestation of multiple offspring, making them an interesting model of developmental programming. We have demonstrated that obesity can be generated in very early life in captive marmosets, with excess adiposity evident by one month of age, making this species a potentially valuable model in which to study pediatric obesity and its sequelae. Birth weight is associated with adiposity in animals vulnerable to obesity. Early life exposure to higher fat diets enhances the chances of postweaning obesity development. However, overall higher food consumption is also associated with obesity development at later ages. One unexpected finding in our studies has been the relatively high body fat percentage of neonatal (12-18%) marmosets suggesting that hypotheses regarding the uniqueness of high human neonatal adiposity merit further examination. PMID:23283661

  10. Time to restore body weight in adults and adolescents receiving cognitive behaviour therapy for anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to provide benchmark data on the duration of treatment required to restore body weight (to BMI ≥18.5 or a corresponding BMI centile) in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa treated with outpatient cognitive behaviour therapy. Methods Ninety-five participants (46 adolescents and 49 adults) were recruited from consecutive referrals to a specialist eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 40 sessions of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT...

  11. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE ELETRODOS SOBRE OS VALORES DA BIOIMPEDÂNCIA CORPORAL E NA ESTIMATIVA DE MASSA MAGRA (MM EM GATOS ADULTOS INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELECTRODES ON THE BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE VALUES AND IN THE ESTIMATION OF LEAN BODY MASS (LBM IN ADULT CATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thassila Caccia Feragi Cintra

    2010-04-01

    hypodermic needle. The different types of electrode did not interfere on the LBM estimated by specific equation, but the acupuncture needle electrode was the most stable and easily applicable. The LBM values determined with the different types of electrode were higher (p?0.05 than the LBM dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA values, probably due to the specific equation to LBM estimation used in this study.

    KEY WORDS: Body composition, feline, impedance, lean body mass.

  12. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Vanessa A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO; or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03, a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04, and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08. No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg, RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05. There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11. There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02 and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001. Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased

  13. Accuracy of Siri and Brozek equations in the percent body fat estimation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, RS; Amaral, TF; Marques, E.; Mota, J; Restivo, MT

    2010-01-01

    To identify which equation, Siri or Brozek, based on the two compartment model, provides a more accurate conversion of body density (BD) in percent body fat (%BF) in a group of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto. 60 older adults, aged 60-92 years. Skinfold thickness was used to estimate BD through Visser et al. prediction equation. The conversion of BD to %BF was done with Siri (%BF-Siri) and Bro...

  14. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... mortality and 2.4 (1.4-4.0) for COPD-related mortality. FFMI was also a predictor of overall mortality when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal BMI. Conclusions: FFMI provides information in addition to BMI and assessment of fat free mass should be considered in the routine assessment of COPD....

  15. Gender differences in vestibular modulation of body mass in altered force environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles; Fuller, Patrick; Hoban-Higgins, Tana; Fuller, Charles

    Body mass regulation is affected by the gravitational environment. Gravitational and linear acceleration information is transduced by the vestibular macular receptors. In addition, there are gender differences in the regulation of body mass and composition. This study therefore investigated the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of body mass in age-matched male and female rats. Four groups of male and female rats were established. A 1G and a 2G labyrinthectomized experimental group (Labx) and a 1G and 2G control group (Con). Labyrinthectomies were accomplished by trans-tympanic injection of sodium arsanilate to remove vestibular input. Control groups experienced the same surgical procedures, but with a saline control injection. Body mass and food and water consumption data were collected twice weekly. Baseline data were collected prior to surgery. There was a decrease in body mass following chemical labyrinthectomy in both male and female rats. A recovery period followed surgery to allow for the re-establishment of stable growth curves. Body mass of female experimental rats returned to the same levels as the female controls while male labyrinthectomized rats continued to regulate body mass at a lower level. All 2G groups were exposed to 8 weeks of 2G produced via centrifugation while all control groups remained at 1G. All 2G groups decreased body mass at the onset of centrifugation, with experimental groups having a smaller response than the controls. Males continued to maintain body mass at a lower level under 2G, while, again body mass of the females returned to levels similar to controls. At the conclusion of the eight week centrifugation period, all four female groups had a similar body mass while differences were evident between male groups. Overall, 1G males had a higher body mass than did males exposed to 2G. Within G levels, 1G controls were heavier than 1G Labx and, in contrast, at 2G Labx had a larger body mass than controls. (Supported by

  16. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  17. Analytical Treatment of the Two-Body Problem with Slowly Varying Mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. A. Rahoma; F. A. Abd El-Salam; M. K. Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    The present work is concerned with the two-body problem with varying mass in case of isotropic mass loss from both components of the binary systems. The law of mass variation used gives rise to a perturbed Keplerian problem depending on two small parameters. The problem is treated analytically in the Hamiltonian frame-work and the equations of motion are integrated using the Lie series developed and applied, separately by Delva (1984) and Hanslmeier (1984). A second order theory of the two bodies eject mass is constructed, returning the terms of the rate of change of mass up to second order in the small parameters of the problem.

  18. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  19. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity. PMID:26458903

  20. The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jung-Hee; Yim, Seo Hyoung; Yu, Su Hyeon; Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Jong Dae; Seo, Mi Hae; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se-Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods Nine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men) in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The CACS was assess...

  1. EFFECTS OF BODY MASS-BASED SQUAT TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Takai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36 or control (n = 58 groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2% and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%, muscle thickness (3.2% and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%, compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys.

  2. CT findings of the chest in adults with aspirated foreign bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R.; Shapiro-Feinberg, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba (Israel); Rozenman, J.; Apter, S.; Hertz, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Smorjik, J. [Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba (Israel)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the imaging findings in adult patients with tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration. Nineteen patients (11 men and 8 women; age range 26-89 years) with foreign-body aspiration were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients were outpatients with non-specific symptoms and ten were hospitalized with nonresolving pneumonia (n=6), after detection of a dental fragment on a chest radiograph following intubation (n=3), and there was one mentally retarded patient with empyema. An aspirated dental fragment was seen on a chest radiograph in 3 patients and an endobronchial foreign body on CT in 16, appearing as a dense structure within the bronchial lumen. The foreign body was right sided in 14 cases and left sided in 5. Three cases were missed at first interpretation. Associated findings on CT were volume loss, hyperlucency with air trapping and bronchiectasis in the affected lobe. Thirteen patients were managed with bronchoscopy, whereas 2 needed thoracotomy. In 1 patient bronchoscopy failed to detect a foreign body, indicating a false-positive CT diagnosis. One patient expelled an aspirated tablet and two refused invasive procedure. The foreign bodies found mainly were bones and dental fragments. A high clinical suspicion is necessary to diagnose a foreign body. Since CT is often used to evaluate various respiratory problems in adults, it may be the first imaging modality to discover an unsuspected aspirated foreign body in the bronchial tree. (orig.) (orig.)

  3. Stochastic and compensatory effects limit persistence of variation in body mass of young caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; Collins, W.B.; Joly, Kyle; Valkenburg, P.; Tobey, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional restriction during growth can have short- and long-term effects on fitness; however, animals inhabiting uncertain environments may exhibit adaptations to cope with variation in food availability. We examined changes in body mass in free-ranging female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) by measuring mass at birth and at 4, 11, and 16 months of age to evaluate the relative importance of seasonal nutrition to growth, the persistence of cohort-specific variation in body mass through time, and compensatory growth of individuals. Relative mean body mass of cohorts did not persist through time. Compensatory growth of smaller individuals was not observed in summer; however, small calves exhibited more positive change in body mass than did large calves. Compensation occurred during periods of nutritional restriction (winter) rather than during periods of rapid growth (summer) thus differing from the conventional view of compensatory growth. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  5. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. PMID:27085111

  6. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  7. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Antonis Polymeris; Peter D. Papapetrou; Georgios Katsoulis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as...

  8. Colonizing Bodies: Corporate Power and Biotechnology in Young Adult Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The American cultural and political landscape has seen changes on the level of seismic shifts in the past four decades, thanks in part to the two very diverse fields of big business and biotechnology. Linking the two arenas together in the literary landscape is a growing body of young adult science fiction that envisions a future shaped profoundly…

  9. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Anschutz; D. Spruijt-Metz; T. van Strien; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random o

  10. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  11. Impact of nutrition on muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, A; Bonjour, J-P; Boonen, S; Burckhardt, P; Degens, H; El Hajj Fuleihan, G; Josse, R; Lips, P; Morales Torres, J; Rizzoli, R; Yoshimura, N; Wahl, D A; Cooper, C; Dawson-Hughes, B

    2013-05-01

    Muscle strength plays an important role in determining risk for falls, which result in fractures and other injuries. While bone loss has long been recognized as an inevitable consequence of aging, sarcopenia-the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age-has recently received increased attention. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify nutritional factors that contribute to loss of muscle mass. The role of protein, acid-base balance, vitamin D/calcium, and other minor nutrients like B vitamins was reviewed. Muscle wasting is a multifactorial process involving intrinsic and extrinsic alterations. A loss of fast twitch fibers, glycation of proteins, and insulin resistance may play an important role in the loss of muscle strength and development of sarcopenia. Protein intake plays an integral part in muscle health and an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day is probably optimal for older adults. There is a moderate [corrected] relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength. Chronic ingestion of acid-producing diets appears to have a negative impact on muscle performance, and decreases in vitamin B12 and folic acid intake may also impair muscle function through their action on homocysteine. An adequate nutritional intake and an optimal dietary acid-base balance are important elements of any strategy to preserve muscle mass and strength during aging. PMID:23247327

  12. Variation in body mass and morphological characters in Macaca mulatta brevicaudus from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lyu, Mu-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Feng; Chu, Yuan-Meng-Ran; Han, Ning; Yang, Danhe; Hu, Kaijin

    2016-06-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely distributed nonhuman primate species in the world, with six subspecies distributed through China. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted studies on the body mass and morphological variation of the southernmost subspecies M. m. brevicaudus in Nanwan Nature Reserve for Rhesus Macaque, Hainan, China. We compared measurements with other populations of this species. We also investigated the inter-group body mass variation from seven provisioned free-ranging groups in our study site. Our results show that M. m. brevicaudus has the smallest body size, the smallest body mass, and the shortest tail among rhesus macaque subspecies. Its sexual dimorphism score is also among the lowest, which is similar to other southern distributed subspecies in China, but smaller than northern distributed subspecies. We found that the average body mass of female macaques is not correlated with their dominance ranks. There are significant differences in body mass among the seven adjacent study groups at the same site, suggesting the existence of inter-group competition. Average body mass of a group is better described by a quadratic function of group size than a linear one as predicted by the socio-ecological model. Am. J. Primatol. 78:679-698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848718

  13. Body-mass dependence of age-related deterioration in human muscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, D E

    1996-04-01

    Maximal anaerobic power of human muscles declines with increasing chronological age and is correlated with body mass. This study investigated whether the rate of deterioration in human muscular function among trained weight lifters is also correlated with body mass. Cross-sectional analysis of performance data of over 1,100 Masters competitors in Olympic-style weight lifting was carried out; eight body-weight classes and six age groups were represented. Two-lift total data (sum of snatch and clean and jerk lifts) were analyzed. Mean deterioration rates in the performance of athletes of widely diverse body masses were compared over the following age ranges: 42-57, 42-62, and 42-67 yr. No statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between rate of performance decline and body mass. The relationship between body mass and the magnitude of age-related variation of deterioration rate was also studied; no significant correlation was found. Previous studies have demonstrated that performance in Olympic-style weight lifting is correlated with maximal anaerobic muscular power. This leads us to suggest that the age-related deterioration rate of anaerobic power in trained subjects may not be correlated with the body mass of the individual. PMID:8926240

  14. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Foreign object ingestion and food bolus impaction are a common clinical problem. We report our clinical experiences in endoscopic management for adults, foreign body ingestion, and food bolus impaction. Method. A retrospective chart review study was conducted on adult patients with foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction between January 2011 and November 2014. Patients with incomplete medical records were excluded. Results. A total of 198 patients (226 incidents were included in the study (male/female: 1.54/1; age 57 ± 16 years. Among them, 168 foreign bodies were found successfully (74.3%. 75.6% of the foreign bodies were located in the esophagus. Food bolus impaction was most common (41.6%. 93.5% of foreign bodies in current study cohort were successfully extracted and 5 patients required surgical interventions. Comparisons between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients revealed that locations of foreign bodies in the pharynx and esophagus were the significant relevant factors (P<0.001. Shorter time taken to initiate endoscopic interventions increased detection rate (289.75 ± 465.94 versus 471.06 ± 659.93 minutes, P=0.028. Conclusion. Endoscopic management is a safe and highly effective procedure in extracting foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction. Prompt endoscopic interventions can increase the chance of successful foreign bodies’ detection.

  15. Perception and evaluation of women's bodies in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H

    2015-12-01

    Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes. PMID:25998010

  16. Physical fitness is inversely related with body mass index and body fat percentage in soccer players aged 16-18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaïdis Pantelis Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are at increased risk for the development of obesity, while sport has been suggested as an effective means against adolescent obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, (b the relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage, and (c the association between body mass index, body fat and physical fitness in soccer players aged 16-18 yr. Material and Methods: Members (n=109, aged 17.0±0.5 yr of competitive soccer clubs were examined for physical and physiological characteristics. Results: Based on international body mass index cut-off points, 18.3% (n=20 of participants were classified as overweight. Body mass index was highly correlated with body fat percentage (r=0.70, p<0.001. Body fat percentage was in inverse relationship with aerobic power (r=-0.21, p=0.029, maximal anaerobic power (r=-0.20, p=0.044 and local muscular endurance (r=-0.39, p<0.001, while corresponding values of body mass index were non-significant (r=-0.05, p=0.614; r=0.03, p=0.771; r=-0.12, p=0.220, respectively. However, both body fat percentage and body mass index were inversely related with fatigue index of Wingate anaerobic test (r=-0.26, p=0.009; r=-0.29, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusions: The strong relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage suggest the further use of body mass index in adolescent soccer players. The findings confirmed previous observations on general population about the negative effect of overweight and fatness on physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight among participants was similar with what is observed in general population. Therefore, sport participation cannot guarantee physiological body mass and body composition, and it is necessary to prescribe exercise targeting body mass and fat control.

  17. Quantitative Interpretation of Tracks for Determination of Body Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical a...

  18. Numerical simulation of tidal evolution of a viscoelastic body modelled with a mass-spring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouard, Julien; Quillen, Alice C.; Efroimsky, Michael; Giannella, David

    2016-05-01

    We use a damped mass-spring model within an N-body code to simulate the tidal evolution of the spin and orbit of a self-gravitating viscoelastic spherical body moving around a point-mass perturber. The damped mass-spring model represents a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic solid. We measure the tidal quality function (the dynamical Love number k2 divided by the tidal quality factor Q) from the numerically computed tidal drift of the semimajor axis of the binary. The shape of k2/Q, as a function of the principal tidal frequency, reproduces the kink shape predicted by Efroimsky for the tidal response of near-spherical homogeneous viscoelastic rotators. We demonstrate that we can directly simulate the tidal evolution of spinning viscoelastic objects. In future, the mass-spring N-body model can be generalized to inhomogeneous and/or non-spherical bodies.

  19. Gestational weight gain, prepregnancy body mass index related to pregnancy outcomes in KAZERUN, FARS, IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei, Mozhgan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between pregnancy outcomes and prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain among pregnant women who regularly attended health centers of Kazerun, Fars, Iran.

  20. Association between body mass index and breast density using digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Sun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    It is well known that low body mass index and younger age are associated with high breast density. Mammographic dense breast has been reported both as a cause of false-negative findings on mammography and as an indicator of increased breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between breast density and body mass index. Furthermore, we considered proper screening method of breast cancer in Korean women. The study was performed on 496 women who underwent health checkup in a university hospital. Age and body mass index were negatively associated with breast density respectively. In postmenopausal women, age and body mass index showed statistically significant association with breast density. Therefore, we should consider sensitive additional method for breast cancer screening especially in younger age and underweight women.

  1. Scaling of Body Masses and Orbital Periods in the Solar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that the sequence of sorted by value body masses of planets and largest planetoids is connected by a constant scaling exponent with the sequence of their sorted by value orbital periods.

  2. Associations between lifestyle patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Vidra, Nikoletta; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although eating and physical activity behaviors have been previously individually investigated with regard to overweight in children, multidimensional lifestyle patterns, based on these behaviors, have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifestyle patterns in relation to body mass in

  3. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Willer, Cristen J; Berndt, Sonja I;

    2010-01-01

    in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators...

  4. Containment of a diffuse ionized mass orbiting around a magnetized central body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The containment of a diffused and ionized mass orbiting around a magnetized central body is studied and the condition equation is established. Some qualitative and quantitative applications to the planetary cosmogony problems are developed. (Auth.)

  5. Three-dimensional body scanning system for apparel mass-customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bugao; Huang, Yaxiong; Yu, Weiping; Chen, Tong

    2002-07-01

    Mass customization is a new manufacturing trend in which mass-market products (e.g., apparel) are quickly modified one at a time based on customers' needs. It is an effective competing strategy for maximizing customers' satisfaction and minimizing inventory costs. An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body scanning system, body size extraction methods, and body modeling algorithms. The scanning system utilizes the multiline triangulation technique to rapidly acquire surface data on a body, and provides accurate body measurements, many of which are not available with conventional methods. Cubic B-spline curves are used to connect and smooth body curves. From the scanned data, a body form can be constructed using linear Coons surfaces. The body form can be used as a digital model of the body for 3-D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment. This scanning system and its application software enable apparel manufacturers to provide custom design services to consumers seeking personal-fit garments.

  6. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Fabio; De Lellis, Laura; Capelli, Cristian; Verzilli, Delfina; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Cama, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children. Methods 744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD): 8.4±1.4years) underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight) and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033), but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age) was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04) and waist circumference (p = 0.01) when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers. Conclusions In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain. PMID:27149670

  7. Original Research Body Mass Index is a Poor Predictor of Bedside Appendix Ultrasound Success or Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel H.F. Lam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between body mass index (BMI and success or accuracy rate of beside ultrasound (BUS for the diagnosis of appendicitis. Methods: Patients four years of age and older presenting to the emergency department with suspected appendicitis were eligible. Enrollment was by convenience sampling. After informed consent, BUS was performed by trained emergency physicians who had undergone a minimum of one-hour didactic training on the use of BUS to diagnose appendicitis. We ascertained subject outcomes by a combination of medical record review and telephone follow up. Calculated BMI for adults and children were divided into four categories (underweight, normal, overweight, obese according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifications. Results: A total of 125 subjects consented for the study, and 116 of them had adequate image data for final analysis. Seventy (60% of the subjects were children. Prevalence of appendicitis was 39%. Fifty-two (45% of the BUS studies were diagnostic (successful. Overall accuracy rate was 75%. Analysis by chi-square test or Mann-Whitney U test did not find any significant correlation between BMI category and BUS success. Similarly, there was no significant correlation between BMI category and BUS accuracy. The same conclusion was reached when children and adults were analyzed separately, or when subjects were dichotomized into underweight/ normal and overweight/ obese categories. Conclusion: BMI category alone is a poor predictor of appendix BUS success or accuracy. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4454-459.

  8. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  9. Higher Body Mass Index and Increased Prevalence of Paranasal Sinus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, Yusuke; Kato, Kiyoe; Tomita, Masuomi; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with increased prevalence of paranasal sinus disease and examined the hypothesis in Japanese adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 1350 Japanese adults aged 40 years or more who participated in a health check-up program focusing on brain diseases and metabolic syndrome. Participants were divided into quartiles of BMI levels. Paranasal sinus disease was confirmed by a head MRI scan. The association between BMI and paranasal sinus disease was examined using logistic regression analysis, which was adjusted for age, sex, waist:hip ratio, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, alcohol intake, and white blood cell count. Results Of the 1350 participants, 151 (11.2%) had paranasal sinus disease. In relation to those in the lowest quartile of BMI, the odds ratios of having the disease among those in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of BMI were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–3.48), 2.26 (95% CI, 1.20–4.23) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.14–4.51), respectively. When BMI was analysed as a continuous variable, an increase of one unit in BMI was significantly associated with increased odds of having the disease, with an OR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.01–1.16). Conclusions The present study suggests that patients with higher BMI are more likely to have paranasal sinus disease. PMID:26830349

  10. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Polymeris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r=0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI.

  11. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  12. The CROES percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: the influence of body mass index on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John D;

    2012-01-01

    In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index.......In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index....

  13. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A.; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight wats indistinguishable from...

  14. Body mass index across midlife and cognitive change in late life

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Anna K.; Hassing, Linda B.; Fransson, Eleonor I; Gatz, Margaret; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background High midlife body mass index (BMI) has been linked to a greater risk of dementia in late life, but few have studied the effect of BMI across midlife on cognitive abilities and cognitive change in a dementia free sample. Methods We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), measured twice across midlife (mean age 40 and 61 years, respectively), and cognitive change in four domains across two decades in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). Results Latent...

  15. Dietary Intake in Body Mass Index Differences in Community-Based Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Haruyuki Ito; Takako Kumagai; Midori Kimura; Shotaro Koike; Takeshi Shimizu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia reportedly have a high prevalence of obesity. One of the reasons is a poor choice of diet. The goal of this study was to clarify characteristics of the dietary intake across the strata of the body mass index (BMI) and to compare the general population and patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 51 patients with schizophrenia residing in rural areas in 2011. Anthropometric indices (of height, weight, body mass in...

  16. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-01-01

    Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of s...

  17. The Individual Association Between Food Store Types and Body Mass Index in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Capone-Newton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), detailed individual-level data on shopping location, store name, and body mass index are analyzed to assess relationships between body mass index and food store types. The analysis groups similar store brands to create unique food store types, providing finer discrimination than industrial classification or annual sales volume. Seven food store types are created: English-language major supermarket chains, discount food stores...

  18. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Peter J Makovicky

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at le...

  19. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (males, in November

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in November 2009.November is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  20. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and Spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (Males, in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in October 2009.October is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  1. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827

  2. Age-dependent nongenetic influences of birth weight and adult body fat on insulin sensitivity in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Rasmussen, Eva Lind;

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized a nongenetic influence of birth weight (BW) and twin and zygosity status on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry determined adult total and regional body composition and a quantitative equal, although independent, importance of adult body composition and BW for insulin sensitivity....

  3. Multiple contexts and adolescent body mass index: Schools, neighborhoods, and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Clare R; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Williams, David R; Subramanian, S V

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent health and behaviors are influenced by multiple contexts, including schools, neighborhoods, and social networks, yet these contexts are rarely considered simultaneously. In this study we combine social network community detection analysis and cross-classified multilevel modeling in order to compare the contributions of each of these three contexts to the total variation in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is used, and for robustness we conduct the analysis in both the core sample (122 schools; N = 14,144) and a sub-set of the sample (16 schools; N = 3335), known as the saturated sample due to its completeness of neighborhood data. After adjusting for relevant covariates, we find that the school-level and neighborhood-level contributions to the variance are modest compared with the network community-level (σ(2)school = 0.069, σ(2)neighborhood = 0.144, σ(2)network = 0.463). These results are robust to two alternative algorithms for specifying network communities, and to analysis in the saturated sample. While this study does not determine whether network effects are attributable to social influence or selection, it does highlight the salience of adolescent social networks and indicates that they may be a promising context to address in the design of health promotion programs. PMID:27322912

  4. Density and Proximity of Fast Food Restaurants and Body Mass Index Among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Seann D.; Nguyen, Nga; Cromley, Ellen K.; Strong, Larkin L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to address current gaps in the literature by examining the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) density around the home and FFR proximity to the home, respectively, with body mass index (BMI) among a large sample of African American adults from Houston, Texas. Methods. We used generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations to examine associations of FFR density at 0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 5-mile road network buffers around the home with BMI and associations of the closest FFR to the home with BMI. All models were adjusted for a range of individual-level covariates and neighborhood socioeconomic status. We additionally investigated the moderating effects of household income on these relations. Data were collected from December 2008 to July 2009. Results. FFR density was not associated with BMI in the main analyses. However, FFR density at 0.5, 1, and 2 miles was positively associated with BMI among participants with lower incomes (P ≤ .025). Closer FFR proximity was associated with higher BMI among all participants (P < .001), with stronger associations emerging among those of lower income (P < .013) relative to higher income (P < .014). Conclusions. Additional research with more diverse African American samples is needed, but results supported the potential for the fast food environment to affect BMI among African Americans, particularly among those of lower economic means. PMID:23678913

  5. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. PMID:25648448

  6. Misclassification of cardiometabolic health when using body mass index categories in NHANES 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A J; Hunger, J M; Nguyen-Cuu, J; Wells, C

    2016-05-01

    The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has proposed rules allowing employers to penalize employees up to 30% of health insurance costs if they fail to meet 'health' criteria, such as reaching a specified body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to examine cardiometabolic health misclassifications given standard BMI categories. Participants (N=40 420) were individuals aged 18+ in the nationally representative 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using the blood pressure, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance and C-reactive protein data, population frequencies/percentages of metabolically healthy versus unhealthy individuals were stratified by BMI. Nearly half of overweight individuals, 29% of obese individuals and even 16% of obesity type 2/3 individuals were metabolically healthy. Moreover, over 30% of normal weight individuals were cardiometabolically unhealthy. There was no significant race-by-BMI interaction, but there was a significant gender-by-BMI interaction, F(4,64)=3.812, P=0.008. Using BMI categories as the main indicator of health, an estimated 74 936 678 US adults are misclassified as cardiometabolically unhealthy or cardiometabolically healthy. Policymakers should consider the unintended consequences of relying solely on BMI, and researchers should seek to improve diagnostic tools related to weight and cardiometabolic health. PMID:26841729

  7. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  8. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  9. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei(Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan; Zhao; Runmei; Wang; Yunan; Wu; Mengsi; Wu; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate(BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis(Garrulax canorus).Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system.Results: Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer.Conclusions: This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  10. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo;

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  11. Cerebral serotonin transporter binding is inversely related to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, D; Frokjaer, V G; Haahr, M T;

    2010-01-01

    ) in animal models is inversely related to food intake and body weight and some effective anti-obesity agents involve blockade of the serotonin transporter (SERT). We investigated in 60 healthy volunteers body mass index (BMI) and regional cerebral SERT binding as measured with [(11)C]DASB PET. In a linear...

  12. Body piercing and tattoos: a survey on young adults' knowledge of the risks and practices in body art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caggiano Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of tattooing and piercing has expanded in western society. In order to verify young adults' knowledge of the risk and practices related to body art, an investigation was conducted among freshmen of the University of Bari in the region of Apulia, Italy. Methods The study was carried out in the Academic Year 2009-2010 through an anonymous self-administered written questionnaire distributed to 1.656 freshmen enrolled in 17 Degree Courses. Results Of the 1.598 students included in the analysis, 78.3% believe it is risky to undergo piercing/tattoo practices. AIDS was indicated as a possible infection by 60.3% of freshmen, hepatitis C by 38.2%, tetanus by 34.3% and hepatitis B by 33.7% of the sample. 28.1% of freshmen were not aware that there are also non-infectious complications. 29% of the sample had at least one piercing or tattoo (this percentage does not include earlobe piercing in women. Of those with body art, the decision to undergo body art was made autonomously in 57.9% of the participants. 56.3% of freshmen undergoing body art had taken less than a month to decide. With regard to the reasons that led the sample to undergo body art, 28.4% were unable to explain it, 23.8% answered to improve their aesthetic aspect, 18.4% to distinguish themselves from others, 12.3% for fashion; 17.1% for other reasons. 25.4% of the sample declared that they had a piercing (79.8% female vs 20.2% male; ratio M/F 1:4.0. The average age for a first piercing was 15.3 years (range 10-27; SD ± 2.9. 9.6% of the sample declared that they have a tattoo (69.9% female vs 30.1% male; ratio M/F 1:2.3. The average age for a first tattoo was 17.5 years (range 10-26, SD ± 2.4. Conclusions Most of the freshmen knew about AIDS-related risks but not other potential risks. Body art is fairly common among young adults (especially women. The decision is often not shared with the family and is undertaken mostly without a specific reason or for the

  13. Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Early Menarche of Adolescent Girls in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Sik; Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young; Choi, Joong-Myung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The object of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and early menarche in adolescent girls in Seoul. Methods A retrospective study was conducted with 144 middle school students in Seoul who provided informed consent. We measured their body composition, and used the questionnaire survey method for data collection from November to December 2008. Past elemental body composition data were collected from elementary school health records of first year...

  14. Reactivity and its association with body mass index across days on food checklists

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Midthune, Douglas; Dodd, Kevin W.; Potischman, Nancy; Subar, Amy F; Thompson, Frances E.

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing relationships between diet, body weight, and health is complicated by reporting errors in dietary intake data that are associated with body weight. The objectives of this study were to assess changes in reporting across days (reactivity) on food checklists and associations between reactivity and body mass index (BMI) using data from two cross-sectional studies: 1) the Recontacting Participants in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition study (n = 297), which was conducted in...

  15. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  16. Análise multinível das variações no índice de massa corporal entre adultos, Brasil, 2006 Análisis multinivel de las variaciones en el índice de masa corporal entre adultos, Brasil, 2006 A multilevel analysis of variations in body mass index among adults, Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    2009-11-01

    realizarlos. Las asociaciones fueron testadas en modelos lineares multinivel (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the variation in body mass index (BMI among adults according to individual factors and environmental characteristics of their city of residence. METHODS: Data generated in 2006 by the Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL - Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases system. This survey is based on telephone interviews carried out among probabilistic samples of the population of adults aged >18 years from the 26 Brazilian state capitals and Federal District. Analysis of associated factors included individual socioeconomic and demographic variables and environmental variables pertaining to the city of residence of the 49,395 VIGITEL subjects. Food intake was evaluated based on a "healthy diet" score and on "five-a-day" fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity was evaluated based on frequency and duration of exercise and presence of a place in which to perform physical activity. Associations were tested using multilevel linear models (p<0.05. RESULTS: Associations between BMI and individual explanatory variables differed according to sex. Schooling was positively associated with BMI among men, and negatively among women. Five-a-day fruit and vegetable intake was positively associated with BMI among men. In both sexes, presence of a place for physical activity was negatively associated with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Mean BMI differed substantially among Brazilian capitals; however little of this variation could be explained by presence of a place for physical activity or by socioeconomic and diet-related variables.

  17. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Pbody mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (Pbody image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image. PMID:27611689

  18. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints. PMID:22695469

  19. Body segments cooperation during forehand stroke production in young and adult tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Zuša, Anna; Lanka, Jānis; Vagin, Andrei; Cicchella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate biomechanical characteristics of the forehand stroke production in adult and young tennis players, such as body segments cooperation, separation angle (x-factor) and max speed of a racquet. Kinematic data was collected with an optoelectronic motion capture system Qualisys. Participants in the experiment were 6 mid-level adult tennis players (age 19.5 ± 2.3 years, weight 66.8 ± 7.7 kg, height 170.5 ± 7.8 cm, sports experience 13.2 ± 1.7 years) and 4 ...

  20. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  1. Metabolically active portion of fat-free mass: a cellular body composition level modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Wang, Jack; Gallagher, Dympna; Deurenberg, Paul; Chen, Zhao; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of fat-free mass (FFM) as body cell mass (BCM) is highly related to whole body resting energy expenditure. However, the magnitude of BCM/FFM may have been underestimated in previous studies. This is because Moore’s equation [BCM (kg) =0.00833 × total body potassium (in mmol)], which was used to predict BCM, underestimates BCM by ~ %. The aims of the present study were to develop a theoretical BCM/FFM model at the cellular level and to explore the influences of sex, age, and adi...

  2. Variability in the heritability of body mass index: a systematic review and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy E Elks

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for a major role of genetic factors in the determination of body mass index (BMI comes from studies of related individuals. However, heritability estimates for BMI vary widely between studies and the reasons for this remain unclear. While some variation is natural due to differences between populations and settings, study design factors may also explain some of the heterogeneity. We performed a systematic review that identified eighty-eight independent estimates of BMI heritability from twin studies (total 140,525 twins and twenty-seven estimates from family studies (42,968 family members. BMI heritability estimates from twin studies ranged from 0.47 to 0.90 (5th/50th/95th centiles: 0.58/0.75/0.87 and were generally higher than those from family studies (range: 0.24-0.81; 5th/50th/95th centiles: 0.25/0.46/0.68. Meta-regression of the results from twin studies showed that BMI heritability estimates were 0.07 (P=0.001 higher in children than in adults; estimates increased with mean age among childhood studies (+0.012 per year, P=0.002, but decreased with mean age in adult studies (-0.002 per year, P=0.002. Heritability estimates derived from AE twin models (which assume no contribution of shared environment were 0.12 higher than those from ACE models (P<0.001, whilst lower estimates were associated with self-reported versus DNA-based determination of zygosity (-0.04, P=0.02, and with self-reported versus measured BMI (-0.05, P=0.03. Together, the above factors explained 47% of the heterogeneity in estimates of BMI heritability from twin studies. In summary, while some variation in BMI heritability is expected due to population-level differences, study design factors explained nearly half the heterogeneity reported in twin studies. The genetic contribution to BMI appears to vary with age and may have a greater influence during childhood than adult life.

  3. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  4. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  5. Body Image: Relationhsip to Attachment, Body Mass Index and Dietary Practices among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sira, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self-worth and mental health across the life span. It is related to self-esteem, sexuality, family relationships and identity. Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends, not only on inner-biological, but also a psychological and socio-cultural components, the purpose of this study was to examine variables that are related to and infl...

  6. Greater effect of adiposity than physical activity or lean mass on physical function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christie L; Valentine, Rudy J; Evans, Ellen M

    2014-04-01

    Adiposity, lean mass, and physical activity (PA) are known to influence physical function in older adults, although the independent influences are not completely characterized. Older adults (N = 156, M age = 68.9 ± 6.7 yr, 85 men) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, PA by accelerometer, and physical function via timed up-and-go (UP&GO), 30-s chair stand, 6-min walk (6-min WALK), and Star-Excursion Balance Test. In the absence of percentage-body-fat by PA interactions (p > .05), main effects existed such that a higher percentage body fat was associated with poorer performance in UP&GO, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min WALK (p < .05). No significant main effects were found for PA and functional performance. Adiposity explains 4.6-11.4% in physical functional variance (p < .05). Preventing increases in adiposity with age may help older adults maintain functional independence. PMID:23799829

  7. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  8. Roles of paroxetine and corticosterone on adult mammalian ciliary body cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LAU Benson WM; YAU Suk-yu; LI Suk-yee; LEUNG Nelson; WANG Ning-li; TANG Siu-wa; LEE Tatia MC; SO Kwok-fai

    2010-01-01

    Background The neurogenesis in retina of adult mammals is generally abolished, and this renders the retina lack of regenerative capacity.Despite this, there is a small population of nestin-positive cells in the ciliary epithelium which retains neurogenic potential.The present study aimed at investigating the effect of two drugs, corticosterone and paroxetine, on the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given vehicle, corticosterone, paroxetine, or both corticosterone and paroxetine treatment for 14 days.Cell proliferation in the ciliary body was quantified using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry.Co-labelling of BrdU and stem cell marker was used to phenotype the BrdU immunoreactive cells.Results Corticosterone treatment suppressed while paroxetine treatment increased the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.Co-labelling with cell markers revealed that the BrdU positive cells also showed nestin expression but not glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).Conclusions The results illustrate that proliferation of retinal progenitor cells situated in ciliary body are subjected to regulation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and corticosteroid, which is similar to our previous findings in neurogenic regions in central nervous system (CNS).Paroxetine treatment could reverse the suppressive effect of corticosterone on ciliary body cell proliferation.This provides information for future investigation of retinal stem cell biology and potential treatment of retinal degenerative diseases.

  9. Understanding adolescent girls’ vulnerability to the impact of the mass media on body image and restrained eating behaviour: the role of media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Beth Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong body of psychological research implicating the mass media in the aetiology of adolescent girls’ negative body image and eating behaviours. The present thesis aims to extend this research by examining potential factors – namely, media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism – that make girls more vulnerable to the negative impact of the mass media. An initial meta-analysis (Chapter 3) collated the findings of existing research examining the impact of ‘body perf...

  10. [Relative validity of self-assessment of silhouette and BMI (body mass index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is unquestionable risk factor for pathogenic obesity in adulthood, high mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases and other health disorders, and also may cause the worse social and economical adaptation. Nevertheless, little is yet known about subjective perception of own body, the pathway leading to dissatisfaction of the body, development of chronic stress and behavioural disorders (anorexia, binge eating, bulimia) as a consequence. In Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene the multidimensional investigations of adolescents' health and life style were undertaken, and analysis of association between subjective image of body and real body mass was a part of these investigations. Data were obtained from 672 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending seventeen public and private schools in Warsaw. Respondents informed about their weight and high for calculation BMI. Simultaneously, they were asked, whether they assess themselves as leaner than their peers, the same or thicker. The study showed that girls in comparison with boys more accurately assessed their silhouette. The boys were more likely than girls to perceive themselves as the same as their peers, despite they had real underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that real mass of body itself account for variance of subjective perceived body in moderate degree, and there are other factors influencing body image at least as real mass of body. PMID:14755858

  11. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception) on Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional ...

  12. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children. PMID:21736824

  13. Quantitative interpretation of tracks for determination of body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and gait analysis) for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight. PMID:24204890

  14. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2013-01-22

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record--all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales. PMID:23193135

  15. Extensive white-matter changes in case of adult polyglucosan body disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive white matter signal changes were observed on T2-weighted images of a 49-year-old man. He presented with a slowly progressive gait disorder, and finally developed severe dementia. Extensive metabolic and infectious investigations failed to disclose the underlying cause during life. Autopsy revealed adult polyglucosan body disease. We discuss MRI findings likely to permit this diagnosis if combined with clinical findings and nerve or skin biopsy. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Joseph Margolick; Scott Kahan; Mitola, Andrea H.; Kavita H. Poddar; Tricia Nilles; Sanjivani Kolge; Frederick Menendez; Michelande Ridoré; Shing-Jung Wang; Jacob Chou; Eve Carlson

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein,...

  17. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  18. Body Mass Growth in Common Marmosets: Toward a Model of Pediatric Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Suzette D.; Power, Michael L.; Ross, Corinna N.; Rutherford, Julienne N.

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about adult obesity in nonhuman primates, very little is known regarding development of childhood adiposity. As small monkeys that are easy to handle and have a relatively fast life history, common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) offer interesting opportunities to examine the question of fat versus lean mass growth in a nonhuman primate. This paper provides an overview of our understanding of early life growth in mass in marmoset monkeys, based primarily upon our pas...

  19. Body image and sexuality in Indonesian adults with a disorder of sex development (DSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediati, Annastasia; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa; Birnie, Erwin; Drop, Stenvert L S; Faradz, Sultana M H; Dessens, Arianne B

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, disorders of sex development (DSDs) are not well recognized and medical care for affected individuals is scarce. Consequently, many patients live with ambiguous genitalia and appearance. We compared reported outcomes on body image, sexual functioning, and sexual orientation of 39 adults with DSDs (aged 18 to 41) and 39 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (urban, suburban, rural). Differences in gender and treatment status (treated or untreated) were also explored. On body image, adults with DSDs reported dissatisfaction with sex-related body parts. Compared to the matched controls, women with DSDs reported greater sexual distress, and men with DSDs reported lower erectile and ejaculation frequencies, and more dissatisfaction with sexual life but not with sexual desire and activities. Men with DSDs who had undergone genital surgery reported higher erectile and ejaculation frequencies than untreated men. More women than men in the DSDs group reported a nonexclusive heterosexual orientation. DSDs and infertility had a great impact on sexuality. Fear of ostracism complicated DSD acceptance. Findings were compared to those of Western studies. Based on these results, education about DSDs and their psychosexual consequences may help reduce the sexual distress and problems in adults with DSDs and improve quality of life. PMID:24144298

  20. Standardized uptake value of FDG corrected by lean body mass measured by DEXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the metabolic activity of tumor lesion sometimes becomes important to evaluate grading of malignancy, prognosis, or response to therapy. The most used measure of the metabolic activity of [18F]-Fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) in clinical PET is the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV). It relates the activity measured by the PET scan to the injected dose of FDG divided by the body mass. This approach overestimates SUV in 'heavy' patients, as the proportion of the 'low avid of FDG' fat mass increases. For this reason, different approaches are being evaluated to obtain a more accurate SUV measure. Aims: to compare the measured lean body mass by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry with the previous methods of correction, to assess the more independent to the body constitution. Material and Methods: FDG metabolism was studied to 15 patients of both sexes, age between 28 and 72 y.o., body weight 55 to 92 Kg. One hour after the IV injection of 0.0045mCi/Kg of FDG, a whole body emission and transmission scan was performed to each subject in a positron emission tomograph (QUEST 250, GE-UGM, USA) for over 1 hour. Body lean mass composition was measured the same or next day by DEXA (Lunar DPX-L, USA.) ROIs were drawn on brain, liver and muscle. SUVbw =[(corrected mCi/g of tissue) / (mCi injected / body weight in grams)] was calculated for each tissue, and then recalculated replacing body weight with the measured lean body mass (SUVlm), calculated lean mass (SUVlc), body mass index (SUVmi) and body surface area (SUVsa). Corrected SUVs were normalized to each SUVbw average for a comparable visualization of results. Results: obtained data was analyzed by linear regression and curve estimation for each case in all tissues with the SPSS statistical software. A positive correlation between SUVbw and subject weight was confirmed for the 3 tissues. In Muscle and liver there was no significant correlation. The liver scanning time was variable ( 90 to 123 minutes after injection). Relating liver

  1. Body Fat and Body-Mass Index among a Multiethnic Sample of College-Age Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Carpenter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, weight by physicians’ scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%, Caucasians (23%, Hispanics (7%, and Other (21%. Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m2; PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women. Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m2 but the second highest PBF (27.8%. Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest ( among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37% to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition.

  2. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  3. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castilho Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years. METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements: fat percentage (% fat, tissue (g, fat (g, lean mass (g, bone mineral content (g, and bone mineral density (g/cm2. In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg, height (cm, length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm, length of the lower limbs (cm and length of the upper limbs (cm. The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m², waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm². Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females.

  4. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  5. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  6. Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Shahla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between maternal first trimester Body Mass Index and pregnancy outcomes, participants were categorized into five groups based on their first trimester Body Mass Index. The data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square tests in SPSS 18. Differences were considered significant if p Results Women with an above-normal Body Mass Index had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor, and macrosomia than women with a normal Body Mass Index (controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-term delivery between the control group and other groups. Conclusion Increased BMI increases the incidence of induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor and macrosomia. The BMI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

  7. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass-loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital...

  8. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  9. Importância relativa do Índice de Massa Corporal e da circunferência abdominal na predição da hipertensão arterial Relative importance of body mass index and waist circumference for hypertension in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sarno

    2007-10-01

    importance of Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference for the determination of hypertension in adults. METHODS: Cross sectional analysis of a sample of employees (N=1,584, aged 18 to 64 years, from a private general hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection included the application of a structured questionnaire and blood pressure, weight, high, and waist circumference measurements. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure levels > 140/90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication. The relative importance of BMI and waist circumference was evaluated by calculating the attributable fraction of hypertension corresponding to each anthropometric indicator, employing both the usual cut-off points as well as cut-off points based on the observed distribution of the indicator in the population. In addition, an indicator combining simultaneously BMI and abdominal circumference values was also developed. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertension was 18.9% (26.9% in men and 12.5% in women. In men, the fraction of hypertension attributable to BMI exceeded the fraction attributable to waist circumference based on the usual cut-off points for the indicators (56% vs. 48%, respectively and also considering the quartiles of the observed distribution for these indicators (73% vs. 69%, respectively. In women, the fraction of hypertension attributable to waist circumference was slightly higher than the fraction attributable to BMI based on the usual cut off points for both indicators (44% vs. 41%, but the reverse was true when quartiles of the observed distribution were used (41% vs. 57%, respectively. In women only, the fraction of hypertension attributable to the indicator combining BMI and waist circumference (64% was higher that observed using each indicator alone. CONCLUSIONS: Both BMI and abdominal circumference were positively and independently associated with the occurrence of arterial hypertension, the influence of BMI being higher among men.

  10. Study on Obesity-related Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour (KAB) in 7 039 Adults with Different Body Mass Index%7039例不同体质指数成人肥胖相关知识、态度和行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜流霞; 陈晓荣; 陈波; 董忠; 张新卫; 李剑虹; 白雅敏; 冯雅靖; 赵文华

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解不同体质指数成人肥胖相关知识的获取以及知识、态度和行为现况.方法2010年4-6月,在北京市海淀区和顺义区,浙江省嘉兴市和桐乡市采用整群随机抽样的方法,选择35~60岁成人进行面对面问卷调查,收集人口学信息、肥胖相关知识和态度、膳食和身体活动信息,并测量了身高和体重.以体质指数≥18.5 kg/m2者为调查对象.结果7 039人中,正常体重、超重和肥胖者分别占41.7%、39.0%和19.3%,肥胖相关知识获取率分别为21.7%、25.1%和25.6%,差异有统计学意义(P=0.02).各种肥胖知识的知晓率为0.7%~43.9%,不同体质指数人群知晓率差异无统计学意义.超重和肥胖者在“肥胖对健康有影响”、“有必要控制烹调用油量”等问题持肯定态度的比例显著高于正常体重者(均P<0.05).超重和肥胖者至少每季度测量一次体重的比例(66.3%和65.9%)高于正常体重者(62.0%),食用油炸食物的比例(41.1%和47.3%)高于正常体重者(38.4%),食用油消费量超过25 g/d的比例(70.4%和79.3%)高于正常者(65.8%),业余静态时间在4 h/d以上者比例(22.6%和25.0%)高于正常体重者(19.6%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 不同体质指数成人肥胖相关知识的获取和知晓均有待提高,超重和肥胖者高脂食物消费和业余静态生活方式等行为高于正常体重者,应加强针对性健康教育和干预.%Objective To investigate the obesity-related knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) in adults with different body mass index (BMI). Methods Subjects aged 35 -60 years old from Shunyi and Haidian District in Beijing and Jiaxing and Tongxiang in Zhejiang province were recruited by cluster sampling from April to June in 2010. Face to face questionnaire interview was conducted and height and weight were measured. Subjects with BMI above 18.5 kg/m2 were used in the analysis. Results 41.7%, 39.0% and

  11. Body Dissatisfaction Mediates the Association between Body Mass Index and Risky Weight Control Behaviors among White and Native American Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Wesley C; Heil, Daniel P.; Wagner, Elise; Havens, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The developmental path leading to eating disorders among adolescent girls often proceeds from increasing body size, to increasing body dissatisfaction, to increasing ED risk. To determine whether body dissatisfaction (BD) mediates the association between body size and risky weight control behaviors, we examined data from White (n = 709) and Native American (n = 253) girls, who differ substantially in terms of average body mass and reported weight control behaviors. Measures of BD included wei...

  12. Role of adult fat body and milk gland in larval nourishment of Glossina morsitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Glossina larva is nourished entirely in utero by 'milk' composed of equal parts lipid and protein or protein-derivatives, produced by the adult female accessory gland or milk gland. A series of experiments in which activities of the female fat body and milk gland were studied separately, showed that during early pregnancy fat body synthesized and stored triglyceride and, to a lesser extent, protein, utilizing either 14C leucine or 14C palmitate in the process. Late in the pregnancy cycle, synthetic activity of the fat body was reduced whereas that of the milk gland increased, both lipid and protein synthesis being conspicuous at this time. There was apparently a switch in mid-pregnancy at which time the milk gland became the dominant organ for synthesis of nutrient substances. Results support the hypothesis that the adult fat body provides the major store, derived from blood meals ingested during early pregnancy, from which the milk gland obtains the lipid component of the milk. The gland itself synthesizes the bulk of the protein components from digested blood meals ingested during the latter half of pregnancy. Control of the processes identified, and their cyclical nature, suggests a neuroendocrine involvement. Identification of this involvement, and the underlying control mechanisms for hormone synthesis and degradation, may well lead to more specific methods of vector control acting through disruption of larval nutrition. (author)

  13. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  14. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  15. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and change in body mass index from adolescence to adulthood: results from a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Gaysina, D.; Hotopf, M; Richards, M; Colman, I.; Kuh, D.; Hardy, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Depression and anxiety have been shown to be associated with obesity and underweight, but little is known about how the relationship varies across the life course, from adolescence through adulthood. We aimed to investigate the association between adolescent- and adult-onset affective symptoms and body mass index (BMI) change from age 15 to 53 years.Method. We used data from a British birth cohort born in 1946 and followed up ever since. The relationship between affective symptom ...

  16. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Ward; Amélia Augusta de Lima Friche; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa; Fernando Augusto Proietti; César Coelho Xavier; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI), obesity, physical inactivity, and low fru...

  17. Correlation between mean body mass index in the population and prevalence of obesity in Brazilian capitals: empirical evidence for a population-based approach of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, Jackeline Christiane Pinto; Kale, Pauline Lorena; Velarde, Luis Guillermo Coca; Szklo, Moyses; Costa, Antonio José Leal

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mean body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity in adult populations living in Brazilian State capitals. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from the National Household Budget Survey conducted in July 2002 through June 2003, including a representative sample of 48.470 households. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression coefficients were estimated in order to define the relationships of m...

  18. THE NEW APPROACH TO THE WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: INTERRELATEDNESS OF INTUITIVE EATING, ADLERIAN LIFESTYLE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG LITHUANIAN FEMALE COMPUTER USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Justina Gaubė

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – to evaluate the importance of Intuitive Eating for healthy Body Mass Index (BMI) in Lithuanian female computer users sample and explore the Adlerian personality attributes that might be related to the Intuitive Eating. Design/methodology/approach – The study consisted of 724 Lithuanian woman with normal or increased BMI who completed online instruments that included the Lithuanian version of the Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Success - Adult form (BASIS-A) Inventory, Lit...

  19. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Affecting Body Mass Index of Adolescents Students Aged 10–19 in Ambo (a Rural Town) in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yetubie, Mesert; Haidar, Jemal; Kassa, Hailu; Fallon, Fleming

    2010-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used anthropometric measurement to estimate the level of nutritional indices (underweight/overweight) of adolescents and adults. Knowledge of the factors affecting BMI is essential for developing intervention programs. This study was conducted to measure BMI and determine the socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting the relative weight of adolescents living in rural districts in Ethiopia. Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study of 425...

  20. Effect of Pubertal Suppression on Linear Growth and Body Mass Index; a Two-Year Follow-Up in Girls with Genetic Short Stature and Rapidly Progressive Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Amirhakimi, Anis; Amirhakimi, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonists (GnRHa) are used to improve the final adult height in short stature children. There are limited studies which address the potential side effect of these agents: excessive weight gain. We have followed girls with rapidly progressive puberty receiving GnRHa and results were focused on the effect of treatment on final height, weight and body mass index Methods: Thirty girls between 8.5 and 12 years with short stature and predicted adult height o...