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Sample records for adult attention deficit

  1. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    ... supports that good work. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD), is a national nonprofit organization ... ADHD community. © 2016 by Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). All Rights Reserved. Press Privacy ...

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

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    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  3. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  4. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Halmøy Anne; Fasmer Ole; Eagan Tomas; Oedegaard Ketil; Haavik Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information w...

  5. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Halmøy, Anne; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Ødegaard, Ketil Joachim; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Infor...

  6. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  7. Emotion perception in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Bisch, Jeanne; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Bretscher, Johannes; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study examined identification of emotional information in facial expression, prosody, and their combination in 23 adult patients with combined attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus 31 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age, and education. We employed a stimulus set which was carefully balanced for valence as well as recognizability of the expressed emotions as determined in an independent sample of HC to avoid potential biases due to different levels of task difficulty. ADHD patients were characterized by impaired recognition of all employed categories (neutral, happiness, eroticism, disgust, anger). Basic cognitive functions as assessed by neuropsychological testing, such as sustained attention, constancy of alertness, and verbal intelligence partially explained lower recognition rates. Removal of the correlated variance by means of regression analyses did not abolish lower performance in ADHD indicating deficits in social cognition independent of these neuropsychological factors (p recognition accuracy during bimodal presentation (p information in adult ADHD. PMID:26850439

  8. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58...... matched controls from the Bergen Dichotic Listening Database (N>1500). Participants in the Bergen DL task listen to and report from conflicting consonant-vowel combinations (two different syllables presented simultaneously, one to each ear). They are asked to report the syllable they hear (non......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  9. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with migraine headaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Halmøy, Anne; Ødegaard, Ketil Joachim; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now recognized as a common disorder both in child and adult psychiatry. Adult patients with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 572) and community controls (n = 675) responded to auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including migraine, treatment history and work status. The prevalence of migraine was significantly higher in the patient group compared to the controls (28.3% vs. 19.2%, P 

  10. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. METHODS: The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. RESULTS: Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  11. Complex prospective memory in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective memory, the execution of delayed intentions in the future. METHODS: The present study compared the performance of 45 adult patients with ADHD not treated with stimulant medication with the performance of 45 matched healthy individuals on a paradigm of complex prospective memory which measured task planning, plan recall, self-initiation and execution. Furthermore, the contribution of other cognitive functions to prospective memory functioning was assessed, including measures of attention, executive functions and memory. RESULTS: A large-scale impairment could be observed in task planning abilities in patients with ADHD. Only negligible to small effects were found for plan recall, self-initiation and execution. Inhibition was identified to contribute significantly to performance on task planning. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that four cognitive components contribute to the performance of prospective memory. Impairments of prospective memory mainly emerged from deficient planning abilities in adults with ADHD. Implications on behavioral based intervention strategies are discussed.

  12. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  13. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves. PMID:26264632

  14. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  15. [Attention deficit syndrome in adults: clinical, psychophysiological features and treatment].

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    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Iakovenko, E A; Nikishena, I S; Anisimova, T I

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of examination of 34 patients, aged from 18 to 30 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (ICD-10 item F90.0). The study has shown that inattentive type of ADHD is noted in 50%, combined type in 38.3% and hyperactivity/impulsivity type in 11.7% of patients. Adult patients with ADHD also have a high level of anxiety and asthenic disorders. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of adaptol in dosage 1500 mg daily during 8 weeks in the treatment of this group of patients. The high efficacy (improvement in 64,7% of cases) and safety of adaptol confirmed by the data of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological studies.

  16. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  17. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls. PMID:26137496

  18. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults with Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuztürk, Ömer; Ekici, Mehmet; Çimen, Dilay; Ekici, Aydanur; Senturk, Erol

    2012-01-01

    AAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood illness. In some patients, this illness may persist into adulthood and an association between ADHD and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has been found in childhood. However, it is unclear how OSA and ADHD coincide in adulthood. Therefore, to explore the relationship between OSA and adult ADHD the current investigation utilized a clinically-based cross-sectional survey. Subjects consisted of 81 treatment-naïve OSA patients and...

  19. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  20. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  1. Cognitive complaints of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Executive dysfunction of adults with ADHD is often associated with poor self-awareness of problems, such as in emotional competence, emotional recognition, and driving competence. However, with regard to cognitive functioning, little is known about how adults with ADHD evaluate their own cognitive performance. A total of 77 adults with ADHD and 116 healthy adults were assessed with self-report scales measuring several aspects of cognition. Significance and effect sizes as well as the proportion of patients perceiving impairments were calculated. Further analysis was carried out on the frequency of patients perceiving various types of impairments. Adults with ADHD perceived themselves to have significant and severe dysfunction in all areas of cognition assessed as a group. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported multiple impairments in attention, memory and executive functioning. The present study demonstrated that adults with ADHD are aware of problems in cognitive functioning as shown by considerable perceived neuropsychological impairment in the majority of patients. Patients with ADHD tended to report cognitive impairments in multiple domains rather than impairments in specific functions.

  2. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Liebrenz Michael; Hof Danielle; Buadze Anna; Stohler Rudolf; Eich Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin®) and 20 mg sustai...

  3. Predicting Substance Abuse from Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adult

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    Jaber Alizadeh G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to predict substance abuse from child and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Method: To this purpose 361 students were selected via stratified random sampling from different faculties of Tabriz University and completed Canners Adult ADHD Rating scale-self report Form & Subscale Questionnaire, Wender Utah Rating Scale, Addiction Acknowledgment Scale & Mac Andrew Alcoholism-Revised Scale. Findings: To analyze the data Pearson correlation and multiple regressions (step by step were used. Results indicated that there is significant relation between addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism via child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Also, results indicated that child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism. Conclusion: According to this results these can be explained that behavioral disorders, especially ADHD have effect in tendency to drug and therefore primary treatments of behavioral disorders can prevent drug abuse.

  4. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Kurt P.; Bédard, Anne-Claude V.; Jin Fan; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Danai Dima; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functi...

  5. Possible confusion between primary hypersomnia and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, M.; Lammers, G.; Overeem, S.; Noord, I. de; Kooij, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored the possibility of diagnostic confusion between hypersomnias of central origin (narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, IH) and the adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We included 67 patients with narcolepsy, 7 with IH and 61 with ADHD. All patients completed th

  6. Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Quintero, Javier; Anand, Ernie; Casillas, Marta; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an underdiagnosed, undertreated, often comorbid, and debilitating condition in adults. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using combinations of keywords, including ADHD, adult, diagnosis, identify, prevalence, and comorbid, to find articles published between 1976 and 2013. Study Selection: In total, 99 articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of their relevance to the objective and importance to and re...

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Coles T; Coon C; DeMuro C; McLeod L; Gnanasakthy A

    2014-01-01

    Theresa Coles,1 Cheryl Coon,1 Carla DeMuro,1 Lori McLeod,1 Ari Gnanasakthy21Patient-Reported Outcomes, RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it diffic...

  8. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha eDramsdahl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImpaired cognitive control in individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. MethodsTwenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two groups. ResultsThe ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. ConclusionsThe reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD, resulting in problems with cognitive control.

  9. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... with ADHD and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre) in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two...... groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD...

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. The Latent Structure of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in an Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, David K.; Norris, Alyssa L.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that have examined the latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents have concluded that ADHD has a dimensional latent structure. In other words, ADHD symptomatology exists along a continuum and there is no natural boundary or qualitative distinction (i.e., taxon) separating youth with ADHD from those with subclinical inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems. Although adult ADHD appears to be less prevalen...

  12. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

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    Rajasree Nair

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajasree Nair, Shannon B MossBaylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland, Garland, Texas, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, treatment, stimulants, methylphenidate hydrochloride

  13. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebrenz Michael

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin® and 20 mg sustained-release methylphenidate (Ritalin SR® daily. When he was 13, his medication was changed to desipramine (Norpramin®, and both Ritalin® and Ritalin SR® were discontinued; and at age 18, when he developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms, his medication was changed to clomipramine (Anafranil® 75 mg daily. Still suffering from inattention and hyperactivity, the patient began college when he was 19, but did not receive stimulant medication until three years later, when Ritalin® 60 mg daily was re-established. During the 14 months that followed, he began to use Ritalin® excessively, both orally and rectally, in dosages from 4800-6000 mg daily. Four years ago, he was referred to our outpatient service, where his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was re-evaluated. At that point, the patient’s daily Ritalin® dosage was reduced to 200 mg daily orally, but he still experienced pronounced symptoms of, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder so this dosage was raised again. The patient’s plasma levels consistently remained between 60–187 nmol/l—within the recommended range—and signs of his obsessive-compulsive symptoms diminished with fluoxetine 40 mg daily. Finally, on a dosage of 378 mg extended-release methylphenidate (Concerta®, his symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have improved dramatically and no further use of methylphenidate has been recorded during the 24 months preceding this report. Conclusions Symptoms of

  14. Bupropion in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hamedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood, and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD for many years, and the efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We hypothesized bupropion could be effective in the treatment of adult ADHD because some theoretical and experimental evidence exists to support efficacy of this medication. Forty-two patients with a diagnosis of ADHD, according to the revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were randomized to receive 150 mg/day bupropion or placebo for a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Each patient filled the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self-Report-Screening version (CAARS before starting to take medication and in weeks 3 and 6 of the study. The mean score of the two groups receiving bupropion or placebo decreased over the 6 weeks. There was a significant difference between the two groups in CAARS score after 6 weeks. Bupropion is more effective than placebo in the treatment of adults with ADHD. Bupropion can be an alternative medication for the treatment of Adults with ADHD as its clinical efficacy was proven by other studies.

  15. Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Olsson, Erik M G; Nordenstrom, Anna; Lindholm, Torun; Nordstrom, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with poorer performance on PASAT. Using cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress, and results on PASAT as predictors in a logistic regression, 83.3% of the ADHD group and 86.9% of the controls could be classified correctly.

  16. GUTI: a measure of urgent task involvement among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, M M; Dodd, D K

    1998-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been proposed to represent adaptive responding to highly urgent situations as in primitive hunting. In the present study, 31 adults with self-reported ADHD were compared with 33 normal adults on a newly developed, 10-item measure of urgent task involvement. The internal consistency of the scale was suitable, and the group with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group, as predicted. Validation and further development of this scale is required for it to become a tool for the study of performance of highly urgent tasks. PMID:9621734

  17. Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J

    2011-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with children. No studies have directly compared the stable cognitive profile of adults. It was hypothesised that adults with ASD would show generally intact response inhibition whereas those with ADHD would show more global impairment. Participants were 24 adults aged 18-55 with high functioning ASD, 24 with ADHD, and 14 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed three standardised measures of response inhibition. Participants with ASD had generally intact response inhibition but slow response latencies, possibly due to deficits in response initiation. Adults with ADHD did not show the more global impairments hypothesised. There were some significant differences between the clinical groups across measures of inhibition. In terms of performance style, adults with ASD were slow and accurate whilst those with ADHD showed an impulsive style.

  18. Understanding deficient emotional self-regulation in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Miller, Carolyn A.; McDermott, Katie M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2014-01-01

    While symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) such as low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts, emotional impulsivity, and mood lability are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about their nature. The main aim of this post hoc study was to examine the correlates of DESR in a large sample of adults with and without ADHD. Subjects were 206 adults with ADHD and 123 adults without ADHD from a family study of ADHD. Emotional impulsivity was operationalized using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. Subjects were comprehensively assessed for psychiatric comorbidity using structured diagnostic interview methodology. We used the Quality of Life, Enjoyment, and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (QLES-Q-SF) and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) to assess quality of life and psychosocial functioning. DESR was more common among ADHD compared with non-ADHD adults, and 55 % of adults with ADHD reported extreme DESR of greater severity than 95 % of control subjects. The association of ADHD and DESR was not entirely accounted for by either current or lifetime comorbid disorders. DESR was also associated with significant functional impairment as evaluated by the QLES-Q-SF and SAS-SR, and with reduced marital status, as well as higher risk for traffic accidents and arrests. DESR adversely impacts quality of life in adults with ADHD. More work is needed to further evaluate DESR in clinical and investigational studies of subjects with ADHD. PMID:23413201

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tarko, Laura; McDermott, Katie; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Whereas the adverse impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on emotional and psychosocial well-being has been well investigated, its impact on physical health has not. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of ADHD on lifestyle behaviors and measures of adverse health risk indicators. Subjects were 100 untreated adults with ADHD and 100 adults without ADHD of similar age and sex. Unhealthy lifestyle indicators included assessments of bad health habits, frequency of visits to healthcare providers, and follow through with recommended prophylactic tests. Assessments of adverse health risk indicators included measurements of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. No differences were identified in health habits between subjects with and without ADHD, but robust differences were found in a wide range of adverse health risk indicators. ADHD is associated with an adverse impact in health risk indicators well known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:25211634

  20. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Coles,1 Cheryl Coon,1 Carla DeMuro,1 Lori McLeod,1 Ari Gnanasakthy21Patient-Reported Outcomes, RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability, its validity (construct and known-groups validity, and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1–3 and total score (sum of items 1–3 in an ADHD

  3. A multidimensional approach of impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Billieux, Joël; Bayard, Sophie

    2015-06-30

    We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and to examine the association between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. The study was conducted on 219 participants: 72 adult ADHD patients and 147 aged and gender matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires measuring the various facets of impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale), ADHD and depressive symptoms severity. Patients were also assessed for ADHD subtypes, mood disorders, and addictive behaviors. ADHD patients exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation and lower perseverance in comparison to controls. Lack of perseverance showed the strongest association with ADHD (area under curve=0.95). Patients with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes reported more frequently substance abuse problems and had higher scores on urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity than those with predominantly inattentive subtype. We report for the first time a multidimensional evaluation of impulsivity in adult ADHD patients. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale may constitute a useful screening tool for ADHD in adults and may help to further understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences between the ADHD subgroups. PMID:25895489

  4. Set shifting and working memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena; Jucksch, Viola; Gawrilow, Caterina; Huss, Michael; Hein, Jakob; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the high number of studies that investigated executive functions (EF) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a little is known about the EF performance of adults with ADHD. This study compared 37 adults with ADHD (ADHD(total)) and 32 control participants who were equivalent in age, intelligence quotient (IQ), sex, and years of education, in two domains of EF--set shifting and working memory. Additionally, the ADHD(total) group was subdivided into two subgroups: ADHD patients without comorbidity (ADHD(-), n = 19) and patients with at least one comorbid disorder (ADHD(+), n = 18). Participants fulfilled two measures for set shifting (i.e., the trail making test, TMT and a computerized card sorting test, CKV) and one measure for working memory (i.e., digit span test, DS). Compared to the control group the ADHD(total) group displayed deficits in set shifting and working memory. The differences between the groups were of medium-to-large effect size (TMT: d = 0.48; DS: d = 0.51; CKV: d = 0.74). The subgroup comparison of the ADHD(+) group and the ADHD(-) group revealed a poorer performance in general information processing speed for the ADHD(+) group. With regard to set shifting and working memory, no significant differences could be found between the two subgroups. These results suggest that the deficits of the ADHD(total) group are attributable to ADHD rather than to comorbidity. An influence of comorbidity, however, could not be completely ruled out as there was a trend of a poorer performance in the ADHD(+) group on some of the outcome measures.

  5. Unwanted intrusive and worrisome thoughts in adults with Attention Deficit\\Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Schweiger, Avraham

    2009-08-15

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficient motor and cognitive inhibitory mechanisms. The aim of this article is to examine two symptoms associated with cognitive disinhibition, namely: intrusive unwanted thoughts, worrisome thoughts and their suppression. Thirty-seven college students diagnosed with ADHD and 23 healthy college students were compared on the Distressing Thoughts Questionnaire and on the Anxious Thoughts Inventory. Results show that in comparison to the control group, participants with ADHD experienced significantly higher ratings on all intrusive thoughts scales, and three worrisome thoughts scales. Our results suggest that worrisome intrusive thoughts are an important phenotypical expression of adults with ADHD. A neurobiological explanation for this phenomenon is suggested, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19570581

  6. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  7. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Neurobiology, Diagnostic Problems and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Tuglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic, lifelong neurobeha-vioral disorder with childhood-onset, which seriously impairs the affected adults in a variety of daily living functions like academic, social and occupational functioning. Prevalence of ADHD declines with age in the general population. The approximate prevalence rates of ADHD is 8% in childhood, 6% in adolescence and 4% in adulthood. The unclear validity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for this condition can lead to reduced prevalence rates by underestimation of the prevalence of adult ADHD. The disorder is characterized by behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity across the life cycle and is associated with considerable morbidity and disability. Although its etiology remains unclear, considerable evidence documents its strong neurobiological and genetic underpinnings. ADHD is associated with a high percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders in every lifespan. In adulthood between 65-89% of all patients with ADHD suffer from one or more additional psychiatric disorders, above all mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and personality disorders, which complicate the clinical picture in terms of diagnostics, treatment and outcome issues. The high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, the resulting deficits in social competences and risky health behavior that often go along with a diminished life quality must be stressed in these patients. Preventive and therapeutic interventions should be taken at an early stage to counteract the possible negative influences of ADHD on functioning and relationships. In this paper, we reviewed the historical aspects, epidemiology, neurobiology, comorbidity, diagnostic difficulties and clinical features of adult ADHD.

  8. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  9. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. ...

  10. Depression in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Mediating Role of Cognitive-Behavioral Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Knouse, Laura E.; Zvorsky, Ivori; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depressive disorders but little is known about the potential cognitive and behavioral mechanisms of risk that could shape treatment. This study evaluated the degree to which cognitive-behavioral constructs associated with depression and its treatment—dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance—accounted for variance in depressive symptoms and disorder in adults with ADHD. 77 adults clinically ...

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Theresa; Coon, Cheryl; DeMuro, Carla; McLeod, Lori; Gnanasakthy, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability), its validity (construct and known-groups validity), and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1-3) and total score (sum of items 1-3) in an ADHD population. In addition, the evaluation provides evidence for a three-point preliminary responder definition for the SDS and further evidence of its responsiveness in adults with ADHD. Altogether, the results indicate that the SDS is a

  12. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population. METHODS: We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders. RESULTS: ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  13. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  14. Genome-wide copy number variation analysis in adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep-Antoni; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Casas, Miguel; Garcia-Martínez, Iris; Bosch, Rosa; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montse; Palomar, Gloria; Vidal, Raquel; Coll-Tané, Mireia; Bayés, Mònica; Cormand, Bru; Ribasés, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a worldwide prevalence of 5-6% in children and 4.4% in adults. Recently, copy number variations (CNVs) have been implicated in different neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD. Based on these previous reports that focused on pediatric cohorts, we hypothesize that structural variants may also contribute to adult ADHD and that such genomic variation may be enriched for CNVs previously identified in children with ADHD. To address this issue, we performed for the first time a whole-genome CNV study on 400 adults with ADHD and 526 screened controls. In agreement with recent reports in children with ADHD or in other psychiatric disorders, we identified a significant excess of insertions in ADHD patients compared to controls. The overall rate of CNVs >100 kb was 1.33 times higher in ADHD subjects than in controls (p = 2.4e-03), an observation mainly driven by a higher proportion of small events (from 100 kb to 500 kb; 1.35-fold; p = 1.3e-03). These differences remained significant when we considered CNVs that overlap genes or when structural variants spanning candidate genes for psychiatric disorders were evaluated, with duplications showing the greatest difference (1.41-fold, p = 0.024 and 2.85-fold, p = 8.5e-03, respectively). However, no significant enrichment was detected in our ADHD cohort for childhood ADHD-associated CNVs, CNVs previously identified in at least one ADHD patient or CNVs previously implicated in autism or schizophrenia. In conclusion, our study provides tentative evidence for a higher rate of CNVs in adults with ADHD compared to controls and contributes to the growing list of structural variants potentially involved in the etiology of the disease.

  15. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study of treatment-naive adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Chaim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hiperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent disorder, but its neuroanatomical circuitry is still relatively understudied, especially in the adult population. The few morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies available to date have found heterogeneous results. This may be at least partly attributable to some well-known technical limitations of the conventional voxel-based methods usually employed to analyze such neuroimaging data. Moreover, there is a great paucity of imaging studies of adult ADHD to date that have excluded patients with history of use of stimulant medication. METHODS: A newly validated method named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA was applied to multimodal (structural and DTI MRI data acquired from 22 treatment-naïve ADHD adults and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC. RESULTS: Regarding DTI data, we found higher fractional anisotropy in ADHD relative to HC encompassing the white matter (WM of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal left gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus; reductions in trace (a measure of diffusivity in ADHD relative to HC were also found in fronto-striatal-parieto-occipital circuits, including the right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral cingulate gyrus, as well as the left body and right splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi. Volumetric abnormalities in ADHD subjects were found only at a trend level of significance, including reduced gray matter (GM in the right angular gyrus, and increased GM in the right supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adult ADHD is associated

  16. Delayed Circadian Rhythm in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest circadian rhythm disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep-onset insomnia (SOI). We investigate here sleep and rhythms in activity and melatonin in adults with ADHD. Methods: Sleep logs and actigraphy data were collec

  17. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Konofal, E.; Dejonckheere, J.; Challis, B.H.; Medori, R.

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety

  18. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A diffusion-tensor imaging study of the corpus callosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the microstructure and the macrostructure of the corpus callosum (CC) in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-nine participants with ADHD and 37 controls were included...

  19. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, C.; Fayyad, J.; de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R.C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Demytteneare, K.; De Girolamo, G.; Haro, J.M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E.G.; Lepine, J.P.; Mora, M.E.M.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sampson, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  20. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, Carmen; Fayyad, John; de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demytteneare, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  1. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  2. Health state utilities associated with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matza LS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Louis S Matza,1 Mary K Devine,1 Virginia Sutton Haynes,2 Evan W Davies,3 Jacqueline M Kostelec,1 Foula Televantou,4 Jessica B Jordan11Outcomes Research, Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Outcomes Research, Evidera, London, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UKObjectives: With growing awareness of the importance of adult attention-deficit/­hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treatment, cost-effectiveness analyses, including utilities, are needed to compare the value of treatment options. Although utilities have been reported for childhood ADHD, little is known about utilities representing adult ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with adult ADHD.Methods: Health-state descriptions of adult ADHD were drafted based on literature review, interviews with four clinicians, and clinical trial data. Health states were revised based on a pilot study with 26 participants. Final health states were rated in time trade-off interviews with general population respondents in London and Edinburgh, UK.Results: A total of 158 participants completed interviews (mean age =47.0 years; 49.4% female; Edinburgh =80 participants. Mean (standard deviation [SD] utilities were 0.82 (0.17, 0.68 (0.28, and 0.67 (0.28 for health states describing treatment responders (health state A, nonresponders (health state B, and untreated patients (health state C, respectively. Most participants rated health state A as preferable to B (n=92; 58.2% and C (n=97; 61.4%. The majority rated B and C as equal (n=125; 79.1%. Paired Student’s t-tests found that A had a significantly greater mean utility than B (t=10.0; P<0.0001 and C (t=10.2; P<0.0001.Conclusion: The current study provides utilities that may be used in cost–utility models of treatment for adult ADHD. Results reflected clear differences between health states ­representing treatment responders and nonresponders

  3. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt P. Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  4. Association between Obesity and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a German Community-Based Sample

    OpenAIRE

    De Zwaan, Martina; Gruß, Barbara; Müller, Astrid; Philipsen, Alexandra; Graap, Holmer; Martin, Alexandra; Glaesmer, Heide; Hilbert, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity in a representative community based sample of the German population. Method: Participants were 1,633 German residents (53.6% female) aged 18–64 years. A retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD and a self-report assessment of adult ADHD were administered for diagnosis of adult ADHD. In addition, binge eating and purging behaviors as well as depression a...

  5. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Holland, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a reported excess of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with intellectual disability, it has been argued that ADHD symptoms have been under diagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals with intellectual disability. Materials and methods: Published studies focussing on the level of ADHD…

  6. Priming Sentence Production in Adolescents and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyper-Activity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda; Nigg, Joel T.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit a prominent role for problems in response inhibition (Nigg 2006). A key avenue for impulsivity in children with ADHD is inappropriate language expression. In this study, we sought to determine whether poor inhibitory control affects language production in adolescents and…

  7. Effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on sleep in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisler Richard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep problems are common in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX on sleep quality in adults with ADHD. Methods This 4-week, phase 3, double-blind, forced-dose escalation study of adults aged 18 to 55 years with ADHD randomized participants to receive placebo (n = 62, or 30 (n = 119, 50 (n = 117, or 70 (n = 122 mg/d LDX, taken once a day in the morning. The self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was administered at baseline and at week 4 to assess sleep quality. The PSQI global score assesses 7 sleep components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and daytime dysfunction each scored from 0 (no difficulty to 3 (severe difficulty. Results The mean baseline PSQI global score was 5.8 for LDX and 6.3 for placebo (P = .19 indicating poor overall sleep quality. At endpoint, least squares (LS mean change from baseline was -0.8 for LDX vs -0.5 for placebo (P = .33. The daytime functioning component showed significant improvement in LS mean change at endpoint for LDX compared with placebo (LDX -0.4 vs placebo 0.0, P = .0001. LS mean changes for the other 6 PSQI components did not significantly differ from placebo. Sleep-related treatment-emergent adverse events with an incidence ≥2% in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively, were insomnia (19.3% and 4.8%, initial insomnia (5.0% and 3.2%, middle insomnia (3.6% and 0%, sleep disorder (0.6% and 3.2%, somnolence (0.3% and 3.2%, and fatigue (4.7% and 4.8%, and were generally mild or moderate in severity. Conclusion For most subjects, LDX was not associated with an overall worsening of sleep quality and significantly improved daytime functioning in adults with ADHD. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00334880

  8. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p < 0.001) and all personality traits (range, p = 0.03 to p = 0.001) improved, but there was almost no correlation between changes on these 2 measures. Conversely, of 11 Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  9. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults.

  10. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults. PMID:25397767

  11. Baseline Omega-3 Index Correlates with Aggressive and Attention Deficit Disorder Behaviours in Adult Prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Barbara J.; Mitchell K Byrne; Carole Collier; Natalie Parletta; Donna Crawford; Winberg, Pia C.; David Webster; Karen Chapman; Gayle Thomas; Jean Dally; Marijka Batterham; Ian Farquhar; Anne-Marie Martin; Luke Grant

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments. Objective To det...

  12. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gray; Steven Woltering; Karizma Mawjee; Rosemary Tannock

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondar...

  13. EEG markers of reduced visual short-term memory capacity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Kilian, Beate; Hennig-Fast, Kristina;

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists frequently into adulthood. The disease is associated with difficulties in many cognitive tasks, which are assumed to be caused by neurobiologically-based basal dysfunctions. A reduction in visual working memory storage capacity has recently...... been claimed a testable endophenotype of ADHD. This study aimed at identifying brain abnormalities underlying this deficit by combining parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology. We compared unmedicated adult ADHD patients and demographically matched, healthy controls. We found reduced storage...... capacity in the patient group and delineated neural correlates of the deficit by analyzing ERP amplitudes according to (1) differences between patients and controls and (2) individual’s performance level of storage capacity K: First, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) was higher for individuals...

  14. Pharmacogenetics of response to methylphenidate in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Verônica; Rovaris, Diego L; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Rohde, Luis A; Bau, Claiton H D

    2013-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line option in the psychopharmacologic treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there is a considerable proportion of adult patients who do not respond to treatment with MPH or discontinue drug therapy. Since effects of genetic variants in the response to MPH treatment might explain these negative outcomes, we conducted an electronic systematic search of MEDLINE-indexed literature looking for articles containing information about pharmacogenetics of ADHD in adults published until January, 2012. The keywords used were 'ADHD', 'Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder' and 'gene' in combination with methylphenidate, amphetamine or atomoxetine. Only 5 pharmacogenetic studies on adult ADHD met inclusion criteria. The results evidenced that most findings obtained so far are negative, and all studies focused on MPH response. There is only one positive result, for a polymorphism at the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) gene. The current state of the art in adult ADHD implies that pharmacogenetic tests are far from routine clinical practice. However, the integration of these studies with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests may help to understand mechanisms of drug action and the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  15. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  16. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  17. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients. PMID:26825377

  18. Driving impairments in teens and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A

    2004-06-01

    Available research provides compelling evidence that ADHD is associated with significantly increased risks for various adverse outcomes while driving, including increased traffic citations (particularly speeding), motor vehicle crashes for which the driver is at fault, repeated crash occurrences,and more severe crashes as determined from dollar damage and likelihood of bodily injuries from the crash. Not surprisingly, teens and adults with ADHD are more likely to have their licenses suspended and even fully revoked. Research further suggests that these driving risks cannot be accounted for by the comorbid disorders likely to be associated with ADHD, such as ODD, conduct disorder (CD), depression, or anxiety, or by lower than normal levels of intelligence. Recent attempts to study the processes or mechanisms involved in driving in adults with ADHD offer some explanation of how the disorder conveys such increased risks. Driving can be conceptualized usefully as involving at least three or more dimensions or levels, including basic cognitive abilities necessary for driving (operational), actual skills for maneuvering the vehicle in traffic (tactical), and the more executive, goal-directed aspects of driving(strategic). The findings of studies indicate that ADHD interferes with the basic operational components of driving by means of the impairments it produces in attention, resistance to distraction, response inhibition, slower and more variable reaction time, and the capacity to follow rules that may compete with ongoing sensory information. Accumulating evidence also points to a problem in the tactical level of driving, such that those with ADHDrate themselves and are rated by others as employing less safe driving habits during their normal operation of a vehicle than are adults in community control groups. Although this has been more elusive to demonstrate through the use of simple laboratory-based driving simulators. more modern virtual reality driving platforms

  19. Sex-specific attentional deficits in adult vitamin D deficient BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Natalie J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment. However, there is a paucity of preclinical data showing that vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor for impaired cognitive processing. The aim of this study was to assess two cognitive tasks, the 5 choice-serial reaction task and the 5 choice-continuous performance task in adult vitamin D (AVD) deficient BALB/c mice. Ten-week old male and female BALB/c mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 10 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We found sex-dependent impairments in attentional processing and showed that male AVD-deficient mice were less accurate, took longer to respond when making a correct choice and were more likely to make an omission, without a change in the motivation to collect reward. By contrast, female AVD-deficient mice had a reduced latency to collect reward, but no changes on any other measures compared to controls. Therefore, we have shown that in otherwise healthy adult mice, vitamin D deficiency led to mild cognitive impairment in male but not female mice and therefore this model will be useful for future investigations into unravelling the mechanism by which vitamin D affects the adult brain and cognitive function. PMID:26836278

  20. Supplementary guanfacine hydrochloride as a treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A double blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Max E; Saal, Jaime; Young, Benjamin; Young, Joel L

    2016-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an extended release guanfacine hydrochloride supplement relative to a placebo supplement in adults (19-62) with ADHD and a sub-optimal response to a stimulant-only treatment program. The study's primary outcome measures were the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression - Severity. Twenty-six adults who met criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sub-optimal functioning were randomly assigned to supplement their existing psychostimulant treatment regimen with either a titrated dose (1-6mg) of extended release guanfacine hydrochloride or a matching placebo for a 10-week trial. The data were analyzed with standard mixed model analysis of variance procedures, and participants in both the investigational agent group and the placebo group showed statistically significant improvement in their symptoms and functioning over the course of the trial. The treatments did not differ in terms of their efficacy, safety, or tolerability. Although these results do suggest that both treatments were associated with clinical improvement, the possible impacts of socially desirable responding and regression to the mean on these results are discussed.

  1. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification

  2. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xunheng [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiao, Yun, E-mail: yunjiao@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification.

  3. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; Mcgough, James,; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  4. A population-based study of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and associated impairment in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male. Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (p<0.01 with employment, financial stress, relationship quality, health and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life.

  5. Selegiline in Comparison with Methylphenidate in Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit yperactivity Disorder: A Double-blind, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: "n "nAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in treatment of ADHD for many years and the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We tried a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Selegiline, as there are some theoretical and experimental evidences for the efficacy of this medication . "nMethod: Forty patients were randomized to receive Selegiline or methylphenidate in an equal ratio for an 8-week double-blind clinical trial. Each patient filled the CAARS self report screening form before starting to take the medication and in weeks 2-4-6 and 8. Patients were also assessed by a psychiatrist at the baseline and on each 14 days up to the 8 weeks period. "nResults: The mean score of the two groups- receiving Selegiline or methylphenidate- decreased over the 8 weeks. There was not a significant difference between the two groups. The most prevalent side-effect of methylphenidate was decrease of appetite and for Selegiline change in sleep pattern . "nConclusion: Selegiline is as effective as methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Selegiline can be an alternative medication for the treatment of adult ADHD If its clinical efficacy is proven by other larger studies .

  6. Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adults in obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altfas Jules R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bariatric patients showing poor "focus" during treatment more often failed to lose weight or maintain reduced weight. Evaluation of these patients identified a number having attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, evidently a potent factor limiting successful weight control. After searches found no published reports describing comorbid ADHD and obesity, this report was conceived to begin exploring the prevalence and characteristics of these patients. Method Clinical records of 215 patients receiving obesity treatment during 2000 were reviewed. Data collected and analyzed included age, sex, beginning and ending body mass index (BMI, number of clinic visits, months of treatment, and diagnostic category (ADHD, some ADHD symptoms, non-ADHD. DSM-IV criteria were used, except age of onset was modified to Results Whole sample ADHD prevalence was 27.4% (CI:21.1,32.9, but 42.6% (CI: 36.3% to 48.9% for BMI >= 40. Mean weight loss among obese patients with ADHD (OB+ADHD was 2.6 BMI (kg/m2 vs. 4.0 for non-ADHD (NAD (p = 40, OB+ADHD had BMI loss 2.9 vs. 7.0 (NAD (p Conclusions ADHD was highly prevalent among obese patients and highest in those with extreme obesity. Comorbid obesity and ADHD symptoms rendered treatment less successful compared to NAD counterparts. Reasons for the comorbidity are unknown, but may involve brain dopamine or insulin receptor activity. If replicated in further studies, these findings have important implications for treatment of severe and extreme obesity.

  7. Dissociable patterns in the control of emotional interference in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and in adults with alcohol dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Marx

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To effectively manage current task demands, attention must be focused on task-relevant information while task-irrelevant information is rejected. However, in everyday life, people must cope with emotions, which may interfere with actual task demands and may challenge functional attention allocation. Control of interfering emotions has been associated with the proper functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. As DLPFC dysfunction is evident in subjects with ADHD and in subjects with alcohol dependence, the current study sought to examine the bottom-up effect of emotional distraction on task performance in both disorders. METHODS: Male adults with ADHD (n = 22, male adults with alcohol dependence (n = 16, and healthy controls (n = 30 performed an emotional working memory task (n-back task. In the background of the task, we presented neutral and negative stimuli that varied in emotional saliency. RESULTS: In both clinical groups, a working memory deficit was evident. Moreover, both clinical groups displayed deficient emotional interference control. The n-back performance of the controls was not affected by the emotional distractors, whereas that of subjects with ADHD deteriorated in the presence of low salient distractors, and that of alcoholics did not deteriorate until high salient distractors were presented. Subsequent to task performance, subjects with ADHD accurately recognized more distractors than did alcoholics and controls. In alcoholics, picture recognition accuracy was negatively associated with n-back performance, suggesting a functional association between the ability to suppress emotional distractors and successful task performance. In subjects with ADHD, performance accuracy was negatively associated with ADHD inattentive symptoms, suggesting that inattention contributes to the performance deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with ADHD and alcoholics both display an emotional interference control

  8. Efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in 45 adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.J.; Burger, H.; Boonstra, A.M.; Linden, P.D. van der; Kalma, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking in Europe. This study was undertaken to report on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in an adult out-patient population with ADHD, and to compare results

  9. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of three fixed dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medori, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Trott, G.E.; Lee, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and the need to evaluate efficacy and safety of methylphenidate treatment in these patients. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 401 adults with ADHD (218 men; 18-63 years) were randomly assigne

  10. Whole-brain structural topology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Preserved global – disturbed local network organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Sidlauskaite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies demonstrate altered organization of functional brain networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, the structural underpinnings of these functional disturbances are poorly understood. In the current study, we applied a graph-theoretic approach to whole-brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the organization of structural brain networks in adults with ADHD and unaffected controls using deterministic fiber tractography. Groups did not differ in terms of global network metrics — small-worldness, global efficiency and clustering coefficient. However, there were widespread ADHD-related effects at the nodal level in relation to local efficiency and clustering. The affected nodes included superior occipital, supramarginal, superior temporal, inferior parietal, angular and inferior frontal gyri, as well as putamen, thalamus and posterior cerebellum. Lower local efficiency of left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri was associated with higher ADHD symptom scores. Also greater local clustering of right putamen and lower local clustering of left supramarginal gyrus correlated with ADHD symptom severity. Overall, the findings indicate preserved global but altered local network organization in adult ADHD implicating regions underpinning putative ADHD-related neuropsychological deficits.

  11. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on intrinsic functional brain networks in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Jinhui; Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Peng; Sun, Li; Cai, Taisheng; Wang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious psychological treatment for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the neural processes underlying the benefits of CBT are not well understood. This study aims to unravel psychosocial mechanisms for treatment ADHD by exploring the effects of CBT on functional brain networks. Ten adults with ADHD were enrolled and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired before and after a 12-session CBT. Twelve age- and gender-matched healthy controls were also scanned. We constructed whole-brain functional connectivity networks using graph-theory approaches and further computed the changes of regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) between pre- and post-CBT in ADHD for measuring the effects of CBT. The results showed that rFCS was increased in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum, the brain regions that were most often affected by medication, in adults with ADHD following CBT. Furthermore, the enhanced functional coupling between bilateral superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the improvement of ADHD symptoms following CBT. Together, these findings provide evidence that CBT can selectively modulate the intrinsic network connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum and suggest that the CBT may share common brain mechanism with the pharmacology in adults with ADHD.

  12. A candidate gene investigation of methylphenidate response in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients: results from a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya Kvarme; Fredriksen, Mats; Zayats, Tetyana; Haavik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. Persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood is common. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant compound that may be effective against ADHD symptoms in children and adults. However, MPH does not exert satisfactory effect in all patients. Several genetic variants have been proposed to predict either treatment response or adverse effects of stimulants. We conducted a literature search to identify previously reported variants associated with MPH response and additional variants that were biologically plausible candidates for MPH response. The response to MPH was assessed by the treating clinicians in 564 adult ADHD patients and 20 genetic variants were successfully genotyped. Logistic regression was used to test for association between these polymorphisms and treatment response. Nominal associations (p nominal significance level (OR 0.560, 95 % CI 0.329-0.953, p = 0.033). However, this finding was not affirmed in the meta-analysis. No genetic variants revealed significant associations after correction for multiple testing (p < 0.00125). Our results suggest that none of the studied variants are strong predictors of MPH response in adult ADHD as judged by clinician ratings, potentially except for rs1800544. Consequently, pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical care is not supported by our analyses. Further studies on the pharmacogenetics of adult ADHD are warranted. PMID:27091191

  13. Efficacy of atomoxetine in adult attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a drug-placebo response curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimherr Fred

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of atomoxetine, a new and highly selective inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter, in reducing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among adults by using drug-placebo response curve methods. Methods We analyzed data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design studies of adult patients (Study I, N = 280; Study II, N = 256 with DSM-IV-defined ADHD who were recruited by referral and advertising. Subjects were randomized to 10 weeks of treatment with atomoxetine or placebo, and were assessed with the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales and the Clinical Global Impression of ADHD Severity scale before and after treatment. Results Those treated with atomoxetine were more likely to show a reduction in ADHD symptoms than those receiving placebo. Across all measures, the likelihood that an atomoxetine-treated subject improved to a greater extent than a placebo-treated subject was approximately 0.60. Furthermore, atomoxetine prevented worsening of most symptom classes. Conclusion From these findings, we conclude that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for ADHD among adults when evaluated using several criteria.

  14. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  15. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan K Buitelaar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan K Buitelaar1, J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga2, Miguel Casas2, J J Sandra Kooij3, Asko Niemelä4, Eric Konofal5, Joachim Dejonckheere6, Bradford H Challis7, Rossella Medori81Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center, St. Radboud and Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron and Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3PsyQ, Psycho-Medical Programs, Program Adult ADHD, Den Haag, The Netherlands; 4Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Oulu, Finland; 5Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, France; 6SGS Life Sciences, Mechelen, Belgium; 7Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USA; 8Janssen-Cilag EMEA, Neuss, GermanyAbstract: The osmotic release oral system (OROS methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety and tolerability of OROS methylphenidate in a flexible dose regimen (18–90 mg daily for the treatment of adults diagnosed with ADHD (N = 370. Medication was adjusted to optimize efficacy and tolerability for each patient. Adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory parameters were assessed. Most patients (337; 91% completed the seven-week treatment and the final dispensed dose was 18 mg (8%, 36 mg (29%, 54 mg (34%, 72 mg (20%, or 90 mg (9%. Adverse events were reported in 253 (68% patients and most were mild or moderate in severity; most frequently reported included headache (17%, decreased appetite (13%, and insomnia (11%. Adverse events were rarely serious (<1%; 2/370. Small mean increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (both 2.4 mmHg and pulse (3.2 bpm were observed. Body weight decreased

  16. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Roos, M.; Minova, A.; Eijken, E.J.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Kenemans, J.L.; Verbaten, M.N.; Olivier, B.; Volkerts, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial e

  17. A nationwide study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug use among adults in Iceland 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirs, Drifa Palin; Pottegård, Anton; Halldórsson, Matthías; Zoëga, Helga

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we leveraged on complete nationwide prescription data for the total adult population in Iceland (N = 227,000) to examine how attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs have been used over the past decade. In particular, we aimed to describe the prevalence, incidence and duration of use of stimulants and atomoxetine, among adults (≥19 years) in Iceland, with regard to sex, age, type of drug and specialty of the prescribing physician. Our results indicate that the 1-year period prevalence of ADHD drug use rose, from 2.9 to 12.2 per 1000 adults between 2003 and 2012, with the most pronounced increases among young adults (19-24 years). The annual incidence increased 3 times, similarly among men and women. Extended-release methylphenidate formulations were the most commonly used ADHD drugs. Specialists in psychiatry initiated treatment in 79% of new adult ADHD drug users. The proportion of users still receiving treatment after 1 year varied from 43.0% (19-24 years), 57.2% (25-49 years) to 47.5% (50+ years). After 3 years, the corresponding proportions still on treatment were 12.4%, 24.5% and 24.3%, and after 5 years 7.9%, 15.9% and 16.8%. These results of increasing ADHD drug use and short treatment durations call for further investigation of the quality of treatment regimens for adults with ADHD and better follow-up of patients treated with ADHD drugs.

  18. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, C; Faraone, S V; Scassellati, C

    2016-07-01

    The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug. Finally some peripheral biomarkers were identified in ADHD adult patients. We believe this work is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies, pharmacogenetic and biochemical (metabolomics) studies performed in adults with ADHD to identify potential genetic, predictive and peripheral markers linked specifically to ADHD in adults. After screening 5129 records, we selected 87 studies of which 61 were available for candidate gene association studies, 5 for pharmacogenetics and 21 for biochemical studies. Of these, 15 genetic, 2 pharmacogenetic and 6 biochemical studies were included in the meta-analyses. We obtained an association between adult ADHD and the gene BAIAP2 (brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), even after Bonferroni correction, with any heterogeneity in effect size and no publication bias. If we did not apply the Bonferroni correction, a trend was found for the carriers allele 9R of dopamine transporter SLC6A3 40 bp variable tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) and for 6/6 homozygotes of SLC6A3 30 bp VNTR. Negative results were obtained for the 9-6 haplotype, the dopamine receptor DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and the enzyme COMT SNP rs4680. Concerning pharmacogenetic studies, no association was found for the SLC6A3 40 bp and response to MPH with only two studies selected. For the metabolomics studies, no differences between ADHD adults and controls were

  19. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Australian adults: prevalence, persistence, conduct problems and disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L Ebejer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. METHODOLOGY: Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i full DSM-IV criteria; (ii excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion; (iii participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. CONCLUSION: The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by

  1. Postural sway and regional cerebellar volume in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Hove

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings show that sway abnormalities commonly reported in children with ADHD are also present in adults, and for the first time show a relationship between postural control atypicalities and the cerebellum in this group. Our findings extend the literature on motor abnormalities in ADHD and contribute to our knowledge of their neural substrate.

  2. The Speed of Visual Attention and Motor-Response Decisions in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina;

    2015-01-01

    -related potentials (ERP) during the performance of a visual-search task to differentiate potential sources of slowing at separable levels of processing: the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was used to index focalattentional selection times, while the lateralized readiness potentials synchronized to stimulus...... patients exhibited slower RTs than control participants, which were accompanied by prolonged PCN and sLRP, but not rLRP, latencies. Moreover, the PCN timing was positively correlated with ADHD symptom ratings. Conclusions: The behavioral RT slowing of adult ADHD patients was based on a summation...... of internal processing delays arising at perceptual and response-selection stages; motor-response production, by contrast, was not impaired. The correlation between PCN times and ADHD...

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  4. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  5. Factors predicting treatment adherence in patients with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerci, Bengi; Taskıran, Sarper; Tufan, Evren; Şanlı, Işın

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to elicit patient- and treatment-related factors that can potentially predict treatment adherence in adult ADHD. Subjects who were over 18 and received a diagnosis of ADHD were included in the study. Chart review data of 102 subjects regarding demographics, medications, comorbidities, concomitant medications and domains of functional impairment were collected, and predictors were assessed using a binominal logistical regression model. One hundred and two patients (78.4 % male) with a mean age of 28.8 (SD = 9.8, range = 18-55) years were enrolled in the study. Childhood diagnosis of ADHD, agents used for treatment (MPH or atomoxetine), individual domains of dysfunction and use of additional psychotropic drugs were not found to be related to treatment adherence. Patients with a university education and those referred for family history of ADHD were more likely to adhere to treatment (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively). On the other hand, reasons for referral other than ADHD were significantly more frequently related to non-adherence (p = 0.02). Treatment noncompliance remains a significant problem despite therapeutic effects of medications. Identification of predictors of non-adherence can lead to heightened awareness of special populations at risk. We have found that prior awareness on ADHD (via past history/media/friends) leading to self/clinician referral to rule out ADHD and pervasiveness of symptoms across functional domains led to better compliance in our sample. Future research with prospective design utilizing objective tools for adherence is required. PMID:27056071

  6. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  7. Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Paul A; Brightwood, Amy; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  8. Dysfunctional Career Thoughts and Attitudes as Predictors of Vocational Identity among Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the…

  9. Effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults – health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a mental disorder. Symptoms include hyperactivity, lack of attentiveness, and frivolousness. This disorder always begins in childhood, but can remain through adulthood. ADHD affects all areas of life and limits the quality of life due to its symptoms and the high rate of associated disorders that can develop. An established form of therapy is using stimulant medications, most commonly, containing Methylphenidate as the active ingredient. However, in Germany this ingredient is not approved for adults suffering from ADHD. Therefore, many adults cannot obtain appropriate medication to treat this disorder. Objective: The following report (Health Technology Assessment [HTA] examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the medical treatment of ADHD in adults as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects thereof. Methods: In August 2009, a systematic literature search is performed in all relevant scientific databases. The selected citations fulfill predetermined inclusion criteria. The data in the publications is then systematically extracted, reviewed and assessed. A manual search of citations is conducted as well. Results: Nineteen studies fulfill the inclusion criteria: nine randomised controlled studies (RCT, five meta-analyses, three economic studies and two studies relevant to the legal aspects of the HTA.All RCT reveal that adult patients who receive medication containing a stimulant (Methylphenidate and Amphetamine and Atomoxetine, see a reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to the placebo-treated patients. The drug response rate among the control group ranges from 7 to 42%; in the treatment group from 17 to 59.6%. The meta-analyses confirm the findings of the RCT. In light of the control group, it can be ascertained that there are higher annual costs (both direct and indirect for patients with ADHD. The average annual medical expenses for an adult with ADHD were 1,262 $ in

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  11. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  12. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... physician offices, hospital outpatient and emergency departments) with attention deficit disorder as primary diagnosis: 9.0 million ( ...

  13. Understanding the covariation of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A population-based adult twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rebecca; Monzani, Benedetta; Leckman, James F; Rück, Christian; Serlachius, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-10-01

    Chronic tic disorders (TD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently co-occur in clinical and epidemiological samples. Family studies have found evidence of shared familial transmission between TD and OCD, whereas the familial association between these disorders and ADHD is less clear. This study aimed to investigate to what extent liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is caused by shared or distinct genetic or environmental influences, in a large population-representative sample of Swedish adult twins (n = 21,911). Tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms showed modest, but significant covariation. Model fitting suggested a latent liability factor underlying the three phenotypes. This common factor was relatively heritable, and explained significantly less of the variance of attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptom liability. The majority of genetic variance was specific rather than shared. The greatest proportion of total variance in liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was attributed to specific non-shared environmental influences. Our findings suggest that the co-occurrence of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and to a lesser extent attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms, can be partly explained by shared etiological influences. However, these phenotypes do not appear to be alternative expressions of the same underlying genetic liability. Further research examining sub-dimensions of these phenotypes may serve to further clarify the association between these disorders and identify more genetically homogenous symptom subtypes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Response to methylphenidate by adult and pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Spanish multicenter DIHANA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán-Usón, JR; Cánovas-Martínez, A; De Lucas-Taracena, MT; Díaz-Atienza, F; Eddy-Ives, LS; Fernández-Jaén, A; Fernández-Pérez, M; García-Giral, M; García-Magán, P; Garraus-Oneca, M; Idiazábal-Alecha, MA; López-Benito, M; Lorenzo-Sanz, G; Martínez-Antón, J; Martínez-Granero, MA; Montañés-Rada, F; Mulas-Delgado, F; Ochando-Perales, G; Ortega-García, E; Pelaz-Antolín, A; Ramos-Quiroga, JA; Ruiz-Sanz, FC; Vaquerizo-Madrid, J; Yusta-Izquierdo, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this multicenter Spanish study was to evaluate the response to immediate-release methylphenidate by children and adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to obtain information on current therapy patterns and safety characteristics. Methods: This multicenter, observational, retrospective, noninterventional study included 730 patients aged 4–65 years with a diagnosis of ADHD. Information was obtained based on a review of medical records for the years 2002–2006 in sequential order. Results: The ADHD predominantly inattentive subtype affected 29.7% of patients, ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive was found in 5.2%, and the combined subtype in 65.1%. Overall, a significant lower Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score and mean number of DSM-IV TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision) symptoms by subtype were found after one year of treatment with immediate-release methylphenidate; CGI decreased from 4.51 to 1.69, symptoms of inattention from 7.90 to 4.34, symptoms of hyperactivity from 6.73 to 3.39, and combined subtype symptoms from 14.62 to 7.7. Satisfaction with immediate-release methylphenidate after one year was evaluated as “very satisfied” or “satisfied” by 86.90% of the sample; 25.75% of all patients reported at least one adverse effect. At the end of the study, 41.47% of all the patients treated with immediate-release methylphenidate were still receiving it, with a mean time of 3.80 years on therapy. Conclusion: Good efficacy and safety results were found for immediate-release methylphenidate in patients with ADHD. PMID:23430373

  15. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  16. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS: utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS. Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about

  17. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  18. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom profiles and concurrent problems with alcohol and cannabis: sex differences in a representative, population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Nathan J.; van der Maas, Mark; Toplak, Maggie E.; Erickson, Patricia G.; Mann, Robert E.; Seeley, Jane; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific association...

  19. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2012-06-19

    AbstractBackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care.MethodsThe Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD\\/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex.ResultsThe source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6); 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8); 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3); 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2.1 fold

  20. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. Methods The Health Improvement Network (THIN database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. Results The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male. A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1 to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6; 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9 to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8; 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3 to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3; 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03 to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10; >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01 to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03. Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2

  1. Response to methylphenidate by adult and pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Spanish multicenter DIHANA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdizán-Usón JR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JR Valdizán-Usón,1 A Cánovas-Martínez,2 MT De Lucas-Taracena,3 F Díaz-Atienza,4 LS Eddy-Ives,5 A Fernández-Jaén,6 M Fernández-Pérez,7 M García-Giral,8 P García-Magán,9 M Garraus-Oneca,10 MA Idiazábal-Alecha,11 M López-Benito,12 G Lorenzo-Sanz,13 J Martínez-Antón,14 MA Martínez-Granero,15 F Montañés-Rada,16 F Mulas-Delgado,17 G Ochando-Perales,18 E Ortega-García,19 A Pelaz-Antolín,20 JA Ramos-Quiroga,21 FC Ruiz-Sanz,22 J Vaquerizo-Madrid,23 A Yusta-Izquierdo241Unidad Trastornos Neurofuncionales, Clínica Montpellier, Zaragoza, 2Hospital Dr Peset, Valencia, 3Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 4Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, 5Centre Mèdic Sant Ramon, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Barcelona, 6Hospital Universitario Quirón, Madrid, 7Centro de Salud La Felguera, Langreo, Asturias, 8Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, 9Unidad Salud Mental, Talavera de la Reina, 10Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, 11Hospital Ntra. Sra. del Pilar, Barcelona, 12Centro Salud Contrueces, Gijón, 13Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 14Complejo Hospitalario Carlos Haya, Málaga, 15Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Madrid, 16Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Madrid, 17Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, 18Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, 19Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, 20Centro Salud Mental, Alcalá de Henares, 21Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. CIBERSAM. Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 22Hospital General Rio Carrión, Palencia, 23Hospital Materno-Infantil, Badajoz, 24Hospital Universitario, Guadalajara, SpainBackground: The purpose of this multicenter Spanish study was to evaluate the response to immediate-release methylphenidate by children and adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, as well as to obtain information on current therapy patterns and safety characteristics.Methods: This multicenter

  2. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Limor eLukov; Naama eFriedmann; Lilach eShalev; Lilach eKhentov-Kraus; Nir eShalev; Rakefet eLorber; Revital eGuggenheim

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on o...

  3. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: novel findings using a simulated adult workplace environment design

    OpenAIRE

    Wigal, Timothy; Brams, Matthew; Gasior, Maria; Gao, Joseph; Squires, Liza; Giblin, John; ,

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Duration of efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was assessed in adults (18-55 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the simulated adult workplace environment. Methods After open-label dose optimization (4-week) with LDX, 30-70 mg/d, subjects entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover phase. Efficacy assessments included the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) total score...

  4. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: novel findings using a simulated adult workplace environment design

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Joseph; Gasior Maria; Brams Matthew; Wigal Timothy; Squires Liza; Giblin John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Duration of efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was assessed in adults (18-55 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the simulated adult workplace environment. Methods After open-label dose optimization (4-week) with LDX, 30-70 mg/d, subjects entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover phase. Efficacy assessments included the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) total score (attempted+c...

  5. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  6. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood. PMID:24080671

  7. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence and its Implications for Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, David W; Mitchell, Sara; Rhodewalt, Lauren; Surman, Craig B H

    2016-01-01

    Although previously considered a disorder of childhood, studies in the last decade have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to impair function into adulthood and responds to pharmacotherapy. Due to age-specific changes in roles and challenges, it is possible that presentation and response to intervention may differ between older and younger adults. A literature search for papers that identified older adults with ADHD, including papers describing its epidemiology, manifestation, and treatment, was the basis for this paper. There is a paucity of data on ADHD in older adults; however, small observational studies have characterized the presence, impact, and treatment of ADHD in adults over the age of 50 years, and larger epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ADHD symptoms exist in older adulthood. Optimal criteria for diagnosis of ADHD and methods of treating ADHD in older individuals have not been systematically explored. In light of the limited data, this review discusses considerations for differential diagnosis and safe pharmacotherapy of ADHD in older adults.

  8. Attention deficit in children: a multiprofessional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Thirumazhisi Sachithanandam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common behavior disorder in children characterized by attention deficit, overactivity and impulsivity, which may persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is often complicated with multiple comorbid disorders which when undiagnosed or untreated significantly affects the children on aspects like academic skills, peer relationship, social life and difficulty in leading productive lives. This report presents a case of 12 year old male child with attention deficit and poor academic performance, diagnosed and treated for ADHD with a complex array of coexisting disorders untreated. An attempt is made to highlight the differential diagnosis for attention deficit in children, comorbid disorders, and the necessity for a multiprofessional approach in complete evaluation and comprehensive management of the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 502-505

  9. Attention deficit in children: a multiprofessional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeetha Thirumazhisi Sachithanandam

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavior disorder in children characterized by attention deficit, overactivity and impulsivity, which may persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is often complicated with multiple comorbid disorders which when undiagnosed or untreated significantly affects the children on aspects like academic skills, peer relationship, social life and difficulty in leading productive lives. This report presents a case of 12 year old male ...

  10. A head-to-head randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment for executive function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Yang, Li-Kuang

    2013-10-01

    Results regarding the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on executive functions were inconsistent and no study has directly compared the efficacy of these two medications in improving executive functions in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted an 8-10 wk, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by psychiatric interview. The two treatment arms were immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-methylphenidate) (n = 31) and atomoxetine once daily (n = 32). Executive functions were assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), including spatial working memory, spatial span, intra-extra dimensional set shifts, rapid visual information processing and Stockings of Cambridge (SOC). In addition to the symptom assessments at baseline (week 0), visit 2 (week 4-5) and visit 3 (week 8–10), they received CANTAB assessments at baseline and visit 3 (60.4 ± 6.3 d). Compared to baseline, adults treated with atomoxetine showed significant improvement in spatial working memory, spatial short-term memory, sustained attention and spatial planning at visit 3; adults treated with IR-methylphenidate showed significant improvement in spatial working memory at visit 3. Comparing the magnitude of improvement in executive functions between these two medications, the effect was generally similar for the two groups, although atomoxetine might have significantly greater efficacy than IR-methylphenidate in terms of improving spatial planning (SOC). Our results provide evidence to support that both IR-methylphenidate and atomoxetine improved various executive functions in adults with ADHD with greater improvement in atomoxetine than IR-methylphenidate in spatial planning.

  11. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: novel findings using a simulated adult workplace environment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duration of efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX was assessed in adults (18-55 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using the simulated adult workplace environment. Methods After open-label dose optimization (4-week with LDX, 30-70 mg/d, subjects entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover phase. Efficacy assessments included the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP total score (attempted+correct measured predose and from 2 to 14 hours postdose, averaged across postdose sessions (primary and at each time point vs placebo (secondary, and ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV with adult prompts at baseline and crossover visits. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, vital signs, and electrocardiograms. Results Of 127 randomized subjects, 105 were in the intention-to-treat population and 103 completed the study. While receiving LDX vs placebo, adults had greater improvement (P P ≤ .0017 for each time point and change from predose (P P Conclusions LDX significantly improved PERMP scores vs placebo and maintained improvement throughout the day from the first (2 hours to last (14 hours postdose time point vs placebo in adults with ADHD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00697515 Safety and Efficacy Workplace Environment Study of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate (LDX in Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00697515?term=NCT00697515&rank=1

  12. Do Problems with Information Processing Affect the Process of Psychotherapy for Adults with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Patz, Sarah; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Problems in processing information can affect psychosocial functioning. Psychotherapy can be used to address psychosocial problems; however, the same information-processing problems that contribute to disabilities, such as learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly deficits in auditory processing…

  13. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  14. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. PMID:24191257

  15. Reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-08-30

    Despite growing recognition that the symptoms and functional impairments of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood, only a few psychometrically sound diagnostic measures have been developed for the assessment of ADHD in adults, and none have been validated for use in a broad treatment-seeking psychiatric sample. The current study presents the reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for ADHD, which was administered to 1194 adults presenting to an outpatient psychiatric practice. The module showed excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability, good convergent and discriminant validity (as indexed by relatively high correlations with self-report measures of ADHD and ADHD-related constructs and little or no correlation with other, non-ADHD symptom domains), and good construct validity (as indexed by significantly higher rates of psychosocial impairment and self-reported family history of ADHD in individuals who meet criteria for an ADHD diagnosis). This instrument is thus a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for the detection of ADHD in adults presenting for psychiatric evaluation and treatment.

  16. Reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-08-30

    Despite growing recognition that the symptoms and functional impairments of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood, only a few psychometrically sound diagnostic measures have been developed for the assessment of ADHD in adults, and none have been validated for use in a broad treatment-seeking psychiatric sample. The current study presents the reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for ADHD, which was administered to 1194 adults presenting to an outpatient psychiatric practice. The module showed excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability, good convergent and discriminant validity (as indexed by relatively high correlations with self-report measures of ADHD and ADHD-related constructs and little or no correlation with other, non-ADHD symptom domains), and good construct validity (as indexed by significantly higher rates of psychosocial impairment and self-reported family history of ADHD in individuals who meet criteria for an ADHD diagnosis). This instrument is thus a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for the detection of ADHD in adults presenting for psychiatric evaluation and treatment. PMID:27259136

  17. Linear and non-linear analyses of Conner’s Continuous Performance Test-II discriminate adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from patients with mood and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita Lill; Syrstad, Vigdis Elin Giæver; Ødegaard, Ketil Joachim; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Therefore it is important to look for factors that can contribute to better diagnosis and classification of these patients. The aims of the study were to characterize adult psychiatric out-patients with a mixture of mood, anxiety and attentional problems using an objective neuropsychological test of attention combined with an assessment of mood instability. Method: Newly referred patients (n = 9...

  18. A Nationwide Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Drug Use among Adults in Iceland 2003-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geirs, D. P.; Pottegård, Anton; Halldorsson, M.;

    2014-01-01

    most pronounced increases among young adults (19-24years). The annual incidence increased 3 times, similarly among men and women. Extended-release methylphenidate formulations were the most commonly used ADHD drugs. Specialists in psychiatry initiated treatment in 79% of new adult ADHD drug users. The...

  19. The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD adult drivers: driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal El Farouki

    Full Text Available Both distractions (external and internal and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility.A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD.A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI [1.06-2.05], distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50-3.77] and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22-3.88]. The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06-16.32]. Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%.Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also increasingly relevant for these drivers.

  20. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and concentration and can provide the skills for improving organization and efficiency in daily tasks. It can also address feelings of low self-esteem and help adults with ADHD gain confidence, as ...

  1. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  2. Comparative neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: implications for a novel executive overload model of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Hermesh, Haggai; Schweiger, Avraham

    2012-09-01

    Research implicates frontostriatal pathophysiology in both attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, ADHD is characterized with frontostriatal hypoactivity and OCD with hyperactivity. Furthermore, both disorders seem to lie on opposite ends of a clinical impulsive-compulsive continuum. While never having directly been compared, and despite these differences, OCD and ADHD appear to share similar neuropsychological impairments especially in executive functions. This study aimed at comparing adults with OCD and adults with ADHD on neuropsychological measures and behavioural impulsivity and OC measures. Thirty OCD, 30 ADHD, and 30 matched healthy control (HC) participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and completed several questionnaires. The groups were compared on all neuropsychological and clinical measures and correlations between neuropsychological and clinical symptoms were computed. The ADHD and OCD groups performed more poorly than HC on all neuropsychological domains and most domain subtests. The ADHD group reported significantly higher impulsivity than the OCD group. OCD patients did not differ from HC on behavioural impulsivity. A unique dissociation was found between impulsivity and response inhibition where both clinical groups showed similar response inhibition deficit, but differed significantly on impulsivity. Moreover, a negative association between OC symptoms and response inhibition and a bias in self-perception of impulsivity was found only in the OCD group. We propose an executive overload model of OCD that views neuropsychological impairments in OCD as an epiphenomenon, according to which continuous attempts to control automatic processes are associated with obsessive thoughts overflow that causes an overload on the executive system.

  3. Executive function of adults with attention deficit and hyperactive disorder%成人注意缺陷多动障碍患者的执行功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱英; 张小梅; 杨蕊; 杜巧新; 王玉凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristic of executive function in Chinese Han adults with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).Methods: This was a case-control study.Thirty adult outpatients were selected as the patient group who were diagnosed as ADHD according to the Conners'Adult ADHD Diagnositc Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and 24 normal adults were selected as the control group.Both groups were matched by age, gender, and years of education.All the subjects were asked to complete a battery of executive function tests, including Stroop color-word test, digit span test, trail making test, Tower of Hanoi task and a verbal fluency test, to tap their ability in the aspects of inhibition, shifting, working memory, planning and verbal fluency.Results: There were no differences between the ADHD group and the health controls in the above tests of executive function, except that the ADHD group performed poorer on the Digit span test compared with controls(P <0.05).Conclusion: The current study indicates that the adults with ADHD in Han Chinese show deficit not in the aspects of inhibition, shifting,planning and verbal fluency, but in the aspect of working memory.%目的:探讨我国汉族成人注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactive disorder,ADHD )患者的执行功能特点.方法:使用病例对照研究,对30名符合Conners成人ADHD诊断会谈中ADHD诊断标准的门诊患者,24名年龄和受教育年限与之匹配的正常对照,进行执行功能任务测验(Stroop色词干扰、数字字母连线、数字广度、汉诺塔和流畅性测验),测查执行功能的抑制、转换、工作记忆、计划和流畅性等成分,比较两组差异.结果:成人ADHD患者在工作记忆任务测验(倒背数字数)表现差于正常成人,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).但在抑制、转换、计划和流畅性任务测验中表现与正常成人差异无统计学意义.结论:本研究提示,中国汉族成人ADHD患者在工作记忆

  4. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on reactive aggression in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT has been linked to the underlying neurobiology of aggressive behavior, particularly with evidence from studies in animals and humans. However, the underlying neurobiology of aggression remains unclear in the context of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, a disorder known to be associated with aggression and impulsivity. We investigated the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD, and the resulting diminished central nervous serotonergic neurotransmission, on reactive aggression in healthy controls and adults with ADHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty male patients with ADHD and twenty healthy male controls were subjected to ATD with an amino acid (AA beverage that lacked tryptophan (TRP, the physiological precursor of 5-HT and a TRP-balanced AA beverage (BAL in a double-blind, within-subject crossover-study over two study days. We assessed reactive aggression 3.25 hours after ATD/BAL intake using a point-subtraction aggression game (PSAG in which participants played for points against a fictitious opponent. Point subtraction was taken as a measure for reactive aggression. Lowered rates of reactive aggression were found in the ADHD group under ATD after low provocation (LP, with controls showing the opposite effect. In patients with ADHD, trait-impulsivity was negatively correlated with the ATD effect on reactive aggression after LP. Statistical power was limited due to large standard deviations observed in the data on point subtraction, which may limit the use of this particular paradigm in adults with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with previous findings, the data provide preliminary evidence of an inverse association between trait-impulsivity and the ATD effect on reactive aggression after LP (as assessed by the PSAG in patients with ADHD and that this relationship can be found in both adolescents and adults. Because of limited statistical power larger sample

  5. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  6. A transmission disequilibrium test of the Ser9/Gly dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, Pierandrea; Jain, Umesh; Kennedy, James L

    2002-03-10

    Convincing data support the hypothesis that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Various lines of evidence have shown that the dopamine system plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. The dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) represents a promising candidate to examine in ADHD. Animal studies have shown that DRD3 mRNA is highly expressed in the ventral striatum suggesting an involvement of this receptor in the control of motor behaviour. Manipulation of DRD3 in rodents has led to a mouse model with nonfunctional D3 receptors that displays hyperactive behaviour in various environmental conditions. Furthermore, administration of 7-OH-DPAT, a dopaminergic agonist that binds preferentially to D3 receptors exerts an inhibitory effect on locomotor activity while D3 antagonists induce hyperactivity. Among various polymorphisms described for DRD3, the BalI polymorphism is most interesting because it codes for an aminoacid substitution in the N-terminus of the receptor. The receptor products of the two alleles (Ser/Gly) exhibit differential affinity for dopamine. To determine if DRD3 Ser9/Gly is involved in the susceptibility to ADHD we genotyped 39 adults with ADHD and their respective parents (trios). Adult ADHD represents a promising phenotype for studying the genetic component of the disorder. In fact, a recent family study has shown that relatives of adult ADHD patients have a higher rate of ADHD compared to relatives of children with ADHD suggesting a stronger genetic component for the adult version. The results of genotyping in the 39 trios analyzed with the transmission disequilibrium test showed no excess of transmission for DRD3 MscI/BalI alleles (chi(2) = 0.360; df = 1; P = 0.54). This result, although from a relatively small sample, indicates that it is unlikely that DRD3 is playing a major role in the etiology of ADHD in our sample. PMID:11864723

  7. Cortisol awakening response in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Subtype differences and association with the emotional lability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Corominas-Roso, M; Palomar, G; Ferrer, R; Valero, S; Corrales, M; Richarte, V; Casas, M

    2016-07-01

    Cortisol awakening response (CAR) has been studied in children with ADHD, and some authors have reported morning cortisol differences among ADHD subtypes. Despite, only half of the children with ADHD continue to exhibit the disorder into adulthood, CAR has not been studied in adults so far. One hundred and nine adults with ADHD according to the DSM-IV criteria (46 inattentive and 63 combined) ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, and 27 healthy controls were included. Psychiatric and organic comorbidities were excluded. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained at 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening. CAR was present in 84% of the healthy controls but in only 64% of the adults with ADHD (68% of the inattentive and 61% of the combined were CAR-positive). There were no significant differences in any of the morning cortisol measures between patients and controls or between the combined and inattentive subtypes of ADHD. Among the inattentive subtype but not in the combined patients, significant positive correlations were observed between the CAR and emotional lability (p=0.05), or self-concept (p=0.014) CAARS subscales, as well as with the cognitive impulsivity subscale of the Barratt impulsiveness scale (p=0.028). These results suggest that adults with ADHD exhibit normal cortisol responses upon awakening and thus cannot be defined in terms of hypo-arousal. Neurobiological differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes involving cortisol, are discussed. PMID:27084305

  8. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults%成人注意力不集中和多动症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy E. Wilens; Stephen V. Faraone; Joseph Biederman; 陈益和

    2005-01-01

    注意力不集中和多动症(attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)是一种患病率较高的疾病,全世界约有3%~9%的学龄儿童和4%的成人患有此病。过去认为,ADHD不会延续至成年,但是长期对照随访研究显示,该病存在于相当一部分幼年时被确诊为ADHD的成人。

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...

  11. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  12. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  13. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetec

  14. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of t

  15. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; PADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD. PMID:27150337

  16. Long-Term Treatment Outcome in Adult Male Prisoners With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Three-Year Naturalistic Follow-Up of a 52-Week Methylphenidate Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lindefors, Nils

    2015-10-01

    Despite high rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adult lawbreakers, particularly the long-term effects of ADHD pharmacotherapy remain unclear, not the least because of ethical challenges with preventing control subjects in randomized controlled trials from receiving medication over prolonged time. We followed up adult male prisoners with ADHD who completed a 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by a 47-week open-label extension of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate in a Swedish high-security prison from 2007 to 2010 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00482313). Twenty-five trial completers were prospectively followed up clinically 1 year (24/25, 96% participated fully or in part) and 3 years (20/25, 80% participation) after trial regarding ADHD symptoms (observer and self-reports), psychosocial functioning, substance misuse, and criminal reoffending. Methylphenidate-related improvements in ADHD symptoms and psychosocial functioning obtained during the 52-week trial were maintained at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. Specifically, after 3 years, 75% (15/20) of the respondents had been released from prison, and 67% of these (10/15) had employment, usually full time. In contrast, nonmedicated respondents at the 3-year follow-up (5/20) reported more ADHD symptoms, functional impairment, and substance misuse compared with currently medicated respondents (15/20). Further, 40% of the respondents self-reported reoffending, indicating a substantially lower relapse rate than expected (70%-80%).In summary, although these observations need validation from new and larger samples, positive effects were maintained after 4 years of methylphenidate treatment. Most study completers were employed and had no relapse in substance misuse or criminality. These results suggest that motivational support and continued medication are important for improved outcome in adult criminal offenders with ADHD. PMID:26284932

  17. Visual Attentional Deficits in Reading Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Rajaram, OD, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslexia, also referred to as specific reading disability, is a condition where an individual demonstrates a level of reading that is significantly below what may be expected for his age or intelligence. Although the phonological deficit theory of dyslexia is widely accepted, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that at least a subset of dyslexic subjects demonstrate distinct visual attentional deficits. However, it is unclear if the magnitude of visual attention at attended and unattended locations is equivalent in poor and normal readers. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in the magnitude of attentional facilitation (benefits and inhibition (costs in response to an abrupt onset spatial cue in children with reading disabilities in comparison to controls. Methods: A group of impaired readers (n=15, ages nine to 12 years, reading at a level at least 1.5 years below grade level and with average mathematics scores, were included in this study. The control group included an age-matched sample of normal readers (n=20. An adaptation of the covert orienting paradigm was used to investigate differences in magnitude of visual spatial attention between groups.Results: Poor readers demonstrated smaller costs (t=2.07, p<0.02 at unattended locations in comparison to their normal counterparts. Additionally, poor readers were significantly slower (F(1,32 = 14.17, p<0.001 in moving spatial attention in response to an abrupt onset peripheral cue when compared to controls.Conclusion: The poor readers in the current study were slower in shifting spatial attention in comparison to their normal counterparts. They also demonstrated smaller costs at unattended locations,providing indirect evidence for a diffuse attentional field in this group. Consistent with many studies in the literature, we have presented evidence for spatial attentional deficits in impaired readers, the implications of which are discussed within the context

  18. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  19. Experiences and Perceptions of Mental Health Professionals Considered Effective in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Bonita H.

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that has been documented in medical and mental health literature for over 100 years (Still, 1902). ADHD is a neurobiological based disorder characterized by three major symptoms identified at clinical levels and validated by diagnostic criteria established for the diagnosis of children…

  20. Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Joseph S.; Roley, Michelle E.; O’Brien, Benjamin; Blair, Justin; Lane, Scott D.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. Objectives This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. Methods Thirty-three (n=16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. Results Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. Conclusions Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking

  1. Efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with common comorbidities in children, adolescents and adults: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Shari L.; Ghuman, Jaswinder K.; Ghuman, Harinder S.; Karpov, Irina; Schuster, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants. In this paper, we review studies utilizing randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) as well as within-subject designs to determine the effectiveness of ATX in the treatment of children and adults with ADHD and comorbid conditions. The current review uses an expanded methodology beyond systematic review of randomized controlled trials in order to improve generalizability of results to real-world practice. A total of 24 articles published from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed, including 14 RCTs: n = 1348 ATX, and n = 832 placebo. The majority of studies show that ATX is effective in the treatment of ADHD symptoms for individuals with ADHD and comorbid disorders. Cohen’s d effect sizes (ES) for improvement in ADHD symptoms and behaviors range from 0.47 to 2.21. The effectiveness of ATX to improve symptoms specific to comorbidity varied by type but appeared to be most effective for diminishing the presence of symptoms for those with comorbid anxiety, ES range of 0.40 to 1.51, and oppositional defiant disorder, ES range of 0.52 to 1.10. There are mixed or limited results for individuals with ADHD and comorbid substance-use disorders, autism spectrum disorders, dyslexia or reading disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and Tourette syndrome. Results from this review suggest that ATX is effective in the treatment of some youth and adults with ADHD and comorbid disorders

  2. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  3. The neural basis of decision-making and reward processing in adults with euthymic bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Ibanez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and bipolar disorder (BD share DSM-IV criteria in adults and cause problems in decision-making. Nevertheless, no previous report has assessed a decision-making task that includes the examination of the neural correlates of reward and gambling in adults with ADHD and those with BD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Iowa gambling task (IGT, a task of rational decision-making under risk (RDMUR and a rapid-decision gambling task (RDGT which elicits behavioral measures as well as event-related potentials (ERPs: fERN and P3 in connection to the motivational impact of events. We did not observe between-group differences for decision-making under risk or ambiguity (RDMUR and IGT; however, there were significant differences for the ERP-assessed RDGT. Compared to controls, the ADHD group showed a pattern of impaired learning by feedback (fERN and insensitivity to reward magnitude (P3. This ERP pattern (fERN and P3 was associated with impulsivity, hyperactivity, executive function and working memory. Compared to controls, the BD group showed fERN- and P3-enhanced responses to reward magnitude regardless of valence. This ERP pattern (fERN and P3 was associated with mood and inhibitory control. Consistent with the ERP findings, an analysis of source location revealed reduced responses of the cingulate cortex to the valence and magnitude of rewards in patients with ADHD and BD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that neurophysiological (ERPs paradigms such as the RDGT are well suited to assess subclinical decision-making processes in patients with ADHD and BD as well as for linking the cingulate cortex with action monitoring systems.

  4. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K; Anselm B M Fuermaier; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  5. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Elia, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy, one of the effective modalities of treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was discovered serendipitously and, until recently, consisted primarily of short-acting methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine compounds. The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval of Concerta in 2000 followed by approval of additional long-acting methylphenidate (Ritalin LA; Metadate CD) and amphetamine formulations (Adderall XR) expanded the repertoire. By providing su...

  6. What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Jefferies, Rachel; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1–3% of children. There is a high level of comorbidity with developmental and learning problems as well as with a variety of psychiatric disorders. ADHD is highly heritable, although there is no single causal risk factor and non-inherited factors also contribute to its aetiology. The genetic and environmental risk factors that have been implicated appear to be associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outc...

  7. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Irem Yalug; Ali Evren Tufan

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention defic...

  8. The effects of attention on age-related relational memory deficits: Evidence from a novel attentional manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So-Yeon; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Healthy aging is often accompanied by episodic memory decline. Prior studies have consistently demonstrated that older adults show disproportionate deficits in relational memory (RM) relative to item memory (IM). Despite rich evidence of an age-related RM deficit, the source of this deficit remains unspecified. One of the most widely investigated factors of age-related RM impairment is a reduction in attentional resources. However, no prior studies have demonstrated that reduced attentional r...

  9. Predictors and impact of non-adherence in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder receiving OROS methylphenidate: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooij J J Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication non-adherence has an important impact on treatment efficacy and healthcare burden across a range of conditions and therapeutic areas. The aim of this analysis was to determine predictors of non-adherence and impact of non-adherence on treatment response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Post-hoc analysis of a 13-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of OROS methylphenidate (MPH 54 and 72 mg/day. Primary efficacy variable was the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Screening Version (CAARS:O-SV. Daily adherence was calculated as average daily adherence (100 × capsules taken/2, with overall adherence calculated as the average daily adherence. Predictors of adherence were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression. Descriptive statistics were generated for change in CAARS:O-SV score for adherent (> 95% adherence and non-adherent subjects. Predictors of change were analyzed using a mixed model. Results Subjects were allocated to OROS MPH (54 mg, n = 87; 72 mg, n = 92 or placebo (n = 97. Mean adherence was 92.6% and 93.3% (OROS MPH 54 and 72 mg/day, respectively, versus 97.5% (placebo. Adherence was higher and less variable in completers. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included female sex, shorter time since ADHD diagnosis, higher education level (completion of university and score on the Drug Use Screening Inventory psychiatric disorders subscale. Improvements from baseline in CAARS:O-SV score were numerically greater in subjects defined as adherent than in those who were non-adherent. Significant predictors of CAARS:O-SV change in patients who completed the study included percentage adherence up to the point of assessment (p p p = 0.0003. Conclusion The results of this analysis suggest that newly diagnosed patients, those with a high score on the DUSI-R psychiatric disorder scale, women, and subjects with high educational degrees may

  10. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  11. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  12. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

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    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  13. A gene-environment investigation on personality traits in two independent clinical sets of adult patients with personality disorder and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Baumann, Katarina; Jacob, Florian; Prechtl, Julian; Wittlich, Maike; Herrmann, Martin J; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    While an interactive effect of genes with adverse life events is increasingly appreciated in current concepts of depression etiology, no data are presently available on interactions between genetic and environmental (G x E) factors with respect to personality and related disorders. The present study therefore aimed to detect main effects as well as interactions of serotonergic candidate genes (coding for the serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; the serotonin autoreceptor, HTR1A; and the enzyme which synthesizes serotonin in the brain, TPH2) with the burden of life events (#LE) in two independent samples consisting of 183 patients suffering from personality disorders and 123 patients suffering from adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD). Simple analyses ignoring possible G x E interactions revealed no evidence for associations of either #LE or of the considered polymorphisms in 5-HTT and TPH2. Only the G allele of HTR1A rs6295 seemed to increase the risk of emotional-dramatic cluster B personality disorders (p = 0.019, in the personality disorder sample) and to decrease the risk of anxious-fearful cluster C personality disorders (p = 0.016, in the aADHD sample). We extended the initial simple model by taking a G x E interaction term into account, since this approach may better fit the data indicating that the effect of a gene is modified by stressful life events or, vice versa, that stressful life events only have an effect in the presence of a susceptibility genotype. By doing so, we observed nominal evidence for G x E effects as well as main effects of 5-HTT-LPR and the TPH2 SNP rs4570625 on the occurrence of personality disorders. Further replication studies, however, are necessary to validate the apparent complexity of G x E interactions in disorders of human personality.

  14. The role of divided attention and selective attention in time perception deficit of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Poi-ki; 蔡博麒

    2012-01-01

    Time deficit in people with ADHD has been consistently found, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether divided attention and selective attention are the causes for the deficit; and whether duration judgment performance was related to everyday temporal behaviour. 20 children with ADHD and 23 control children (mean age = 9 years 5 months) matched on age and IQ with no significant difference in working memory were tested. Experiment 1 used retr...

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, M L; Zolotor, A

    2001-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success, and self-esteem. ADHD is often associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities, which further impede the successful development of these persons. It is essential that family physicians be knowledgeable about the presentation and diagnosis of ADHD. Stimulant medications continue to be the mainstay of treatment, although many other medications (such as antidepressants and alpha blockers) are helpful adjuvants to therapy. Current recommendations for treatment include an individualized, multimodal approach involving parents, teachers, counselors and the school system. Treatment follow-up includes monitoring response to medications in various settings, as well as side effects. With time and interest, the family physician can develop the skills needed to treat this disorder.

  16. Inattentiveness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariane Sroubek; Mary Kelly; Xiaobo Li

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a long-term impact on functioning,productivity and quality of life of patients.This impact is largely due to the symptoms of inattentiveness.However,despite its impairing role in the lives of ADHD patients,inattentiveness has been studied relatively less frequently than have symptoms of impulsivity/hyperactivity and problems with executive function.This review therefore seeks to integrate the neuropsychological theories and current findings in the research fields of neuropsychology,neurophysiology,and neuroimaging,in an attempt to gain a more complete understanding of the role that inattentiveness plays in ADHD,as well as to suggest directions for future studies.The need for a more comprehensive understanding of inattentiveness and ADHD,which integrates findings from each of the three disciplines mentioned above,is emphasized.

  17. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Scientific Epistemology

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    Steven Thurber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD continues to be controversial with arguments for and against its veracity being waged by individuals representing a variety of disciplines from behavioral scientists to philosophers. Our perspective focuses on the epistemological underpinnings of what is now commonly known as ADHD. Its ignominious history and current disputes may stem from a "pessimistic" epistemology, meaning that truth is only the province of persons in authority and power. The authoritative organizations that govern the diagnostic labels and criteria are the American Psychiatric Association and their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the World Health Organization that sponsors the International Classification of Disease. We contrast the pessimistic epistemology with criteria for truth from the scientific method. Although scientific scrutiny has been and is being applied subsequent to "authoritarian edicts" of the disorder, we opine that ADHD currently does not have status beyond that of the "hypothetical construct." Moreover, current brain-based causal models have failed to provide rigorous supporting data that comes from testing falsifiable hypotheses.

  19. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

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    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  20. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  1. Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…

  2. Ecological executive function characteristics in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%成人注意缺陷多动障碍生态执行功能特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲姗; 张小梅; 钱英; 钱秋谨; 王向群; 王玉凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of ecological executive function in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 41 adult outpatients were selected as the patient group who were diagnosed as ADHD according to the Conners'Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV( CAADID), and 42 normal adults were selected as the control group. Both groups were matched by age and years of education. All the subjects completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Results: Compared with the control group, the ADHD group got significantly higher scores in global executive composite, behavioral regulation index, and metacogniton index ( P < 0.01) . ADHD group got higher scores in the aspects of inhibition, emotion control, initiation, task monitoring compared with controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may have deficits in ecological executive function.%目的:探讨成人注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)生态执行功能特点.方法:对41名符合Conners’成人ADHD诊断会谈(Conners'Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV,CAADID)中ADHD诊断标准的 门诊患者和42名年龄、受教育年限与之匹配的正常对照,进行执行功能行为评定量表成人版(BRIEF-A)自评问卷评定.结果:成人期仍符合CAADID诊断标准的ADHD患者,其BRIEF-A自评问卷,经多重检验校正后行为管理指数和元认知指数两个维度得分均高于对照组(均P<0.01),抑制、感情控制、任务启动、任务监测4个因子得分也高于对照组(均P<0.05).结论:ADHD成人患者生态执行功能可能存在缺陷.

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Anxiety in İstanbul Heavy Metal Bar Patrons

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Özalp; Bez, Yasin; Topçuoglu, Volkan; Nurmedow, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to examine the heavy metal bar patrons in Istanbul by means of self-reported questionnaires for psychiatric disorder symptoms. Material and Methods: Seventy-one volunteers from 4 popular heavy metal bars were included to the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) Scale and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) were adminis...

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Anxiety in İstanbul Heavy Metal Bar Patrons

    OpenAIRE

    Özalp Ekinci; Yasin Bez; Volkan Topçuoglu; Serdar Nurmedow

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to examine the heavy metal bar patrons in Istanbul by means of self-reported questionnaires for psychiatric disorder symptoms.Material and Methods: Seventy-one volunteers from 4 popular heavy metal bars were included to the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) Scale and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) were administered to th...

  5. Antidepressants in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, C W

    1997-01-01

    Antidepressants differ in their effectiveness for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. None are as effective as psychostimulants for treating the attentional and cognitive symptoms, but they can help reduce impulsive and hyperactive behavior. Tricyclic antidepressants have well-demonstrated efficacy in treating behavioral symptoms, but desipramine should be avoided, at least in youths and adolescents (and perhaps adults), because safer tricyclics are available. Bupropion was effective in its few controlled trials, but tics and (especially in youth) skin rash limit its value. Venlafaxine appears effective, but controlled studies are needed. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors have not been tested in controlled trials, but they cause inconsistent changes, often aggravate ADHD symptoms, and can cause frontal apathy and disinhibition. Clonidine has not been adequately examined but seems to have small or uncertain effects. Psychostimulants remain the treatment of choice because of their unique effect on attention. Multimodal treatments (medications plus psychosocial) might not be more effective than medications alone. PMID:9418743

  6. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat n

  7. Motor extinction: a deficit of attention or intention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T David Punt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor extinction refers to a deficit of motor production on the side opposite a brain lesion that either only becomes apparent or disproportionately worsens during bilateral motor activity. It may arise due either to a contralesional deficit in setting the motor activation level (an intentional deficit or a deficit in contralesional awareness of the sensory consequences of movement (an attentional deficit. In this study, we investigate the nature of motor extinction in a patient (LR with a right fronto-temporal lesion through the kinematic analysis of unimanual and bimanual circle drawing movements. While the ipsi- and contralesional limbs performed comparably for unimanual movements, the contralesional limb demonstrated marked bradykinesia and hypometria during bimanual movements. Furthermore, these deficits were not overcome when visual feedback of the contralesional limb was provided (Experiment 1. However, when performing bimanual movements in the presence of a visual template (Experiment 2, LR was able to overcome the contralesional hypometria but not the bradykinesia which proved intractable across both experiments. Both the bradykinesia and hypometria could result from an intentional deficit of motor production. However, in Experiment 2, LR also demonstrated an abnormal level of positional drift in the contralesional limb for bimanual movements indicative of an additional attentional deficit. We conclude that LR’s presentation of motor extinction is the result of a primary intentional deficit and a secondary attentional deficit.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD. PMID:19497749

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. Keywords: adults, academic performance, stimulants, treatment

  10. Written expression in boys with attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resta, S P; Eliot, J

    1994-12-01

    32 boys, between the ages of 8 and 13 years, were identified on four teachers' and parents' rating scales (including the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III for ADD) as showing attention deficits and hyperactivity (ADD + H; n = 10), attention deficits without hyperactivity (ADD-H; n = 11), or without ADD (attention deficits controls; n = 11). All subjects were administered Bender's Visual-motor Gestalt test and the Written Language Assessment. The ADD + H children produced significantly more errors on the Bender-Gestalt test, and both groups with attention deficits had lower (poorer) scores on most of the written language subtests. Results were interpreted as providing evidence that these children possessed significant limitations in their writing, copying, and composition.

  11. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  12. Living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; Jørgensen, Rikke;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This systematic review is aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of healthcare and other services. METHODS: A meta-synthesis was conducted following...... multiple challenges, it is not all bad. CONCLUSION: The findings illustrate the complexity of parental experiences that are influenced by guilt, hope, blame, stigmatization, exhaustion, reconciliation, and professional collaboration. The findings address the impact that attention-deficit hyperactivity...

  13. Overview of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If pre-school teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD.

  14. Functional deficits of the attentional networks in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jin; Bernardi, Silvia; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Gu, Xiaosi; Martin, Laura; Park, Yunsoo; Liu, Xun; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Grodberg, David; Hollander, Eric; Hof, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    Attentional dysfunction is among the most consistent observations of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neural nature of this deficit in ASD is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the neurobehavioral correlates of attentional dysfunction in ASD. We used the Attention Network Test-Revised and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control functions, as well as the neural substrates underlying these attentional functions in ...

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  16. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ADHD behaviors and problems can cause low self-esteem and problems with relationships. Individual counseling and support groups may help you with these problems. Other Organizations American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Psychiatric Association Children and Adults with ...

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a Canadian prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Amelia M; Stewart, Lynn A; Wilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a significant percentage of offenders are affected by adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its related symptoms, however it is unknown the extent to which this disorder affects federal inmates in Canada and the impact ADHD has on key correctional outcomes. Four hundred and ninety-seven male federal offenders were assessed at intake over a fourteen month period using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Approximately 16.5% scored in the highest range, which is consistent with the clinical threshold for diagnosis for the disorder; a further 25.2% reported sub-threshold symptoms in the moderate range. ADHD symptoms were found to be associated with unstable job history, presence of a learning disability, lower educational attainment, substance abuse, higher criminal risk and need levels, and other mental health problems. ADHD symptoms were also found to predict institutional misconduct. Additionally, offenders with high levels of ADHD symptomatology fared more poorly on release to the community. Implications for institutional behavior management and the need for additional resources and adapted interventions are discussed. PMID:23639768

  18. The Effect of Multimodal Trainings on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kaymak Özmen, Suna; Kafkas Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of parent, teacher and attention training programs for daily problem behaviors of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed through parent and teacher evaluations. To achieve this purpose, single case study was employed. At the beginning of the study, baseline data were gathered both at home and in school. When the baseline data was decided to be decisive, parent training, teacher training and attention training programs were applied c...

  19. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Se entiende por adopcion o filiacion adoptiva el acto juridico mediante el cual se crea un vinculo de parentesco entre dos personas, de tal forma que se establece entre ellas una relacion de paternidad o maternidad. Objetivos. Tratar de exponer los problemas derivados de la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y otros factores de riesgo, de la hipoestimulacion durante el 'periodo critico' en pacientes institucionalizados (especialmente aquellos adoptados de paises del este de Europa) y su relacion con el trastorno de deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). Realizar una aproximacion al diagnostico, prevencion y tratamiento de estos problemas. Desarrollo. Estos niños presentan problemas de relacion psicosocial, problemas conductuales, retraso del desarrollo del lenguaje o de la lectura y, sobre todo, TDAH. Existe una enorme dificultad practica a la hora de separar ambos factores durante la evaluacion de niños adoptados de paises del este de Europa en las consultas de neuropediatria. La interrelacion de todos estos factores no es bien conocida. Conclusiones. Existe una intima relacion entre la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y las consecuencias de la adopcion. Se necesitan estudios aleatorizados controlados con placebo, con mayores muestras poblacionales, que comprueben el beneficio y perfil de efectos secundarios, tanto con psicoestimulantes como con la atomoxetina en este grupo de pacientes.

  20. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  1. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  2. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Measures in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Steve W.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Shahana, Nasrin; HUDDLESTON, DAVID A; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2012-01-01

    Children affected by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have diminished intra-hemispheric inhibition (Short Interval Cortical Inhibition) as measured by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. This study’s objective is to determine whether inter-hemispheric inhibition (Ipsilateral Silent Period Latency) correlates with clinical behavioral rating and motor control deficits of affected children. In 114 8–12 year old, right-handed children (age/sex-matched, 50 affected, 64 controls), we perform...

  3. [Psychopedagogical intervention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Herrero, Raquel; Suay, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. Los niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) presentan alteraciones en los mecanismos atencionales y en los procesos de control inhibitorio (impulsividad e hiperactividad), que afectan de distinta manera a su rendimiento academico, socioemocional y conductual, por lo que es fundamental la consideracion de estrategias de intervencion en el ambito psicopedagogico que puedan incidir de forma favorable en el curso evolutivo de los afectados. Objetivo. Revisar las bases psicopedagogicas en la intervencion sobre el TDAH, considerando la relacion de la anatomia funcional con la sintomatologia clinica y los correspondientes programas de intervencion. Desarrollo. Se destacan los tres sindromes preferentes: orbitofrontal, dorsolateral y en el cingulo a nivel medial. Las fases de la intervencion psicopedagogica deben abarcar tanto al niño como a la familia y el colegio. El entrenamiento neurocognitivo se centra en el niño, basado en programas de entrenamiento de las funciones ejecutivas y en las actuaciones sobre el ambito academico, conductual y socioafectivo. Los programas de modificacion de conducta son complementarios y en muchas ocasiones mejoran el comportamiento comprometido en los niños con TDAH. Las orientaciones psicopedagogicas en la escuela deben considerarse necesarias para una intervencion eficaz en el entorno academico. Conclusiones. La intervencion psicopedagogica de los niños con TDAH debe contemplar la individualizacion del tratamiento dentro de una metodologia multidisciplinar, teniendo en cuenta todos los contextos en los que se desarrolla el niño, su rendimiento cognitivo y las intervenciones farmacologicas apropiadas en cada caso.

  4. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  5. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  6. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Widely regarded as the standard clinical reference, this volume provides the best current knowledge about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. The field's leading authorities address all aspects of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment, including psychological therapies and pharmacotherapy. Core…

  7. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefo

  8. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  10. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  11. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder at work: Does it impact job performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Bozionelos; Giorgos Bozionelos

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which affects a substantial proportion of the adult population and it often remains undiagnosed. Because of its symptoms, which include inability to focus and maintain attention, problems in time management and procrastination, ADHD is suspected as a cause of poor performance in the workplace. A recent contemplation suggests a mechanism for that: employees with ADHD may perform less well because they are unable to focus t...

  12. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Wolfgang; Ringling, Jutta; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Vogelgesang, Monika; Rösler, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent mental disorder with childhood onset and high persistence into adulthood. There is much evidence that ADHD increases the risk for the development of other psychiatric disorders and functional problems in several domains of everyday life. In this study, the association of ADHD with gambling disorder (GD) was investigated. 163 adult subjects suffering from GD were examined for childhood and current ADHD according to DSM-5 as well as co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Moreover, characteristics of gambling behavior have been evaluated. The prevalence of lifetime ADHD was 28.8 %, with 25.2 % of the study population presenting ADHD as a full syndrome according to DSM-5. The prevalence of co-morbid substance use disorders and adjustment disorders and cluster B personality disorders was higher in GD patients with current ADHD than in the group without. Also, an increased rate of suicide attempts was detected in gamblers with ADHD. In contrast with gamblers without ADHD, those with ADHD were reported to spend more time with gambling, a sedative effect of gambling and a faster development of GD. The high prevalence of ADHD in patients with GD indicates that childhood ADHD is a risk factor for the development of GD in later life. Moreover, treatment of patients with GD and ADHD is complicated by a high rate of co-morbid disorders. Regarding therapeutic approaches, it should be considered that functional aspects of gambling differ in GD patients with and without ADHD. PMID:27328979

  13. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug companies and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jessica; Read, John

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of drug-company funding on websites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Websites in the top 60 for either Google or Yahoo!Xtra with information about causation and treatment were analysed. Likert scales, based on those used in previous similar studies, were developed to rate aetiological explanations and recommended treatment approaches, on a dimension from psycho-social to biological. Overall, the quality of information on websites was poor with a strong bias towards bio-genetic aetiological explanations of ADHD. Twenty-one of the 57 websites (37%) were funded by drug companies. The drug-company funded (DCF) websites were significantly more likely than non-DCF websites to recommend medication rather than psycho-social treatments. The selective lack of consideration of psycho-social treatments by DCF websites is discussed in relation to the relevant research literature, including the evidence in favour of a multimodal approach. The findings, which are consistent with previous similar studies in relation to websites about adult mental health problems, confirm that the pharmaceutical industry is seeking to influence public opinion via the internet. PMID:21429977

  14. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  15. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults. PMID:25295647

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  17. 成人注意缺陷多动障碍患者的生活质量及相关因素%Quality of life and related factors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳; 黄京; 钱秋谨; 王玉凤; 何笑笑; 马全刚; 王艺

    2013-01-01

    目的:评估成人注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)患者生活质量,分析其相关因素.方法:对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ) ADHD诊断的41例成人患者,使用世界卫生组织生存质量测定量表简表(WHOQOL-BREF)、ADHD评定量表、执行功能行为评定量表成人版(BRIEF-A)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、自评抑郁量表(SDS)、DSM-Ⅳ-TR轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查工具进行评估.结果:患者WHOQOL-BREF生理领域[(12.2±2.7)vs.(15.1±2.3)]和心理领域[(11.9±2.6) vs.(13.9±1.9)]得分低于中国大陆常模(P<0.01),并与ADHD评定量表的注意缺陷分量表、BRIEF-A多个因子、SAS和SDS的得分存在负相关(r=-0.31 ~-0.82,均P<0.05),且存在轴Ⅰ共患病的患者WHOQOL-BREF得分更低.回归分析显示,ADHD评定量表的注意缺陷分量表得分(β=-0.64、-0.26)、SAS得分(β=-0.65、-0.75、-0.60、-0.46)、BRIEF-A的任务监控因子(β=-0.56)和自我监控因子(β=-0.39)得分与患者生活质量负相关(均P<0.05).结论:成人ADHD患者生活质量较差,并且注意缺陷症状、抑郁水平和执行功能受损越严重,患者生活质量越差.%Objective:To explore the quality of life and related factors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods:Totally 41 adult patients meeting the diagnoses of ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) were selected.The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version(WHOQOL-BREF),ADHD Rating Scale,Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version(BRIEF-A),Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS),Self-rating depression scale(SDS) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Ⅳ axis-Ⅰ disorders were administered to the patients.Results:The adult ADHD patients had lower scores of WHOQOL-BREF in physical [(12.2 ± 2.7) vs.(15.1 ± 2.3)] and psychological [(11.9 ± 2.6) vs.(13.9 ± 1.9)] domains than the model of healthy adults in

  18. Course of self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in substance abusers during early treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reported symptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders....... A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and followed at 3 and 6 months after intake by independent interviewers (follow-up rate 81%). Symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity were assessed with the Adult Self-report Scale for ADHD (ASRS......). Both types of symptoms declined significantly during follow-up, but attention symptoms had a high intraclass correlation (0.79), and hyperactivity had a moderate intraclass correlation (0.64). Both baseline attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms were associated with worse work and social...

  19. Professor Perceptions of College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Teresa Ann; Weyandt, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: From April to June 2005, the authors investigated professor perceptions of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: 253 participants completed the ADHD Beliefs Survey-Revised, a 40-question survey measuring professor perceptions of ADHD. Methods: Analysis of variance measured false and…

  20. Executive Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess executive functions in medication naive children with attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD). Method: Group matched (age and gender) children with ADHD (N=30) and healthy children (N=30) in the age range of 6-14 years were compared on measures of executive functions (response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility,…

  1. GAME BIOFEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stoller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when using betastimulating game neurofeedback. The dynamics of segmental characteristics of the alpha rhythm and θ/β ratio for different groups of successful training. Evaluate the effectiveness of training in terms of the number of ADHD symptoms (at the beginning and end of the training.

  2. EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, M. Barry

    2000-01-01

    Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

  3. The Psychoeducational Link between Attention Deficit Disorder and Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This paper examines cognitive processing problems associated with attention deficit disorders (ADD) and their relationship to learning disabilities in elementary and secondary students. Children with ADD, medicated (N=20) and unmedicated (N=21), were compared on the Raven test of Progressive Matrices and other tests with children who had been…

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink; P.A.C. Van Lier; A.A.M. Crijnen

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized c

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have co

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier; A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  7. Attention Deficit Syndrome: Educational Bugaboo of the 90s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Svea J.

    The increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and the characteristics and treatment of ADD using sensory motor exercises are discussed. Reasons for the disability are explored, including neurological differences and difficulties in interpreting sensory input. Problems with focusing and hearing as well as hypersensitivity to…

  8. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  9. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  10. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  11. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  12. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  13. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmf

  14. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  15. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  16. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  17. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have co

  19. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  20. InforMatrix for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Robert; Faber, Adrianne; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to facilitate discussion on drug selection for the treatment of ADHD by using only clinically relevant selection criteria and providing an up-to-date overview. The InforMatrix method was used to select drugs to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The

  1. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  2. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes de

  3. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia.

  4. Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: parenting style as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies. PMID:25465651

  5. Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: parenting style as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  6. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Seeking? Ways of Distinguishing Two Common Childhood Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Nigel Mellor recently retired from his work with the educational psychology service in North Tyneside. In this article, he proposes that attention-seeking behaviour may lead to major difficulties at home and school and indicates the ways in which recent research is beginning to clarify the area. Attention deficit disorders also cause great…

  7. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  8. Comparative acute efficacy and tolerability of OROS and immediate release formulations of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerness Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of IR MPH administered three times daily to those of once daily OROS-MPH. Methods Subjects were outpatient adults satisfying full diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV ADHD between 19 and 60 years of age. Data from two independently conducted 6-week placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials of IR-MPH (tid and of OROS-MPH were pooled to create three study groups: Placebo (N = 116, IR-MPH (tid (N = 102 and OROS-MPH (N = 67. Results Eight-five percent (N = 99 of placebo treated subjects, 77% (N = 79 of the IR-MPH (tid treated subjects, and 82% (N = 55 of the OROS-MPH treated subjects completed the 6-week trial. Total daily doses at endpoint were 80.9 ± 31.9 mg, 74.8 ± 26.2 mg, and 95.4 ± 26.3 mg in the OROS-MPH, IR-MPH (tid, and placebo groups, respectively. At endpoint, 66% (N = 44 of subjects receiving OROS-MPH and 70% (N = 71 of subjects receiving IR-MPH (tid were considered responders compared with 31% (N = 36 on placebo. Conclusion Comparison of data from two similarly designed, large, randomized, placebo-controlled, trials, showed that equipotent daily doses of once daily OROS-MPH had similar efficacy to that of TID administered IR MPH. Trial Registration The trial of OROS-MPH was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00181571.

  9. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  10. Relationship between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of women*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Çolak, Rukiye Sivri; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris has recently been reported to be associated with elevated rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in epidemiological studies. This report examines childhood and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of female adults. Ninety-one women with acne vulgaris and 53 controls were included in this study. The aforementioned symptoms were measured in participants. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in any of the measurements. Contrary to the findings of epidemiological studies, this study did not uncover a link between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder PMID:27192533

  11. Deficits in reflexive covert attention following cerebellar injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striemer, Christopher L; Cantelmi, David; Cusimano, Michael D; Danckert, James A; Schweizer, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the cerebellum has been known for its important role in coordinating motor output. Over the past 15 years numerous studies have indicated that the cerebellum plays a role in a variety of cognitive functions including working memory, language, perceptual functions, and emotion. In addition, recent work suggests that regions of the cerebellum involved in eye movements also play a role in controlling covert visual attention. Here we investigated whether regions of the cerebellum that are not strictly tied to the control of eye movements might also contribute to covert attention. To address this question we examined the effects of circumscribed cerebellar lesions on reflexive covert attention in a group of patients (n = 11) without any gross motor or oculomotor deficits, and compared their performance to a group of age-matched controls (n = 11). Results indicated that the traditional RT advantage for validly cued targets was significantly smaller at the shortest (50 ms) SOA for cerebellar patients compared to controls. Critically, a lesion overlap analysis indicated that this deficit in the rapid deployment of attention was linked to damage in Crus I and Crus II of the lateral cerebellum. Importantly, both cerebellar regions have connections to non-motor regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices-regions important for controlling visuospatial attention. Together, these data provide converging evidence that both lateral and midline regions of the cerebellum play an important role in the control of reflexive covert visual attention. PMID:26300756

  12. Deficits in reflexive covert attention following cerebellar injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eStriemer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally the cerebellum has been known for its important role in coordinating motor output. Over the past fifteen years numerous studies have indicated that the cerebellum plays a role in a variety of cognitive functions including working memory, language, perceptual functions, and emotion. In addition, recent work suggests that regions of the cerebellum involved in eye movements also play a role in controlling covert visual attention. Here we investigated whether regions of the cerebellum that are not strictly tied to the control of eye movements might also contribute to covert attention. To address this question we examined the effects of circumscribed cerebellar lesions on reflexive covert attention in a group of patients (n=11 without any gross motor or oculomotor deficits, and compared their performance to a group of age-matched controls (n=11. Results indicated that the traditional RT advantage for validly cued targets was significantly smaller at the shortest (50ms SOA for cerebellar patients compared to controls. Critically, a lesion overlap analysis indicated that this deficit in the rapid deployment of attention was linked to damage in Crus I and Crus II of the lateral cerebellum. Importantly, both cerebellar regions have connections to non-motor regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices – regions important for controlling visuospatial attention. Together, these data provide converging evidence that both lateral and midline regions of the cerebellum play an important role in the control of reflexive covert visual attention.

  13. 成人注意缺陷多动障碍合并海洛因依赖患者的三维人格特点研究%AStudy on Tridimensional Personality Characteristics of Adult Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴孝苹; 龙虎; 郭兰婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the tridimensional personality characteristics of Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity dis-order( ADHD) combined heroin abusers. Methods Personality characteristics of 60 cases adults ADHD combined heroin abuse-rs,60cases heroin abusers and 60 cases normal control were investigated using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Results The differences were statistically significant In the novelty seeking NS,NS1,NS2,NS3 and NS4,ADHD com-bined group and heroin abusers group compared with normal controls(P<0. 05),the harm avoidance HA,HA3,HA4,RD2 and RD4 were differently in ADHD combined group compared with other two groups(P<0. 05). Compared with heroin abusers group controlled effects of heroin,ADHD combined group were significantly differences in the novelty seeking NS,NS1,NS2,NS3 and NS4(P<0. 05). Conclusion There were high NS in Adult ADHD,and the high NS were specific personality features of Adult ADHD.%目的:探讨注意缺陷多动障碍合并海洛因依赖患者的三维人格特点。方法对60例成人ADHD合并海洛因依赖患者(合并组)、60例慢性海洛因依赖者(海洛因组)和60例正常人(对照组),进行三维人格评定。结果在猎奇性NS、NS1、NS2、NS3和NS4方面,ADHD合并组与海洛因组和对照组比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);在躲避伤害性HA、HA3、HA4、RD2和RD4方面,ADHD合并组和海洛因组与正常对照组比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。控制海洛因的影响后,在猎奇性NS、NS1、NS2、NS3和NS4方面,ADHD合并组与海洛因依赖组比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论成人ADHD合并海洛因依赖患者存在高NS,高NS是成人ADHD的特有人格特点。

  14. Initial Orientation of Attention towards Emotional Faces in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Ahmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early recognition of negative emotions is considered to be of vital importance. It seems that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have some difficulties recognizing facial emotional expressions, especially negative ones. This study investigated the preference of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for negative (angry, sad facial expressions compared to normal children.Method: Participants were 35 drug naive boys with ADHD, aged between 6-11 years ,and 31 matched healthy children. Visual orientation data were recorded while participants viewed face pairs (negative-neutral pairs shown for 3000ms. The number of first fixations made to each expression was considered as an index of initial orientation. Results: Group comparisons revealed no difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and their matched healthy counterparts in initial orientation of attention. A tendency towards negative emotions was found within the normal group, while no difference was observed between initial allocation of attention toward negative and neutral expressions in children with ADHD .Conclusion: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not have significant preference for negative facial expressions. In contrast, normal children have a significant preference for negative facial emotions rather than neutral faces.

  15. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Craig,1 Francesco Margari,2 Anna R Legrottaglie,1 Roberto Palumbi,1 Concetta de Giambattista,1 Lucia Margari1 1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, 2Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. Keywords: executive function, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ASD + ADHD, neurocognitive endophenotype

  16. Intellectual Disability in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Alka; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mild intellectual disability (ID) are a clinically distinct ADHD subgroup. Study design This was a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics (ADHD subtypes, total number of symptoms, and rates of common comorbidities) between children with ADHD and mild ID and those with ADHD and IQ test scores >70, and also between children with ADHD and ID and a general population sample of childr...

  17. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Azadbakht; Mohammad H. Rouhani; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: : To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of Iranian school aged children.Materials and Method: : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were ident...

  18. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological ...

  19. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF) intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8) and control (CG, N = 10) groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children partici...

  20. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P

  1. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. PMID:26072341

  2. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  3. Helping adolescents with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder transition toward adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Edward M; Gotlieb, Jaquelin S

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians can help adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prepare to enter post-high school training and the workforce. In this article peer-reviewed studies and other resources for informing patients of the issues ahead are identified. We discuss preventive counseling, including long-term monitoring, adherence to treatment, driving, tobacco, alcohol, and other drug usage, career planning, and intimacy. The current status of insurance coverage for young adults and federal programs to assist students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are reviewed also. Consideration is given for applying for precollege testing and college accommodations and traveling abroad with medications. Pediatricians and young adults are directed to Web-based and other self-management information and tools. PMID:19492699

  4. Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tracy; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Mash, Eric J.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has recently emerged as an important area of research, little attention has been given to the family functioning of women with ADHD, particularly in their role as mothers. We examined parenting self-esteem, locus of control, and disciplinary styles in a community sample of mothers…

  5. Analysis of individual items on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom rating scale in children and adults: the effects of age and sex in pivotal trials of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisler RH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard H Weisler,1,2 Lenard A Adler,3 Scott H Kollins,4 David W Goodman,5 Mohamed Hamdani,5 Bryan Dirks,6 Ann C Childress71Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3New York University School of Medicine and Psychiatry Service, New York VA Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY, USA; 4Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Shire Development LLC, Wayne, PA, USA; 7Center for Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Las Vegas, NV, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptom presentation across age and sex has not been fully elucidated. The present post hoc analyses qualitatively explored the baseline levels of ADHD symptomatology across subgroups in two clinical trials of children and adults with ADHD to elucidate differences in participant presentation. The response to treatment was examined to determine patterns of response among items of the ADHD Rating Scale IV.Methods: Exploratory post hoc analyses of ADHD Rating Scale IV item scores were conducted on data from two 4-week placebo-controlled trials in children (6–12 years and in adults (18–55 years with ADHD. Baseline and endpoint mean item scores were determined for subgroups defined by age (6–9, 10–12, 18–39, and 40–55 years and sex.Results: The baseline mean item scores were generally numerically similar for all age-by-sex subgroups. The inattention (IA items were numerically higher than hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I items among older children and adults. The endpoint mean item scores were numerically lower after lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment for IA and H/I items in all subgroups.Conclusion: These results suggest that regardless of age or sex, baseline IA and H/I symptom profiles were comparable; however, IA vs H/I symptoms were more severe in older participants. In all age-by-sex subgroups, IA and

  6. Contribution of Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Strategy to Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin Ogulmus; Celale Ozcan

    2010-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, distractibility, and impulsivity. Scholastic competence, social acceptance, and behavioral conduct were problem areas for children with ADHD. These children have difficulties in regulating their emotions and maintaining good relations. Lack of these skills hinders the development of healthy peer relationships and positive interaction with adults. It is important for children with ADHD ...

  7. Associations between substance use disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Krantz, Sofia Birgitta, 1983-

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated research points to certain associations between substance use disorder (SUD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The intent of this thesis was to examine associations between SUD and ADHD among Icelandic adults. In line with results of earlier studies, it was hypothesized that individuals with ADHD are diagnosed with SUD at an earlier age and show shorter times of abstinence than individuals without ADHD. A positive correlation was predicted between age at offset ...

  8. Adult's outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its predictive factors%儿童注意缺陷多动障碍成人期预后及其预测因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岳玲; 钱秋瑾; 王玉凤

    2007-01-01

    注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)是儿童期最常见的行为障碍。国外统计儿童期的患病率为8%~12%,我国ADHD的患病率为4.31%~5.83%。

  9. Working memory deficits in adults with ADHD: is there evidence for subtype differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff Deborah R; Hanford Russell B; Schweitzer Julie B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Working memory performance is important for maintaining functioning in cognitive, academic and social activities. Previous research suggests there are prevalent working memory deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is now a growing body of literature characterizing working memory functioning according to ADHD subtypes in children. The expression of working memory deficits in adults with ADHD and how they vary according to subtype, ...

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  11. Drug holidays and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher P. SZABO

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ‘drug holidays’ (defined as "...the structured interruption of pharmacological treatment..."[1]) in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established,but poorly researched[1].The question is whether there is indeed a justifiable basis for the practice.In the opinion piece by Professors Du and Wang[2],they argue that on the balance of available evidence it is not justified.Herein lies the issue-the evidence.In reality significant numbers of parents both report side effects[3] and stop medication intermittently[1],and many sufferers stop treatment prematurely[4] (generally due to adverse effects).

  12. The Experience of Mothers and Teachers of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children, and Their Management Practices for the Behaviors of the Child a Descriptive Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazni, Lubna; Alkaissi, Aidah

    2016-01-01

    ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a childhood disorder affecting children worldwide and has a major burden on the child, family and other caregivers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the experience of the adults that interact on a daily basis with school-aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…

  13. Prevalence of adulthood attention deficit / hyperactivity symptoms in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University

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    Nourmohammad Bakhshani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University.Materials and Method: This cross sectional study was performed during second educational semester (2010. The sample included 403 students of Sistan and Balouchestan university who were selected by non random sampling after filling two questionnaires, including the demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Canner′s adult attentiondeficit/hyperactivity (CAARS-S:OV questionnaire. To analyze data we used SPSS-16 software.Results: Based on test scores of Canner′s adult test, results showed about 39 students (9.7% in inattention-memory index and 32 students (7.9% in the hyperactivity index had higher or much higher scores than average. In addition, 27 students (6.7% and 38 others (9.4% had higher or much higher scores in impulsivity-emotional index and problem with self concept, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, we suggest that the symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficit are common among university students of Sistan and Balouchestan. For preventing educational problems and high risk behaviors such as drug use, further studies and appropriate preventive and treatment programs highly recommended

  14. Drug therapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Current trends

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    Avinash De Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as a-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future.

  15. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amanda; Dias, Natália Martins; Trevisan, Bruna Tonietti; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF) intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8) and control (CG, N = 10) groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  16. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  17. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  18. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

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    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The sample of this study consisted of 25 children (8 female and 17 male aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD and who were not taking any psychopharmacological treatment at the time of the study, and had not taken medication previously. Executive functioning was assessed through the Zoo Map test and Tower of Hanoi puzzle in pre-/post-test design. A socio-emotional intervention programme was implemented. The training consisted of 8 one-hour weekly sessions, on an individual basis. Results indicate that such a programme does lead to improved performance in the execution of tasks that evaluate executive functions. After the intervention, the children took less time to resolve the Zoo Map test. Results for the Hanoi Tower puzzle were also improved after intervention. The children needed a lower number of movements to complete the task.

  19. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Mattingley, Jason B; Sheppard, Dianne M; Lee, Paul; Bradshaw, John L

    2005-04-01

    Attention and executive functions were investigated in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD combined type using a novel selective reaching task. This task involved responding as rapidly as possible to a target while at times having to ignore a distractor. Results indicated that unmedicated children with ADHD showed slow and inaccurate responding. Slow responding reflected problems at the stage of movement preparation but not movement execution. An attentional impairment, rather than a motor planning problem per se, appeared to underlie the slow movement preparation. Inaccurate responding reflected problems with response inhibition and selective attention, impulsivity, set-shifting, and difficulties in maintaining vigilance. Although medicated children with ADHD did not show slow movement preparation, they did show some response inaccuracy, resulting especially from impulsive responding. These findings suggest that ADHD is characterized by slow motor preparation (but not motor execution), and deficits in selective attention, vigilance, and executive functions. Preliminary results suggest that stimulant medication may resolve some of these motor, attentional and executive function deficits.

  20. Testing computational models of dopamine and noradrenaline dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael J; Santamaria, Amy; O'Reilly, Randall C; Willcutt, Erik

    2007-07-01

    We test our neurocomputational model of fronto-striatal dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) function for understanding cognitive and motivational deficits in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our model predicts that low striatal DA levels in ADHD should lead to deficits in 'Go' learning from positive reinforcement, which should be alleviated by stimulant medications, as observed with DA manipulations in other populations. Indeed, while nonmedicated adult ADHD participants were impaired at both positive (Go) and negative (NoGo) reinforcement learning, only the former deficits were ameliorated by medication. We also found evidence for our model's extension of the same striatal DA mechanisms to working memory, via interactions with prefrontal cortex. In a modified AX-continuous performance task, ADHD participants showed reduced sensitivity to working memory contextual information, despite no global performance deficits, and were more susceptible to the influence of distractor stimuli presented during the delay. These effects were reversed with stimulant medications. Moreover, the tendency for medications to improve Go relative to NoGo reinforcement learning was predictive of their improvement in working memory in distracting conditions, suggestive of common DA mechanisms and supporting a unified account of DA function in ADHD. However, other ADHD effects such as erratic trial-to-trial switching and reaction time variability are not accounted for by model DA mechanisms, and are instead consistent with cortical noradrenergic dysfunction and associated computational models. Accordingly, putative NA deficits were correlated with each other and independent of putative DA-related deficits. Taken together, our results demonstrate the usefulness of computational approaches for understanding cognitive deficits in ADHD. PMID:17164816

  1. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and telemental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nancy B; Myers, Kathleen M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A; Geyer, John R; Desalvo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder genomics: update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine; Sackett, Jillan; Turner, Terri; Schardt, Martin; Tang, Shih-Ching; Kurtz, Nicole; Dunfey, Maura; McFarlane, Nadia A; Susi, Aita; Danish, David; Li, Alice; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Borgmann-Winter, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is familial and highly heritable. Several candidate genes involved in neurotransmission have been identified, however these confer minimal risk, suggesting that for the most part, ADHD is not caused by single common genetic variants. Advances in genotyping enabling investigation at the level of the genome have led to the discovery of rare structural variants suggesting that ADHD is a genomic disorder, with potentially thousands of variants, and common neuronal pathways disrupted by numerous rare variants resulting in similar ADHD phenotypes. Heritability studies in humans also indicate the importance of epigenetic factors, and animal studies are deciphering some of the processes that confer risk during gestation and throughout the post-natal period. These and future discoveries will lead to improved diagnosis, individualized treatment, cures, and prevention. These advances also highlight ethical and legal issues requiring management and interpretation of genetic data and ensuring privacy and protection from misuse.

  4. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Felipe Salles Neves; Caetano, Sheila Cavalcante; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Scivoletto, Sandra; Muszkat, Mauro; Gattás, Ivete Gianfaldoni; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; de Andrade, Ênio Roberto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; do Rosário, Maria Conceição

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS) article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate. PMID:26061456

  5. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  6. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  7. Psychosocial treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Creed, Torrey; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Brown, Ronald T

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews studies examining the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A specific emphasis is placed on evidence-based interventions that include parent training, classroom, academic, and peer interventions. Results indicate that school-aged children respond to behavioral interventions when they are appropriately implemented both at home and in the classroom setting. Combined treatments (behavioral management and stimulant medication) represent the gold standard in ADHD treatment and are often recommended as the first-line treatment option due to the many problems faced by children with ADHD. Diversity issues, although an important consideration in the treatment of ADHD, continue to remain an understudied area. Recommendations for future research are made pertaining to treatment sequencing with regard to behavior management as well as for subgroups of ADHD children who may respond best to specific treatments. PMID:17260167

  8. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder blame game: a study on the positioning of professionals, teachers and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is currently the most debated childhood psychiatric diagnosis. Given the circulation of competing perspectives about the 'real' causes of children's behaviour and the 'best' way to treat them, we aim to analyse the interactions of the central social actors' discourses about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children within the Italian context. Adopting a multi-method approach, we focus on the polyphonic chorus of voices surrounding the child, studying the discourses of mental health professionals, teachers and parents. These actors are representative of three contexts that are deeply engaged with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medical institutions, schools and families. Our theoretical and methodological approach integrates positioning theory, the Bakhtinian notion of dialogical thinking and discourse analysis to study stakeholders' reflexive and interactive positioning in terms of the attribution of rights, duties, responsibilities and power issues. The results show that mutual blame is a constitutive element of relational dynamics among the key adults surrounding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children. We argue that these conflicting relationships are not merely related to the debate regarding the validity of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Rather, the mutual blame centres on questions of compliance, recognition of authority and morality. Through the blame game, adults negotiate their own and others' subjectivity in ways that simultaneously (re)produce power relationships and resistance efforts.

  9. Support for Learning Goes beyond Academic Support: Voices of Students with Asperger's Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition. PMID:10028130

  11. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in intellectually gifted adults and children. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ had been previously evaluated using Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 for signs of ADHD and a modified Waldrop scale for minor physical anomalies (MPAs. Thirty-nine children (grades 1-5 exhibiting IQ scores above the 99th percentile, as well as an equally matched control group, were assessed for ADHD by teachers using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Rating Scale (SNAP-IV as used in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA-SNAP-IV. Results: In gifted adults, the frequency of ADHD-positive cases was 37.8%, and the total MPA score was significantly associated with ADHD (p < 0.001. In children, the ADHD-positive case frequency was 15.38% in the gifted group and 7.69% in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.18, p = 0.288. Conclusions: The high frequency of ADHD symptoms observed, both in gifted adults and in gifted (and non-gifted children, further supports the validity of this diagnosis in this population. Furthermore, the significant association between MPAs and ADHD suggests that a neurodevelopmental condition underlies these symptoms.

  13. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories

    OpenAIRE

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-11. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomemon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and m...

  14. A brain-computer interface based attention training program for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Guan Lim

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms can be difficult to treat. We previously reported that a 20-session brain-computer interface (BCI attention training programme improved ADHD symptoms. Here, we investigated a new more intensive BCI-based attention training game system on 20 unmedicated ADHD children (16 males, 4 females with significant inattentive symptoms (combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes. This new system monitored attention through a head band with dry EEG sensors, which was used to drive a feed forward game. The system was calibrated for each user by measuring the EEG parameters during a Stroop task. Treatment consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 sessions followed by 3 once-monthly booster training sessions. Following intervention, both parent-rated inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale showed significant improvement. At week 8, the mean improvement was -4.6 (5.9 and -4.7 (5.6 respectively for inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (both p<0.01. Cohen's d effect size for inattentive symptoms was large at 0.78 at week 8 and 0.84 at week 24 (post-boosters. Further analysis showed that the change in the EEG based BCI ADHD severity measure correlated with the change ADHD Rating Scale scores. The BCI-based attention training game system is a potential new treatment for ADHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344044.

  15. Measuring Attentional Ability in Older Adults: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of DriverScan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lesa; Yang, Xiangdong; Bovaird, James A.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Although deficits in visual attention are often postulated as an important component of many declines in cognitive processing and functional outcomes in older adults, surprisingly little emphasis has been placed on evaluating psychometric instruments with which individual differences in visual attention ability can be assessed. This article…

  16. 注意缺陷多动障碍患儿的成人早期精神状况随访研究%Young adult follow-up of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: psychiatric status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱秋谨; 李岳玲; 王玉凤; 张玉娟

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)患儿在成人早期罹患精神障碍的状况.方法 采用前瞻性设计方法,对就诊于北京大学精神卫生研究所精神科门诊的300例ADHD患儿进行随访,同意参加随访者116例(随访率38.7%),基线至随访为2.0~13.5年;患儿基线年龄为7.5~17.0岁,随访时年龄为18.0~23.5岁;采用以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版为诊断标准制订的定式会谈工具确定诊断,包括Conners成人ADHD诊断会谈量表(Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-Ⅳ,CAADID)、DSM-Ⅳ-TR轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查(SCID-Ⅰ)和DSM-Ⅳ轴Ⅱ障碍定式临床检查(SCID-Ⅱ)工具.结果 随访时116例中符合成人ADHD诊断者共59例(50.9%),其中单纯符合成人ADHD诊断标准者18例(15.5%),同时符合成人ADHD及精神障碍/人格障碍者41例(35.3%);不符合成人ADHD诊断,但符合精神障碍/人格障碍者17例(14.7%);不符合任何精神疾病诊断者40例(34.5%),其中功能缓解29例(25.0%),功能未缓解11例(9.5%).116例中,40例(34.5%)至少共患1种DSM-Ⅳ轴Ⅰ障碍,其中21例(18.1%)共患情感障碍,12例(10.3%)共患焦虑障碍,6例(5.2%)共患物质滥用;38例(32.8%)符合DSM-Ⅳ轴Ⅱ人格障碍诊断,其中6例(5.2%)符合A组人格障碍诊断,23例(19.8%)符合B组人格障碍诊断,包括20例(17.2%)反社会型人格障碍,18例(15.5%)符合C组人格障碍诊断,6例(6.0%)符合其他人格障碍诊断.结论 ADHD患儿至成人早期预后较差,2/3左右罹患成人ADHD、精神障碍或人格障碍,其中50.9%符合成人ADHD.%Objective To investigate the psychiatric status in their young adulthood of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods This was a prospedive study.The follow-up study of a cohort of clinic-referred ADHD children was conducted.At baseline, The consecutively referred children (n = 300) with DSM-Ⅳ ADHD, aged 7.5 - 17.0 years were assessed.At the 2.0 - 13.5-year follow

  17. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Blum1,6,7,8,9,10, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen2, Eric R Braverman3,9, David E Comings4, Thomas JH Chen5, Vanessa Arcuri9, Seth H Blum6, Bernard W Downs7,8, Roger L Waite7, Alison Notaro9, Joel Lubar10, Lonna Williams7, Thomas J Prihoda11, Tomas Palomo12, Marlene Oscar-Berman131Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; 2Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Weill College of Medicine, New York, NY; 4Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA; 5Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Psychoneurogenetics, Synapatamine, Inc., San Antonio, TX; 7LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA; 8Allied Nutraceutical Research, Lederach, PA; 9PATH Research Foundation, New York, NY; 10Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 11Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX; 12Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 13Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MAParts of this manuscript have been published in Theor Biol Med Model (Comings et al 2005, which is an open access journalAbstract: Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a

  18. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: : To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a group of Iranian school aged children.Materials and Method: : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 9.7% in this population. We identified 4 major dietary patterns: "healthy", "western", "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns. Children in top quintile of "sweet dietary pattern” score had greater odds for having ADHD as compared with those in the lowest quintile (Odds ratio: 3.95; 95% CI: 1.16, 15.31; p=0.03. Greater adherence to "fast food" dietary pattern was significantly associated with higher risk of having ADHD (Odds ratio: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 10.90; p=0.03. No overall significant associations were seen between either healthy or western dietary patterns with ADHD. All these analysis were done in the controlled model for confounders.Conclusion: We found significant independent associations between "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns and prevalence of ADHD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review for family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by persistent hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention that impairs educational achievement and/or social functioning. Its diagnosis is made by ascertaining whether the child′s specific behaviors meet the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Comorbidity with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder; and with specific learning disability is not uncommon. Although medication works well in most cases of ADHD, optimal treatment requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. Methylphenidate (MPH and atomoxetine are the two drugs being currently prescribed and their efficacy in decreasing the symptoms of ADHD is well documented. Pyschoeducational interventions in school can help increase the successful functioning of affected children and improve their academic performance. Almost half of affected children continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into adolescence and young adulthood. The family physician can play an important role in detecting this condition early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child′s academic and psychosocial progress on a long-term basis.

  20. Functional MRI studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map

  1. Investigation of Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Uyan1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD which may accompany to ADHD according to parent and teacher statements. Method: This cross-sectional research involving 251 adolescents from 9 different schools in Ankara was carried out between April and June 2007. Adolescents were assessed in Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale based on DSM-IV. A questionnaire was used for sociodemographic attributes. Screening and rating scale was completed by both class teacher and parent of the students. Results: According to the combined statements of parent and teacher 5.9% of the students had ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of ADHD was 12.7% and 27.4% on the basis of parent and teacher reports respectively. ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among boys on the basis of both teacher and parent reports (p<0.001. There was no significant difference between ADHD symptoms and socioeconomic status and parent education level. The prevalence of ODD was 46.4% and 52.5% among adolescents with ADHD symptoms according to parent and teacher assessments respectively. Conclusion: Informing parent and teachers about DEHB and other disruptive behaviors, and about the outcomes due these problems is important in view of early recognition of the problem, initiation of treatment and being supportive for the adolescent.

  2. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background.

  3. The search for biomarkers for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Deeann

    2010-09-01

    The main characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity which is more frequent and severe than is usually expected in individuals at a comparable level of development. ADHD is estimated to affect approximately 5.29% of school-aged children and is therefore the most common childhood onset psychological disorder. A conservative estimate of the annual societal cost of illness for ADHD in childhood and adolescence is USD 42.5 billion in the U.S. alone. Global sales of ADHD medicines could reach USD 4.3 billion by 2012. Despite the prevalence, high heritability and costs of ADHD, biological markers do not exist. Such biomarkers are in high demand as they would help eliminate the subjective diagnoses based on interviews and potentially allow for earlier diagnosis and personalized medicine. Lack of markers likely stems from several factors that complicate ADHD research and the assessment of pharmacological responses. This review analyses complicating factors in defining ADHD phenotype and etiology, identifying specific diagnostic markers and the difficulties in the assessment of pharmacogenomic markers. The dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype and methylphenidate (MPH) response are detailed as an example of a biomarker. A recent report of a novel ADHD gene and its possible role as a biomarker is explored. Finally, suggestions for strategies and study designs for future research for the definition of effective ADHD biomarkers are made. PMID:20862396

  4. [Formal genetic findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, J; Heiser, P; Dempfle, A; Konrad, K; Hemminger, U; Kathöfer, A; Halbach, A; Strub, J; Grabarkiewicz, J; Kiefl, H; Linder, M; Knölker, U; Warnke, A; Remschmidt, H; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Hebebrand, J

    2003-07-01

    Twin, family and adoption studies have led to a solid understanding of the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors to the development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review recent studies under consideration of both methodological aspects and relevant findings. Heritability estimates in the range of 0.6 - 0.8 surpass those for most other child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. First degree relatives have elevated rates for ADHD, affective disorders, conduct disorders and substance abuse and dependency. The ADHD subtype of the index patient does not predict the subtype of other family members affected with ADHD; hence non-genetic factors seemingly account for this intrafamilial variability. Because the familial rates for ADHD are not higher in families of female in comparison to male index patients, there is no indication that the genetic loading is higher in affected females. Recently, rater effects have been discussed broadly: Whereas the heritability estimates are uniformly high independent of the informant (mother, father, teacher), the correlations between quantitatively rated symptoms are low between different informants. Knowledge of the formal genetic aspects of ADHD is a prerequisite for understanding the results of recent molecular genetic studies. PMID:12858257

  5. Pathway analysis in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An ensemble approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A; McWeeney, Shannon K; Faraone, Stephen V; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Nigg, Joel T; Wilmot, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence for the role of genetics in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific and definitive genetic mechanisms have not been identified. Pathway analyses, a subset of gene-set analyses, extend the knowledge gained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by providing functional context for genetic associations. However, there are numerous methods for association testing of gene sets and no real consensus regarding the best approach. The present study applied six pathway analysis methods to identify pathways associated with ADHD in two GWAS datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Methods that utilize genotypes to model pathway-level effects identified more replicable pathway associations than methods using summary statistics. In addition, pathways implicated by more than one method were significantly more likely to replicate. A number of brain-relevant pathways, such as RhoA signaling, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, fibroblast growth factor receptor activity, and pathways containing potassium channel genes, were nominally significant by multiple methods in both datasets. These results support previous hypotheses about the role of regulation of neurotransmitter release, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in contributing to the ADHD phenotype and suggest the value of cross-method convergence in evaluating pathway analysis results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004716

  6. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background. PMID:25895916

  7. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD. PMID:25713005

  8. Response disinhibition may be explained as an extinction deficit in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2004-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting between 2 and 12% of grade-school children disturbing social, academic, and occupational functioning. Problems related to social adjustment and functioning and/or psychiatric problems will exist in 50-70% of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ADHD as children. It has been suggested that altered reinforcement and extinction processes may cause the symptoms of ADHD. The present study investigated extinction processes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), possibly the best-validated animal model of ADHD. Extinction was tested after either a variable interval (VI) or a fixed interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement with and without the presence of a conditioned reinforcer (light in the water cubicle). The results indicate a slower extinction process in the SHR compared to the normal controls, especially during the initial transition from scheduled reinforcement to extinction. Also, more responses were retained in the SHR during the later part of extinction. The extinction deficit in the SHR may be linked to reinforcer unpredictability and the presence of conditioned reinforcers, and may explain response disinhibition seen in children with ADHD. PMID:15129781

  9. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  10. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely. Diets to reduce symptoms associated with ADHD include sugar-restricted, additive/preservative-free, oligoantigenic/elimination, and fatty acid supplements. Omega-3 supplement is the latest dietary treatment with positive reports of efficacy, and interest in the additive-free diet of the 1970s is occasionally revived. A provocative report draws attention to the ADHD-associated "Western-style" diet, high in fat and refined sugars, and the ADHD-free "healthy" diet, containing fiber, folate, and omega-3 fatty acids. The literature on diets and ADHD, listed by PubMed, is reviewed with emphasis on recent controlled studies. Recommendations for the use of diets are based on current opinion of published reports and our practice experience. Indications for dietary therapy include medication failure, parental or patient preference, iron deficiency, and, when appropriate, change from an ADHD-linked Western diet to an ADHD-free healthy diet. Foods associated with ADHD to be avoided and those not linked with ADHD and preferred are listed. In practice, additive-free and oligoantigenic/elimination diets are time-consuming and disruptive to the household; they are indicated only in selected patients. Iron and zinc are supplemented in patients with known deficiencies; they may also enhance the effectiveness of stimulant therapy. In patients failing to respond or with parents opposed to medication, omega-3

  11. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  12. Neuropsychological attention skills and related behaviours in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Kevin M; McCartney, Deborah L; Serfontein, Jaco R; de Vries, Petrus J

    2011-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with mTOR over-activation and disruption of MAPK, PI3K and AMPK signalling. Children with TSC have significant deficits on neuropsychological attention tasks, particularly dual tasking. Here we investigated attentional skills and related behaviours in daily life in normally intelligent adults with TSC and matched controls using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and the Attention-Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA). No group differences were demonstrated on selective or sustained attention tasks carried out alone. However, adults with TSC performed significantly worse when these tasks were combined in a cross-modal dual task condition. On the ADSA the TSC group had significantly worse scores on several subscales (attention/concentration, behaviour/disorganization, academic and emotional behaviours) compared to controls and these correlated with dual task performance, indicating a clear impact of dual task deficits on attention-related behaviours in daily life. The presence or absence of epilepsy did not influence dual task performance or attention-deficits in daily life. Taken together with similar findings in children, results suggest that dual task difficulties are a core feature of the neuropsychological phenotype of TSC.

  13. Social competence and friendship formation in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William Lord

    2008-08-01

    Friendship formation (making friends, keeping friends, and having successful interactions with peers and adults) constitutes a critical developmental-social milestone for adolescents. This process can be especially challenging for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whose attentional problems may negatively affect their social skills (verbal and nonverbal language) and who fail to appreciate the complexity and nuances of adolescent communication. They often do not respond to feedback cues. They may be perceived as "immature," lacking empathy, and loners and losers, they may endure a "reputational bias," and they often experience coexisting challenges (eg, language problems, learning disabilities, or obesity). Successful and gratifying interactions, or the lack thereof, deeply and broadly affect adolescents: their self-esteem, self-image, confidence, school-learning, lifestyle, behavior, sexual activity, intimacy formation, mental-emotional well-being, and physical health. Successful achievement of this ever-evolving milestone has lifelong implications. This article describes various social-interactional skills, other components of social competence, and the dysfunctions that may cause social failure and suffering and describes how to evaluate and help manage problems in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:18822833

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  15. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients' social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Light of the Epigenetic Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Schuch, Viviane; Utsumi, Daniel Augusto; Costa, Thaís Virgínia Moura Machado; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Muszkat, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational, or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit) and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity) deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulatio...

  17. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guzmán Alba,1 Ernesto Pereda,2 Soledad Mañas,3 Leopoldo D Méndez,3 Almudena González,1 Julián J González1 1Physiology Unit, Health Sciences Faculty (S Medicine, 2Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, University of La Laguna, 3Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, University Hospital La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain Abstract: The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures, the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. Keywords: EEG, ADHD, power spectrum, functional connectivity, clinical assessment

  18. Association of Attention Deficit Disorder With Bedside Anti-saccades in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raja B; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liang, Zhu; Srivastava, Deokumar; Krull, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Impaired attention is well recognized in childhood cancer survivors. We prospectively evaluated 162 long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia to study an association between presence of neurologic soft signs as measured by Zurich Neuromotor Scale, bedside evaluation of anti-saccades, and attention deficit disorder. Attention deficit disorder was recognized in 10.5% of the study cohort. We did not find an association of attention deficit with presence of any soft sign. However, there was an association between presence of abnormal anti-saccades and attention deficit (P = .04). These results will require further validation and if confirmed may introduce a quick bedside method of assessing impaired attention in cancer survivors.

  19. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  20. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  1. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  2. Is there evidence for neural compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? A review of the functional neuroimaging literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews evidence for the presence of a compensatory, alternative, neural system and its possible link to associated processing strategies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The article presents findings on a region by region basis that suggests ADHD should be characterized not only by neural hypo-activity, as it is commonly thought but neural hyperactivity as well, in regions of the brain that may relate to compensatory brain and behavior...

  3. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  4. Review of literature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid eating disorders Revisão da literatura sobre a comorbidade do transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade com transtornos alimentares

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Palazzo Nazar; Camilla Moreira de Sousa Pinna; Gabriel Coutinho; Daniel Segenreich; Monica Duchesne; José Carlos Appolinario; Paulo Mattos

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to studies of prevalence, up to 70% of adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have at least one psychiatric comorbidity, which leads to diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties as well as more severe functional impairment. There is a paucity of data on the comorbidity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder/eating disorders...

  5. Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. METHOD: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed....... RESULTS: Correlation studies show mostly weak associations between IQ scores and attention deficits. Meta-analyses report the average short-term stimulant treatment effect on IQ in children with ADHD to be 2 to 7 IQ points. CONCLUSION: The associations between IQ and attention deficits in ADHD...

  6. Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, D.I.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Sonneville, L.M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that

  7. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  8. Genome-wide analyses of aggressiveness in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Erlend J; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Weber, Heike; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Jacob, Christian; Rivero, Olga; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Garcia-Martínez, Iris; Aebi, Marcel; van Hulzen, Kimm; Cormand, Bru; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Franke, Barbara; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Johansson, Stefan; Lundervold, Astri J; Haavik, Jan; Zayats, Tetyana

    2016-07-01

    Aggressiveness is a behavioral trait that has the potential to be harmful to individuals and society. With an estimated heritability of about 40%, genetics is important in its development. We performed an exploratory genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of childhood aggressiveness in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain insight into the underlying biological processes associated with this trait. Our primary sample consisted of 1,060 adult ADHD patients (aADHD). To further explore the genetic architecture of childhood aggressiveness, we performed enrichment analyses of suggestive genome-wide associations observed in aADHD among GWA signals of dimensions of oppositionality (defiant/vindictive and irritable dimensions) in childhood ADHD (cADHD). No single polymorphism reached genome-wide significance (P aggressiveness and provide targets for further genetic exploration of aggressiveness across psychiatric disorders. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: recent advances in paediatric pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Diane E; Kratochvil, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Throughout this decade, there has been significant research into pharmacotherapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article considers the efficacy and safety of five of the more novel long-acting pharmacological treatments recently approved by the FDA for marketing in the US for paediatric ADHD, along with an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist in preparation. Reviewed treatments include the non-stimulant atomoxetine, three novel extended-release (XR) stimulant preparations: dexmethylphenidate, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and the methylphenidate transdermal system (TDS), and the recently approved XR alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine. Dexmethylphenidate XR is a stimulant treatment in a single isomer form, and has an efficacy and tolerability similar to two doses of immediate-release (IR) dexmethylphenidate when taken 4 hours apart, but is dosed at half of the usual d,l-methylphenidate dose. Dexmethylphenidate XR utilizes a beaded bimodal release, with 50% initially released and another 50% released 4 hours later to provide benefit lasting up to 10-12 hours. Lisdexamfetamine was the first stimulant treatment approved as a prodrug, whereby the single isomer d-amfetamine remains pharmacologically inactive until activated by cleaving the lysine. Its efficacy and tolerability are generally consistent with that of XR mixed amfetamine salts, with this activation method and more consistent absorption generally resulting in up to an 11- to 13-hour benefit. The methylphenidate TDS patch utilizes skin absorption to provide predictable and uniform delivery of methylphenidate when worn for 9 hours/day. The efficacy and tolerability of the methylphenidate TDS patch is generally consistent with that of osmotic-controlled release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate, providing benefit for about 11-12 hours. Because of their formulation, lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate each have an onset of effect at about 2 hours after administration. An adjustable

  10. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  11. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  12. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  13. Conditioned Inhibition in a Rodent Model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Green, John T.; Chess, Amy C.; Conquest, Cynthia J.; Yegla, Brittney A.

    2011-01-01

    A deficit in inhibition may underlie some of the symptoms of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly impulsivity. However, the data on inhibitory deficits in children with ADHD are mixed. Moreover, there has been little characterization of inhibitory processes in animal models of ADHD. Pavlov’s conditioned inhibition procedure allows a direct assessment of the inhibitory status of a stimulus via summation and retardation tests. Therefore, in the current study we examined...

  14. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Constantine, Laura J.; Hendren, Robert; Rocke, David; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is an overarching term that refers to neuropsychological processes that enable physical, cognitive, and emotional self-control. Deficits in EF are often present in neurodevelopmental disorders, but the specificity of EF deficits and direct comparison across disorders is rare. The current study investigated EF in 7 to 12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical development using a comprehensive...

  15. Sensation-to-cognition cortical streams in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, Elseline; Castellanos, Francisco X; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120 children with ADHD and 120 age-matched typically developing children (TDC). Starting in unimodal primary cortex-visual, auditory, and somatosensory-we used stepwise functional connectivity to calculate functional connectivity paths at discrete numbers of relay stations (or link-step distances). First, we characterized the functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits in TDC and found that systems do not reach the level of integration achieved by adults. Second, we searched for stepwise functional connectivity differences between children with ADHD and TDC. We found that, at the initial steps of sensory functional connectivity streams, patients display significant enhancements of connectivity degree within neighboring areas of primary cortex, while connectivity to attention-regulatory areas is reduced. Third, at subsequent link-step distances from primary sensory cortex, children with ADHD show decreased connectivity to executive processing areas and increased degree of connections to default mode regions. Fourth, in examining medication histories in children with ADHD, we found that children medicated with psychostimulants present functional connectivity streams with higher degree of connectivity to regions subserving attentional and executive processes compared to medication-naïve children. We conclude that predominance of local sensory processing and lesser influx of information to attentional and executive regions may reduce the ability to organize and control the balance between external and internal sources of information in ADHD.

  16. Perfil neuropsicológico de adultos com queixas de desatenção: diferenças entre portadores de TDAH e controles clínicos Neuropsychological profile of adults with attention deficits: differences between ADHD and clinical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    studies that compare ADHD to normal control comparison individuals, instead of comparing to control clinical individuals. OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological performance of DSM-IV ADHD adults and clinical control individuals with attention complaints referred for neuropsychological evaluation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis through the database of a private clinic specialized in neuropsychological evaluation along a two year period. ADHD adults (n = 56; 64.28% male were compared to control individuals from the same sample referred due to inattention (n = 29; 58.62% male, with an age range from 18 to 59 years old. Measures of attention, executive functions and memory were used. RESULTS: Groups were paired by age, schooling level, gender distribution and IQ (p > 0.05. We found no differences regarding performances in attention tasks; however, ADHD individuals showed worse performances in tasks that demand verbal working memory. DISCUSSION: When comparing ADHD adults and control individuals with complaints of attention deficits, the first group presented worse performance only in verbal working memory tasks.

  17. Deficits in human visual spatial attention following thalamic lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafal, R D; Posner, M I

    1987-01-01

    There has been speculation concerning the role that thalamic nuclei play in directing attention to locations in visual space [Crick, F. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 4586-4590]. We measured covert shifts of visual attention in three patients with unilateral thalamic hemorrhages shortly after the lesion and after a 6-month recovery period. The experiment measured reaction time to targets that occurred at locations to which attention had been cued (valid trials) or at a currently unatte...

  18. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  19. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Matveyeva E. Yu.; Romanova A. A.; Yegorova O. I.; Agris A.R.

    2012-01-01

    The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure), are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions an...

  20. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  1. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  2. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Weeda, Wouter D.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VS

  3. Motivational Effects on Motor Timing in Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Catharina S.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to clarify whether poor performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on motor timing tasks reflects a true deficit in the temporal organization of motor output or is due to a lack of intrinsic motivation. Method: Eighteen children with ADHD (age 8-12) were compared with 18 age- and…

  4. Striatal Sensitivity during Reward Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry; yet, existing evidence is limited, and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using…

  5. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  6. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, d...

  7. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a mental health care provider. Misperceptions and misunderstandings can lead to delayed diagnoses, misdiagnoses, or no ... Timothy copes with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),depression, learning disabilities, and alcoholism. Timothy was diagnosed with ...

  8. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  9. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...

  10. Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.

  11. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    M Karahmadi; H Esmaili

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin) is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive d...

  12. The effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit disorder in Iran: A meta-analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandana Sarokhani; Kourosh Sayehmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Neurofeedback is a relatively new therapy focusing on the core symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. We undertook a meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit disorder in Iran. Methods: International databases as Pubmed, Scopus, ISI, Google Scholar, and national databases as SID, Medlib, Iranmedex, Magiran were searched using the terms of neurofeedback, attention deficit and hyperactivity. The standardized effect...

  13. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica;

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  14. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Wrońska; Begonya Garcia-Zapirain; Amaia Mendez-Zorrilla

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%–7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games...

  15. FROM WORK EXPERIENCE IN ADVANCED TRAINING OF NORWEGIAN TEACHERS IN ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the experience of building competence of educators in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Norway. The course “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome” is included in the curriculum of “Special education”. The course is divided into training modules of 10 credits (points). The courses are funded by regional administrations and local authorities, who pay for staff training, thus supporting the state system of special education....

  16. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  17. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen

    Full Text Available Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline and delayed (target retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake. We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  18. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Mattfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  19. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  20. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity. PMID:26900567

  1. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. PMID:26109476

  2. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  3. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  4. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students.

  5. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students. PMID:25962354

  6. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established tr

  7. Sensation-to-cognition cortical streams in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, E; Castellanos, Francisco X; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120

  8. The Relevance of the Still Lectures to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    In his lectures published in 1902, George Still described 43 children in his clinical practice who had serious problems with sustained attention and self-regulation. George Still certainly did not use the current terminology for this disorder, but many historians of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have inferred that the children he…

  9. An In-Home Token System for a Student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Paul; Harmon, Mary; Williams, Betty Fry

    1997-01-01

    A study of a 12-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder investigated the effectiveness of a token economy incentive program implemented in the home setting to increase attention to task while doing homework assignments. Results found the boy's percentage of time spent on-task increased markedly. (Author/CR)

  10. Alcohol expectancies and drinking characteristics in parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, B S; Pelham, W E; Lang, A R

    1997-05-01

    Alcohol expectancies, drinking characteristics, and their association were examined in 587 adults: 431 parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 156 parents of children without ADHD. In addition to examining both traditional and parenting-specific alcohol expectancies for these adults, risk variables cutting across the two groups were considered: single parenthood and male gender. Few differences in mean expectancy levels were found between parents of children with and without ADHD, between single and married mothers, and between men and women. Furthermore, expectancies did not predict drinking differently across groups. However, there was some support for the utility of assessing parental expectations of alcohol's effects on interactions with children, and there were robust and interesting effects of socioeconomic status on expectancies and drinking. Single mothers also reported consuming higher quantities of alcohol than married mothers. Findings are discussed in terms of the link between ADHD and alcoholism, the ability of alcohol expectancies to explain drinking differences between high risk groups, the effect of socioeconomic status on these variables, and single motherhood as a vulnerability factor for increased drinking. PMID:9161617

  11. Attentional-Shaping as a Means to Improve Emotion Perception Deficits in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, Dennis R.; Tosheva, Aneta; Penn, David L.; Basso, Michael R.; Wanner, Jill L.; Laib, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Inability to recognize emotional expressions of others (emotion perception) is one of the most common impairments observed among individuals with schizophrenia. Such deficits presumably contribute much to the social dysfunction characteristic of schizophrenia. This study examined the efficacy of a novel attentional-shaping intervention to improve emotion perception abilities. Sixty participants with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: 1) attentional-s...

  12. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.

  13. Melatonin effects on sleep disorders in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahremand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Around 25-50% of these children suffered from some kind of sleep disorder especially with chronic form of insomnia. The physicians usually have a plan for improving hyperactivity and attention deficit of this disease but unfortunately, they forget to manage the sleep disorders, which are a major part of patients’ problems.Nowadays, we know that there is a noticeable relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders and by improving these children's sleep, not only the daily functions improve, but also the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  maybe become better. Thus, it is needed to avoid the administration of psychostimulants, which have recognized side effects. Moreover, having better sleep, we will see a better relationship between children and their parents and finally a rise in the standard of life of family members, which is a very important goal in our treatment. This review article evaluates available evidence on sleep medication in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to present an appropriate guidance for this high prevalence problem.

  14. Cognitive-electrophysiological indices of attentional and inhibitory processing in adults with ADHD: familial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin Gráinne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. In a comparison of adults with ADHD and a matched control sample, we previously showed that abnormal inhibitory processing is typically preceded or accompanied by other processing deficits in adult ADHD. We now compare these data further to additional data from first-degree relatives (fathers of children with ADHD to identify whether this pattern of abnormal processing shares familial influences with ADHD in adults. Methods Using a family design, we compared 20 fathers of children with the combined subtype of ADHD with 21 adults with ADHD combined subtype and 20 controls in event-related potential indices of preparatory states and subsequent response inhibition processing as elicited by a cued continuous performance task. Results Fathers of children with ADHD exhibited significantly weaker orienting attention to cues and inhibitory processing than the controls but not the ADHD sample. Conclusions These findings provide evidence for the familial association of attentional orienting and response inhibition processes with ADHD in adults and indicate a familial and neurobiological link between ADHD in children and adults.

  15. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; Joseph Biederman; Thomas Spencer; Ariel Brown; Ronna Fried; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequentl...

  16. Lead and PCBs as Risk Factors for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eubig, Paul A.; Aguiar, Andréa; Schantz, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, yet its etiology is not well understood. In this review we present evidence that environmental chemicals, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead, are associated with deficits in many neurobehavioral functions that are also impaired in ADHD. Data sources Human and animal studies of developmental PCB or lead exposures that assessed specific functiona...

  17. Intrinsic Affective Network Is Impaired in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    New-Fei Ho; Joanna S X Chong; Hui Li Koh; Eleni Koukouna; Tih-Shih Lee; Daniel Fung; Choon Guan Lim; Juan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in impulsivity and affect dysregulation are key features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) besides impairing levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. However, the neural substrates underlying these traits are relatively under-investigated. In this study, we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis of diminished functional integration within the affective/limbic network (which includes the amygdala, hippocampus, subgenual cingu...

  18. Dopamine Appetite and Cognitive Impairment in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Williams; Eric Taylor

    2004-01-01

    The underlying defects in ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) are not yet clear. The current paper tests three existing theories: State Regulation, Cognitive Deficit, and Temporal Difference (TD) learning. We present computational simulations of the Matching Familiar Figures Task and compare these with the experimental results reported by Sonuga- Barke (2002). The TD model contains four parameters: the learning rate, discounting for future rewards, br...

  19. A Simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols Shows Developmental Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer’s judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS. It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time reached a peak in the 20–27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Extinction learning deficit in a rodent model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brackney Ryan J; Cheung Timothy HC; Herbst Katrina; Hill Jade C; Sanabria Federico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Deficient operant extinction has been hypothesized to be constitutive of ADHD dysfunction. In order to elucidate the behavioral mechanisms underlying this deficit, the performance of an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), was compared against the performance of a control strain, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) during extinction. Method Following extensive training of lever pressing under variable interval schedules of food reinforcement (reported pre...

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : results of the IASP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; van de Glind, Geurt; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Allsop, Steve; Auriacombe, Marc; Barta, Csaba; Bu, Eli Torild H.; Burren, Yuliya; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Carruthers, Susan; Casas, Miguel; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Dom, Geert; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fatseas, Melina; Franck, Johan; Johnson, Brian; Kapitany-Foeveny, Mate; Kaye, Sharlene; Konstenius, Maija; Levin, Frances R.; Moggi, Franz; Moller, Merete; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Schillinger, Arild; Skutle, Arvid; Verspreet, Sofie; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    AimsTo determine comorbidity patterns in treatment-seeking substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with an emphasis on subgroups defined by ADHD subtype, taking into account differences related to gender and primary substance of a

  2. Symptomatic overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder in women: the role of temperament and character traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F.E. van; Lappenschaar, M.; Kan, C.C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is substantial symptomatic overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults, but the nature of the relationship between these disorders needs further clarification. The role of temperament and character traits in the

  3. Stigmatization and self-perception of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussing R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regina Bussing, Anuja S Mehta Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Increasing numbers of families must learn to manage their child's attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD through multimodal interventions that may include psychosocial, educational, and medication treatments. Like others with mental disorders, youth with ADHD face significant stigma in its various forms, including public (expressed as prejudice and discrimination, courtesy (stigma suffered by family members or associates of individuals with ADHD, and self-stigma (stigmatized individual's acceptance of negative views by others. Successful ADHD management requires awareness of stigma and of its potential adverse consequences on treatment initiation and persistence, but also calls for effective means to combat it. This review on stigmatization and self-perception of youth with ADHD first considers the current context of management and treatment options. Next, we appraise recent research in ADHD stigma measurement, identifying a dearth of validated tools and a need for additional instrument development, especially brief measures suitable for clinical encounters. The review then addresses studies of public stigma from the perspectives of youth and adults. A number of qualitative studies document the ubiquitous nature of public stigma experiences associated with ADHD from the perspectives of caregivers. Notably, impressions gathered in qualitative research are confirmed through quantitative studies of representative youth and adult samples, such as the National Stigma Study – Children, which report considerable stigmatization of ADHD by the general public. Unlike public stigma, courtesy stigma has not been examined through large-scale quantitative studies. However, courtesy stigma has been amply documented in qualitative research as a phenomenon experienced at various ecological levels, within the dyadic relationship with the

  4. Parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Grønkjær, Mette

    2015-01-01

    synthesized findings: 1) An emotional roller coaster between hope and hopelessness, 2) Mothers as advocates in a battlefield within the system and family, 3) Parental experiences in a crossfire of blame, self-blame and stigmatization, 4) Shuttling between supportive and non-supportive services......BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most prevalent mental disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging and parents find it difficult to raise the child and struggle to get professional...... support. Research has shown how living with a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder influences the families' daily life. This includes how the parents manage to maintain a bearable family life, supportive or not supportive factors as well as parents' experiences of collaboration...

  5. Proposta de uma abordagem psicoeducacional em grupos para pacientes adultos com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade Propuesta de un abordaje psico-educacional en grupos para pacientes adultos con trastorno de déficit de Atención/ Hiperactividad A psychoeducacional approach in group therapy for adult patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Horácio Grevet

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores do presente artigo propõem, a partir do modelo pedagógico proposto por Antoni Zabala, uma abordagem psicoeducativa grupal para pacientes adultos portadores de Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade. Para tanto, adaptam esta estrutura pedagógica para fundamentar a abordagem de grupos psicoeducacionais. O presente trabalho adiciona uma nova técnica para o tratamento do TDAH no adulto a partir da interface entre a pedagogia e a psicoterapia.Los autores del presente artículo proponen, a partir del modelo pedagógico propuesto por Antoni Zabala, un abordaje psico-educativo grupal para pacientes adultos portadores del Tratamiento del Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad. Para tanto, adaptan esta estructura pedagógica para fundamentar el abordaje de grupos psico-educacionales. El presente trabajo adiciona una nueva técnica para el tratamiento del TDAH en el adulto a partir de la interfase entre la pedagogía y la psicoterapia.TIn this paper the authors suggest a psycho-educative group approach to adult patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD based on a pedagogic model proposed by Antoni Zabala. This paper intends to present this new technique for the treatment of adults with ADHD. The conceptualization is based on the interface between pedagogy and psychotherapy.

  6. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, P.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study empathy in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior (DBD), attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A better understanding of the nature of empathy deficits in ...

  7. Effects of Self-monitoring Technique on Inattentive Behaviors of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Ghobari Bonab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of stimulants on core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been reported in several studies. Behavioral interventions have also been proposed as empirically supported interventions for ADHD. Although cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT have been criticized for the lack of evidence-based data, some studies have indicated the positive effects of CBT techniques on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This article reports the effects of self-monitoring technique, as a CBT technique, on inattentive behaviors of children with ADHD.

  8. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  9. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample. PMID:26323585

  10. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  11. Extinction learning deficit in a rodent model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brackney Ryan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient operant extinction has been hypothesized to be constitutive of ADHD dysfunction. In order to elucidate the behavioral mechanisms underlying this deficit, the performance of an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, was compared against the performance of a control strain, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY during extinction. Method Following extensive training of lever pressing under variable interval schedules of food reinforcement (reported previously, SHR and WKY rats were exposed to two sessions of extinction training. Extinction data was analyzed using the Dynamic Bi-Exponential Refractory Model (DBERM of operant performance. DBERM assumes that operant responses are organized in bouts separated by pauses; during extinction, bouts may decline across multiple dimensions, including frequency and length. DBERM parameters were estimated using hierarchical Bayesian modeling. Results SHR responded more than WKY during the first extinction session. DBERM parameter estimates revealed that, at the onset of extinction, SHR produced more response bouts than WKY. Over the course of extinction, response bouts progressively shortened for WKY but not for SHR. Conclusions Based on prior findings on the sensitivity of DBERM parameters to motivational and schedule manipulations, present data suggests that (1 more frequent response bouts in SHR are likely related to greater incentive motivation, and (2 the persistent length of bouts in SHR are likely related to a slower updating of the response-outcome association. Overall, these findings suggest specific motivational and learning deficits that may explain ADHD-related impairments in operant performance.

  12. Contribution of Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Strategy to Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Ogulmus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, distractibility, and impulsivity. Scholastic competence, social acceptance, and behavioral conduct were problem areas for children with ADHD. These children have difficulties in regulating their emotions and maintaining good relations. Lack of these skills hinders the development of healthy peer relationships and positive interaction with adults. It is important for children with ADHD to receive interventions as early as possible so that their social and emotional development can be achieved. Some social skills training programs for school-ages children with ADHD have shown positive results. The research findings in the literature demonstrate that interpersonal problem-solving skills are teachable and learnable through properly structured education programmes. Social problem solving training for children with ADHD has positive effects on the academic, behavioral and cognitive impairment. The Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving (ICPS Program can have a significant effect on the behaviors of children with ADHD and can generalize to settings outside of the one in which the child was initially trained. The positive effectiveness of ICPS also known as I Can Problem Solve in developing problem-solving skills and reducing problem behaviors of children with ADHD is known. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 391-398

  13. Otoacoustic emissions measured in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Dennis; Westhafer, J. Gregory; Pasanen, Edward G.; Tucker, David M.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2003-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally acknowledged to be more prevalent in males than in females. Further, some precursors to ADHD appear early in life. Together these facts suggest that ADHD may be influenced by androgenic mechanisms operating early in development. This reasoning raises the question of whether the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) of children with ADHD are masculinized. Click-evoked OAEs were measured for one click level in 8 boys and 3 girls diagnosed as ADHD/Combined, in 11 males and 5 females diagnosed as ADHD/Inattentive (IA), and in 17 male and 18 female controls. The ages of these samples ranged between 7 and 15. As in adults, the CEOAEs of the control males were weaker than those of the control females. Further, the CEOAEs of the ADHD/IA males were weaker than in the control males (a hypermasculinization) and the CEOAEs of the IA females were weaker than in the female controls (a masculinization). The CEOAEs of the Combined groups were slightly stronger (feminized) than those of the control males and females. One interpretation is that the IA subgroup of ADHD boys and girls (but not the Combined subgroup) was exposed to higher-than-normal levels of androgens sometime early in development. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  14. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:24992694

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves short-term memory in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Douglas Teixeira; de Souza, Andressa; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Oliveira, Carla; Grevet, Eugenio Horacio; Caumo, Wolnei; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Torres, Iraci L S

    2016-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impairing levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. However, different meta-analyses have reported disruptions in short and long-term memory in ADHD patients. Previous studies indicate that mnemonic dysfunctions might be the result of deficits in attentional circuits, probably due to ineffective dopaminergic modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In this study we aimed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of a neuromodulatory technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in short-term memory (STM) deficits presented by the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), the most widely used animal model of ADHD. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to a constant electrical current of 0.5 mA intensity applied on the frontal cortex for 20 min/day during 8 days. STM was evaluated with an object recognition test conducted in an open field. Exploration time and locomotion were recorded, and brain regions were dissected to determine dopamine and BDNF levels. SHR spent less time exploring the new object when compared to WKY, and tDCS improved object recognition deficits in SHR without affecting WKY performance. Locomotor activity was higher in SHR and it was not affected by tDCS. After stimulation, dopamine levels were increased in the hippocampus and striatum of both strains, while BDNF levels were increased only in the striatum of WKY. These findings suggest that tDCS on the frontal cortex might be able to improve STM deficits present in SHR, which is potentially related to dopaminergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus and striatum of those animals. PMID:26792443

  16. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children – Role of Behaviour Therapy and Parent Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioural disorder of childhood. It is a major public health problem. Children with ADHD have significant impairment in sustaining attention and this in turn will have negative impact on the academic performance and social-emotional development of the child. Most of the children present to child guidance clinic between the ages of 5-10 years. But ADHD can be problematic in pre-school age group and can continue into the adolescence....

  17. Social skills training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte;

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social...... skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We examined the effects of social skills training on children's social competences, general behaviour, ADHD symptoms, and performance in school....

  18. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions. METHODS...

  19. Obesity, Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and the Dopaminergic Reward System

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Benjamin Charles; Eisenberg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on obesity’s health consequences beyond cardio-vascular disease and diabetes. To evaluate the potential consequences of obesity for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), we surveyed the literature. Current findings link both obesity and ADHD to the dopamine system and implicate dopamine genes in body weight, eating, and ADHD. Detailed consideration suggests that dopaminergic changes in the prefrontal cortex among individuals wi...

  20. Implicit learning deficits among adults with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahta, Shani; Schiff, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit learning processes among adults with developmental dyslexia (DD) using a visual linguistic artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Specifically, it was designed to explore whether the intact learning reported in previous studies would also occur under conditions including minimal training and instructions that do not reveal the grammatical nature of the strings. Twenty-nine (14 DD and 15 typical development (TD)) adults were presented with letter sequences in the training phase and were asked to classify the test strings for their grammaticality. The results of the d' measures in the implicit task indicated that learning had occurred for both groups, as the proportion of hits exceeded the proportion of false alarms. However, a significant difference was found between the groups in their learning measures, as TD readers performed significantly better than individuals with DD, supporting the assumption of a deficit in implicit sequential learning processes among individuals with DD. In order to examine whether the deficit found in the first experiment was indeed due to a deficit in implicit processes, a second experiment was designed in which explicit instructions were given during an AGL task. Results of the explicit task strengthen the assumption that the deficit is indeed specific to implicit sequential processes, as no difference between the groups was found when participants were aware of the existence of the grammar underlying the strings. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26864577

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the light of the epigenetic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane eSchuch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR, a relevant source of morbidity, was left out. The etiology of it is complex, as its exact causes have not yet been fully elucidated. ADHD seems to arise from a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that alter the developing brain, resulting in structural and functional abnormalities. The aim of this paper was to review epigenetics and ADHD focused on how multidimensional mechanisms influence the behavioral phenotype.

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Light of the Epigenetic Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Viviane; Utsumi, Daniel Augusto; Costa, Thaís Virgínia Moura Machado; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Muszkat, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational, or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit) and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity) deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulation, a relevant source of morbidity, was left out. The etiology of it is complex, as its exact causes have not yet been fully elucidated. ADHD seems to arise from a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that alter the developing brain, resulting in structural and functional abnormalities. The aim of this paper was to review epigenetics and ADHD focused on how multidimensional mechanisms influence the behavioral phenotype. PMID:26441687

  3. Testosterone and attention deficits as possible mechanisms underlying impaired emotion recognition in intimate partner violence perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported impairments in decoding emotional facial expressions in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. However, the mechanisms that underlie these impaired skills are not well known. Given this gap in the literature, we aimed to establish whether IPV perpetrators (n = 18 differ in their emotion decoding process, attentional skills, and testosterone (T, cortisol (C levels and T/C ratio in comparison with controls (n = 20, and also to examine the moderating role of the group and hormonal parameters in the relationship between attention skills and the emotion decoding process. Our results demonstrated that IPV perpetrators showed poorer emotion recognition and higher attention switching costs than controls. Nonetheless,they did not differ in attention to detail and hormonal parameters. Finally, the slope predicting emotion recognition from deficits in attention switching became steeper as T levels increased, especially in IPV perpetrators, although the basal C and T/C ratios were unrelated to emotion recognition and attention deficits for both groups. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotion recognition deficits. These factors therefore constitute the target for future interventions.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Sleepiness and Accidental Risk in 36140 Regularly Registered Highway Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder that increases accidental risk. Recent studies show that some patients with ADHD can also suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness but there are no data assessing the role of sleepiness in road safety in patients with ADHD. We conducted an epidemiological study to explore sleep complaints, inattention and driving risks among automobile drivers.From August to September 2014, 491186 regular highway users were invited to participate in an Internet survey on driving habits. 36140 drivers answered a questionnaire exploring driving risks, sleep complaints, sleepiness at the wheel, ADHD symptoms (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and distraction at the wheel. 1.7% of all drivers reported inattention-related driving accidents and 0.3% sleep-related driving accidents in the previous year. 1543 drivers (4.3% reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to report accidents than drivers without ADHD symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.24, [1.03-1.51], p 15 versus 3.2% of drivers without ADHD symptoms and 20.5% reported severe sleepiness at the wheel versus 7.3%. Drivers with ADHD symptoms reported significantly more sleep-related (adjusted OR = 1.4, [1.21-1.60], p < .0001 and inattention-related (adjusted OR = 1.9, [1.71-2.14], p<0001 near misses than drivers without ADHD symptoms. The fraction of near-misses attributable to severe sleepiness at the wheel was 4.24% for drivers without ADHD symptoms versus 10,35% for drivers with ADHD symptoms.Our study shows that drivers with ADHD symptoms have more accidents and a higher level of sleepiness at the wheel than drivers without ADHD symptoms. Drivers with ADHD symptoms report more sleep-related and inattention-related near misses, thus confirming the clinical importance of exploring both attentional deficits and sleepiness at the wheel in these drivers. Road safety campaigns should be improved to better inform drivers of these accidental

  5. Clonidine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: II. ECG Changes and Adverse Events Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Patel, Nick C.; Robb, Adelaide S.; McDermott, Michael P.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Palumbo, Donna; Harris, Peter; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the safety and tolerance of clonidine, alone or with methylphenidate as a form of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) is conducted. Results conclude that clonidine used alone or in combination with methylphenidate were safe and well tolerated in children with ADHD.

  6. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  7. Stimulus-Dependent Dopamine Release in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikstrom, Sverker; Soderlund, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to an attenuated and dysfunctional dopamine system. Normally, a high extracellular dopamine level yields a tonic dopaminergic input that down-regulates stimuli-evoked phasic dopamine responses through autoreceptors. Abnormally low tonic extracellular dopamine in ADHD up-regulates the…

  8. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised repo

  9. A Coaching Intervention for College Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Stacy L.; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe coaching as an intervention for college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Coaching college students with ADHD empowers individuals to organize and execute their responsibilities, both in academia and in everyday life. With the assistance of a coach, individuals with ADHD can create structure…

  10. Characteristics of College Students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Who Misuse Their Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca; Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the characteristics of college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms who misuse their prescribed psychostimulant medications. Methods and Participants: Forty-three undergraduate students with a prescription for Ritalin or Adderall completed structured…

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durston, S; Pol, HEH; Schnack, HG; Buitelaar, JK; Steenhuis, MP; Minderaa, RB; Kahn, RS; van Engeland, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of increased familial risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on brain morphology. Method: Volumetric cerebral measures based on whole brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 30 boys with ADHD, 30 of their unaffected siblings, and 30 matched con

  12. The Effect of Acupressure for Moderating Behavior of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn; Sinnott, Jan

    This study examined the effects of an acupressure intervention with two adolescents previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An inventory based on standard criteria for diagnosing ADHD was completed by each student, their parents, case workers, and teachers both before and after the intervention. The intervention…

  13. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Dempfle, Astrid; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bakker, Steven C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Doyle, Alysa; Ebstein, Richard P; Ekholm, Jenny; Forabosco, Paola; Franke, Barbara; Freitag, Christine; Friedel, Susann; Gill, Michael; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke; Jacob, Christian; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Loo, Sandra K; Lopera, Francisco; McCracken, James T; McGough, James J; Meyer, Jobst; Mick, Eric; Miranda, Ana; Muenke, Maximilian; Mulas, Fernando; Nelson, Stanley F; Nguyen, T Trang; Oades, Robert D; Ogdie, Matthew N; Palacio, Juan David; Pineda, David; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Roeyers, Herbert; Romanos, Marcel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Schäfer, Helmut; Sergeant, Joseph; Sinke, Richard J; Smalley, Susan L; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; van der Meulen, Emma; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Lewis, Cathryn M; Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies, th

  14. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  15. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  16. The Neural Correlates of Deficient Error Awareness in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Michael; Foxe, John J.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and correct errors is critical to adaptive control of behaviour and represents a discrete neuropsychological function. A number of studies have highlighted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in behavioural and neural responsiveness to performance errors. One limitation of…

  17. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  18. The Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…

  19. Swimming and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Teresa; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of swimming for children with disabilities include improved motor skills, physical fitness, executive brain function and improved social skills. Swimming can also be an activity that provides a positive environment for children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This article provides an overview of ADHD and…

  20. Executive Functions and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications of Two Conflicting Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing numbers of articles and books refer to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a disorder of "executive function" of the mind, two conflicting views have emerged about how ADHD and executive function are related. In one view it is argued that some, but not all, who meet the fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and…

  1. Examining Relationships between Executive Functioning and Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Although motivation and cognition are often examined separately, recent theory suggests that a delay-averse motivational style may negatively impact development of executive functions (EFs), such as working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Sonuga-Barke, 2002). This model…

  2. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  3. Teaching Tommy: A Second-Grader with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Katharina

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a second-grade teacher's efforts to help a rough-and-tumble boy diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). After comprehensive behavioral and academic programs (including token rewards, peer tutoring, resource room activities, an inclass aide) failed to stabilize Tommy's behavior, Ritalin was (successfully) prescribed…

  4. Countering the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Epidemic: A Question of Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently in Australia, another media skirmish erupted over the problem currently called "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder". This particular event was precipitated by the comments of a respected District Court judge. His claim that doctors are creating a generation of violent juvenile offenders by prescribing Ritalin to young children…

  5. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than c

  6. Effects of Methylphenidate on the Auditory Processing Abilities of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Robert W.; Engineer, Parika

    1991-01-01

    Twenty subjects (ages 7-13) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were administered a battery of tests (including the Auditory Continuous Performance Test and the Token Test for Children) twice, first when not taking and then when taking methylphenidate. Results indicated significant improvement in performance on all measures when subjects…

  7. Revisiting the Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Pathophysiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Schulz, Kurt P.

    2006-01-01

    Most neural models for the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have centered on the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections with the striatum and other subcortical structures. However, research only partially supports these models, and they do not correspond with the development of the prefrontal cortex and its…

  8. Methylphenidate and Attributions in Boys with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Conducted two experiments in which attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder boys underwent double-blind, placebo-controlled medication assessment in summer day-treatment program. Daily, boys assessed attributions for and evaluations of their behavior. Objective measured showed improved behavior with methylphenidate; however, boys tended to…

  9. Individuals with a Gifted/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly M.; Olenchak, F. Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on twice-exceptional students who are dual diagnosed as having giftedness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This area of research is warranted because giftedness and ADHD present similarly but have different ramifications for performance and outcomes. In addition, research inquiry and…

  10. Does Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Exacerbate Executive Dysfunction in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan M.; Arnold, Shelley S.; Pride, Natalie A.; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Although approximately 40% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) meet diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the impact of ADHD on the executive functioning of children with NF1 is not understood. We investigated whether spatial working memory and response inhibition are impaired in children with…

  11. Cortical Gray Matter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Martin J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Pitiot, Alain; Toro, Roberto; Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liotti, Mario; Liddle, Peter F.; Paus, Tomas; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown smaller brain volume and less gray matter in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relatively few morphological studies have examined structures thought to subserve inhibitory control, one of the diagnostic features of ADHD. We examined one such region, the pars opercularis,…

  12. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  13. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  14. A Weak Association between Traits of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Gambling in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Will H.; Schatz, Nicole K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been characterized as a comorbidity to pathological gambling (PG). However, contradictory evidence has emerged, and it has not been established whether nonimpulsive features of ADHD (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity) contribute to PG risk, or how robust this relationship is in college samples.…

  15. Measured Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene-by-environment interactions in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: A selective review of methodologic issues was followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured gene-by-environment interactions; the search…

  16. Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

  17. The Effects of Physical Activity on Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew Jonathan; Bailey, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder among children. Despite the noted positive aspects of the disorder, it is often associated with a range of negative outcomes for that are detrimental to children's education and wider well-being. This comprehensive scoping review examined…

  18. A Possible Coexistence between Restless Leg Syndrom and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tilma, Jørgen; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ostergaard, John R

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have consistently been found to coexist frequently. The cause for the relationship of these co-morbid disorders is contradicting, but both disorders are associated with a common dopaminergic dysfunction, low iron...

  19. Determining Eligibility for Educational Services for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Twila Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to educate administrators, teachers and parents on educational services available to students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Schools are required by federal and state laws to provide a student with a disability a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive…

  20. Do Attention Deficits Influence IQ Assessment in Children and Adolescents with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. Method: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed. Results: Correlation studies show mostly weak…

  1. The use of medication against attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, Bine Kjøller; Glintborg, D.;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to characterize utilization patterns for drugs used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the level of the individual patient among Danish users, focusing on treatment duration, doses used, and concurrent use of ADHD and non-ADHD drugs. METHODS: Using...

  2. Technology as a vehicle for inclusion of learners with attention deficits in mainstream schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    of inclusion is learners with extensive developmental and attention deficit disorders. This paper investigates the potential of technology for supporting the inclusion of this group in the general school system, i.e. into mainstream classes, using technology as a tool to join, participate and contribute...

  3. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  4. Twin study on transplacental-acquired antibodies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilenberg, Niels; Hougaard, David; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that maternal transplacentally acquired antibodies may cause Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms years after birth, and tested the hypothesis in twins discordant for ADHD symptoms. METHOD: In a pre-screened sample of 7793 same sex twin pair's (4...

  5. Teacher Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Middle School Students in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fred R., Jr.; Brown, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the knowledge levels middle school teachers in South Texas have in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study specifically compared teacher knowledge levels among three specific ADHD knowledge areas: (a) general knowledge of ADHD, (b) knowledge of symptoms/diagnosis of ADHD, and (c)…

  6. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  7. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multimodal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not been an explicit focus on the connection between family and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school…

  8. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Data from completed and ongoing…

  9. DCLK1 variants are associated across schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håvik, Bjarte; Degenhardt, Franziska A; Johansson, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    that have neuro-cognitive dysfunctions: schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar affective disorder (BP) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We mined six genome wide association studies (GWASs) that were available publically or through collaboration; three for BP, two for SCZ and one for ADHD. We also...

  10. Writing Characteristics of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Fishman, Evan J.; Reid, Robert; Hebert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) frequently experience significant difficulty mastering basic academic skills. This meta-analysis focuses on one specific potential area of learning difficulties for these students: namely, writing. To identify the extent and depth of the potential writing challenges faced by students…

  11. What Knowledge and Conceptions Do Irish Primary Schoolteachers Hold on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Victoria Ann

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates have increased significantly in recent times. A teacher's role is crucial in determining if a child will be referred for an ADHD assessment. Teachers' opinions and observations are also required for and play a huge role in the actual assessment process. For this reason,…

  12. Recognizing and Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Young, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally diagnosed in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now regarded as a life span condition. The academic difficulties experienced by children and adolescents with ADHD have been observed to continue into young adulthood. Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions…

  13. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  14. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  15. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  16. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  17. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  18. Persistence of Sleep Problems in Children with Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the persistence of sleep problems over 18 months in 76 referred children with anxiety disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and 31 nonreferred controls, and explores predictors of sleep problems at follow-up (T2) in the referred children. Diagnoses were assessed at initial assessment (T1) using the…

  19. Stimulant Medication Management of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Educators Need To Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Eldon G.; Edwards, Mark C.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the critical issues in the medication management of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the classroom. Discusses the issues of considering, trying, and optimizing stimulant medication effects. Highlights medication side effects and their management, along with long-term management issues. (Author/CR)

  20. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  1. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Context of a High Intellectual Quotient/Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with a high intellectual quotient (IQ) and/or giftedness is controversial with many opinions existing on both sides of the debate. Relationships between IQ and cognitive vulnerabilities frequently described in the ADHD population vary in strength. Data asserting the…

  2. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  3. Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neale, B.M.; Medland, S.; Ripke, S.; Anney, R.J.; Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Gill, M.; Kent, L.; Holmans, P.; Middleton, F.; Thapar, A.; Lesch, K.P.; Faraone, S.V.; Daly, M.; Nguyen, T.T.; Schafer, H.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Romanos, M.; Romanos, J.; Warnke, A.; Walitza, S.; Freitag, C.; Meyer, J.; Palmason, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Hawi, Z.; Sergeant, J.A.; Roeyers, H.; Mick, E.; Biederman, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. METHOD

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neale, B.M.; Medland, S.E.; Ripke, S.; Asherson, P.; Franke, B.; Lesch, K.P.; Faraone, S.V.; Nguyen, T.T.; Schafer, H.; Holmans, P.; Daly, M.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Freitag, C.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Romanos, M.; Romanos, J.; Walitza, S.; Warnke, A.; Meyer, J.; Palmason, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Vasquez, A.A.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Gill, M.; Anney, R.J.; Langely, K.; O'Donovan, M.; Williams, N.; Owen, M.; Thapar, A.; Kent, L.; Sergeant, J.A.; Roeyers, H.; Mick, E.; Biederman, J.; Doyle, A.; Smalley, S.; Loo, S.; Hakonarson, H.; Elia, J.; Todorov, A.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Ebstein, R.P.; Rothenberger, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Oades, R.D.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; McGough, J.; Nisenbaum, L.; Middleton, F.; Hu, X.; Nelson, S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded signifi

  5. Predictors of Stability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes from Childhood to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard D.; Huang, Hongyan; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Reiersen, Angela M.; Henderson, Cynthia A.; Reich, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    A 5-year prospective study attempts to determine the predictors of stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes from childhood to young adulthood. The results conclude that population-defined ADHD subtype criteria indicate improved diagnostic stability over 5 years.

  6. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  8. Functional neural correlates of attentional deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; often considered a prodromal phase of Alzheimer's disease, AD is most recognized by its implications for decline in memory function, research suggests that deficits in attention are present early in aMCI and may be predictive of progression to AD. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in the brain during the attention network test between 8 individuals with aMCI and 8 neurologically healthy, demographically matched controls. While there were no significant behavioral differences between groups for the alerting and orienting functions, patients with aMCI showed more activity in neural regions typically associated with the networks subserving these functions (e.g., temporoparietal junction and posterior parietal regions, respectively. More importantly, there were both behavioral (i.e., greater conflict effect and corresponding neural deficits in executive control (e.g., less activation in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Although based on a small number of patients, our findings suggest that deficits of attention, especially the executive control of attention, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits of aMCI.

  9. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study with 30 children showing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found a normal diurnal saliva cortisol rhythm in only 43.3 percent of the subjects and a dexamethasone suppression in 46.7 percent, with both these abnormalities more frequent in the severely than the mildly hyperactive group. Results suggest abnormalities in…

  10. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond

  11. Assessing Self-Control Training in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure with and without a concurrent activity to teach self-control to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Three participants were initially required to wait progressively longer periods of time for access to preferred edible reinforcers. After demonstrating this…

  12. Atomoxetine Treatment for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Comorbid Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…

  13. Clonidine Extended-Release Tablets for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh; Segal, Scott; Kollins, Scott H.; Khayrallah, Moise

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the efficacy and safety of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets (CLON-XR) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial, including 3 weeks of dose escalation, of patients 6 to 17 years old with ADHD evaluated the…

  14. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  15. Prefrontal Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hideki; Sawada, Masayuki; Iida, Junzo; Ota, Toyosaku; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. Twenty medication-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control…

  16. A Deficit in Shifting Attention Present in High-Functioning Autism but Not Asperger's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Moss, Simon A.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined the executive functioning, in particular the attentional set-shifting deficits in Australian individuals ages 6-20 with high-functioning autism (n=12) and Asperger's disorder (n=12). Results indicate that individuals with autism had a deficiency in shifting from local to global processing, however, this was not observed in…

  17. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  18. Nonmedical Use of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Among Secondary School Students in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S; de Haan, Lydia; Bouvy, Marcel L; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: No studies in Europe have assessed the extent of nonmedical attention-deficit/hyperactivitiy disorder (ADHD) medication use among adolescents, while also, in Europe, prescribing of these medicines has increased. Our objective was to study the prevalence and motives for nonmedical ADHD med

  19. Autonomic reactivity in clinically referred children attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Rosbergen, Bianca; Dieleman, Gwen; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have lower autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and show less stress reactivity than children with an anxiety disorder. It also explored whether such a difference was accounted for by comorbid oppositional d

  20. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  1. The Efficacy of Notetaking to Improve Behavior and Comprehension of Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two studies evaluated a notetaking intervention targeting the passive learning style and disruptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Thirty teens in a summer program were able to learn notetaking strategies using a modification of the Directed Notetaking Activity training method and showed…

  2. Cardiovascular Risk of Stimulant Treatment in Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Update and Clinical Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerness, Paul G.; Perrin, James M.; Shelley-Abrahamson, Rachel; Wilens, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This review provides an update on the cardiovascular impact of therapeutic stimulant-class medication for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Relevant clinical literature was ascertained using PubMed searches limited to human studies and the English language as of May 2011. Current…

  3. Evidence-Based Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Using Multiple Sources of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors illustrate a step-by-step process of acquiring and integrating information according to the recommendations of evidence-based practices. A case example models the process, leading to specific recommendations regarding instruments and strategies for evidence-based assessment (EBA) of attention-deficit/hyperactivity…

  4. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predict Risk-Taking and Medical Illnesses in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Belsky, Erica Roizen; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin C.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), free of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood (mean = 8 years), have elevated risk-taking, accidents, and medical illnesses in adulthood (mean = 41 years); whether development of CD influences risk-taking during adulthood; and whether exposure to…

  5. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GrossTsur, [No Value; vanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  6. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Methylphenidate Dose-Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Nick, Todd G.; Melguizo Castro, Maria S.; Stein, Mark A.; Brinkman, William B.; Graham, Amanda J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because of significant individual variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, there is increasing interest in identifying genetic predictors of treatment effects. This study examined the role of four catecholamine-related candidate genes in moderating methylphenidate (MPH) dose-response. Method:…

  7. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective? (vol 130, pg 40, 1997)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GrossTsur, [No Value; Manor, O; VanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  8. Electrophysiological Evidence of Atypical Motivation and Reward Processing in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Clay B.; Baker, Travis E.; Kerns, Kimberly A.; Muller, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggest that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by the impact of abnormal reward prediction error signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system on frontal brain areas that implement cognitive control. To investigate this issue, we recorded the event-related brain potential…

  9. Stroop interference and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansbergen, M.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Engeland, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Previous reviews and meta-analyses that addressed abnormal Stroop interference in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) yielded mixed results. The authors of the present study argue that the inconsistencies may reflect the problematic nature of 2 frequently used methods to quantify Stroop

  10. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  12. Interaction of Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Andries, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), utilizing a sample of Iranian parents of children with and without ADHD. Results indicate significant relationships between ADHD and parenting styles. There is a negative relationship between having an ADHD child and applying authoritative…

  13. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  14. Consultation-Based Academic Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: School Functioning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Volpe, Robert J.; Tresco, Katy E.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Lutz, J. Gary; Cleary, Kristi S.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Manella, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of two consultation-based models for designing academic interventions to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children (N = 167) meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (4th ed.--text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for…

  15. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  16. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  17. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  18. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Aliza; Stein, Daniel; Barak, Yoram; Teicher, Aharon; Hadjez, Jack; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham

    1998-01-01

    The sleep profiles of 13 children (ages 5-13) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were treated with a fixed dose of methylphenidate for at least one month were compared with those of 16 healthy siblings. Significantly more children with ADHD demonstrated sleep disturbances and higher rates of sleep disorders. (Author/CR)

  19. Sleep Disturbances in Adolescents with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Daniel; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Blank, Shulamit; Dagan, Yaron; Barak, Yoram; Gumpel, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    A study evaluated 32 non-medicated male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, 35 male adolescents similarly diagnosed who were receiving methylphenidate (MPH), and 77 controls. Medicated participants demonstrated a significantly greater severe sleep disturbance compared with non-medicated participants and…

  20. Saccadic movements of the eyes in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanovich, E V; Baziyan, B Kh; Sagalov, M V; Kumskova, G A

    2013-11-01

    Saccadic movements of the eyes were analyzed in children with the attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome. Saccadic movements of the eyes were recorded by a special method for their isolated registration without involvement of the head and in coordination tests (eye-head, eye-hand, and eye-head-hand). Comparative analysis of saccadic movements in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity and in normal subjects was carried out. Saccades recorded in each participant in complex tests with one or two additional motor acts, such as movements of the head and hand, were compared and the changes were analyzed for the group. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome had problem with gaze fixation on the peripheral target after the end of the saccade and these changes augmented in more complex tasks with one or two additional acts. This could be due to discrepancy between the difficulty of the task and the potentialities of the frontal cortex, more immature in these patients than in healthy children. The changes could form the objective base for disorders in the formation of reading and writing habits, often observed in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.