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Sample records for adult albino swiss

  1. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

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    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  2. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ofusori David A; Adejuwon Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Three gcroonutrposl oafn md irceec (eBi,v eCd a annd eDq) uwievraele tnret avtoeldu mwiet ho f4 dmisgt/ikllge dof wCa. tpeor.r tGorriocuepn sBis reexctreaivcet.d G Cro. uppo rAto wriacse nthsies leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group wDe rreec seaivceridfi cCe.d p aonrtdo rtihceen sstiosm leaacfh eaxntrda cpta nfocrr e2a8s dwaeyrse. eAxtc disieffde raenndt sfitxaegde si nin the study, the mice histological analysis. Results: 10% formol saline for The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups Bth ea nmdu Cco assa caonmd pdairsecdo nwtiinthu atthioen c oofn terpoilt.h Heloiwale vlienri,n agn oimf tahles sinto mgraocuhp wDh silheo twheed i sdliestosr goaf nization of in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the conLtraonl gmeriacnes. Conclusions: The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas.

  3. Histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on Swiss albino mice spermatogenesis

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    S Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatogenesis is a highly conserved and regulated process and it is sensitive to fluctuations in the physical and chemical environment. Gemcitabine is a novel antimetabolic anticancer drug used frequently in the treatment of many cancers. This study aimed to investigate the histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on spermatogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Gemcitabine in high and low doses (80 and 40 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally to inbred Swiss albino mice. Gross testicular features and seminiferous tubular histomorphometry was studies at the end of 7 th , 14 th day and at 2 months sperm shape abnormalities were studied. Results: Seminiferous tubular morphology was altered significantly, showing a reduction in height, perimeter and area in a dose dependent manner. Sertoli cell number decreased. Basement membrane thickness was reduced and it appeared to be permanent, with statistically insignificant changes even after 2 months. There was a reduction of intertubular spaces. Sperms have shown banana heading, decapitation and loss of normal hook of head. The effects were partially reversible at the end of 2 months. Conclusion: It was concluded that gemcitabine affects the process of spermatogenesis adversely in a dose and time dependent manner and the effects are partially reversible.

  4. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

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    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  5. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  6. Ethambutol induces testicular damage and decreases the sperm functional competence in Swiss albino mice.

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    Rao, Arpitha; Nayak, Guruprasad; Kumari, Sandhya; Prabhu, Amratha D; Khandige, Nalini; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study reports the effect of ethambutol (EMB) on testicular function. Prepubertal and adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with 40, 80, 160mg/kg body weight of EMB, intraperitoneally, every alternate day for 4 weeks. After 2 weeks gap, mice were sacrificed to collect caudal spermatozoa. EMB treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the testicular weight, sperm count and motility while the percentage of sperm with head abnormalities, immature chromatin (Pglutathione (Ptesticular function and impairs the sperm functional competence.

  7. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

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    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  8. ANTIFERTILITY STUDIES ON ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS L ON SWISS MALE ALBINO MICE

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    Sayeed Mohammed Abu et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility control is an issue of global and national health concern, many study have been done for the male contraception. The use of medicinal plants in different sorts of disease including fertility problem is widespread throughout the world. Though considerable progress has been made the development of highly effective, acceptable and reversible methods of contraception among females, progress possibilities on males are still slow and limited. With recent progress towards a better understanding of male reproductive physiology there is needed to develop new contraceptive modalities for male. Abrus precatorius is one of the folk medicinal plants widely used as an antifertility agent in varius places of south Asian countries including Chittagong region of Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifertility activity of abrus precarious seed extract intraperitonially administered in adult swiss male albino mice. The intraperitonial administration of 40, 80 and 80 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius shown a highly antifertility activity which done for two months. The lower concentrations (40 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius gave temporarily antifertility activity. But the higher dose (80 mg/kg body weight gave relatively more permanent antifertility activity on swiss albino mice compare with the control.

  9. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy ofMangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Suganya H; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity inSwiss albino mice.Methods:Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods.Results:Aqueous and alcoholic extracts ofM. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score inSwiss albino mice.Conclusions:The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea inSouthern parts of India.

  10. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

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    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  11. EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE ON THE KIDNEY AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    MARIA STUTI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of potassium bromate toxicity on histological,haematological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice. Mice were orally administered with potassiumbromate at the rate of 150 mg/kg body weight daily in a single dose for 30, 60 and 120 days. The chemicalsignificantly reduced the RBC count (p<0.01 Hb% (p<0.01 and platelet count (p<0.01, while it increasedsignificantly the urea (p<0.01 and creatinine level (p<0.01 and decreased total protein and Albumin (p<0.01Histopathological examination showed degenerative changes of tubular cells, cytoplasma vacuolation, cellularinfiltration, tubular dilation with eosinophilic debris and clear cell cytoplasm were observed. These findingssuggest that KBrO3 affects the physiological and biochemical activities of Swiss albino mice

  12. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS

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    Thoudam Bhaigyabati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

  13. Studies on Antitumor Activity of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Devbhuti D1,*; Gupta JK; Devbhuti P*,1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antitumor effect of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. (Family: Crassulaceae) against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) bearing Swiss albino mice. The effect of methanol and aqueous extracts of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. on tumor growth was studied by the following parameters: percentage inhibition of ascetic cells and percentage inhibition of tumor weight. Methanol and aqueous extracts were administered at doses of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg body weight...

  14. Histopathological effects of Chromium (III Sulfate on Liver and Kidney of Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus

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    Iffat Fatima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (III sulfate has various industrial applications and is widely used in leather industry due to its high tanning properties. Cr (III is required for efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in traces. Various studies have reported that its constant exposure may lead to severe health problems in both animals and humans. In this study, histopathological effect of dietary Cr (III was evaluated on liver and kidneys of rodents. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (n=25 were divided into different treatment and control groups (n=5/group after sufficient acclimatization. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and observations regarding histopathology of liver and kidneys were made in all treatment groups and compared to control. Microscopy and photography was performed after processing the tissues according to standard protocol of sectioning and staining. Liver cross sections of treated animals showed signs of fibrosis in portal area, and congestion of sinusoid and central vein. Whereas, more pronounced effects of Cr (III toxicity were observed in kidneys. These include mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis and contraction of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule. However, No pathological changes were observed in control group. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced level of Cr (III contamination of food can induce both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These basic findings prove that currently increasing levels of trivalent chromium in environment are hazardous to living organisms. Therefore, to avoid health risks to both animals and humans, conversion of toxic chromium waste to less toxic compounds is required. Moreover, exposure level through any route should also be minimized.

  15. EFFECT OF IMIDACLOPRID ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF KIDNEYS IN MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    M. NAGA PRASANNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F of male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus albinus were orally administered withvaried doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw/mouse of imidacloprid; they showed significant decreasein protein, DNA and RNA content in the kidneys of all the treated groups of mice throughout the experimentalperiod (on day 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 of treatment when compared with controls. It is clear from the results thatthe insecticide caused marked disturbance in the metabolism of protein, DNA and RNA.

  16. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

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    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  17. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

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    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  18. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract

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    Joy Jisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.

  19. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

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    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  20. Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

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    Awasthi, Kumud Kant; John, P J; Awasthi, Anjali; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Swiss albino mice were orally administered with single dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg body weight of purified and functionalized MWCNTs suspended in water. The mice were autopsied on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post exposure. Liver was taken out and part of it fixed in Bouin's solution for histopathological examinations. The remaining part was immersed in cold saline, blotted dry, weighed quickly and homogenized in ice cold buffer. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was immediately measured in the supernatant. The MWCNTs in liver led to pathological changes, including injury to macrophages, cellular swelling, unspecific inflammation, spot necrosis and blood coagulation. Estimation of SOD and CAT showed altered levels in the experimental groups as compared to controls. Therefore, MWCNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment can have adverse effects on human health.

  1. Cyathula prostrata:A potent source of anticancer agent against daltons ascites in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya K; Krishnakumari S; Vijayakumar M

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata inEhrlich ascites carcinoma(EAC)-bearing mice with methotrexate as positive control in the advanced stage of tumorigenesis.Methods:EAC was induced in swiss albino mice by injecting 106 cell/mL of tumor cell suspension intraperitoneal.The methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata effect on the tumor cell viability,DNA fragmentation andMTT assay were carried out.Results:Methanolic extract attenuated percentage increased in the cell survival time when compared to control group.However, the effect was less than that of methotrexat.Methotrexat and the extracts reversed the tumor-induced alterations inDNA fragmentation andMTT assay.Conclusions:The present study suggests that the methanol extract ofCyathula prostratahas significant anticancer activity and that is comparableto that of methotrexate.

  2. Modulation of radiation-induced biochemical changes in cerebrum of Swiss albino mice by Grewia Asiatica.

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    Sisodia, Rashmi; Ahaskar, Muktika; Sharma, K V; Singh, Smita

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluates the possible radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (rich in anthocyanin, carotenes, vitamin C, etc.) pulp extract (GAE) on cerebrum of Swiss albino mice exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation. For this, healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into four groups: (1) Control (vehicle treated) (2) GAE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with GAE (700 m/kg. b.w./day) once daily for fifteen consecutive days, (3) Vehicle treated irradiated mice, and (4) GAE + Irradiated - Mice in this group received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE (700 m/kg. b.w/day) for fifteen days consecutively. Mice were sacrificed at various intervals viz. 1-30 days. Radiation-induced augmentation in the levels of lipid peroxidation of mice cerebrum was significantly ameliorated by GAE pretreatment. Radiation-induced depletion in the level of glutathione and protein was prevented significantly by GAE administration.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANXIOLYTIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT HYPERICUM HOOKERIANUM IN STRESS INDUCED SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    S.Subakanmani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is evaluate to Anxiolytic profile of Hypericum hookerianum in stress induced Swiss albino mice. The study was carried out using Swiss albino mice (25- 30 g. The Anxiolytic effect of aerial parts of ethanolic extract of Hypericum hookerianum was evaluated by using behavioral analysis like Elevated plus maze (EPM test, Open Field Test (OFT, Hole Board Test (HBT, Light dark exploration Test (LDE in restraint stress induced animals. Behavioral test parameters for anxiety were assessed followed by biochemical parameters (lipid per oxidation, super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione per oxidase, reduced glutathione, etc. and Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard Anxiolytic drug, administered intraperitonealy. The results were shown that, ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum (Hh 100mg/kg and Hh 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in lipid per oxidation, depletion of super oxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and glutathione per oxidase in stress induced animals as compared to unstressed animal. Six days treatment of Hh (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg comparable with Diazepam, significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral and oxidative damage. The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum may possess Anxiolytic activity in stressed animals and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim.

  4. In vivo DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles in Swiss albino mice

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    Al Gurabi MA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A Al Gurabi, Daoud Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Saud Alarifi Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on organs, tissue, cell levels, and protein levels because of their physicochemical properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are being used on a wide scale in world consumer markets; their potential hazards for humans remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the intraperitoneal toxicity of AgNPs (26 mg per kg of body weight, 52 mg per kg of body weight, and 78 mg per kg of body weight over 72 hours in Swiss albino mice. AgNPs induced a significant increase in serum liver injury markers including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Induction of DNA damage was also studied in mice injected with AgNPs. Apoptosis (detected by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphatase nick end labeling assay method in liver tissue and DNA strand breaks (detected by using the comet assay method in lymphocytes revealed that a concentration of 78 mg of AgNPs per kg body weight can cause significant apoptosis and DNA damage. The DNA damage and apoptosis raise the concern about the safety associated with application of the AgNPs. Significantly more alterations were induced in the hepatocytes of animals exposed to AgNP doses than in the control animals. The induced histological and apoptotic changes may be due to AgNP toxicity. immunohistochemical and ultrastructural of AgNP. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, liver tissue, histology, apoptosis, DNA damage, Swiss albino mice

  5. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

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    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  6. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

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    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  7. Acute, 28days sub acute and genotoxic profiling of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Sandur, Rajendra; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Roy, Souvik; Janadri, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin-Magnesium complex is one of the youngest alkaline rare earth metal (Magnesium) complexes with flavonoids (Quercetin) in organo-metalic family. Earlier studies describe the details of the complex formation, characterization and antioxidant study of the complex but toxicity profile is still under darkness. The present study was taken up to investigate the oral acute toxicity, 28days repeated oral sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice. Quercetin-Magnesium complex showed mortality at a dose of 185mg/kg in the Swiss albino mice. In 28days repeated oral toxicity study, Quercetin-Magnesium complex was administered to both sex of Swiss albino mice at dose levels of 150, 130 and 100mg/kg body weight respectively. Where 150mg/kg dose shows increased levels of white blood cells and changes in total protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histopathological study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex shows minor structural alteration in kidney at 150mg/kg dose. No observed toxic level found in 130mg/kg or below doses. No genotoxic effect found in any doses of the complex. Therefore 130mg/kg or below dose level could be better for further study.

  8. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Abu Osman; M Mamunur Rashid; M Abdul Aziz; M Rowshahul Habib; M Rezaul karim

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods: The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity.

  9. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

  10. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahdeo Prasad; Neetu Kalra; Madhulika Singh; Yogeshwer Shukla

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Methods: Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight)consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase,glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). Results: In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.

  11. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre in Swiss albino mice

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    Ahirwal Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we performed a comparative phytochemical analysis of the immunomodulating activities of the methanol leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLEGS in Swiss albino mice. The phytochemical screening conducted on MLEGS revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents, including saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Immunomodulatory activities were determined by hemagglutination antibody (HA titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH tests for determining specific and non-specific immune responses. Flow cytometric techniques were performed for the estimation of B lymphocytes (CD3 and CD19 and Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited a significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody response and DTH response. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody and DTH responses, with maximum reduction observed at 200 mg/kg-body wt. The maximal reductions in the production of CD3, CD19, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 were 31.59, 32.12, 29.51, 32.45 and 33.53%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg body weight. This study demonstrates that G. sylvestre exerts immunosuppressive effects on the components of the immune system of mice, and points to its significant immunomodulatory potential.

  12. Effect of Camel's Milk on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Mohamed M.E. Afifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nephrotoxicity is a major complication and a dose limiting factor for cisplatin therapy. Cisplatin mediated nephrotoxicity is remarkably documented by reactive oxygen species. Camel's milk has good nutritive value, antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of camel's milk against Cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress in mice. Approach: Forty mal Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10. Group I, control group. Group II was received cisplatin (12 mg kg-1 for 5 alternate days. Group III was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days. Group IV was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days before administration of Cisplatin. Results: Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased level of tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, serum creatinine and urea, decreased the concentration of reduced Glutathione (GSH, Vitamin C (Vit. C and Vitamin E (Vit. E and decreased both activities and gene expression of Superoxid Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione Raductase (GR and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx. Camel's milk reduced these biochemical changes and counteracted the deleterious effects of cisplatin Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the renoprotective potential of camel's milk against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in mice. Hence, camel's milk has a potential to be used as therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

  13. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period

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    Shivi Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease ( in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly ( at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure.

  14. In vivo anticancer activity of vanillin, benzophenone and acetophenone thiosemicarbazones on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Md. Shahan Shahriar; Shaikh M Mohsin Ali; Mele Jesmin; Md. Khairul Islam; Sarozit Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the anticancer activities of three schiff bases viz. vanillin thiosemicarbazone, benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and acetophenone thiosemicarbazone against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Synthesized compounds have administrated into the intraperitoneal cavity of the EAC inoculated mice at two doses. The anticancer activities have studied by monitoring the parameters such as cell growth inhibition, tumor weight measurement, survival time of EAC bearing mice as well as the changes in depleted hematological parameters due to tumorgenesis. All such data have been compared with those of a known standard drug bleomycin at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.).Results:It has been found that these bases enhanced life span, reduced average tumor weight and inhibited tumor cell growth of EAC cell bearing mice remarkably. The results were similar in potency to those obtained with bleomycin. It was also found that the depleted hematological parameters (red blood count, white blood count and haemoglobin content) were found to be restored gradually towards normal within few weeks after ceasing the treatment.Conclusions:The compounds can be primarily considered more or less as potent anticancer agents.

  15. Potent chemopreventive effect of mangiferin on lung carcinogenesis in experimental Swiss albino mice

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    Peramaiyan Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: In the present study the effects of mangiferin were tested against lung cancer-bearing mice in both the pre-initiation and post-initiation periods. Materials and Methods: Healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old were used throughout the study. The animals were treated with mangiferin (100 mg/kg body weight dissolved in corn oil two weeks before (pre-initiation and the twelfth week after (post-initiation the establishment of B (a P (50 mg/kg body weight-induced lung carcinoma. Results: The body weight decreased and the lung weight and levels of xenobiotic and liver marker enzymes markedly increased in the carcinogen-administered animals; and mangiferin treatment brought the values of these parameters back to the near-normal ones. The activities of lysosomal enzymes in the animals with B (a P-induced experimental lung carcinogenesis were also assessed. In these animals there was an increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes such as acidphosphatase, β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and β-galactosidase. Conclusion: Supplementation with mangiferin attenuated all these alterations, thus indicating its anticancer effect. Overall, the above data showed that the anticancer effect of mangiferin as a chemopreventive agent was pronounced.

  16. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

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    Sahdeo Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine, C3H8NO5P, a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs and micronuclei (MN in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(apyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only, whereas, animals of control (vehicle group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P<.05. The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI. The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow.

  17. Post treatment effect of Grewia asiatica against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Sharma, K V; Ahaskar, Muktika

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of nuclear radiation for human welfare necessitates the search for new, safe, and cost-effective radioprotectors not only for the personnel charged with the responsibility of testing or working with radiation in laboratories, but also for the general public. With this view, the present study has been undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective potential of the Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE). It is reported to have a high content of antioxidants such as vitamin C, anthocyanin, folate carotenoids, etc. that may play a possible role in radioprotection. In the present investigation, healthy Swiss albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) only GAE treated (700 mg/Kg. body wt./day for 15 consecutive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (iv) irradiated + GAE treated. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals posttreatment, viz., 1-30 days. Blood was collected and liver was removed for various biochemical estimations, viz., glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation. The results indicated that GAE posttreatment protects liver and blood against radiation-induced damage by inhibiting glutathione depletion and ameliorating lipid peroxidation levels that attended normal levels by day 30 posttreatment. Moreover, the magnitude of recovery from oxidative damage in terms of TBARS and GSH content was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the irradiated + GAE-treated group.

  18. ANTIMUTAGENIC EFFECT OF TRIPHALA ON CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    Thomas Amrutha Merin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Triphala is a herbal formula used in the ancient Science of Ayurveda. Triphala, a composite mixture of Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis, has been used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of many malaises such as heart ailment and hepatic disease. The present set of investigation is designed to evaluate the antimutagenic potential of aqueous extract of Triphala using in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide(CP, a well known mutagen was given by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 40mg/kg body weight. Triphala was given at the dose of 125,250 and 500mg/kg body weight orally for seven consecutive days prior to Cyclophosphamide treatment. The animals were sacrificed at the sampling time of 24hrs after treatment and their bone marrow tissues were analysed for chromosomal damage and mitotic index. In Cyclophosphamide treated animals, a significant induction of chromosomal aberration was recorded with decrease in mitotic index. However, in Triphala supplemented animals, no significant induction in chromosomal damage or change in mitotic index was recorded. In different Triphala supplemented groups, a dose dependent significant decrease in Cyclophosphsmide induced clastogenicity was recorded. The incidence of aberrant cell was found to be reduced by the doses of Triphala when compared to Cyclophosphamide treated group. The study revealed the antimutagenic potential of Triphala against Cyclophosphamide induced chromosomal mutations. Analysis of the individual constituents of Triphala is shown to be rich in tannins as well as other chemical agents like carbohydrates, saponins, gallic acid, ellagic acids. Presence of these active principles in Triphala is likely to make it an effective antimutagenic agent.

  19. Antitumor activity of Aponogeton undulatus against Ehrilich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Reyazul Islam; Md BadrulAlam; UmmeTamima; Shayla Islam Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antitumor activity of the crude methanolic extract of Aponogeton undulatus (MAU) along with its various organic fractions. Methods:Aponogeton undulatus leaves were successively extracted using methanol (MAU) and then fractionated by chloroform, ethyl acetate (EAU) and water. The total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous reducing power assessment were used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the crude extract and its organic fractions. The in vivo antitumor activity is evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell bearing in Swiss albino mice. Results:EAU showed the highest antioxidant capacity as (175.80±0.41) mg/g, IC50 value of DPPH scavenging activity was (38.84±0.02)μg/mL and also exhibited maximum lipid peroxidation inhibition activity with the IC50 value of (42.52±0.32)μg/mL than other fractions. The results demonstrate that reducing power of the extract was concentration dependent. In addition, EAU was administered at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively to EAC cell bearing mice and a significant (P<0.05) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and also increased the life span (17.52%, 42.53%and 62.05%). Hematological profiles were restored to normal levels in MAU treated mice as compared to EAC control mice. Conclusions:The results were found to be significant and confirmed that the Aponogeton undulatus has remarkable antitumor activity with antioxidant potential.

  20. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  1. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  2. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  3. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhadul Islam; Hasina Khatun; Soby Ghosh; MM Ali; JA Khanam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results: EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions: The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches.

  4. Evaluation of antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Alternanthera brasiliana against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

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    Pavan Kumar Samudrala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The main objective of the present study was to explore the antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EAAB and its antioxidant status against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, EAAB was selected for anti-tumor and antioxidant effects. Anticancer activity of EAAB was evaluated against EAC in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. EAAB was administered for 14 consecutive days after induction of cancer. After 24 h of the last dose and 18 h of fasting, half of the mice were sacrificed and rest were kept alive for assessing any increase in life span. The antitumor effect of EAAB was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing host. Furthermore, the antioxidant and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: EAAB treatment has shown significant decrease in tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner. In hematological profile count of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC were found reverted to normal. EAAB also significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the levels of GSH, SOD and Catalase. Conclusion: From the above results it may be concluded that EAAB has potent dose dependent antitumor activity and is comparable to that of 5-flourouracil.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  6. Potential of Pandanus odoratissimus as a CNS depressant in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Raju

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several neuropharmacological effects of methanolic leaf extract of Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (family; Pandanaceae were studied in albino mice using various experimental models. The effect of PO on the CNS was studied by using different neuropharmacological paradigms including spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance and potentiation of Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation and acute toxicity studies were also carried out where LD50 >2000 mg/kg was considered non-toxic through acute exposure in rats by the oral route. The methanolic leaf extract (50,100 and 200 mg/kg i. p. produced a reduction in spontaneous motor activity, motor coordination and prolonged Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time. Preliminary qualitative chemical studies indicated the presence of steroids, saponins, terpinoids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and phenolics in the extract. These observations suggest that the leaf of Pandanus odoratissimus contains some active principles which possess potential CNS-depressant actionEstudaram-se alguns efeitos neurofarmacológicos do extrato metanólico de Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (família Pandanaceae em camundongos albinos, usando vários modelos experimentais. O efeito do PO no SNC foi estudado por meio de diferentes paradigmas neurofarmacológicos, como atividade motora espontânea, desempenho na haste rotatória e a potenciação do tempo de sono em camundongos albinos pelo pentobarbital sódico. A avaliação fitoquímica preliminar e os estudos de toxicidade aguda foram realizados e a DL50 >2000 mg/kg é considerada não tóxica, por meio da exposição aguda, por via oral, em ratos. O extrato metanólico de folha (50,100 e 200 mg/kg i. p. produziu redução da atividade motora espontânea, da coordenação motora e tempo prolongado de sono pelo pentobarbital sódico. Estudos químicos qualitativos preliminares indicaram a presença de esteróide, saponinas

  7. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous ethanolic seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree used traditionally since long back for wound healing, immunepotentiator, asthma, sedative, stomachic, styptic, as tonic etc. The present study determines the antiplasmodial effect of aqueous ethanolic seed extract against Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei nk65 infection in Swiss albino mice. Based upon the acute toxicity data three different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract was chosen to study the blood schizonticidal activity in early infection and in established infection and was compared with chloroquine. The Prophylactic activity was also assessed and compared with pyrimethamine. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study however, above the dose of 1000 mg/kg animals showed the lethargic behaviour. In early infection, and in established infection the doses (100-400 mg/kg b.wt was found to cause significant (P<0.001 suppression of infection in a dose dependent manner as compared to control. Although, the activity was lower than standard chloroquine. Similarly, the extract at all the doses caused the suppression in repository activity but was lower than pyrimethamine. The mean survival time was also increased in mice by 14 and 17 days at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, whereas the control group sustained only for 7 days. Thus, the seed extract showed the effectiveness against plasmodium infection.

  8. Evaluation of Anti-fertility Potential of Aqueous Extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Mishra N.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Population explosion is a major problem it is raising tremendously; this may affect drastically the economic growth. So family planning has been promoted through several methods of contraception. A wide variety of synthetic contraceptive agents are available, but these cannot be used continuously due to their side effects. Thus the present study was to evaluate the effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis on fertility of male and female mice. Swiss Albino mice were orally administered with aqueous crude extract of the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (800 mg/kg of body weight/day, for 30 days, and effect of crude extract on reproductive organs and fertility was investigated. The treatment Caused decrease in weight of testis, sperm count and the histological examination revealed a reduction in the size of seminiferous tubules along with the thickness of germinal epithelial cells, though some of the epithelial cells and interstitial cells of leydig showed hypertrophy. Moreover, the lumen of the tubules was found to be devoid of sperms. On the other hand, in treated females no histological changes could be observed. The only marked change, which could be visualized, was the slight disruption of estrous cycle having prolonged metaestrus phase, which has been increased by 145.28 %. The overall duration of estrous cycle had been extended by more than one day. The hormonal profile was also influenced by the Bougainvillea spectabilis extract. The testosterone and estrogen levels were significantly decreased.

  9. Chemomodulatory effects ofIchnocarpus frutescens R. Br against 4-vinylcyclohexane induced ovarian cancer in swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangarajan Starlin; Perumal Sathiyanathan; Chinthamony Arul Raj; Paramasivam Ragavendran; Balasubramanian Vidya; Martin Sunitha

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the protective effect ofIchnocarpus frutescens(I. frutescens)R.Br against 4-vinylcyclohexane induced ovarian cancer inSwiss albino mice.Method:The ovarian cancer was induced by4-vinylcyclohexane which was given to28-day-old mice in corn oil, intra peritoneally, at2.7 mmol/kg body weight/day for30 d.After that serum and tissue were isolated. Enzymatic antioxidants, non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidationassessed in liver and ovary homogenate.Metabolites, marker enzymes were analyzed in serum.Tissue was examined histopathology examination.Result:The levels of urea, creatinine, marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in ovarian cancer induced mice when compared to control group whereas, levels of uric acid, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were decreased in cancer induced mice when compared with control mice.From these parameters were brought back to near normal in ethanolic extract ofI. frutescens treated animals.The above results were further confirmed by histopathological examination which shows marked edema of lamina propria occurred in cancer induced animals whereas no alterations in ethanolic extract of I. frutescens and cisplatin treated groups. Conclusion:This present study was evaluated that the ethanolic extracts ofI. frutescens have effective anticancer activity against4-vinylcyclohexane induced ovarian cancer.

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  11. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  12. On the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi y strain in swiss mice Sobre o parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in Swiss mice was carried out. This strain parasitized preferentially smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers, with low transitory spleen and liver parasitism, as previously found by some Authors, although differing from other reports. These results can be related to the host genetical constitution and/or the degree of the strain virulence at the time of this study. Furthermore, we discuss that the high macrophagotropism reported for this strain in some instances could be an artificially induced condition resulting from its serial maintenance in mice, either for a longer time and/or by using young animals. The heavy parasitism and inflammation observed in the bladder, pancreas and spermatic duct of some inoculated mice, as well as the testis parasitization, were also noteworthy findings.Através deste trabalho fizemos uma revisão do parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster. Esta cepa parasitou preferencialmente as fibras musculares lisas, esqueléticas e cardíacas, sendo baixo e transitório seu parasitismo do baço e fígado, conforme já observado por alguns Autores, embora diferindo de outros achados. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados com o padrão genético do hospedeiro e/ou com o grau de virulência da cepa por ocasião deste estudo. Além do mais, discutimos a possibilidade de que o intenso macrofagotropismo descrito para esta cepa em algumas ocasiões possa ser uma condição artificialmente induzida através de sua manutenção seriada em camundongos por tempo prolongado e/ou pelo uso de animais jovens. Também são dignos de nota, o intenso parasitismo e inflamação da bexiga, pâncreas e canal espermático de alguns animais inoculados, assim como, o encontro de ninhos de amastigotas no testículo.

  13. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE.

  14. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Ritu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA- induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage. CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P<0.001 along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P<0.001, and catalase, P<0.001, nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P<0.001, and total proteins (P<0.001 when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  15. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahuya Sengupta; Gauri Dutta Sharma; Biswajit Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Methods: First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. Results: The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  16. Further antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of cym-bopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) against plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DV Dapper; IMSiminialayi; OO Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf)is a popular alternative to western medicines for a number of condi-tions,including fevers,muscle soreness and superficial infections in Nigeria.In addition to its already reported suppressive effects against P.berghei infection,this study sought to determine its repository and blood schizon-ticidal activities in established P.berghei infection using Swiss albino mice as models.Mice weighing on aver-age,between 15 and 25g were given 103mg/kg,155mg/kg and 310mg/kg/day of the crude aqueous extract of cymbopogon citratus stapf,in the 4-day test,24-hour Rane test and 72-hour Rane test.The effects of these do-ses of the extract were then compared with chloroquine (5mg/kg/day)and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine (3mg/kg/day).We report an average percentage suppressive repository activity of 65.8% for the extract at a dose of 310mg/kg and a blood schizonticidal activity that increased from 68.33% in the 24-hour Rane test to 92% in the 72-hour Rane test for the same dose of extract.The crude aqueous extract of C.citratus stapf thus has significant repository and blood schizonticidal activities against established P.berghei infection in Swiss al-bino mice compare to that of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine respectively.

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation during critical windows of gestation influences immune phenotype in Swiss albino mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaja, N; Hemalatha, R; Narendra Babu, K; Shujauddin, M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation during critical windows of gestation might have a significant influence on the infant's immune phenotype. Swiss albino mice (F0 generation) aged 31 days were supplemented orally with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG); and the supplementation was continued throughout mating, gestation and lactation. The pups (F1 generation) born to them were separated post weaning and received either the same probiotic supplementation as their mothers or were denied supplementation postnatally. Neutrophil phagocytic ability, splenocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins and cytokines were determined in both F0 and F1 pups. In addition, antibody response against hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was determined in F1 pups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on the neutrophil phagocytic ability and splenocyte proliferation index. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA (s-IgA) among the probiotic supplemented group of F0 generation were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the controls. Similarly, the mean concentration of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) among F0 probiotic group were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control. Prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to similar results as F0 dams. Prenatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to significantly (P<0.05) higher serum IgG (55.15 ± 1.35 ng/ml) and intestinal s-IgA (77.9 ± 2.86 ng/mg protein) concentration when compared to the control. Similarly, IFN-γ concentration increased (P<0.05) with prenatal probiotic supplementation compared to the control. However, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations of prenatal probiotic supplemented F1 pups were comparable to the control. As for the antibody response to HBsAg, prenatal probiotic supplementation led to enhanced HBsAg antibody response (471.4 ± 3.97 U/ml) compared to the control. LGG affected the immune regulation and immune responses favourably in mothers and

  18. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  19. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  20. In vivo protection studies of bis-quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)- N-(pyridin-3-yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK oximes) against tabun and soman poisoning in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Swami, D; Nagar, D P; Singh, K P; Acharya, J; Karade, H N; Yadav, R

    2017-01-01

    The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum. Using various doses of tabun and soman (subcutaneously (sc)), in multiples of their IC50, AChE reactivation ability of the oximes was studied. Besides, acute toxicity (0.8× LD50, im, 24 h postexposure) of HNK-102 and 2-PAM was also compared by determining biochemical, hematological variables and making histopathological observations. Protection offered by HNK-102 against tabun poisoning was found to be four times higher compared to 2-PAM. However, nearly equal protection was noted with all the four oximes against soman poisoning. HNK-102 reactivated brain AChE activity by 1.5 times more than 2-PAM at IC50 dose of soman and tabun. Acute toxicity studies of HNK-102 and 2-PAM showed sporadic changes in urea, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, and so on compared to control group, however, not supported by histopathological investigations. The present investigation showed superiority of newly synthesized HNK-102 oxime over standard 2-PAM, as a better antidote, against acute poisoning of tabun (4.00 times) and soman (1.04 times), in Swiss albino mice.

  1. Mitigating role of baicalein on lysosomal enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme status during lung carcinogenesis of Swiss albino mice induced by benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Chandrashekar; Raghunandakumar, Subramanian; Asokkumar, Selvamani; Binuclara, John; Rajan, Balan; Premkumar, Thandavamoorthy; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2014-06-01

    The lungs mainly serve as a primary site for xenobiotic metabolism and constitute an important defense mechanism against inhalation of carcinogens. Our current study aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) in Swiss albino mice exposed to tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] for its ability to mitigate pulmonary carcinogenesis. Here, we report that altered activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes (cathepsin-D, cathepsin-B, acid phosphatase, β-D-galactosidase, β-D-glucuronidase, and β-D-N-acetyl glucosaminidase), phase I biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase), and phase II enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl transferase, and DT-diaphorase) were observed in the B(a)P-induced mice. Treatment with BE significantly restored back the activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. Moreover, assessment of lysosomal abnormalities by transmission electron microscopic examination revealed that BE treatment effectively counteract B(a)P-induced oxidative damages. Protein expression levels studied by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot analysis of CYP1A1 revealed that BE treatment effectively negate B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of CYP1A1. Further analysis of scanning electron microscopic studies in lung was carried out to substantiate the anticarcinogenic effect of BE. The overall data suggest that BE treatment significantly inhibits lysosomal and microsomal dysfunction, thus revealing its potent anticarcinogenic effect.

  2. Stimulatory effects of Cuminum cyminum and flavonoid glycoside on Cyclosporine-A and restraint stress induced immune-suppression in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Satti, Naresh Kumar; Suri, Krishan Avtar; Amina, Musarat; Bani, Sarang

    2010-04-15

    Many herbs and spices are known to modulate the immune system and have been shown to restore the immunity in immuno-compromised individuals. Spices generally used to increase the taste and flavor of food also has the history of usage as an ayurvedic medicine. Therefore to explore the health modulating effects of Cuminum cyminum and to identify the active compound, immunomodulatory properties were evaluated using flowcytometry and ELISA in normal and immune-suppressed animals. C. cyminum and compound 1 stimulated the T cells and Th1 cytokines expression in normal animals. Swiss albino mice subjected to Cyclosporine-A induced immune-suppression were dosed orally with C. cyminum (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on consecutive days. The results showed that administration significantly increased T cells (CD4 and CD8) count and Th1 predominant immune response in a dose dependent manner thereby suggesting immunomodulatory activity through modulation of T lymphocytes expression. In restraint stress induced immune-suppressed animals, compound 1 countered the depleted T lymphocytes, decreased the elevated corticosterone levels and size of adrenal glands and increased the weight of thymus and spleen. Based on the data we may conclude that C. cyminum is a potent immunomodulator and may develop as a lead to recover the immunity of immuno-compromised individuals.

  3. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lekha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO, extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract′s efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.

  4. Distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in the skins of normal and albino adult turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huarong; HUANG Bing; QI Fei; ZHANG Shicui

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in skins of normal and albino adult turbots were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of pigment cells of melanophore, iridophore and xanthophore have been recognized in adult turbot skins. The skin color depends mainly on the amount and distribution of melanophore and iridophore, as xanthophore is quite rare. No pigment cells can be found in the epidermis of the skins. In the pigmented ocular skin of the turbot, melanophore and iridophore are usually co-localized in the dermis. This is quite different from the distribution in larvae skin. In albino and white blind skins of adult turbots, however, only iridophore monolayer still exists, while the melanophore monolayer disappears. This cytological evidence explains why the albino adult turbot, unlike its larvae, could never resume its body color no matter what environmental and nutritional conditions were provided. Endocytosis is quite active in the cellular membrane of the iridophore. This might be related to the formation of reflective platelet and stability of the iridophore.

  5. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  6. Modulatory action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on mitomycin C-and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice In vivo

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    Mohapatra Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a structural analog of glucose is an effective inhibitor of glucose metabolism and ATP production. It selectively accumulates in cancer cells and interferes with glycolysis leading to cell death. 2-DG is shown to differentially enhance the radiation-induced damage in cancer cells both under euoxic and hypoxic conditions. A combination of 2-DG and ionizing radiation selectively destroys tumors while protecting the normal tissue. 2-DG is being advocated as an adjuvant in the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Objective: The present investigation focuses on the modulatory effect of 2-DG on mitomycin C- (MMC and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO-induced cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were pretreated with 2-DG (500 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days followed by MMC (2 mg/kg, i.p or 4-NQO (15 mg/kg, i.p., 24h prior to sacrifice. Control animals were given either the mixture of olive oil and acetone (3:1 or distilled water. Bone marrow cells were processed for the micronucleus assay and metaphase analysis for estimating cytogenetic damage. Results: 2-DG significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the frequency of aberrant cells induced by MMC (~90% and 4-NQO (~74%. Incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs induced by the mutagens were reduced up to 68%. Conclusion: 2-DG effectively reduces the MMC-and 4-NQO-induced genotoxicity.

  7. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination.

  8. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  9. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.

  10. Attitudes towards personal genomics among older Swiss adults: An exploratory study

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    Laura Mählmann

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates a relatively positive overall attitude towards personal genomic testing among older Swiss adults, a group not typically represented in surveys about personal genomics. Genomic data of older adults can be highly relevant to late life health and maintenance of quality of life. In addition they can be an invaluable source for better understanding of longevity, health and disease. Understanding the attitudes of this population towards genomic analyses, although important, remains under-examined.

  11. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects.

  12. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

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    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  13. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  14. Prevalence of and associated factors for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young Swiss men.

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    Natalia Estévez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF. ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial.

  15. 育亨宾对雄性瑞士白化小鼠的生殖、细胞和生化毒性%Reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Yohimbe in male swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.Al-Majed; A.A.Al-Yahya; A.M.Al-Bekairi; O.A.Al-Shabanah; S.Qureshi

    2006-01-01

    目的:研究育亨宾(Yohimbe)对瑞士白化小鼠生殖细胞的影响.方法:用不同剂量(188,375和750mg/[kg.day])的育亨宾水性悬浮液灌胃处理成年雄性小鼠,持续90天.检测下面的参数:(1)生殖器官重量,(2)精子的活动力和数量,(3)怀孕率和平均受精卵附着数,(4)精子形态,(5)睾丸染色体的细胞学,(6)蛋白质,RNA,DNA,丙二醛,非蛋白质的硫氢化合物(NP-SH)和激素的生化评估.结果:育亨宾处理使精囊重量、精子的活动性和精子数量、受精卵附着前和受精卵附着后的重量的显著增加,雄性生殖能力降低.精子畸形和染色体变异方面的数据进一步证实了这一结果.生化评估数据也显示睾丸细胞中的丙二醛,NP-SH的消耗,蛋白质,RNA和DNA增加了.结论:本研究结果表明,自由基可能是通过yohimbine(Yohimbe的主要成分)对神经传递素,包括去甲肾上腺素的影响产生细胞毒性和生殖毒性.这些数据提示要谨慎使用Yohimbe.%Aim: To study the effect of Corynanthe Yohimbe (Yohimbe) on germ cells in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Adult male mice were orally (gavage) treated with different doses (188, 375 and 750 mg/[kg.day]) of aqueous suspension of Yohimbe for 90 days. The following parameters were evaluated: (I) reproductive organ weight, (ii) motility and count of sperm, (iii) study on rate of pregnancy and mean implants, (iv) spermatozoa morphology, (v) cytology of the testes chromosomes, and (vi) biochemical study on estimation of proteins, RNA, DNA, malondialdehyde, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and hormones. Results: The treatment caused significant increase in the weight of seminal vesicles, motility and count of spermatozoa, pre- and post-implants. Male fertility was decreased. These results are confirmed by our data on spermatozoa abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations. The data on biochemical parameters showed increase of malondialdehyde and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in the

  16. Difference in leptin hormone response to nutritional status in normal adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sowyan, Noorah S

    2009-01-15

    The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E) and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn't show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) obesity and also protect the liver

  17. Topical application of Gallic acid suppresses the 7,12-DMBA/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis by modulating anti-oxidants and MMP-2/MMP-9 in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vimala; Venkatesan, Balaji; Tumala, Anusha; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA - 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a dietary anti-oxidant has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in in vitro. Herein, we investigated the in vivo chemo preventive activity of GA on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the 16 weeks of experimental period. In addition, LDH-isozyme shift, skin collagen content, activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9) enzymes and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant were studied in the skin and serum of experimental mice. Tumor incidence was significantly increased in the DMBA/Croton oil induced mice (100%; pCroton oil induced skin while decreased levels of enzymatic (GST, SOD, CAT & GPx) and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant (GSH) were noticed. On the other hand, GA co-treatment exhibited a significant protection by reverting back the altered levels of LDH-isoenzymes, antioxidants, collagen and MMP-2/MMP-9 activities. The results of this study indicate that topical application of GA inhibits DMBA/Croton oil induced two-stage skin carcinogenic process by modulating the antioxidants and MMPs (-2 & -9) in the mouse skin.

  18. Associations of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 types with oral diseases in Swiss adults.

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    Matti Mauramo

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigens (HLA are crucial components of host defense against microbial challenge but the associations of HLA types with oral infectious diseases have not been studied in detail. This prospective cross-sectional study examined associations of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 types with common oral diseases in a healthy Swiss adult population. 257 subjects (107 m, 150 f, mean age: 43.5 yr; range: 21-58 yr with known HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 profiles and comprehensive medical records were included. A thorough anamnesis was followed by oral examinations including saliva flow measurements, the DMFT score for cariological status, complete periodontal status with plaque and bleeding indexes as well as assessment of mucosal alterations and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD. Student's t-test and Pearson chi-square test were utilized to compare the oral diseases between HLA positive and negative subjects. Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was used and PBonf<0.05 was considered statistically significant. HLA types -B15 (PBonf = 0.002, -B51 (PBonf = 0.02 and -DRB1*12 (PBonf = 0.02 were associated with less periodontal disease manifestations. HLA-A32 had a positive association with TMD dysfunction (PBonf = 0.012. No other statistically significant associations were observed. In conclusion, HLA types may contribute to the development of oral diseases in generally healthy Caucasian adults.

  19. Study of oestrus cycle periodicity and oogenesis of adult albino rats:Response to hyperprolactinaemia induced by haloperidol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savita Kuldip Kumar; Pal Abhishek; Sahu Pratap Kumar; Tiwari Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible effect of hyperprolactinaemia induced by HPL on oogenesis in female albino rats. Methods: The oestrus cycle of each rat was observed daily for 16 days at a regular interval of 24 hours including Sunday. Animals from each group were scarified 24 hr after last treatment (on 17th day) following the ethical procedure for histopathological examination ovaries were separated. Results: In our study we found that prolactin treatment at the dioestrous phase increased the number of apoptotic cells and significant changes in volume of corpus luteum and the number of steriodogenic cell per corpus luteum decreased and therefore resultant synthesis of oestrogen decreased. So, haloperidol possesses antioestrogenic activity which may be attributed to high serum prolactin levels induced by haloperidol in experimental animals. Conclusion: In this study intraperitoneall administration of haloperidol at doses of 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg/day for 16 days significantly produced hyperprolactinaemia in female albino rats as compared to control. Hyperprolactinaemia produced by haloperidol causes significant increase in periodicity of dioestrous phase and decreased the other phase significantly in a dose dependent manner.

  20. Whole number, distribution and co-expression of brn3 transcription factors in retinal ganglion cells of adult albino and pigmented rats.

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    Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás

    Full Text Available The three members of the Pou4f family of transcription factors: Pou4f1, Pou4f2, Pou4f3 (Brn3a, Brn3b and Brn3c, respectively play, during development, essential roles in the differentiation and survival of sensory neurons. The purpose of this work is to study the expression of the three Brn3 factors in the albino and pigmented adult rat. Animals were divided into these groups: i untouched; ii fluorogold (FG tracing from both superior colliculli; iii FG-tracing from one superior colliculus; iv intraorbital optic nerve transection or crush. All retinas were dissected as flat-mounts and subjected to single, double or triple immunohistofluorescence The total number of FG-traced, Brn3a, Brn3b, Brn3c or Brn3 expressing RGCs was automatically quantified and their spatial distribution assessed using specific routines. Brn3 factors were studied in the general RGC population, and in the intrinsically photosensitive (ip-RGCs and ipsilateral RGC sub-populations. Our results show that: i 70% of RGCs co- express two or three Brn3s and the remaining 30% express only Brn3a (26% or Brn3b; ii the most abundant Brn3 member is Brn3a followed by Brn3b and finally Brn3c; iii Brn3 a-, b- or c- expressing RGCs are similarly distributed in the retina; iv The vast majority of ip-RGCs do not express Brn3; v The main difference between both rat strains was found in the population of ipsilateral-RGCs, which accounts for 4.2% and 2.5% of the total RGC population in the pigmented and albino strain, respectively. However, more ipsilateral-RGCs express Brn3 factors in the albino than in the pigmented rat; vi RGCs that express only Brn3b and RGCs that co-express the three Brn3 members have the biggest nuclei; vii After axonal injury the level of Brn3a expression in the surviving RGCs decreases compared to control retinas. Finally, this work strengthens the validity of Brn3a as a marker to identify and quantify rat RGCs.

  1. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

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    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally.

  3. Swiss Adolescents' and Adults' Perceptions of Cannabis Use: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghrajani, P.; Klaue, K.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Michaud, P.-A.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents and adults conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four…

  4. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  5. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  6. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  7. Cultural and gender-related differences of concepts of love between Iranian and Swiss adults based on Hafez’ poetry of love

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    Hafez Bajoghli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Falling and being in love is a cross-cultural universal. The poet Khwaja Šams ud-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Širazi, or simply Hafez (14th century D.C., an important influence for both Persian and European culture, is noted for his love poetry. The first aim of the present study was to check to what extent items of a current questionnaire of love match themes of love found in Hafez‘ poetry. Then, we explored gender- and cultural differences in the importance of these themes. First, themes of Hafez‘s poems were compared with the items of Fisher‘s ―Being in Love Inventory‖. Second, a set of items was presented to Iranian and Swiss female and male adult participants (N=325; age (years: M =31.29; SD =16.28; 161 Iranian; 164 Swiss. Generally, cultural differences were weak. Female participants agreed more with the assumption of love as taking one away from reality. Swiss male participants reported an increased ambivalence towards the partner, and Iranian female participants reported an increased fear of being betrayed. Our results seem to confirm that Hafez‘s themes of love are still up-to-date, and that falling and being in love is a cross-cultural universal, though with some subtle cultural and gender-related differences.

  8. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Myristica fragrans houtt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mini; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-03-01

    Nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans, MF (Family: Myristicaceae) possesses antifungal, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Its radioprotective effect against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30 )as 6.83 Gy and 8.89 Gy for irradiated only and (MF + radiation) groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.3. Administration of MF significantly enhanced hepatic glutathione (GSH) and decreased testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) level whereas acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity did not show any significant alteration. Irradiation resulted in significant elevation in LPO level and ACP activity, and decreased the GSH content and ALP activity. MF pretreatment effectively protected against radiation induced biochemical alteration as reflected by a decrease in LPO level and ACP activity, and an increase in GSH and ALP activity. The present study has implications for the potential use of MF as a radioprotector.

  9. 二烯丙基硫醚对睾丸激素引发的瑞士白鼠氧化应激反应的调节作用%Modulatory effects of diallyl sulfide against testosterone-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Prasad; N. Kalra; Y. Shukla

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a constituent of garlic, against testosterone-induced oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. Methods: The animals were given low (250 mg/animal) and high dose (500 mg/animal) of DAS in corn oil for 7 days along with testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). At the end of the study period, the prostate and the liver were dissected to determine various antioxidant enzyme levels (catalase,superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase) and lipid peroxidation. Results: In testosterone treated mice, depleted antioxidant enzyme level was accompanied with enhancement in lipid peroxidation in prostate and liver. DAS significantly restored the testosterone-induced antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the both organs. These changes appear to be mediated by the antioxidant-enhancing effects of DAS. Conclusion:The results of the present study suggest that DAS is effective in exerting antioxidant effects by inhibiting testosteroneinduced oxidative stress and might be helpful in preventing prostate cancer. (Asian JAndrol 2006 Nov; 8: 719-723)%目的:研究大蒜的成分之一二烯丙基硫醚(diallyl sulfide,DAS)对睾丸激素引发的雄性瑞士白鼠氧化应激反应的保护作用.方法:给瑞士白鼠连续7天注射不同剂量的DAS,低剂量组为250 mg/只,高剂量组为500 mg/只,玉米油作为佐剂.同时根据小鼠的体重注射一定剂量的睾丸激素(5 mg/kg).注射结束后将前列腺和肝脏进行切片,观察不同的抗氧化酶(过氧化氢酶、超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽还原酶、谷胱甘肽-S-转硫酶)水平和脂质过氧化情况.结果:在注射了睾丸激素的小鼠的前列腺和肝脏中,抗氧化酶失活的同时脂质的过氧化反应增强.DAS在这两种脏器中能恢复由睾丸激素引起的上述反应,这个作用是由DAS的抗氧化增强作用介导.结论:本研究结果显示

  10. Avaliação dos efeitos depressores centrais do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum Pax. e de suas frações em camundongos albinos Evaluation of the central depressor effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum Pax. and its fractions in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea é uma planta nativa da África tropical conhecida como "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", dentre outros. A planta é utilizada pela população brasileira como detentora de propriedades antiinflamatória, analgésica, dentre outras. Foram avaliados os efeitos depressores sobre o sistema nervoso central (SNC do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum (EES e de suas frações - hexânica (FH, clorofórmica (FC e metanol/água (FM. Vários testes foram utilizados em camundongos machos albinos (Mus musculus, dentre eles, o sono induzido por barbitúrico, campo aberto e o teste do rota-rod. O EES foi testado nas doses de 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, enquanto que a FH foi testada na dose de 10 mg/kg, a FC na dose de 20 mg/kg e a FM na dose de 25 mg/kg. O EES e as frações FH e FC, mas não a FM, apresentaram um possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC, visto que foram capazes de aumentar o tempo parado e diminuir o número de bolos fecais no campo aberto, além de potencializarem o sono induzido por barbitúrico. No teste do rota-rod, observou-se que o EES e as frações não foram capazes de causar incoordenação motora ou relaxamento muscular. Assim, conclui-se que o extrato etanólico e as frações FH e FC do Syandenium umbellatum Pax. possuem possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC.Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea is a native plant from tropical Africa known as "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", among others. The plant is used by Brazilian folks for having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, among others. It was evaluated the depressor effects over the central nervous system (CNS of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum (EES and its fractions - hexane (HF, chloroformic (CF and methanol/water fractions(MF. Several tests were used in Swiss mice (Mus musculus, among them, barbiturate-induced sleep, open field and rota-rod test. The

  11. Effect of Noise and Crowding Stresses on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis and Protective Effect of Sulpiride Drug in Adult Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noise and crowding are the most stressful factors which cause depressant effects on human beings, especially females.Therfore this study was aimed at clarifying their effects on hypothalamus pituitary gonadal axis hormones (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen (E2)and progesterone as well as prolactin (PRL)and the possible protective effect of antidepressant drug;sulpiride. Material and Methods: Sixty adult female rats were divided into si...

  12. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Heling; YANG Hongsheng; ZHAO Huan; LIU Shilin; WANG Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity.The offspring of albino A.japonicus also suffer from albinism.The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF).To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism,we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A.japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A.japonicus.In addition,we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A.japonicus.The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes,which also contained less melanin.In albino juvenile offspring,MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer,and less developed,epidermal melanocytes.Thus,we conclude that albino A.japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin,likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  13. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Idris Guessous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930. Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years, 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  14. Use Patterns of Leave-on Personal Care Products among Swiss-German Children, Adolescents, and Adults

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    Konrad Hungerbühler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to model exposure to ingredients contained in personal care products (PCPs and assess their potential risks to human health, access to reliable PCP use data, including co-use patterns, is essential. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the use patterns of eight leave-on PCP categories among the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N = 1,196; ages 0–97 years, providing for the first time in Europe PCP use data for children <12 years of age. The majority of respondents (99% reported having used at least one of the investigated PCP categories in the past year. Co-use of two or more PCP categories at the same time was common and more complex amongst adults. Regular use of face cream and body lotion was very high in the youngest group of children aged 0–4 years (more than 79% respondents who may be more vulnerable to certain adverse effects of some PCP ingredients. A comparison with previously collected information on PCP use patterns in Germany and the Netherlands indicates differences in PCP use patterns among European consumers and suggests that surrogate PCP use data from other countries must be used with caution. This work extends the existing knowledge of PCP use patterns and will be useful for new exposure assessments for ingredients contained in PCPs used by the young consumers.

  15. Reproductive System Toxicity in Male Swiss Mice under Supplementation of Camcolit

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    Awatef M. Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was under taken to determine the effect of cumulated Camcolit doses (lithium carbonate in healthy Swiss albino mice concerning the function of testis, epididymis and vas deferens as well as hormonal function. In this study 40 adult male mice taken (23.25 mg mouse-1 - a cumulated dose for a period of 35 days, this dose is equivalent to the low human therapeutic dose and was injected intraperitoneally. Camcolit has no significant effect on mortality but there is significant decrease in both testes and body weight. Its administration induced histopathological changes included: disappearance of spermatogonia and decreased number of spermatocytes which lead to hypo spermatogenesis, hypertrophied nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm were recorded in Sertoli cells, Intracellular and intercellular vacuoles were formed between germinal cells and Leydig cells have atrophied nuclei with vacuolated cytoplasm. Widening of the ductus epididymis and their cells became cubical with pyknotic nuclei and destruction or total loss of stereo cilia. Sperms disappeared from the vas deferens which suffered from disruption of muscular layers. Also low sperms number with formation of deformed ones with no head, coiled or bent tail. By using radioimmunoassay, it was found that Camcolit reduced serum testosterone level in lithium carbonate exposed male mice.

  16. Infecção experimental de camundongos albinos com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, previamente submetidas a ação de termofosfato magnesiano

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    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada infecção experimental de camundongos albinos ("Swiss inbred" com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, submetidas à ação do adubo termofosfato magnesiano (Tfm, usualmente utilizado em latossolos tropicais e capaz, quando ingerido, de provocar o bloqueio da ovogênese de moluscos planorbídeos. Nas condições do experimento, observou-se a infecção dos roedores. Porém, o número de ovos eliminados pelo grupo controle, representado por cinco camundongos, foi sensivelmente maior que o do grupo Tfm, ainda que a recuperação de vermes, por perfusão, tenha sido bem menor. Do grupo Tfm, foram recuperados 163 (98,2% vermes adultos machos e apenas 3 (1,8% fêmeas, isoladas. Do grupo controle, a perfusão proporcionou 53 vermes adultos, sendo 13 machos, 18 fêmeas e 11 casais. Cada camundongo foi exposto a 150 cercárias.Experimental infection of white mice (Swiss inbred with LE strain Scistosoma mansoni cercariae submitted to the action of magnesium thermophosphate (Tfm, usually used in tropical latosoils, was performed. This product is able to block ovogenesis of planorbid molluscs. In these experimental conditions, rodents were infected. But, the number of eggs released by the control group (five mice was markedly greater than that of the Tfm group, although a short number of worms were recovered by perfusion. From the Tfm group, 163 adult worms (98,2% were recovered and only 3 females (1,8%. Of the control group, perfusion recovered 62 adult worms (22 male worms, 18 female and 11 couples. Each mice was exposed to 150 cercariae.

  17. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

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    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  18. Aphrodisiac and phytochemical studies ofCocculus hirsutus extracts in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharanabasappaA Patil; SujayaM; SaraswatiB Patil

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate thein vivo aphrodisiac activity of various extracts obtained from aerial partsCocculus hirsutus(C. hirsutus).Methods:We evaluated whether oral administration ofC. hirsutushas spermatogenic activity in male rats.Petroleum ether, chloroform and alcohol extract of aerial parts(stem and leaf) ofC. hirsutus were administered at the dose level of25 mg/100 g body weight to adult male albino rats for30 days.Results:The above said extracts have stimulated the spermatogenic activity and accessory reproductive organs performance in albino rats.Out of the three extracts administered, alcohol extract showed highly stimulant spermatogenic effects in mature male albino rats.Alcohol extract showed potent androgenic activity when treated in immatureAlbino rats.Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals.The increased spermatogenesis in extract treated groups was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatids and caudal spermatozoa.After subjecting to preliminary phytochemical screening, the alcohol extract showed positive tests for steroids, saponins, oils and fats, phenolic compounds and tannins.Conclusion:C. hirsutus exhibited remarkable increase in spermatogenic activity.These findings support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  19. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  20. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  1. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

  2. Tumor induction in Swiss mice by filtrable agent and Salmonella typhimurium.

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    Hamazaki,Yukio

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Combined inoculation of a cell-free extract of leukotic tissue of D103 mice and Salmonella typhimurium into adult Swiss mice induced leukosis and solid tumors. The induced solid tumors were histologically multifarious, and were transplantable in Swiss mice, but not in other strains of mice.

  3. Lycopene treatment prevents hematological, reproductive and histopathological damage induced by acute zearalenone administration in male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del'Fabbro, Lucian; Roman, Silvane Souza; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Jessé, Cristiano Ricardo; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2014-07-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found as a contaminant in cereals. ZEA toxicity targets mainly the reproductive system, and oxidative stress plays an etiological role in its toxic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene, a potent carotenoid antioxidant, on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes, and on reproductive, hematological and histopathological parameters after ZEA administration. Adult Swiss albino male mice received lycopene (20mg/kg, p.o.) for ten days before a single oral administration of ZEA (40mg/kg, p.o.), and 48h thereafter tissues (liver, kidney, testes and blood) were collected for biochemical, hematological and histological analyses. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in hematological parameters (increased number of leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, sticks, eosinophils and monocytes and decreased number of red blood cells (RBC), number of lymphocytes and platelets). Moreover, lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and the testicular tissue damage induced by ZEA. In addition, lycopene prevented the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity in kidney and testes and increased glutathione-S-transferase activity per se in the liver, kidneys and testes as well as superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. In summary, lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced acute toxic effects in male mice, suggesting that this antioxidant carotenoid may represent a promising prophylactic strategy against ZEA toxicity.

  4. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

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    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  5. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  6. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  7. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia.

  8. In vivo DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Al Gurabi MA; Ali D; Alkahtani S; Alarifi S

    2015-01-01

    Mohammed A Al Gurabi, Daoud Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Saud Alarifi Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on organs, tissue, cell levels, and protein levels because of their physicochemical properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being used on a wide scale in world consumer markets; their potential hazards for humans remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the int...

  9. Protective effect of Genistein against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahad Ali; Rahul; Falaq Naz; Smita Jyoti; Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of Genistein against the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). NDEA is present in almost all kinds of food stuff and has been reported to be a hepatocarcinogen. The male rats were exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) dissolved in drinking water separately and along with 25, 50, 100 mg/mL of Genistein for 21 days. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in blood serum. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, micronucleus frequency and DNA damage (Comet assay) were performed on rat hepatocytes. The results of the study reveal that the treatment of NDEA along with Genistein showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the levels of blood serum enzymes i.e., SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LDH (Po0.05). The HE staining of histological sections of the liver also revealed a protective effect of Genistein. A significant dose-dependent reduction in the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content was observed in rats exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) along with Genistein (Po0.05). The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length (Po0.05). Thus the present study supports the hepatoprotective role of Genistein.

  10. Antitumor activity and antioxident role of Bauhinia racemosa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malaya GUPTA; Upal Kanti MAZUMDER; Ramanathan Sambath KUMAR; Thangavel Siva KUMAR

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect and antioxidant role of Bauhinia racemosa. METHODS: Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of methanol extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice. Acute and short-term toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR). After 24 h of tumor inoculation, the extract was administered daily for 14 d. After administration of the last dose followed by 18 h fasting, mice were then sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity. The effect of MEBR on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC bearing hosts and simultaneous alterations in the hematological profile and liver biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes) were estimated. RESULTS: The MEBR showed decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, and increased the nonviable cell count and mean survival time thereby increasing life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile reverted to more or less normal levels in extract treated mice. Treatment with MEBR decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. CONCLUSION: The methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark exhibited antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system in EAC bearing mice.

  11. Myrica nagi attenuates cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A; Iqbal, M; Saleem, M; Ahmed, S; Sultana, S

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to identify new chemopreventive agents which could be useful for man. Myrica nagi, a subtropical shrub, has been shown to possess significant activity against hepatotoxicity and other pharmacological and physiological disorders. We have shown a chemopreventive effect of Myrica nagi on cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in mice. Cumene hydroperoxide treatment at a dose level of 30 mg/animal/0.2 ml acetone enhances susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for iron-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and induction of xanthine oxidase activity which are accompanied by decrease in the activities of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and depletion in the level of cutaneous glutathione. Parallel to these changes a sharp decrease in the activities of phase II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase has been observed. Application of Myrica nagi at doses of 2.0 mg and 4.0 mg/kg body weight in acetone prior to that of cumene hydroperoxide (30 mg/animal/0.2 ml acetone) treatment resulted in significant inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for lipid peroxidation induced by iron ascorbate and xanthine oxidase activities were significantly reduced (Pcumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity.

  12. Hepatoprotective mechanism of lycorine against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in swiss albino mice - A proteomic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soundarrajan Ilavenil; Dhanaraj Karthik; Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar; Srisesharam Srigopalram; Selvaraj Arokiyaraj; Sivanesan Ravikumar; Ki Choon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential of protein expression in CCl4 induced mice treated with lycorine. Methods: The present study was carried out to identify the differentially expressed protein in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress mice treated with lycorine (5 mg/kg. bw) using 2D gel and MALDI-TOF. Results: We observed many kinds of differentially expressed protein in experimental liver. Among these, three are much differently expressed protein which is identified as ATP synthase, regucalcin and HSP60; these proteins are involved in the ATP synthesis, calcium regulation and rescue the integrity cellular proteins respectively. Conclusion: This investigation provided a molecular mechanism of the lycorine during CCl4 induced oxidative stress in mice liver.

  13. Rescue of the albino phenotype by introducing a functional tyrosinase minigene into Kunming albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xiao; Kang Xu; Xi-Gu Chen; Ying Yue; Xin-Yan Deng; Bing Huang; Zhong-Min Guo; Yun Ma; Yi-Li Lin; Xun Hong; Huan Tang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To use the tyrosinase minigene as a visual marker to perform microinjection training and improve the techniques related with transgene to greatly elevate the efficiency of gene transfer.METHODS: A mouse tyrosinase minigene, i.e., TyBS,in which the 2.25-kb authentic genomic 5' non-coding flanking sequence of mouse tyrosinase was fused to a mouse tyrosinase cDNA, was introduced into the fertilized eggs of outbred Kunming albino mice.RESULTS: Of the 11 animals that developed from the injected eggs, two mice (P1 and #8) exhibited pigmented hair (P1) and eyes (P1 and #8), as confirmed by PCR analysis for the tyrosinase minigene integrated into the genome. When founder P1 was bred to Kunming male mouse, six progeny out of 11 offspring inherited the transgene and the pigmented-eye phenotype.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that this minigene encodes the active tyrosinase protein and that its 5' flanking region contains the sequences regulating the expression of mouse tyrosinase gene as expected. We have rescued the albino phenotype by introduction and expression of a functional tyrosinase minigene in the Kunming albino mouse and the transgene can be passed to subsequent generation.These findings also indicate that TyBS can be a useful visual marker gene in the co-transgenic experiments.

  14. Statelessness determination: the Swiss experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hamann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While a detailed law on statelessness determination is recommended by UNHCR and others, Swiss practice in statelessness determination has evolved without one. Despite this, Swiss practice has been shown to be rather progressive, at least in some areas of statelessness recognition and includes better treatment of the stateless in comparison with refugees.

  15. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  16. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons.

  18. [Between law and psychiatry: homosexuality in the project of the Swiss penal code (1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delessert, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    In 1942 the Swiss penal code depenalises homosexual acts between agreeing adults under some conditions. The genesis of the penal article shows that it was constructed before the First World War and bears marks of the forensic theories of the turn of the century. Both by direct contacts and the authority of its eminent figures, Swiss psychiatry exerts an unquestionable influence on the depenalisation. The conceptualisation of homosexuality is also strongly influenced by the German psychiatric theories and discussed in reference to Germanic law. By the penal article, the Swiss lawyers and psychiatrists link the homosexual question with the determination of the irresponsibility of criminal mental patients and degeneracy.

  19. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  20. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  1. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp/albino zebrafish line to characterize in vivo expression of neurod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Thomas

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults.

  2. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino zebrafish line to characterize in vivo expression of neurod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer L; Ochocinska, Margaret J; Hitchcock, Peter F; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults.

  3. Evaluation of Anticancer activity of Aerva Sanguinolenta (L.) (Amaranthaceae) on Ehrlich?s Ascites cell induced Swiss Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Asif Lalee; Pinaki Pal; Bolay Bhattacharaya; Amalesh Samanta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Aerva sanguinolenta (Family: Amaranthaceae) by intraperitoneal route to Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing mice. After determination of acute toxicity [LD50 = 2250mg/kg body weight which was given through i.p. route] of the plant extract on Swiss albino mice. The protocol started with tumor inoculation of 2x106 cells i.p. After 24 hrs of tumor inoculation, ethanolic, aqueous extracts and vinblastine (stan...

  4. Effects of L-cysteine on lead acetate induced neurotoxicity in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Sayed, S S

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal that adversely affects nervous tissues; it often occurs as an environmental pollutant. We investigated histological changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of adult albino mice following exposure to lead acetate. We also studied the possible ameliorative effect of the chelating agent, L-cysteine, on lead-induced neurotoxicity. We divided albino mice into six groups: 1) vehicle-only control, 2) L-cysteine control, 3 and 4) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, and 5 and 6) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, followed by 50 mg/kg L-cysteine for 7 days. Lead acetate administration caused disorganization of cell layers, neuronal loss and degeneration, and neuropil vacuolization. Brain sections from lead-intoxicated mice treated with L-cysteine showed fewer pathological changes; the neuropil showed less vacuolization and the neurons appeared less damaged. L-cysteine at the dose we used only marginally alleviated lead-induced toxicity.

  5. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  6. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  7. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics. Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  8. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  9. Concentration of Swiss Elite Orienteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Roland; Wetzel, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    A visual discrimination task was used to measure concentration among 43 members of Swiss national orienteering teams. Subjects were above average in the number of target objects dealt with and in duration of continuous concentration. For females only, ranking in orienteering performance was related to quality of concentration (ratio of correct to…

  10. Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Udemezue

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg, and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFICACY OF TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI EXTRACTS IN ALBINO RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. IQBAL, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, B. ASLAM AND L. ALI1

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi (L Sprague (Ajowain extracts in chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water was investigated in albino rabbits. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with butter fed ad libitum and oral intubation of cholesterol 400 mg/kg body weight. Simvastatin was used as a synthetic cholesterol lowering drug. The results suggested that chloroform and water extracts of T. ammi seed had no hypolipidaemic activity. However, methanol and petroleum ether extracts equivalent to its 2 g/kg body weight powder and Simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg body weight were equally effective in treating hyperlipidaemia in albino rabbits. Moreover, petroleum ether extract appeared to be more potent than methanol extract on the basis of increasing the level of HDL-cholesterol and lowering the LDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract reduced atherogenic index (total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract.

  12. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  13. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  14. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  15. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  16. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  17. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  18. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Document Server

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Document Server

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  2. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  3. Expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This chapter draws on data and findings from several video studies to describe the quality of mathematics teaching in Switzerland. The focus is on features of instructional practice and quality as core components of classroom behavior that reflect the teacher’s expertise in creating optimal learning opportunities. The didactic triangle is used as the basis for describing the profile of expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction in terms of three interdependent dimensions of ins...

  4. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  5. The pigmentary system of developing axolotls. III. An analysis of the albino phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, S K; Epp, L G; Robinson, S J

    1986-03-01

    The albino mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is analysed with respect to the differentiation of pigment cells. Pigment cells were observed with the transmission electron microscope in order to determine any unusual structural characteristics and to determine what happens to each of the cell types as development proceeds. Chemical analyses of pteridine pigments were also carried out, and the pattern of pteridines in albino animals was found to be more complex than, and quantitatively enhanced (at all developmental stages examined) over, the pattern observed in comparable wild-type axolotls. The golden colour of albino axolotls is due primarily to sepiapterin (a yellow pteridine) and secondarily to riboflavin (and other flavins). Coincident with enhanced levels of yellow pigments, xanthophore pigment organelles (pterinosomes) in albino skin reach a mature state earlier than they do in wild-type axolotl skin. This morphology is conserved throughout development in albino animals whereas it is gradually lost in the wild type. Unpigmented melanophores from albino axolotls are illustrated for the first time, and in larval albino axolotls the morphology of these cells is shown to be very similar to xanthophore morphology. In older animals xanthophores are easily distinguished from unpigmented melanophores. Iridophores seem to appear in albino skin at an earlier stage than they have been observed in wild-type skin. Morphologically, wild-type and albino iridophores are identical.

  6. The study of Analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and Anti-oxidant Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Ecbolium linnaenum in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecbolium linnaenum(leaves is used as a folk medicine in Bangladesh for pain, diarrhea and infectious diseases. Phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of Ecboliumlinnaenumleaves demonstratesthese pharmacologic effect for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, gums,flavonoids and absence of carbohydrates, steroids, saponins. In this present study an attempt was made to determine the analgesic, antidiarrhoel, antioxidantand antimicrobial effectin Swiss Albino mice. Ethanolic extracts of250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition of writhing reflex 36.20% (P< 0.01 and 54.48% (P< 0.001, respectively while the standard drug diclofenac-Na was 75.52% (P< 0.001 at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight.In the castor oil-induced diarrhoealmice, the ethanolic extracts of 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg, raised the latent period and reduced the number of stools comparing with standard drug Loperamide. 0.02% DPPH solution of ethanol on TLC plate showed the presence of anti-oxidant components in the Ecboliumlinnaenum.From the % inhibition of ascorbic acid and Ecboliumlinnaenum we observe that it has anti-oxidation effect. The IC50 (inhibitory conc. 50% for ascorbic acid is approximately 1 µg/ml and for the sample it is more than 500 µg/ml. The ethanolic extract of Ecboliumlinnaenum was tested for antimicrobial activity against a number of both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria but it does not show any anti-microbial effect.

  7. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  8. Evaluation of anti-tumor activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi M. K.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The antitumor activity studies measuring the viability of cancer cells when exposed to the ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a potent cell-killing effect, indicating the presence of anti-cancer principles in the preparation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2153-2158

  9. The preventive effect of linalool on acute and chronic UVB-mediated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of linalool in acute ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm) radiation-induced inflammation and chronic UVB-mediated photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. Acute UVB-irradiation (180 mJ cm(-2)) causes hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant depletion, and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in mouse skin. Topical or intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of linalool prevented acute UVB-induced hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant depletion in mouse skin. Further, linalool treatment prevented UVB-induced overexpression of COX-2 and ODC in mouse skin. In the chronic study, mice were subjected to UVB-exposure thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Chronic UVB-exposure induced tumor incidence and expression of proliferative markers such as NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, VEGF, TGF-β1, Bcl-2 and mutated p53 in mouse skin. Treatment with linalool before each UVB-exposure significantly prevented the expression of these proliferative markers and subsequently decreased the tumor incidence in mice skin. Histopathological studies confirmed the development of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the chronic UVB-exposed mouse skin; and this was prevented by both topical and i.p. linalool treatment. Therefore, linalool may be considered as a photochemopreventive agent against UVB radiation induced skin carcinogenesis.

  10. Statins enhance cognitive performance in object location test in albino Swiss mice: involvement of beta-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; França, Lucas Moreira; Alcantara-Junior, José; Nogueira, Lucas Caixeta; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Lopes, Lousã; Junior, Fernando Mesquita; Vanzeler, Maria Luzinete; Bertoldo, Daniela Bohn; Dias, Paula Gomes; Colla, André R S; Hoeller, Alexandre; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; de Lima, Thereza C M; Tasca, Carla Inês; Viola, Giordano Gubert

    2015-05-01

    Statins are inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thereby inhibiting cell synthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids. Moreover, several studies have been evaluating pleiotropic effects of statins, mainly because they present neuroprotective effects in various pathological conditions. However, knowledge about behavioral effects of statins per se is relatively scarce. Considering these facts, we aimed to analyze behavioral responses of atorvastatin or simvastatin-treated mice in the open field test, elevated plus maze and object location test. Atorvastatin treatment for 7 consecutive days at 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg (v.o.) or simvastatin 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg enhanced cognitive performance in object location test when compared to control group (saline-treated mice). Simvastatin effects on mice performance in the object location test was abolished by post-training infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Atorvastatin and simvastatin did not change the behavioral response in open field and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests in any of the used doses. These data demonstrate the positive effects of both statins in cognitive processes in mice, without any alteration in locomotor parameters in the open field test or anxiolytic-like behavior in EPM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that atorvastatin and simvastatin per se improve the cognitive performance in a rodent model of spatial memory and this effect is related to beta-adrenergic receptors modulation.

  11. Biochemical changes after subchronic and chronic interaction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Swiss albino mice with two specific compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Laila S; Medhat, Amina M; Abdel-Menem, Hanan A

    2003-04-01

    In Egypt, infection with Schistosoma mansoni (S.m.) and residues of pesticides have been considered as major environmental pollutants that adversely affect health. Effects of diazinon (DZN) and/or praziquantel (PZQ) on the levels of plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), activities of brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in addition to blood reduced glutathione (GSH) in healthy and S.m. infected mice were investigated after 9 and 17 weeks of either infection or intoxication with DZN. Triiodothyronine showed significant differences among the different treatments. The group of mice treated with PZQ showed the highest levels of T3 at both time intervals. Thyroxine level showed significant differences between the two time intervals. The lowest levels of T4 were observed in the infected-PZQ group at week 17. The maximum inhibition of brain AchE activity was noticed in DZN-PZQ treated group after 9 and 17 weeks. The different treatments significantly reduced the activities of liver ALT. The highest decrease was recorded in the infected-DZN-PZQ group at week 9. All treatments significantly lowered the levels of blood GSH after 9 weeks.

  12. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (Meaning pungent belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on lead induced toxicity in mice. Chronic dose of lead (2 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and the nonenzymatic antioxidant as glutathione (GSH and total protein content in the liver, kidney and brain. This decrease was accompanied with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level. Also, there were disturbances in the liver, kidney and brain functions manifested by significant changes in their functional markers. Efficacy of garlic to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Mostly, all of the investigated parameters were restored nearly to the normal values after raw garlic extract treatment. In conclusion, garlic exerts its effects not only as an antioxidant but also as a sulfur donor. So, garlic has a promising role and it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.

  14. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury; Malaya Gupta; Upal Kanti Majumder

    2010-01-01

    Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81)] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC ) tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the v...

  15. GABA mediated response of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Dicranopteris linearis leaf in Swiss Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billah Mohammad Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to assess the potential of the leaf of Dicranopteris linearis in altering the CNS functions with three different extracts; aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate.Methods: To evaluate and compare the activities Morris maze, elevated plus maze (EPM,open field, hole cross and head dip tests were performed and many behavioral parameters wereobserved. The forced swim in Morris water maze analyzed the depression of rodents in termsof inability to self-rescue. Alongside, hole cross and open field tests assessed the inhibition oflocomotor activities. Moreover, EPM test screened the anxiolytic potential while the head dippinghole board test supported the previous experiments by evaluating both sedative, depressive andanxiolytic potentials of the extracts.Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract significantly suppressed CNS activity byreducing number of locomotor activities and increasing the stability phase (in EPM and Morrismaze supporting mild sedation, depression and anxiolysis. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate extractalso possessed moderate to high potential in reducing locomotor activities depending on gradientdoses. Results were compared with control group and found statistically significant.Conclusion: As this plant mimic the activity of a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA agonist, itcan be concluded that the plant may have GABA mediated involvement in central nervous system.However, the responsible compounds for these activities are yet to be investigated and this maypotentiate a new source of drug development.

  16. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous extract on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in Swiss albino mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Lawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Securidaca longepedunculata is a savannah shrub found growing in tropical Africa. It is reputed to have more than a hundred medicinal uses and is a major component of anticancer decoctions in Nigeria. An attempt was made in this study to determine the in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity and possible pro-apoptotic effect of Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous root bark extract on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. In vitro cytotoxic activity was determined using the Trypan blue assay by incubating Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells with various concentrations of Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous extract. In vivo study was carried out by intraperitoneal administration of varied doses of Securidaca longepedunculata to tumour-bearing mice. Isolated DNA from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in treated and untreated animals was used for DNA fragmentation assay on agarose gel. Securidaca longepedunculata Aqueous extract, Securidaca longepedunculata was cytotoxic to Ehrlich ascites both in vivo and in vitro. The IC50 of Securidaca longepedunculata was 67 µg/ml. Securidaca longepedunculata caused a decrease in angiogenesis as observed in the reduction in weight of treated animals and a reduction in volume of ascitic fluid in treated mice.  DNA fragmentation assay of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells from treated animals depicted a possible pro-apoptotic effect of the Securidaca longepedunculata extract due to the ladder forming pattern which was comparable to that of the standard drug (fluorouracil. Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous extract had a cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Industrial relevance: The use of Securidaca longepedunculata in traditional medicine in the treatment and management of cancer has been brought to the fore. Development of herbal drugs from the crude extracts could be achieved due to findings suggesting the plant could increase life span in patients with advanced stages of cancer. Herbal supplements could be produce from the plants with low concentration of the extract. Chemotherapeutic applications of the plant also include its potential inclusion in drug development based on the pro-apoptotic potential of the plant. Keywords : Securidaca longepedunculata; cytotoxic;  Ehrlich; antiproliferative; fluorouracil; mice.

  17. In vivo toxicity of the culturable marine cyanobacterium Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 extract on male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthanayagam, Veerabadhran; Nagarajan, Manivel; Sundararaman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 organic extract in a murine host. A single intraperitoneal injection of 1 g extract kg⁻¹ body weight (BW) did not exhibit mortality, whereas 3 g extract kg⁻¹ BW (approximate lethal dose) resulted in mortality within 5 days. To perform subchronic exposure toxicity analyses (i.e., daily exposure for a total of 14 days), a maximum concentration of ≤1 g extract kg⁻¹ BW was used. Subchronic toxicity studies in the treated mice, showed fluctuations of feed intake, loss of body weight, increase in specific activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and decrease in whole serum protein concentration. LDH isoenzyme expression was found, and levels of the various isoforms were decreased as a result of the treatment. Histopathology studies in liver, kidney, and spleen isolated from the treated mice showed the presence of necrotic debris, hemorrhage, and micronuclei revealing the toxicity of the extract. The dose-dependent alterations in biochemical parameters in conjunction with the histological lesions noted in the animals treated with the prepared extract illustrate the likely potential toxicity to mammals from any encounters with the studied cyanobacterium.

  18. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impair Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various endpoints studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29 but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 6 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  20. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

  1. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  2. Melanoma maligno em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se melanomas múltiplos em dois búfalos albinos da raça Murrah no Sul do Brasil. Macroscopicamente havia múltiplos tumores enegrecidos no músculo esquelético, pulmões, linfonodos, saco pericárdio, cápsula renal, mediastino e pleura. Microscopicamente foram observadas células epitelióides poliédricas dispostas em ninhos sólidos ou fascículos entrelaçados sustentadas por um estroma colagenoso fino e esparso. O citoplasma era eosinofílico e por vezes continham quantidades variáveis de pigmento de melanina. A taxa de mitose foi baixa. Na imuno-histoquímica houve imunomarcação positiva utilizando anticorpo anti-tirosinase, anti-Melan-A, anti-vimentina, anti-proteína S-100 e antineurofilamento. É possível que o polimorfismo relacionado com o gene da pigmentação em búfalos albinos tenha contribuído para o maior risco de desenvolvimento de melanomas, como foi sugerido em humanos.

  3. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  4. Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive

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    Mamdouh A. Ghali

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non

  5. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vengaiah V; Govardhan Naik A; Changamma C

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, estimation of total, soluble and structural proteins, free amino acids and DNA, RNA were undertaken. Results: The accumulation in proteins indicates the anti-androgenic effect of extract. The reduction in free amino acids will affect the sertoli cell function, results in the damage of spermatogenesis. The significant elevation in testicular DNA content (hyperplasia) was observed. In the present study, P. betel leaf stalk extract decreases the concentration of RNA, in testes, seminal vesicle and prostate gland except in epididymis where it was elevated. It indicates the alterations in rate of protein synthesis and growth rate of tissues due to the administration of P. betel leaf stalk extraction. However, the RNA: DNA ratio was reduced except in prostate. Conclusions: P. betel leaf stalk extract exert its anti androgenic effect by alterations in rate of protein synthesis and cellular hypertrophy occur in prostate.

  6. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  7. Swiss EMBnet node web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquet, Laurent; Bordoli, Lorenza; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Pagni, Marco; Jongeneel, C Victor

    2003-07-01

    EMBnet is a consortium of collaborating bioinformatics groups located mainly within Europe (http://www.embnet.org). Each member country is represented by a 'node', a group responsible for the maintenance of local services for their users (e.g. education, training, software, database distribution, technical support, helpdesk). Among these services a web portal with links and access to locally developed and maintained software is essential and different for each node. Our web portal targets biomedical scientists in Switzerland and elsewhere, offering them access to a collection of important sequence analysis tools mirrored from other sites or developed locally. We describe here the Swiss EMBnet node web site (http://www.ch.embnet.org), which presents a number of original services not available anywhere else.

  8. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  9. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  10. The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin

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    Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

  11. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  12. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  13. Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

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    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it’s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  15. Antifertility effect of ethanolic extract of Amalakyadi churna in male albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Sharanabasappa; B.Umareddy; SaraswatiB.Patil; Y.N.Seetharam; H.Sujeeth; G.Jyothishwaran; ArvindBarad

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifertility activity of the ethanolic extract of Amalakyadi churna by oral administra-tion in male albino mice. Methods: The ethanol extract of Amalakyadi churna at the dose of 250 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for 30 days to adult male mice. On day 31, the mice were sacrificed and the testis and accessory reproductive organs were removed and weighed. The organs were processed for biochemical estimation and histological work. Results: Treatment with Amalakyadi chuma resulted in decrease in the weights of testis and accessory reproductive organs. The diameters of testis, seminiferous tubules and Leydig cell nucleus were decreased. The spermatogenic elements, like spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids in the testis were re-duced significantly as well as the sperm count in cauda epididymis. There was a significant reduction in the protein,glycogen, DNA and RNA contents and the activity of acid phosphatase in the testis of extract treated mice compared with the control. The cholesterol content and the alkaline phophatase activity were increased significantly in treated mice. Conclusion: Amalakyadi churna extract arrests spermatogenesis in male mice without noticeable side effects.(Asian J Andro12003 Sep; 5: 247-250)

  16. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzian, Alessandra Fernandes; Melo, José Aparecido de Oliveira; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027), but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  17. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fernandes Druzian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027, but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  18. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  19. Effects of photosensitizer (hematoporphyrin derivative-HPD) and light dose on vascular targets in the albino mouse ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.K.; Davis, K.; Straight, R.C.; Waner, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photodynamic damage to normal tissues, including skin, appears to occur by photooxidative damage to the normal microvasculature as the primary target sensitized by HPD bound to the vascular wall or endothelial cell. Initial damage to the microvasculature was measured by the increase in vascular permeability (VP) as measured by Evans Blue dye (EB) extravasation as a function of HPD and laser light (632 nm) dose. Albino, Swiss-Webster mice (female 122-25 g, 5 mice per group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with incremental doses of HPD (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg). After 48 hours the left ear of each mouse was masked as a control and the right ear was irradiated at 632 nm using the Aurora-Lexel Argon-dye laser with an intensity of 50 mW/cm2 and light doses of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 J/cm2 directed to a 3-mm spot on the mouse ear. No EB leakage occurred in the absence of HPD at any light dose or in the absence of light at any HPC dose. Vascular permeability increased as a function of HPD dose up to 30 mg/kg. AT 50 mg/kg HPD, there was a decrease in VP. At each HPD dose above 10 mg/kg, the VP increased as a function of light dose up to 75 J/cm2. Further increase in light dose was without effect. The amount of HPD porphyrin recovered from irradiated ears decreased as a function of light dose. There appeared to be an irreversible photo destruction of the porphyrin exposed to light.

  20. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  1. Haemodynamic Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit: Results from a Web-Based Swiss Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Siegenthaler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this survey was to describe, in a situation of growing availability of monitoring devices and parameters, the practices in haemodynamic monitoring at the bedside. Methods. We conducted a Web-based survey in Swiss adult ICUs (2009-2010. The questionnaire explored the kind of monitoring used and how the fluid management was addressed. Results. Our survey included 71% of Swiss ICUs. Echocardiography (95%, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC: 85%, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD (82% were the most commonly used. TPTD and PAC were frequently both available, although TPTD was the preferred technique. Echocardiography was widely available (95% but seems to be rarely performed by intensivists themselves. Guidelines for the management of fluid infusion were available in 45% of ICUs. For the prediction of fluid responsiveness, intensivists rely preferentially on dynamic indices or echocardiographic parameters, but static parameters, such as central venous pressure or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, were still used. Conclusions. In most Swiss ICUs, multiple haemodynamic monitoring devices are available, although TPTD is most commonly used. Despite the usefulness of echocardiography and its large availability, it is not widely performed by Swiss intensivists themselves. Regarding fluid management, several parameters are used without a clear consensus for the optimal method.

  2. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and M...

  3. How did the swiss cheese plant get its holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D

    2013-02-01

    Adult leaf fenestration in "Swiss cheese" plants (Monstera Adans.) is an unusual leaf shape trait lacking a convincing evolutionary explanation. Monstera are secondary hemiepiphytes that inhabit the understory of tropical rainforests, where photosynthesis from sunflecks often makes up a large proportion of daily carbon assimilation. Here I present a simple model of leaf-level photosynthesis and whole-plant canopy dynamics in a stochastic light environment. The model demonstrates that leaf fenestration can reduce the variance in plant growth and thereby increase geometric mean fitness. This growth-variance hypothesis also suggests explanations for conspicuous ontogenetic changes in leaf morphology (heteroblasty) in Monstera, as well as the absence of leaf fenestration in co-occurring juvenile tree species. The model provides a testable hypothesis of the adaptive significance of a unique leaf shape and illustrates how variance in growth rate could be an important factor shaping plant morphology and physiology.

  4. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...... by more than 40% with most of the response occurring in two quarters immediately before and after the source tax was introduced. The estimates imply an elasticity of Swiss deposits with respect to the net-of-source-tax-rate in the range 2.5-3....

  5. Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bätzing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Die schweizerischen Berggebiete in der Politik [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Translated from French (see below. Zurich, Switzerland: vdf Hochschulverlag, 2014. 136 pp. CHF 24.00, € 21.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-7281-3604-6. Reviewed: La montagne Suisse en politique [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Lausanne, Switzerland: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2013. 128 pp. CHF 17.50. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-2-88915-043-4.

  6. Antiarthritic activity of Vernonia amygdalina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of water extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina(V.A.)on arthritis induced model of rats.Methods:Arthritis was induced in male albino Wister rats by injection of cro-ton oil (0.1 mL)into the left foot pad of the animals.Treatment with V.A.at 200 and 400 mg/kg and stand-ard Indomethacin (0.3 mg/kg)was started on the same day and continued up to the 12th day.The paw vol-ume was measured on the 1st,5th,12th and 21st day,respectively for both the paws and anti-arthritic activity was evaluated.Results:The extract of V.A.produced reduction in the inflammation of the paw due to croton oil.The antiarthritic action started on the 5th day and continued till the 12th day and the activity was compara-ble to that of the standard on both days.V.A.significantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis and had signifi-cant ant-inflammatory effect (P <0.05).Conclusion:This report therefore clearly showed that V.A.signifi-cantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis in rats as it significantly reduced the paw volume on the 12th day and may explain the effectiveness of this plant when used in the tropics for the treatment of arthritis.

  7. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS, albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Stryjek

    Full Text Available The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS, two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans, and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar. Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  8. Effect of imidacloprid on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Arfat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (IC is a systemic insecticide related to the tobacco toxin nicotine. IC is a toxic substance frequently used into combat insects, rodents and plants pests and other creatures that can pose problems for agriculture. We, therefore, planned this study to assess risk factors, biochemical and histological alterations associated with hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Forty-eight adult male albino mice were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. All the animals were given standard synthetic pellet diet. One group served as control, and the other three were served as experimental groups. Decrease in the body weight of the high dose group was observed at 15 mg/kg/day, and no mortality occurred during the treatment period. High dose of imidacloprid caused a significant elevation of serum clinical chemistry parameters, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate kinase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (TBIL. Histology of liver and kidney indicates hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at a high dose of imidacloprid. Based on the morphological, biochemical and histopathological analysis, it is evident that imidacloprid induced toxicological effects at 15 mg/kg/day to mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that IC had significant effects on body weight, liver functions and kidney (p < 0.05 at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. IC treatment 5 and 10 mg/kg/day may be considered as no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for mice. It was concluded that IC can cause hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at a dose much lower than the LD50 (131 mg/kg body weight in mice.

  9. The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

  10. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  11. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  12. Cern reaches for new frontiers (SWISS MADE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Beaumont, Adam

    2006-01-01

    "For more than 50 ears scientists at CERN, the world's largest particle physics lboratory, have been unravelling the secrets of the universe, But what is life like inside the European Organization for Nuclear Research of the Swiss-French border? Two young scientists share their experiences with swissinfo."

  13.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A series of murders of albinos in Tanzania’s north-west mining frontier has been shrouded in a discourse of primitivism by the international and national press, sidestepping the significance of the contextual circumstances of an artisanal mining boom firmly embedded in a global commodity chain...... and local profit maximisation. The murders are connected to gold and diamond miners’ efforts to secure lucky charms for finding minerals and protection against danger while mining. Through the concept of fetish creation, this article interrogates the agency of those involved in the murders : the miners who...... purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners’ ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation...

  14. Effect of some anthelmintics on Hymenolepis nana in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ridi, A M; el-Gamal, R L; Farghaly, A M; Nada, S M

    1989-12-01

    Mebendazole and emetine (orally and parenterally) were used to treat mice infected with H. nana. Yomesan, in a single oral dose, was also used as a standardized well-known cesticidal drug. Emetine had a marked effect on cysticercoids leading to highly significant reduction in their number. Also, it caused complete removal of adult worms in infected mice. Mebendazole had no effect on the cysticercoid stage, but it caused significant reduction in the number of adult worms. Yomesan, showed a marked lethal effect on both the cysticercoids and adult worms leading to highly significant reduction in their number.

  15. Changes of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in seedling leaves of a temperature-induced greenable albino mutant line W25 of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; SHUQingyao; XIAYingwu

    1998-01-01

    W25 is a low-temperature sensitive albino mutant line, Temperature not only controls the albino phenotype expression of W2o, but also determines whether it could survive, When the temperature is lower than 25℃. the leaves of W25 shows complete albino, but they exhibits normal green when temperature is higher than 30℃

  16. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  17. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A; K\\'{e}p\\'{\\i}r\\'{o}, Ibolya

    2006-01-01

    We consider Swiss-cheese brane universes embedded asymmetrically into the bulk. Neither the junction conditions between the Schwarzschild spheres and the sorrounding Friedmann brane regions with cosmological constant $\\Lambda $, nor the evolution of the scale factor are changed with respect to the symmetric case. The universe expands and decelerates forever. The asymmetry however has a drastic influence on the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Instead of the two branches of the symmetric case, in the asymmetric case four branches emerge. Moreover, the future pressure singularity arising in the symmetric case only for huge values of $\\Lambda $ becomes quite generic in the asymmetric case. Such pressure singularities emerge also when $\\Lambda=0$ is set. Then they are due entirely to the asymmetric embedding. For generic values of $\\Lambda $ we introduce a critical value of a suitably defined asymmetry parameter, which separates Swiss-cheese cosmologies with and without pressure singularities.

  18. No Swiss-cheese on the brane

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A

    2004-01-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  19. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  1. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    CERN Document Server

    Lavinto, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi holes in $\\Lambda$CDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius $r_b=50$ $h^{-1}$Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB. We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% l...

  3. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  4. A proposal for refining the forced swim test in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Paula Ramos; Vieira, Cintia; Bohner, Lauren O L; Silva, Cristiane Felisbino; Santos, Evelyn Cristina da Silva; De Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2013-08-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is a preclinical test to the screening of antidepressants based on rats or mice behaviours, which is also sensitive to stimulants of motor activity. This work standardised and validated a method to register the active and passive behaviours of Swiss mice during the FST in order to strength the specificity of the test. Adult male Swiss mice were subjected to the FST for 6 min without any treatment or after intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.1 ml/10 g), antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, or fluoxetine, 30 mg/kg) or stimulants (caffeine, 30 mg/kg or apomorphine, 10mg/kg). The latency, frequency and duration of behaviours (immobility, swimming, and climbing) were scored and summarised in bins of 6, 4, 2 or 1 min. Parameters were first analysed using Principal Components Analysis generating components putatively related to antidepressant (first and second) or to stimulant effects (third). Antidepressants and stimulants affected similarly the parameters grouped into all components. Effects of stimulants on climbing were better distinguished of antidepressants when analysed during the last 4 min of the FST. Surprisingly, the effects of antidepressants on immobility were better distinguished from saline when parameters were scored in the first 2 min. The method proposed here is able to distinguish antidepressants from stimulants of motor activity using Swiss mice in the FST. This refinement should reduce the number of mice used in preclinical evaluation of antidepressants.

  5. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21st day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  6. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material.

  7. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  8. A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, V I; Slesarev, S M; Slesareva, E V

    2008-09-01

    A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed. Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland. Using this method, many animals can be operated within a short period; the method is reliable and simple, which recommends it for chronobiological studies.

  9. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  10. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis, to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  11. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ArtiSharma; PramodKumarVerma; V.RDixit

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg·kg-l·day-1, 200 mg·kg-l·day-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. Results: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. Thes perm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids.The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. Conclusion:S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 121-124)

  12. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R

    1996-01-01

    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  13. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes from albino and control sea cucumbers,Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Deyou; YANG Hongsheng; SUN Lina; XU Dongxue

    2014-01-01

    The sea cucumberApostichopus japonicus is an important economic species in China. Its dorsal body wall color is commonly tawny, whereas its ventral surface is fawn. Albino sea cucumbers are rarely observed. In order to profile gene expression and screen albinism-related genes, we compared the transcriptome of albino samples with a control by 454 cDNA sequencing. We found that 6 539 identified genes on the basis of sequence similarity to known genes were expressed in the albino A. japonicus. The gene ontology analysis indicated that the transcription of genes associated with the terms of biological regulation and pigmenta-tion was non-abundant in the albino library compared to the control. Based on an analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics (KEGG) database, we identified 14 important genes that were in-volved in major intercellular signaling pathways related to melanin synthesis, such as tyrosine metabolism, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and melanogenesis. The expressions of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), and Ras genes were sig-nificantly down-regulated in the albino transcriptome compared with the control, while the expressions of homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase gene (HGO), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), transcrip-tion factor AP-1(c-jun), and calmodulin (CaM) were significantly up-regulated (Fisher's exact test,p < 0.05). These differentially expressed genes could be candidate genes for revealing the mechanism of albinism and investigating regulation of melanin synthesis inA. japonicus.

  14. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  15. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  16. ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanga Krishna Kumari S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of female’s impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.

  17. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Sigve; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  18. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Sigve; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  19. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  20. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  1. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  2. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  3. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arunkumar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

  4. Effect of Feeding Chapaties Preserved with Sorbic Acid on Growth and Reproduction of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Satyanarayana Rao

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorbic acid, used in concentration of o.3% in chapaties and found satisfactory as a preservative, has been investigated for its safety of use by long term feeding studies with albino rats. The data obtained with regard to growth rate, food consumption, organ to body weight ratio and performance in reproduction show that the preserved foodstuffs containing sorbic acid in the concentration of o.3% are safe for consumption.

  5. Bioavailability study of calcium sandoz-250 by atomic absorption spectroscopy in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Bimalkumar N.; Krishnaveni, N.; Jivani, Nurrrudin P.; Khodakiya, Akruti S.; Khodakiya, Moorti S.; Parida, Saswat K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium sandoz-250 is an Ayurvedic calcium supplement, containing Khatika Churna. Bioavailability study of the formulation is essential for estimation of peak plasma concentration (C max), time to C max and rate of absorption. Aim: To evaluate the absorption parameters of calcium sandoz-250 in albino rats by atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) method. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out as a single dose, open-label, randomized study. Estimation of calcium was carried ou...

  6. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained.

  7. Bioprotection of Spruce Logs Against Sapstain Using an Albino Strain of Ceratocystis resinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Chantal; Tanguay, Philippe; Breuil, Colette; Yang, Dian-Qing; Bernier, Louis

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT We recovered a spontaneous albino strain from ascospores of Ceratocystis resinifera, a sapstain fungus that grows deeply and rapidly in freshly felled conifer trees. This albino strain, named Kasper, was tested for its ability to prevent discoloration of spruce sapwood caused by wild-type sapstain fungi and compared with Cartapip 97, a commercially available biological control agent of sapstain in lodgepole pine and red pine logs. In a laboratory trial, Kasper reduced sapstain of white spruce logs as much as 94.4% and was more efficient than Cartapip 97. In field trials conducted in an area north of Québec City, Kasper reduced sapstain of black spruce as much as 80%. In three of four field trials, Kasper was significantly more efficient than Cartapip 97 in reducing sapstain development. The exception was encountered in a 2003 trial conducted in a sawmill yard where Kasper did not reduce sapstain. In a field trial conducted in western Canada, at Aleza Lake forest near Prince George, Kasper almost totally prevented the development of sapstain, even after 24 weeks. These results suggest albino strains derived from C. resinifera might be an additional source of potential biocontrol agents against sapstain.

  8. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  9. Assessment of median lethal dose and anti-mutagenic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract against chemically induced micronucleus formation in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, it may be concluded that Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract possess anti-mutagenic behavior and this hydro-methanolic crude extract may be safe as per the LD50 was observed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 292-297

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits DMBA/croton oil induced skin tumor growth by modulating NF-κB, MMPs, and infiltrating mast cells in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vimala; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) are implicated as a vital regulator of cancer cell growth and tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanism by which ANP opposes the cancer growth in in-vivo remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of ANP on 7, 12-dimethyl benzanthracence (DMBA)/Croton oil- induced two-step skin carcinogenic mouse model. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the experimental period of 16 weeks. ANP (1 μg/kg body weight/alternate days for 4 weeks) was injected subcutaneously from the 13th week of DMBA/Croton oil induction. ANP treatment markedly inhibited the skin tumor growth (P<0.001). A significant reduction in the level of NF-κB activation (P<0.001), infiltrating mast cell count (P<0.01) and MMP-2/-9 (P<0.001, respectively) were noticed in the ANP treated mice skin tissue. Further, ANP treatment revert back the altered levels of serum LDH-4, C-reactive protein (CRP), and enzymatic antioxidants (SOD and CAT activities) to near normal level. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ANP opposes the skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the inflammatory response and MMPs.

  11. [Morphogenesis of the lung bud from albino Swiss mice embryos, in organ culture in the presence of anti-lung serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo Sampaolo, C; Sampaolo, G; Gagliardi, P E

    1983-06-30

    The study of morphological figures and morphometrical data observed in lung buds from ETAS, cultured in Agar and OPEP medium, with or without SCAPEP, at different concentrations, in order to detect its influence on the morphogenesis, has shown that: OPEP (5:0) supports gradual morphogenesis for a limited time; OPEP + SCAPEP (5:2) supports gradual morphogenesis for a prolonged time; OPEP+SCAPEP (5:5) supports fast and deep morphogenesis for a short time; OPEP+SCAPEP (5:7,5) causes early inhibition of morphogenesis and survival; SCAPEP (5:0) stops instantly morphogenesis and survival.

  12. Cytological and biochemical effects of St. John's Wort supplement (a complex mixture of St. John's Wort, Rosemary and Spirulina) on somatic and germ cells of Swiss Albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, A M

    2008-12-01

    Commercially available St. John's wort supplement (SJWS) composed of an herbal mixture of St. John's Wort (SJW), Rosemary (RM) and Spirulina (SP) is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the minor ingredients, (RM and SP) are proven antioxidants, their quantity is quite insignificant as compared to the SJW, which is the major ingredient. Most of the toxic effects of SJWS are attributed to the main constituents of SJW which differ due to the influence of light (hypericin) and variations in temperature above freezing point (hyperforin). However, there are no reports on toxicity of SJWS maintained at room temperature in pharmacies and supermarkets. In view of the folkloric importance, immense (prescribed or unprescribed) use and a paucity of literature on SJWS, it was found worthwhile to (1) determine the genotoxic effects of SJWS in somatic and germ cells of mice and (2) investigate the role of biochemical changes, as a possible mechanism. The protocol included the oral treatment of mice with different doses (380, 760 and 1520 mg/kg/day) of SJWS for 7 days. The following experiments were conducted: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytogenetic analysis for meiotic chromosomes, (iii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iv) quantification of proteins and nucleic acids in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment increased the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the femora. It caused aberrations in chromosomes of testes and induced spermatozoa abnormalities. These changes might be attributed to the epigenetic mechanisms as revealed by an increase in concentrations of MDA and depletion of nucleic acids and NP-SH levels in both hepatic and testicular cells observed in the present study. Since, the samples of SJWS used were not drawn from extremities of light and temperature; the observed effect might not be related to the main constituents of SJW. However, these changes might be ascribed to the combined effect of terpenes, tannins, quercetin and flavonoids present in SJW.

  13. Carbon Nanotube and Asbestos Exposures Induce Overlapping but Distinct Profiles of Lung Pathology in Non-Swiss Albino CF-1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Evan A; Carreira, Vinicius S; Birch, M Eileen; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as important occupational and environmental toxicants owing to their increasing prevalence and potential to be inhaled as airborne particles. CNTs are a concern because of their similarities to asbestos, which include fibrous morphology, high aspect ratio, and biopersistence. Limitations in research models have made it difficult to experimentally ascertain the risk of CNT exposures to humans and whether these may lead to lung diseases classically associated with asbestos, such as mesothelioma and fibrosis. In this study, we sought to comprehensively compare profiles of lung pathology in mice following repeated exposures to multiwall CNTs or crocidolite asbestos (CA). We show that both exposures resulted in granulomatous inflammation and increased interstitial collagen; CA exposures caused predominantly bronchoalveolar hyperplasia, whereas CNT exposures caused alveolar hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes (T2Ps). T2Ps isolated from CNT-exposed lungs were found to have upregulated proinflammatory genes, including interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), in contrast to those from CA exposed. Immunostaining in tissue showed that while both toxicants increased IL-1ß protein expression in lung cells, T2P-specific IL-1ß increases were greater following CNT exposure. These results suggest related but distinct mechanisms of action by CNTs versus asbestos which may lead to different outcomes in the 2 exposure types.

  14. Enumerating Nephroprotective Potency of Ethanolic root extract of Operculina turpethum against N-Nitrosodimethylamine incited renal Carcinogenesis in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Veena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA is an important carcinogen frequently present in human environment and food chain. Nitrosamines such as NDMA produce oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species and alter the antioxidant defense system in the tissues. Chronic kidney disease due to a number of factors is a common and serious problem that adversely affects human health, limits longevity and increases costs to health-care systems worldwide. Oxidative stress is prevalent in kidney diseases and is considered to be an important causative mechanism. It develops from an imbalance between free radical production often increased through dysfunctional mitochondria formed with increasing age, inflammation, and reduced anti-oxidant defenses. The present study investigates the influence of ethanolic extract of Operculina turpethum roots on the kidney of NDMA intoxicated mice. The nephrotoxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant was assessed by the analysis of kidney marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and kidney histopathological studies. NDMA exposure produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the kidney indicated by a significant decline in the levels of protein and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione and increased cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxidation. Operculina turpethum manifested chemopreventive effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the nephrotoxicity in mice. Histological examination of kidney revealed patho-physiological changes in NDMA treated mice and improved plant treated renal histopathology.

  15. Evaluation of Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicities of Aqueous Ethanol Root Extract of Raphia hookeri Palmaceae on Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Mbaka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of treatment with aqueous ethanol root extract of Raphia hookri (Palmaceae on rats. In acute toxicity study, the root extract in a graded doses of 125-2000 mg/kg bwt administered Intra-Peritoneal (IP produced dose dependent mortality with median acute toxicity (LD50 of approximately 562.3 mg/kg bwt. The animals fed with the extract by gavages tolerated up to 4000 mg/kg body weight (bwt with no sign of physical/behavioural changes hence 1/20th of the dose (200 mg/kg was used as the highest therapeutic dose. In sub-chronic toxicity study, significant increase (p0.05 decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC count and haemoglobin (Hb level while White Blood Cell (WBC showed increase. In tissue analysis, the extract caused marked deleterious effect on the testes leading to drastic reduction in sperm cells whereas tissues of liver, kidney and heart however showed normal appearance.

  16. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  17. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Kaiser, Klaus Felix

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of annually resolved environmental variations during the Allerød interstadial is presented using 81 fossil Scots pine tree-ring series from Gaenziloo and Landikon, near Zurich, Switzerland. The absolute age of the trees ranges between 11,920 and 10,610 14C BP, which was determined...... by wiggle-matching radiocarbon ages to the Cariaco 14C data set. From the two sites we created a composite floating Allerød chronology on the basis of their 632 years of overlap (r = 0.57), after individual spline detrending. Merging both data sets resulted in a Lateglacial tree-ring chronology covering...... 1050 years. Regional curve standardization (RCS) was applied to preserve low-frequency information. Growth behavior of the fossil trees was compared with a recent composite pine data set from the central Swiss Alps and reveals distinct differences. The new Allerød RCS chronology reveals major...

  18. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  19. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  20. Long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes in a population-based Swiss cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Fischer, Evelyn; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Tsai, Ming; Carballo, David; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution is an important risk factor for global burden of disease. There has been recent interest in its possible role in the etiology of diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence is suggestive, but epidemiological evidence is limited and mixed. We therefore explored the association between air pollution and prevalent diabetes, in a population-based Swiss cohort. We did cross-sectional analyses of 6392 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults [SAPALDIA], aged between 29 and 73 years. We used estimates of average individual home outdoor PM10 [particulate matter pollutant model. There was some indication that beta blockers mitigated the effect of PM10. The associations remained stable across different sensitivity analyses. Our study adds to the evidence that long term air pollution exposure is associated with diabetes mellitus. PM10 appears to be a useful marker of aspects of air pollution relevant for diabetes. This association can be observed at concentrations below air quality guidelines.

  1. Injuries of football referees: a representative survey of Swiss referees officiating at all levels of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzini, M; Junge, A; Bahr, R; Dvorak, J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of injury and musculo-skeletal complaints in Swiss football referees of all levels. A representative sample of 489 Swiss referees was interviewed regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, refereeing qualifications, time spent in training and in matches, history of injuries and musculo-skeletal complaints caused by training or refereeing, and other medical problems. A total of 110 referees (22.5%) reported having suffered at least one injury related to officiating, and 126 referees (25.8%) at least one refereeing-related musculo-skeletal complaint. Thigh strains and ankle sprains were the most frequent injuries, with the most frequent locations of complaints being the knee and lower back. The incidence of match injuries in the last 12 months was on average 2.06 per 1000 match hours; the incidence of training injuries was substantially lower (0.09 per 1000 training hours). The injury rates were similar for referees officiating at an adult level, but lower at a junior level. In comparison with elite football referees, the incidence of training injuries and the prevalence of musculo-skeletal complaints were lower in amateur referees. Nevertheless, preventive programs are indicated for referees at all levels, especially when considering the length of a referee's career.

  2. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  3. Contraceptive effect of Curcuma longa (L.) in male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PurohitAshok; BhagatMeenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To study the contraceptive effect of the crude extracts of Curcuma longa in male albino rats.Methods:Rats were fed orally with Curcuma longa aqueous and 70% alcoholic extract for 60 days (500 mg·kg-1·day-1).Results:A reduction in sperm motility and density was observed in both the treated groups.Conclusion:Curcuma longa may have affected the androgen synthesis either by inhibiting the Leydig cell function or the hypothalamus pituitary axis and as a result,spermatogenesis is arrested.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:71-74)

  4. Electrostimulation and morphologic study of the nerves to the bone marrow of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, D M; Webber, R H

    1975-01-01

    The innervation of the bone marrow of the albino rat was investigated by electrostimulation and morphological methods. Stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic trunks resulted in the release of reticulocytes and neutrophils into the circulating blood. The effects of stimulation on other cell types in the bone marrow could not be definitely established. It was concluded that the nerve fibers to the bone marrow were distributed to the arteries. It is postulated that the transmitter substance released at the autonomic nerve endings may have an effect upon the permeability of the venous sinusiods and the mobility of the blood cells in the marrow parenchyma resulting in their release into the circulating blood.

  5. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extract of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf in female albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Gajendra Pratap Choudhary; Dinesh Kumar Jain

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extract of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf in female albino mice. Methods: Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract, when administered orally, altered the estrous cycle pattern in female mice, prolong the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage and reduced significantly the number of litters in albino mice. Treatment of mice with extract of 250 and 450 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days caused a prolonged estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus phase and elongation of estrus stage in treatment with higher dose (450 mg/kg body weight/day). Results: The analysis of the principal hormones involved in estrous cycle regulation showed that the plant extracts altered gonadrotrophin release (LH, FSH and prolactinn) and estradiol secretion. Conclusions:The results indicated the anti-fertility effect of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract in female albino mice.

  6. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  8. A Swiss Pocket Knife for Computability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is about operational- and complexity-oriented aspects of classical foundations of computability theory. The approach is to re-examine some classical theorems and constructions, but with new criteria for success that are natural from a programming language perspective. Three cornerstones of computability theory are the S-m-ntheorem; Turing's "universal machine''; and Kleene's second recursion theorem. In today's programming language parlance these are respectively partial evaluation, self-interpretation, and reflection. In retrospect it is fascinating that Kleene's 1938 proof is constructive; and in essence builds a self-reproducing program. Computability theory originated in the 1930s, long before the invention of computers and programs. Its emphasis was on delimiting the boundaries of computability. Some milestones include 1936 (Turing, 1938 (Kleene, 1967 (isomorphism of programming languages, 1985 (partial evaluation, 1989 (theory implementation, 1993 (efficient self-interpretation and 2006 (term register machines. The "Swiss pocket knife'' of the title is a programming language that allows efficient computer implementation of all three computability cornerstones, emphasising the third: Kleene's second recursion theorem. We describe experiments with a tree-based computational model aiming for both fast program generation and fast execution of the generated programs.

  9. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.; Képíró, Ibolya

    2007-07-01

    We study a brane-world cosmological scenario with local inhomogeneities represented by black holes. The brane is asymmetrically embedded into the bulk. The black strings/cigars penetrating the Friedmann brane generate a Swiss-cheese-type structure. This universe forever expands and decelerates, as its general relativistic analogue. The evolution of the cosmological fluid, however, can proceed along four branches, two allowed to have positive energy density, and one of them having the symmetric embedding limit. On this branch a future pressure singularity can arise for either (a) a difference in the cosmological constants of the cosmological and black hole brane regions or (b) a difference in the left and right bulk cosmological constants. While behaviour (a) can be avoided by a redefinition of the fluid variables, (b) establishes a critical value of the asymmetry over which the pressure singularity occurs. We introduce the pressure singularity censorship which bounds the degree of asymmetry in the bulk cosmological constant. We also show as a model-independent generic feature that the asymmetry source term due to the bulk cosmological constant increases in the early universe. In order to obey the nucleosynthesis constraints, the brane tension should be constrained therefore both from below and from above. With the maximal degree of asymmetry obeying the pressure singularity censorship, the higher limit is ten times the lower limit. The degree of asymmetry allowed by present cosmological observations is, however, much less, pushing the upper limit to infinity.

  10. Holocene Glacier Fluctuations In The Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, H.

    The reconstruction of preindustrial glacier fluctuations in the Swiss Alps reveals the natural range of Holocene climate variability against which the present-day climatic situation can be judged. The results of very recent research on the Great Aletsch and Gorner Glaciers (Valaisian Alps), the Lower Grindelwald Glacier (Bernese Alps) shed light on the glacier fluctuations during the last 3200 years. These glaciers have, at max- imum extensions, penetrated below the timberline and have even reached inhabited areas resulting in sometimes massive destruction. Losses of buildings, woods and pas- tures are the conditions governing the methods used for the reconstruction of glacier length fluctuation through time. The main methods are: historical - the interpretation of pictorial and written historical records, glazio-archaeology - the search for anthro- pogenic traces that are directly related to changes in glacier size/length and scientific - the radiocarbon dating of fossil soils (palaeosols) and wood found in glacier fore- fields. Numerous samples of palaeosols and fossil wood (tree trunks, roots and macro- remains) found in the glacier forefield were radiocarbon dated. Owing to the good condition of several fossil tree trunks, dendrochronological analyses were also con- ducted. The dendrochronological analysis of fossil trees has supplied much reliable evidence of glacier fluctuations through its proven exactness (a single year resolution) which is impossible to obtain with the radiocarbon method alone.

  11. Internet Voting for Expatriates: The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Germann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Swiss canton introduced internet voting for expatriates, thus initiating the second phase in Switzerland’s piecemeal i-voting roll-out. More cantons soon followed, and as of this writing expatriates from 12 out of the 26 cantons can vote online. This paper focuses on the second phase involving expatriates. We address three questions at the core of the internet voting research agenda. First, the popularity question: to what extent do expatriates make use of the new online channel? Second, the ‘who’ question: what is the profile of the typical expatriate i-voter? Finally, the turnout question: did the extension of internet voting to the expatriates have an effect on electoral mobilization? Our findings indicate that the online channel is very popular among expatriates, both if compared to other trials in Switzerland itself and internationally. On the other hand, known patterns regarding the profile of i-voters and the effect on mobilization seem to be also replicated in the expatriate trials. Expatriate i-voters tend to be young, male, and there is some evidence of an upper-class bias. Thus, usage of the online channel seems driven by the digital divide also among expatriates. Moreover, we find some evidence that i-voting did not affect electoral mobilization, similarly to trials involving residents.

  12. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  13. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Zeeyauddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

  14. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  15. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  16. Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

  17. The effect of lead on the process of spermatogenesis in sex glands of male albino rats

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    Olga Sergeevna Shubina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional features of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats when exposed to lead acetate. Materials and Methods: Using histological, morphometric and statistical methods explored the effects of lead acetate on the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats. Investigations were carried out using a digital microscope Axio Imager.M2 and automatic cell counter Countess™. Results: It is shown that when exposed to lead acetate a decrease in the production of all populations of spermatogenic cells, decreased spermatogenesis index and an index of relaxation (tension spermatogenesis, the increase in the index of ripening, index meiotic activity and germinative index, which indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the testes. On preparations, it is possible to see that after the influence of acetate of lead the head of spermatozoa becomes more roundish, breaks of tails observed. Conclusion: Lead acetate reduces the productivity of the seminal glands, which leads to the decrease of the concentration of spermatozoa, and their viability. The results of the studies suggest a negative impact of lead acetate in the course of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male white rats.

  18. Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

  19. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

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    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  20. Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (Pimidacloprid treated groups. There was significant decrease (Pimidacloprid treated groups. Microscopically, liver tissue of rats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats.

  1. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  2. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  3. Effect of GABAB Receptor Antagonist (CGP35348 on Learning and Memory in Albino Mice

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    Quratulane Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential effect of CGP 35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist on the learning, memory formation, and neuromuscular coordination in albino mouse. Mice were intrapertoneally injected with 1 mg CGP 35348/mL of distilled water/Kg body weight, while the control animals were injected with equal volume of saline solution. A battery of neurological tests was applied following the intrapertoneal injections. Results of rota rod indicated that CGP 35348 had no effect on neuromuscular coordination in both male (P=0.528 and female (P=0.125 albino mice. CGP 35348 treated females demonstrated poor exploratory behavior during open filed for several parameters (time mobile (P=0.04, time immobile (P=0.04, rotations (P=0.04, and anticlockwise rotations (P=0.038. The results for Morris water maze (MWM retention phase indicated that CGP 35348 treated male mice took shorter latency to reach the hidden platform (P=0.04 than control indicating improved memory. This observation was complemented by the swim strategies used by mice during training days in MWM as CGP 35348 treated males used more direct and focal approach to reach the platform as the training proceeded.

  4. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  5. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  6. Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Ahmed Omar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

  7. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  8. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  9. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  10. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  11. Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats

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    Mitchel O. Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Based on these results, the LD50 of the AQ-ME MO leaf extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg in female wistar albino rats. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aqueous-methanol, Wistar rats, OECD 425, Biochemical assays, Liver [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1856-1861

  12. Effect of Oyster mushroom in Paracetamol Induced Toxicity of Liver in Wistar albino Rats

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    Afroza Khanam Sumy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Liver is an important metabolic organ. It has wide range of functions including detoxification, storage of glycogen, vitamins A, D and B12, production of several coagulation factors, growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, angiotensinogen, and biochemicals necessary for digestion (bile. Its damage occurs due to its multidimensional functions, various xenobiotics and oxidative stress leading to distortion of all of its functions. Oyster mushroom which is excellently edible and nutritious has got free radical scavenging activity, and so may be considered as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: To observe the hepatoprotective effect of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida against paracetamol induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka from 1st July 2009 to 30th June 2010. Thirty four Wistar albino rats, aged 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 210 grams were used for the study. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into two groups –– control group (Group A and experimental group (Group B, mushroom-pretreated and paracetamol-treated group. Control group was again subdivided into Group A1 (baseline control group and Group A2 (paracetamol-treated control group. Animals of all groups received basal diet for 30 consecutive days. In addition, Group A1 rats received propylene glycol (2 mL/kg body weight orally only on 30th day, Group A2 rats received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day and Group B rats received mushroom extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 30 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day. All the animals were sacrificed on 31st day. Then liver specimens were collected. Histology of liver was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Statistical

  13. COMPARISON OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF LOSARTAN WITH IMIPRAMINE IN ALBINO MICE

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    Choppadandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Comparison of antidepressant activity of Losartan with Imipramine in albino mice. BACKGROUND Of all the afflictions that trouble the soul, depression is the commonest characterised by a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being. Similarly, hypertension is another condition which has emerged as a major public health problem in India and many other developing countries. There is compulsion that 35% of the population has to use the antihypertensives and antidepressants simultaneously for a long period of time to maintain their health. The present work is aimed at comparing antidepressant activity of losartan with imipramine which acts by raising brain BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels so that a single agent can be used for both the conditions avoiding multiple medications. METHOD 18 Albino mice were taken, divided into 6 mice in each group and subjected to Forced swim test. All the drugs were administered orally. Drugs were administered and time of onset of immobility is measured 60 min. after the drug administration along with total duration of immobility. Animals are exposed to pretest of 15 min., 24 hrs. prior to the 6 min. swim test. Each animal is considered immobile when it ceased to struggle and swim and remained floating in the water, only moving to keep its head above water. Control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg. Standard group received Imipramine (5 mg/kg and test group was treated with Losartan (3 mg/kg. The Forced swim test for each mouse was video captured which was later analysed to count the time of onset of immobility and total duration of immobility. RESULTS Data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Losartan showed significant antidepressant activity indicated by significant delay (P<0.05 in the time of onset of immobility and significant reduction (P<0.05 in the total duration of immobility compared to

  14. Model of experimental infection in healthy and immunosuppressed swiss albino mice (Mus musculus using Candida albicans strains with different patterns of enzymatic activity Modelo de infecção experimental em camundongos albino swiss (Mus musculus sadios e imunossuprimidos utilizando cepas de Candida albicans com diferentes padrões de atividade enzimática

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    Guilherme M. Chaves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to evaluate Candida albicans virulence in vivo, two strains selected were based on their phospholipase and proteinase activity, and used in a model of experimental infection. One strain, isolated from vaginal secretion, was stocked at the URM Culture Collection for 43 years and presented high phospholipase (Pz=0.217 and proteinase (1.386 U.mL-1 activity. The other strain was a fresh strain isolated from oropharyngeal secretion of an AIDS patient, and presented low phospholipase (Pz=0.482 and proteinase (0.780 U.mL-1 activity. The strains were inoculated via intraperitoneum in immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed mice (Mus musculus and the infection was evaluated over a period of 21 days. Liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys were aseptically removed and the blood of the animals was collected every 72 h. The number of colony forming units (c.f.u isolated from each organ was counted and a histopathologic examination was performed. The freshly isolated strain was more virulent than the stocked strain, as shown by the number of positive cultures and severity of the lesions observed at the histopathologic examination. A correlation between the in vitro enzymatic activity and the in vivo virulence was not observed.Com o objetivo de avaliar a virulência de Candida albicans in vivo, foram selecionadas duas cepas de acordo com a atividade enzimática de fosfolipase e protease, para utilização em modelo de infecção experimental. Utilizou-se um isolado de secreção vaginal, estocado na Micoteca URM por 43 anos com alta atividade de fosfolipase (Pz=0.217 e de protease (1.386 U.mL-1, e outro recém-isolado de secreção orofaríngea de paciente com AIDS, o qual apresentou baixa atividade de fosfolipase (Pz=0.482 e de protease (0.780 U.mL-1. As amostras foram inoculadas por via intra-peritoneal em camundongos (Mus musculus na presença e ausência de imunossupressão e a infecção foi avaliada durante 21 dias. A cada 72 h foram assepticamente removidos o fígado, baço, pulmões e rins e coletado o sangue desses animais. Foi quantificado o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (u.f.c. recuperadas de cada órgão e realizada avaliação histopatológica dos mesmos. A cepa recém-isolada mostrou-se mais virulenta in vivo, quanto ao número de culturas positivas e à severidade das lesões observadas ao exame histopatológico. Não foi observada correlação entre a atividade enzimática in vitro e a virulência in vivo.

  15. CGP 35348, GABAB Receptor Antagonist, Has a Potential to Improve Neuromuscular Coordination and Spatial Learning in Albino Mouse following Neonatal Brain Damage

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    Q. Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of CGP 35348 on learning and memory in albino mice following hypoxia ischemia insult, 10 days old albino mice were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following brain damage, mice were fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 week old. At this time point, mice were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline and group 2 intrapertoneally CGP 35348 (1 mg/mL solvent/Kg body weight for 12 days. A battery of tests used to assess long term neurofunction (Morris water maze, Rota rod and open field along with brain infarct measurement. Overall CGP 35348 has improved the motor function in male and female albino mice but effects were more pronounced in female albino mice. In open field, CGP 35348 treated female albino mice had demonstrated poor exploratory behavior. During Morris water maze test, gender specific effects were observed as CGP 35348 had improved spatial learning and memory and swimming speed in male albino mice but had no effect in female albino mice following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE. We concluded that GABAB receptor antagonists CGP 35348 can be used to improve gender based spatial memory.

  16. Haemophilia registry of the Medical Committee of the Swiss Hemophilia Society. Update and annual survey 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weid, N

    2012-01-01

    The Haemophilia Registry of the Swiss Haemophilia Society was created in the year 2000. The latest records from October 31st 2011 are presented here. Included are all patients with haemophilia A or B and other inherited coagulation disorders (including VWD patients with R-Co activity below 10%) known and followed by the 11 paediatric and 12 adult haemophilia treatment or reference centers. Currently there are 950 patients registered, the majority of which (585) having haemophilia A. Disease severity is graded according to ISTH criteria and its distribution between mild, moderate and severe haemophilia is similar to data from other European and American registries. The majority (about two thirds) of Swiss patients with haemophilia A or B are treated on-demand, with only about 20% of patients being on prophylaxis. The figure is different in paediatrics and young adults (1st and 2nd decades), where 80 to 90% of patients with haemophilia A are under regular prophylaxis. Interestingly enough, use of factor concentrates, although readily available, is rather low in Switzerland, especially when taking the country's GDP into account: The total amount of factor VIII and IX was 4.94 U pro capita, comparable to other European countries with distinctly lower incomes (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary). This finding is mainly due to the afore mentioned low rate of prophylactic treatment of haemophilia in our country. Our registry remains an important instrument of quality control of haemophilia therapy in Switzerland.

  17. Swiss Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Forest Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Knecht, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates benefits and challenges of forest education in view of 257 Swiss elementary school teachers (1st-3rd grade), by means of a written questionnaire and 15 in-depth interviews. Two thirds of the teachers carried out forest education during normal lesson hours (mean visits = eight per year). Forests were clearly considered as…

  18. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  19. Swiss cheese model with the superstring dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The Swiss cheese model of the Universe with the superstring dark energy is constructed. The junction conditions are shown to be fulfilled and time evolution of the matching hypersurface of the internal Schwarzschild spacetime and homogeneous external Friedman Universe is studied.

  20. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  1. Interdisciplinarity in Swiss Schools: A Difficult Step into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisla, Gianni; Bausch, Luca; Bonoli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Multi- and interdisciplinary education is a major postulate in the Swiss school system and has considerable weight in educational programs and learning objectives, both in compulsory school and at the upper secondary school level. However, materializing this postulate still poses problems at the political and institutional level, where the…

  2. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  3. Sino-Swiss center for cassava technology launched in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Under the joint sponsorship of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), the Shanghai Center for Cassava Biotechnology (SCCB) has been established at the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology(SIPE), SIBS.

  4. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported.

  5. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  6. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive.

  7. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  8. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  9. Effect of Escherichia coli infection on the histopathology of albino mice visceral organs

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    Abin Biswas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is very essential in assessing the nature and state of the tissues. It is used widely to examine the visceral organs in various diseases, infections and disorders. It provides the required insight and details about the possible malfunctioning of the disease or infection. Albino mice were taken and test group was infected withEscherichia coli. The control group was not infected with any linical pathogen. The histopathological examination was carried out to determine the effect of infection in the test group. Liver, spleen and kidney were the visceral organs which were used for the study. The size, shape and other morphological characteristics had markeddifference in case of infected mice when compared with control group mice. Histopathological analysis can be further extended in the case of other clinical pathogenic infections which could lead to nteresting results.

  10. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

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    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  11. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

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    Srivastava Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods : The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results : Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01 reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion : Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine.

  12. Sub-chronic toxicity and heavy metal toxicity study on Kappaphycus alvarezii in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbiramiRG; KowsalyaS

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Kappaphycus alvarezii methanolic extracts in albino rats. Methods: Sub-chronic toxicity was tested with a single dose of intraperitonal administration of the extract as per the OECD guidelines in the experimental group rats and the control group rats was fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behaviour changes, clinical signs and symptoms, food intake, body weight and any abnormalities of the visceral organs were observed. Results: The results revealed that the algal extract resulted in neither mortality nor any abnormalities. The Most of the serum biochemical parameters and hematological values were similar in control and experimental groups, histopathological examination of the vital organs like liver, kidney, spleen, brain and heart revealed no obvious abnormality in the control group and Kappaphycus alvarezii treated group. Conclusion: It may be concluded that Kappaphycus alvarezii rich in nutrient and nutraceutial potentials and also safety food for human consumption.

  13. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  14. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. Normal control and diabetic control group received gum acacia (2% orally for 12days, and normal saline (i.p., dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p. from day 7- day12 respectively. Two test groups (Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract 2 and 4gm/kg/p.o./12days and standard control received metformin (2gm/kg/p.o./12 days. The two test groups, standard control group received dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p from day 7- day 12 respectively. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity was estimated by measuring serum glucose, insulin, lipid levels and histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Results were analyzed by using one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe’s multiple comparison test. Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre (2 and 4gm/kg/p.o significantly (p<0.01 altered the elevated glucose, lipid, insulin levels and also improved the histopathology of liver in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance rats. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre improved the altered glucose, insulin and lipid profile in insulin resistance rats.

  15. Protective effects of erdosteine against nephrotoxicity caused by gamma radiation in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, A A; Ibrahim, I M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of erdosteine against gamma radiation-induced renal lesions in male albino rats. Twenty-eight albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy), treated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week), and treated irradiated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week, then exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy). The results revealed that the administration of erdosteine to rats before irradiation significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in kidney function (creatinine and urea) compared with irradiated group. Also the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6 activities were markedly improved compared with the corresponding values of irradiated group. Kidney catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione concentration showed approximately normal level when compared with the irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of renal lesions in irradiated group, while in treated irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture. Erdosteine acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorate the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological changes and might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damage.

  16. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON KIDNEY OF ALBINO RABBIT-AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluoride is present in environment in various forms and ingested by man from solid foods, drinks, drinking water and inhaled from the air. Out of these, fluoride is present in large quantities in dissolved state in many sources of drinking water producing toxicity in man. Fluoride, being excreted mainly through the kidneys, seems to damage it causing renal dysfunction. Kidneys are among the most sensitive body organs in their histopathological and functional responses to excessive amounts of fluoride. Trace elements are essential and beneficial to human being in minute concentrations. However, intake in large quantities produces adverse and toxic effects on our body. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes of sodium fluoride on the kidney in albino rabbit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 40 albino rabbits were used for this study, among them 8 rabbits were taken in the control group (Group A and16 rabbits each were taken in both group B and group C who were administered low and high dose of fluoride respectively. After 2 weeks interval, up to 16 weeks the histology of the kidney of each group of the rabbit was studied for histological analysis. RESULT: Histological changes in the kidneys of both Group B and Group C rabbits, following continuous daily exposure to sodium fluoride solutions in two different doses (0.5% solution for Group B and 3% solution for Group C for different durations of time were studied in detail and compared with those of the controls (Group A. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that Sodium Fluoride solution in high doses for prolonged period has a definite adverse effect on the renal parenchyma.

  19. Protective effects of Eruca sativa (rocket) on abamectin insecticide toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meligi, Noha M; Hassan, Hanaa Fawzy

    2017-03-01

    The extensive use of insecticides has hazardous effects since they can damage human health as well as the environment. Abamectin has been widely used in veterinary medicine and as a pesticide in agriculture. It is considered as one of the most commonly used insecticides in Egypt. The focus of the present study is to examine the toxic effects of sublethal dose (1 mg/kg b.wt.) of abamectin (Crater 3.37% EC) in male albino rats and to evaluate the efficiency of Eruca sativa suspension to ameliorate the abamectin toxicity. The present study was achieved using 18 male albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, abamectin-treated group, and abamectin + E. sativa-treated group. Rats of the third group were orally administrated a mixture of sublethal dose of abamectin (1 mg/kg b.wt.) and E. sativa suspension (5 g/kg b.wt.) three times a week for 28 days. At the end of the study period, blood samples were collected from all groups to measure the various hematological and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that rats, after abamectin exposure, exhibited general signs of toxicity and disturbance in the hematological and biochemical parameters. In addition, administration of E. sativa suspension ameliorated the hematological and biochemical parameters. These findings suggested that the exposure to abamectin might be responsible for hypertension, liver and kidney dysfunction, lipid profile disturbance, and oxidative stress, reflected in hematological and biochemical parameters. It was also found that the administration of E. sativa suspension reduced the detrimental impact of abamectin on some hematological and biochemical parameters.

  20. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  1. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  2. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  3. Dispersion of peptides in vegetable oil as a simple slow release formula for both injection and oral uptake in insects: a case study with [His7]-corazonin in an albino Locusta migratoria deficient in corazonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerjan, Bart; De Loof, Arnold; Tanaka, Seiji; Schoofs, Liliane

    2011-07-01

    Upon realizing that for drug delivery in the body, lipidization is a technique used in the pharmaceutical industry, we took in consideration that corazonin melanizes the cuticle of albino Locusta migratoria only when injected in an emulsion in oil, not when applied in a watery solution. In this study, we investigate the possibility for oral uptake of corazonin dispersed in oil, and validated the activity by a melanization assay. Not only was it active, it also induced red cuticular coloration in some animals, and it was also unexpectedly lethal for nymphs, but not for adults. These results necessitate the revision of the potential of (some) peptides for insect control. Also, they suggest practical recommendations for the application of other peptides in physiological assays where oil could be used as a simple slow release formula.

  4. Adolescent mice are more vulnerable than adults to single injection-induced behavioral sensitization to amphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Kameda, Sonia Regina; Fukushiro, Daniela Fukue [UNIFESP; Trombin, Thaís Fernanda [UNIFESP; Procopio-Souza, Roberta [UNIFESP; Patti, Camilla de Lima [UNIFESP; Hollais, André Willian [UNIFESP; Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin [UNIFESP; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek [UNIFESP; Ribeiro, Rosana de Alencar [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio; D'Almeida, Vânia; Frussa Filho, Roberto [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced behavioral sensitization in rodents has enhanced our understanding of why drugs acquire increasing motivational and incentive value. Compared to adults, human adolescents have accelerated dependence courses with shorter times from first exposure to dependence. We compared adolescent and adult mice in their ability to develop behavioral sensitization to amphetamine following a single injection. Adult (90-day-old) and adolescent (45-day-old) male Swiss mice received an acute intrap...

  5. 双向电泳分析鸢尾绿白嵌合叶片的蛋白质%Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Proteins from Albino-Green Chimeric Leaves of Iris japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金勇; 曾英; 桑玉英

    2002-01-01

    Proteins extracted from albino-green chimeric leave s of Iris japonica were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel ele ctrophoresis and relative molecular weights and isoelectric points were determin ed.Approximately 400 protein spots were identified in each 2-D PAGE gel.Altered expression was apparent for at least 13 proteins.The results showed that protein expression patterns changed obviously in the green and white leaf strips.In com parison with the 2-D PAGE map from Arabidopsis thaliana in SWISS-2DPAGE data base, it revealed that the expression pattern of large subunit of RuBisCO and the proteins labeled W and T was closely related to the mechanism involved in chimeric variations of Iris japonic.%利用双向聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳对鸢尾(Iris japonica )绿白嵌合叶片的蛋白质进行分离,并初步鉴定了蛋白质的相对分子量和等电点.每个电泳图谱共检测到400余个蛋白点,其中至少13个蛋白的表达变化明显;结果表明,嵌合叶片的绿色与白色叶组织具有明显不同的蛋白质双向电泳图谱.与数据库中拟南芥双向电泳图谱相比较,发现Rubisco大亚基、标记为W和T蛋白的表达变化与产生绿白嵌合叶片的表型密切相关.

  6. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  7. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  8. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.

    2005-04-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  9. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, John A.; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A.; Nwachukwu, Viola A.; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O.; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p 

  10. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  11. Romanian - Swiss cooperative research programme "Environmental Science and Technology in Romania" (ESTROM)

    OpenAIRE

    PANIN, Nicolae; Giger, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian Ministry for Education, Research and Youth (MECT), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation had launched in 2004 the Romanian-Swiss research programme known as “Environmental Science and Technology in Romania” (ESTROM). ESTROM was established as a pilot programme of scientific co-operation between Swiss Research and Education Units with similar ones from Romania in the fram...

  12. Proteomic analysis of young leaves at three developmental stages in an albino tea cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White leaf No.1 is a typical albino tea cultivar grown in China and it has received increased attention in recent years due to the fact that white leaves containing a high level of amino acids, which are very important components affecting the quality of tea drink. According to the color of its leaves, the development of this tea cultivar is divided into three stages: the pre-albinistic stage, the albinistic stage and the regreening stage. To understand the intricate mechanism of periodic albinism, a comparative proteomic approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry was adopted first time to identify proteins that changed in abundance during the three developmental periods. Results The 2-DE results showed that the expression level of 61 protein spots varied markedly during the three developmental stages. To analyze the functions of the significantly differentially expressed protein spots, 30 spots were excised from gels and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Of these, 26 spots were successfully identified. All identified protein spots were involved in metabolism of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, photosynthesis, protein processing, stress defense and RNA processing, indicating these physiological processes may play crucial roles in the periodic albinism. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcriptional level of differentially expressed proteins. In addition, the ultrastructural studies revealed that the etioplast-chloroplast transition in the leaf cell of White leaf No. 1 was inhibited and the grana in the chloroplast was destroyed at the albinistic stage. Conclusions In this work, the proteomic analysis revealed that some proteins may have important roles in the molecular events involved in periodic albinism of White leaf No. 1 and identificated many attractive candidates for further investigation. In

  13. Swiss Armed Forces Conscription and Militia System: Must They Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    capacities must assume public duties and consequences in an extra professional and volunteer capacity. This expression specific to Switzerland is...by a solid link of trust. The author makes a side note that conscription is lucky, when it comes to pedagogy and relations in the Swiss society. In...Forces. Personal engagement, non- professional and time limited made by male and female citizens in order to accomplish public tasks allotted to the

  14. Reshuffling the pack in the Swiss hospital market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmüller, Bernard; Bienlein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Swiss hospitals face two major changes: one is the introduction of DRG as the currency for payment and the other one is the shortage of personnel due to demographic changes. They will do so by strengthening their accounting systems to be able to calculate costs per patient. First steps to attract new personnel are taken withiin the new professional educational system. A third change, the evolving landscape of social health insurance companies, is hard to predict.

  15. Modelling longevity bonds: Analysing the Swiss Re Kortis bond

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A key contribution to the development of the traded market for longevity risk was the issuance of the Kortis bond, the world's first longevity trend bond, by Swiss Re in 2010. We analyse the design of the Kortis bond, develop suitable mortality models to analyse its payoff and discuss the key risk factors for the bond. We also investigate how the design of the Kortis bond can be adapted and extended to further develop the market for longevity risk.

  16. Generalized Swiss-Cheese Cosmologies I: Mass Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Grenon, Cédric

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include non-zero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  17. Insertion devices at the Swiss Light Source (phase I)

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, T; Imhof, A; Patterson, B D; Patthey, L; Quitmann, C; Schulze-Briese, C; Abela, R

    2001-01-01

    The insertion devices under construction for phase I of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) are described. Five undulators and one wiggler will be installed in four straight sections of the third generation 2.4 GeV SLS storage ring, under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute. To provide undulator radiation in the energy range from 10 eV to 18 keV, both long period and short period, small gap undulators will be installed.

  18. Overview of rock glacier kinematics research in the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Delaloye, R.; Lambiel, C; I. Gärtner-Roer

    2010-01-01

    The acceleration of rock glacier surface velocities over the two last decades and the destabilization of several landforms show that permafrost creep conditions are changing in the Alps. This article summarizes and presents current understanding of creep behaviour of rock glaciers in the Swiss Alps and emphasises changes that have occurred over the last years and decades. The almost homogeneous interannual behaviour of rock glaciers despite different geometry and activ...

  19. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  20. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effect of L-carnitine as an antioxidant agent against acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Four rat groups (N=7 in each group. Group I is the control, group II received 500 mg/kg/ body weight of L-carnitine for 7 days by oral route, group III received 640/kg/ bw of acetaminophen by oral route, group IV acute acetaminophen group pretreated with L-carnitine for 7 days by gastric tube gavage tube. The liver of all rats were removed for investigation using light and electro microscopic studies. Results: Acetaminophen caused massive centrilobular necrosis and massive degenerative changes. The electron-microscopic study showed few mitochondria, increased fat droplets and scanty smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER.These changes were reduced by L-carnitine pretreatment. Conclusion: those results suggest that acetaminophen results damage in the liver as an acute effect and L-carnitine ameliorated the adverse effects of acetaminophen via its antioxidant role

  1. The Concept of English Philologists’ Training at Swiss Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zasluzhena Alla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of plurilingual approach usage to the study of foreign languages has been made actual on case study of Swiss universities. Basic concepts of English philologists’ formation at Swiss universities have been determined. These components have been analyzed with relation to their relevance to the prospective philologist in English Linguistics and Literature. The attention has been focused on the effectiveness of Swisss higher education up to the indicator “skills” (Global Information Technological Report 2014, Networked Readinnes Index, NRI according to the World Economic Forum on the development of information technologies in different countries. The emphasis has been made on mutual interaction between sectors of secondary and higher education, that contributes to the quality improvement of education in the country. Some steps in the process of modernization in primary and secondary education have been indicated, such as the usage of the Swiss version of the European Language Portfolio; development of “Profession-related Language Competence Profile for Foreign Language Teachers at Lower Secondary Schools”, “The Passepartout Language Teacher Profile”. Attention is paid to the following changes of teachers’ training: its belonging to tertiary study; mandatory practice-teach for English teachers in English-speaking countries, the required level of command of English language as admission to study in Bachelor and Master programs; capability to work in other linguistic regions, which in turn causes the requirements on quality assurance of particular region language proficiency according to the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

  2. The SWISS-MODEL Repository—new features and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Tauriello, Gerardo; Studer, Gabriel; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (SMR) is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the automated SWISS-MODEL homology modeling pipeline. It currently holds >400 000 high quality models covering almost 20% of Swiss-Prot/UniProtKB entries. In this manuscript, we provide an update of features and functionalities which have been implemented recently. We address improvements in target coverage, model quality estimates, functional annotations and improved in-page visualization. We also introduce a new update concept which includes regular updates of an expanded set of core organism models and UniProtKB-based targets, complemented by user-driven on-demand update of individual models. With the new release of the modeling pipeline, SMR has implemented a REST-API and adopted an open licencing model for accessing model coordinates, thus enabling bulk download for groups of targets fostering re-use of models in other contexts. SMR can be accessed at https://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository. PMID:27899672

  3. Switzerland Committed to Innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade von Bremen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Switzerland showed its commitment to innovation in health care since the early 80th, implementing agencies and government units with the mission to promote and to appropriately govern innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology Assessment (SNHTA was founded in 1998.

    The aim is the promotion and implementation of Health Technology Assessment projects in Switzerland by providing a neutral forum for the identification and the pursuit of common interests. This includes the coordination, exchange and dissemination of experiences of HTA projects and the implementation of the results. The collaboration in international projects is a priority. Ultimately SNHTA has the goal to improve efficacy, cost effectiveness and social accountability. An inventory survey amongst the members confirmed a high level of diverse specialised competencies, mainly employed within the institution. Only 20% of the HTA specific competencies are used for external activities.

    The need for integration of all partners in the field of innovation in a network has been recognised by the Swiss government. This lead to the creation of a webplatform in which all players involved in the business of medical technologies are involved.

    This platform (swiss medtech, includes patients, insurers, industry, universities and professional organisations. The joined activities include agreements on intellectual property and the integrated patient care chain. New ways to connect players in innovation are needed to face the challenge of increasing costs and diminishing resources.

  4. THE SWISS BALL AND ITS USE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Ionela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Each Physical Education lesson begins by warming-up, a phase when the exercises must be nice andhave to eliminate the tension accumulated during the other classes. The Swiss balloon actions allow us to noticethe manner in which our body is capable of working in all three plans (forward, backwards, lateral.Before beginning training, it is especially important that we very well know the Swiss balloonsexercises, for these not only solicit the great muscular groups, but also the deeper ones, not forgetting themuscles from around joints.The unstable surface of the Swiss balloon forces us to focus on the stabilizing muscles. If this condition is not fulfilled, we are not able to practice any exercise. Right before each particular execution, the muscles of the energy center must be contracted. (the area surrounding the basin, the back and the bottom.The balloon shapes are adapted to the natural curves of the backbone and through their unstable surface force the body to establish equilibrium and keep this state of balance, the moves being perfectly coordinated

  5. Cloning and expression of astacin gene in albino and normal sea cucumber (Apostichopusjaponicus Selenka)%刺参虾青素基因的克隆及不同体色个体间表达差异的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹤凌; 杨红生; 赵欢; 刘石林

    2012-01-01

    仿刺参(ApostichopusjaponicusSelenka)的体色变化很大,多数背腹均为黄褐色,极少数呈白化特征,背腹均为纯白色。经人工繁育实验发现,白化仿刺参的子代仍多具白化特征。本文研究了虾青素基因与刺参白化特征的相关性。在克隆虾青素基因cDNA全长的基础上,比较了普通仿刺参和白化仿刺参在不同发育时期虾青素基因表达量的差异。结果表明,该基因的cDNA含有2058个核苷酸,编码560个氨基酸。经实时定量PCR分析,白化成参体壁中虾青素基因表达量显著低于普通成参;而在仿刺参色素沉积的早期,白化稚参体壁中虾青素基因表达量从受精后第39天开始显著低于普通稚参。可见,仿刺参体壁中虾青素基因的低表达与刺参白化特征的发生密切相关。%In normal individuals of Apostichopus japonicus, dorsal and ventral surfaces turn yellowish brown in color. However, in albino individuals, little pigment is deposited on their dorsal and ventral surfaces, and the off- spring also suffer from albinism. To investigate the correlation between astacin gene expression and albinism in A. japonicus, we cloned the astacin full-length cDNA of A. japonicus and analyzed the differences of astacin mRNA expression in the adult body wall and juveniles between albino and normal individuals. The full-length cDNA of A. japonicus astacin contained 2058 nucleotides that encodes an astacin protein of 560 amino acids. The real-time PCR analysis showed that astacin expression levels were significantly lower in albino adults compared to normal adults. In A. japonicus juveniles, compared to normal juveniles the astacin expression levels were significantly lower in albino individuals by 39 days after fertilization. We therefore suggest that the albinism in A. japonicus might be due to low astacin expression.

  6. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Anantha Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results : Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion : The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

  8. Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Poonam Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD. The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  9. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  10. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae, commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001 inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

  11. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage.

  12. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  13. EVALUATION OF HYPOCHOLESTERIMIC ACTIVITY OF SPHAG- A POLY HERBAL FORMULATION IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the greatest risk factors contributing to atherosclerosis and occurrence of coronary heart diseases. Hence hypolipidemic drugs are extensively used as prophylactic agents for preventing such atherosclerosis induced disorders. As synthetic drugs have lot of side effects, the focus on herbal drugs is increasing present day. SPHAG is a poly herbal formulation developed by the combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre. The experiment was carried out in Wistar albino rats comprised of five groups such as Healthy Control, Disease Control, Drug Control, SPHAG Low Dose and SPHAG High Dose. The study was conducted for a period of 25 days by daily single dose of test extract through oral administration. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, Biochemical profiles were evaluated. The study demonstrated the Hypolipidemic activity of SPHAG and the efficacy was dose dependent. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols.

  14. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one.

  15. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  16. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L. Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Nagar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L. leaves (EECN using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated considered as control, group II (ointment base treated considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP, which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P<0.001, decrease in the period for epithelialization (P<0.01, high skin breaking strength (P<0.001, and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  17. Restoring lens capsule integrity enhances lens regeneration in New Zealand albino rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, A; Gruber, L J; Mantras, C

    1993-11-01

    In studies conducted by numerous investigators for 150 years, lenses regenerated following endocapsular lens extraction in New Zealand albino rabbits have been irregular in shape, appearing primarily doughnut-shaped as a result of lack of lens growth at the site of the anterior capsulotomy and its adhesion to the posterior capsule. In the present study, we restored the lens capsule integrity by inserting a collagen patch at the time of surgery to seal the anterior capsulotomy and to improve the shape and structure of the regenerated lenses. We then filled the capsule bag with air to prevent adhesions between the anterior and posterior capsule and maintain capsule tautness and shape. Lens regeneration was first noted as early as one to two weeks. Regenerated lens filled approximately 50% of the capsule bag at two weeks and 100% by five weeks. Subsequent growth was in the anterior-posterior direction and measured by A-scan biometry. Lens thickness increased by 0.3 mm per month. The regenerated lenses were spherical with normal cortical structure and a nuclear opacity. In conclusion, restoration of lens capsular integrity with a collagen patch following endocapsular lens extraction enhanced the shape, structure, and growth rate of the regenerated lenses. In addition, lens regeneration was shown to occur in two cats.

  18. Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n=6, treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3 mL/kg, i.p. and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100% (1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, i.p., or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, i.p., were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA (18 : 3, n−3 on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic, and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

  19. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan I El-Sayyad; Saber A Sakr; Gamal M Badawy; Hanaa S Afify

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods: Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

  20. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

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    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  1. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  2. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

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    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  3. Effect of methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcifium pulp on some biochemical parameters in albino rats

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    Nkwocha Chinelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group, 100 mg/kg (Group 2, 200 mg/kg (Group 3 and 500 mg/kg (Group 4 body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05 in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05 in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

  4. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  5. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  6. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in male albino rats

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  7. Effects of continuous environmental illumination on the albino rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M L; Smith, J E; Sokhansanj, A; Rusch, P; Landis, C; Hatton, G I

    1995-01-01

    Continuous environmental illumination or constant light (LL) exposure causes a suppression of daily water intake, and long-term exposure of greater than 19 days produces a hypertrophy of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) in the hypothalamus. These findings led Glantz to hypothesize that LL increases the secretion of vasopressin (VP). We wanted to determine whether LL could trigger morphological changes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) seen with other manipulations that result in enhanced hormone release. The posterior pituitary of male albino rats that were exposed to LL for 24 or 48 h were examined ultrastructurally for evidence of enhanced hormone release. In addition, water intake, plasma VP levels, and MNC size within the supraoptic nucleus (SON) were measured. After LL exposure, the posterior pituitary morphology was different, suggesting enhanced hormone release. LL exposure did not affect plasma VP or the size of SON MNCs, but did suppress drinking behavior. These data show that posterior pituitary morphology is affected rapidly by LL exposure. The HNS response to LL exposure may consist of changes within the first 24 h of LL found within the posterior pituitary followed later by hypertrophy of the SON MNCs.

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

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    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  9. Evaluation of antitrypanosomal activity of Adansonia digitata (methanol seed extract in Albino mice

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    Hassan Maina Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata, a shrub used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer was investigated for the treatment of experimental trypanosomiasis. Methanol seed extracts of the seed of Adansonia digitata was investigated for in-vivo anti-trypanosomal activity in albino mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and treated intraperitoneally with the extracts 24 hours post infection, at doses ranging from 50-500mg/kg for 14 days. The parasitaemia in each mouse was monitored including the control group which were treated with the standard drug; berenil. Seed extracts at dose of 400mg/kg showed significant antitrypanosomal activity (P50 value of the crude seed extract was estimated to be more than 2900mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of the seed indicated the presence of carbohydrate, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids and triterpene, flavonoids and alkaloids. The result of this study shows that Adansonia digitata has great potential as anti trypanosomal agent, which could be developed into an alternative drug to complement treatment options for African trypanosomiasis.

  10. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  11. Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats

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    U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body’s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

  12. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  13. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD 50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  14. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

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    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  15. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  16. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

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    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  17. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

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    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  18. Chemical modification of radiation-induced changes in erythroid cells of mouse bone marrow

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    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A. (Himachal Pradesh Univ., Simla (India). Dept. of Bio-sciences)

    1983-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were given 20 mg/kg body weight of MGP (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) intraperitoneally 15-30 minutes before /sup 45/Ca injection at dose 37 kBq/g body weight. MPG was also administered at various repeated doses. Radioprotective effects of MPG were studied on total erythroid cells (pronormoblasts and normoblasts) at various autopsy intervals (1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days) posttreatment. It has been observed that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing the radiation-induced changes in the erythroid cells of bone marrow in Swiss albino mice following /sup 45/Ca internal irradiation.

  19. Chromatophore distribution and inferior performance of albino Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with special reference to different chromatophore expression between albinism and pseudo-albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Takahito; Shimada, Yukinori; Nakamura, Aiko

    2007-05-01

    Albinism with a large variation in body color was found in a hatchery population of Japanese flounder. In addition to albinism, ambicoloration and pseudo-albinism were simultaneously observed in some individuals. Albinos had a remarkably lower number of melanophores on the scales of ocular side than wild-type individuals did, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of xanthophores and iridophores. The intensity of body color significantly correlated with the number of melanophores among the albinos. No significant differences were observed in the intensity of body color and the number of melanophores between the ocular side and the ambicoloration area. Pseudo-albinism was accompanied by the reductions of melanophores and xanthophores, indicating the different expression patterns of chromatophores between albinism and pseudo-albinism. The combined effects of albinism and pseudo-albinism caused the disappearances of melanophores and xanthophores in the pseudo-albinism area of albinos. In addition to chromatophores, the different characteristics of several phenotypic traits were observed between albinos and wild-type individuals. Growth-related traits of the albinos were inferior to those of the wild-type individuals. Furthermore, the albinos had a larger pseudo-albinism area and a higher vertebral deformed rate than the wild-type individuals did. Individual multilocus heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient measured by microsatellite loci did not show any indication that the albinos had higher inbreeding coefficient than the wild-type individuals did. This study demonstrated the expression patterns of chromatophores in the body color abnormalities of a flatfish species and the potential pleiotropic effects of an albinism gene on some phenotypic traits.

  20. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the p

  1. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

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    Nasra Ayuob

    Full Text Available A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3.Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed.Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities compared to the group which received PH alone.Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  2. Bisphenol A exposure and healing effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant extract (APE) in bisphenol A-induced reproductive toxicity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Balal; Amina; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Qadir, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Kanwal, Qudsia; Munir, Bushra; Asmatullah; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the bisphenol A exposure and the ameliorative effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on testicular toxicity induced by bisphenol A. Adult male albino rats were divided into five groups of five animals each: A (control), B (vehicle control), C (toxic), D (protective), and E (ameliorative) were served distilled water, olive oil, bisphenol A (BPA) at 100 mg/kg body weight, A. capillus-veneris plant extract at 25 mg/kg body weight, and BPA + A. capillus-veneris, respectively. All of the doses were administered orally for 15 days, and the rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples for the testosterone assay and both testes were collected for histological examination. The body weight, paired testes weight, relative tissue weight index, Johnsen scoring of tubules, and level of serum testosterone decreased in BPA-treated rats. Similarly, histological examination of the testes in BPA-treated animals revealed a lower number of Leydig cells, an irregular basement membrane, sloughing of germinal layers, vacuolization, a lower number of spermatocytes, and debris in the lumen. However, co-administration of A. capillus-veneris with BPA increased the total antioxidative capacity (330.82 ± 22.46 μmol/mg protein) of the testes and restored the serum testosterone level (1.70 ng/ml); histological features showed restoration in the stages of spermatogenesis. Conclusively, A. capillus-veneris plant extract overcomes the estrogenic effects of BPA on the reproductive system of rats and protects rats' testes against BPA-induced injury/damage via an antioxidative mechanism that appears to be conciliated.

  3. Redescription of Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes (nematoda, metastrongyloidea from a brazilian strain

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    Silvana C Thiengo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric data on larval and adult specimens of Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes, 1971 recovered from Swiss albino mice experimentally infected is presented. Infective larvae were obtained from parasitized veronicellid Sarasinula margínala (Semper, 1885 maintained in the laboratory. This is the first complete morphometric study regarding specimens of a Brazilian strain of A. (P. costaricensis.

  4. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

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    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  5. Selenium ameliorates carbimazole induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr; Faten Roshdy Abdel-Ghafar; Samah Mohamed Abo-El-Yazid

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of the antithyroid drug, carbimazole on liver of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of selenium. Methods:Four groups of rats were used (n=10), Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 was orally given sodium selenite (10μg/kg body weight) daily for 8 weeks, Group 3 was orally given carbimazole at a dose level of 1.35 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was orally administered carbimazole and sodium selenite daily for 8 weeks. Rats in control and treated groups were sacrificed by cervical decapitation after 8 weeks of treatment, their livers were removed and stained with H&E for histological examinations. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in the sera. Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured in the liver. Results:Cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, necrosis, leucocytic infiltrations, blood vessels congestion and fatty degeneration were observed in liver of carbimazole-treated animals. Carbimazole caused marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and depletion of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Treating animals with carbimazole and selenium led to an improvement in both the histological and biochemical alterations induced by carbimazole. Moreover, selenium reduced the level of malondialdehyde and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ameliorative effect of selenium against the hepatotoxicity of carbimazole is attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  6. Study of Aging and Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seeds in Albino Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa Khan; SH Ansari; ZABhat; Feroz ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to investigate in liver of rats from 8-12 weeks old to 20 weeks old, the age dependent changes, carbon tetrachloride mediated changes, and the hepatoprotective effect shown by the seeds of Vitis vinifera L. Method: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of 100 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of grape seeds on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats and results were compared with those of the aged group results. Results: 100 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera seeds produced highly significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, albumin levels and significant decrease in the TSP levels compared to the toxic group levels. The levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin in aged control rats were found to be significantly higher than the levels in young control animals. MDA levels were slightly higher while GSH levels were lower in aged control rats as compared to young control rats. MDA levels in the toxic group showed highly significant increase compared to the young control levels. Ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera significantly lowered the MDA levels. Histopathology results reveal that 100mg/kg/day dose of ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cured the hepatic damage to a great extent which was induced by CCl4. Conclusions: Aging leads to the changes in the hepatic structure which are comparable to the changes induced by low doses of a hepatotoxin and the ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes exposed to free radical attack, which was confirmed by biochemical and histological observations.

  7. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

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    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  8. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  9. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

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    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  10. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    OpenAIRE

    Jain,Pankaj G.; Savita D. Patil; HASWANI, Nitin G.; Manoj V. Girase; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  11. Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

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    Künzi Beat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the

  12. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  13. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  14. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleshwar Shukla; Prince Raj; Arun Kumar(University of Delhi, Delhi, India); Mukesh Kumar; Gaurav Kaithwas

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index...

  15. Skin cancers among Albinos at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases

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    Mabula Joseph B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. The challenges associated with the care of these patients are numerous and need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to outline the pattern and treatment outcome of skin cancers among albinos treated at our centre and to highlight challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of all albinos with a histopathological diagnosis of skin cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre from March 2001 to February 2010. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 64 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of patients was 30 years. The median duration of illness at presentation was 24 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was financial problem. Head and the neck was the most frequent site afflicted in 46(71.8% patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type in 75% of cases. Surgical operation was the commonest modality of treatment in 60 (93.8% patients. Radiotherapy was given in 24(37.5% patients. Twenty-seven (42.2% of the patients did not complete their treatment due to lack of funds. Local recurrence following surgical treatment was recorded in 6 (30.0% patients. Only thirty-seven (61.7% patients were available for follow-up at 6–12 months and the remaining patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Skin cancers are the most common cancers among albinos in our environment. Albinism and exposure to ultraviolet light appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of these cancers. Late presentation and failure to complete treatment due to financial difficulties and lack of radiotherapy services at our centre are major challenges in the care of these patients. Early institution of preventive

  16. Age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care: the swiss fire project

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    Rizza Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners often care for patients with several concurrent chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity. Recent data suggest that multimorbidity might be observed more often than isolated diseases in primary care. We explored the age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity and compared these estimates to the prevalence estimates of other common specific diseases found in Swiss primary care. Methods We analyzed data from the Swiss FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC Research using Electronic Medical Record project database, representing a total of 509,656 primary care encounters in 98,152 adult patients between January 1, 2009 and July 31, 2011. For each encounter, medical problems were encoded using the second version of the International Classification of primary Care (ICPC-2. We defined chronic health conditions using 147 pre-specified ICPC-2 codes and defined multimorbidity as 1 two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 rubrics, 2 two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 chapters, and 3 two or more medical specialties involved in patient care. We compared the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity defined by the three methodologies with the prevalence estimates of common diseases encountered in primary care. Results Overall, the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity were similar for the three different definitions (15% [95%CI 11-18%], 13% [95%CI 10-16%], and 14% [95%CI 11-17%], respectively, and were higher than the prevalence estimates of any specific chronic health condition (hypertension, uncomplicated 9% [95%CI 7-11%], back syndrome with and without radiating pain 6% [95%CI 5-7%], non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 3% [95%CI 3-4%], and degenerative joint disease 3% [95%CI 2%-4%]. The prevalence estimates of multimorbidity rose more than 20-fold with age, from 2% (95%CI 1-2% in those aged 20–29 years, to 38% (95%CI 31-44% in those aged 80 or more years. The

  17. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  18. Anesthetic activity of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla and effectiveness in reducing stress during transport of albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Thaylise V; Cunha, Mauro A; Becker, Alexssandro G; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Martins, Dirlaine I; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo Gil; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia triphylla as an anesthetic for albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Juveniles were exposed to concentrations between 20 and 800 μL L(-1) EO of A. triphylla to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In another experiment, both strains were divided into four groups such as 0 (control), 30, 40, or 50 μL L(-1) EO and transported for 5 h. The longest time for anesthetic induction and recovery was observed in the albinos. Both strains reached anesthesia in the 100-800 μL L(-1) (11.1-1.24 min) range, without mortality, being 200 μL L(-1) the best response considering time to anesthesia (5.35 min). Albinos transported with all EO concentrations showed higher values of carbon dioxide in the water of transport, but lower levels were observed in grays transported with 40 and 50 μL L(-1) EO when compared to control fish. The same concentrations did not prevent significant whole-body cortisol rise at the end of transport in the albino strain. Juveniles of both strains transported with EO presented lower ion loss to the water compared to control fish. The EO of A. triphylla is an effective anesthetic for albino and gray silver catfish. This EO increases whole-body cortisol levels in the albino strain, but as it reduces net ion loss as in the gray strain, it can be also recommended for transport.

  19. Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats

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    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment

  20. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

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    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  1. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

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    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory

  2. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

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    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  3. Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin

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    Sengupta Parama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

  4. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

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    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  5. Nephrotoxic effects of aquoeus extract U & Dee Sweet Bitter (a Nigerian herbal remedy) in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezejiofor, N A; Maduagwuna, N; Igwebuike, Onyiaorah Victor; Hussaini, D C; Orisakwe, O E

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the extract of U & Dee Sweet Bitter, a Nigerian herbal remedy on the kidney was investigated in matured Wistar albino rats. Twenty male albino rats were allocated into four dose groups of five rats each, namely 0.00, 539, 1077, 1616 mg/kg of the herbal product orally for 90 days. Animals had access to deionized water and were fed ad libitum with rat chow for 90 days. The feed and fluid consumption of the animals were measured on daily basis, and the body weight was measured weekly. After 90 days, the animals were anaesthetized with ether, bled, sacrificed, kidney excised, and weighed. The parameters measured included food and fluid intake, body weight, absolute and relative weight of the kidney. A nonsignificant increase (p > .05) in feed and fluid intake occurred in all treated animals and a significant decrease (p Dee Sweet Bitter caused a significant (p Dee Sweet Bitter at all doses caused renal pathologic changes that include tubular necrosis, inflammation of the interstitial and glomerulus, and disorganization of the entire architecture. The results are indicative of nephrotoxicity.

  6. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on anti-Thy1,1 induced kidney injury in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Sakr; Laila Rashed; Waheba Zarouk; Rania El-Shamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis. Methods: Female albino rats were divided into three groups, control group, anti-Thy1,1 group and treatment with i.v. MSCs group. MSCs were derived from bone marrow of male albino rats, Y-chromosome gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the kidney. Serum urea and creatinine were estimated for all groups. Kidney of all studied groups was examined histologically and histochemically (total carbohydrates and total proteins). DNA fragmentation and expression of α-SMA were detected. Results:Kidney of animals injected with anti-Thy1,1 showed inflammatory leucocytic infiltration, hypertrophied glomeruli, tubular necrosis and congestion in the renal blood vessels. The kidney tissue also showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins together with increase in apoptosis and in expression ofα-SMA. Moreover, the levels of urea and creatinine were elevated. Treating animals with MSCs revealed that kidney tissue displayed an improvement in the histological and histochemical changes. Apoptosis and α-SMA expression were decreased, and the levels of urea and creatinine decreased. Conclusions:The obtained results demonstrated the potential of MSCs to ameliorate the structure and function of the kidney in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis possibly through the release of paracrine growth factor(s).

  7. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Morteza

    2008-03-20

    Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats.

  8. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

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    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  9. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  10. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  11. Mental Preparation and Evaluation: A Sportpsychological Project with the Swiss Orienteering National Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzl, Reto

    1994-01-01

    Lists the training themes and levels of intervention of a psychological orienteering project for Swiss athletes. Presents an outline for preparation and evaluation of team or individual performance over time on technical, physical, mental, and environmental aspects of orienteering. (SV)

  12. Costs and Benefits of Dual Apprenticeship: Lessons from the Swiss System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhard, Siegfried; Bossio, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    After compulsory schooling, nearly two-thirds of Swiss youth undertake apprenticeships. Although it has been an efficient and effective system, young people are losing interest and businesses are questioning the time and costs involved in changing economic conditions. (SK)

  13. 77 FR 53248 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Swiss Treasures: From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Papyrus and Parchment to Erasmus, Zwingli, Calvin, and Barth'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... exhibition ``Swiss Treasures: From Biblical Papyrus and Parchment to Erasmus, Zwingli, Calvin, and...

  14. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  15. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  16. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  17. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  18. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  19. Chiral Swiss rolls show a negative refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Hajnal, J V

    2009-07-22

    Chiral Swiss rolls, consisting of a metal/dielectric laminate tape helically wound on an insulating mandrel, have been developed to form the basis of a highly chiral metamaterial. We have fabricated these elements using a custom-built machine, and have characterized them. We find that the permeability, permittivity, and chirality are all resonant in the region of 80 MHz. The chirality is so strong that it can be directly measured by observing the magnetic response to an applied electric field, and is larger than either the permeability or the permittivity. We have estimated the refractive indices from these data, and find both strong circular dichroism and a wide frequency range where the refractive index is negative.

  20. Visit of the President of the Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On 24 March, CERN welcomed Johann Schneider-Ammann, President of the Swiss Confederation.   President Johann Schneider-Ammann arrived to CERN in the morning, where he was welcomed by CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. During the visit, the President was accompanied by Erik Reumann, spokesperson of the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Alexandre Fasel, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva, and Patrick Pardo, counsellor at the permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. In the Main Building he exchanged a few words with Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Friedemann Eder, Head of CERN Host States relations service. President Johann Schneider-Ammann also signed the guestbook of the Organ...

  1. Performance of the SwissQuantum network over 21 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Legré, Matthieu; Monat, Laurent; Robyr, Samuel; Trinkler, Patrick; Ribordy, Grégoire; Thew, Rob; Walenta, Nino; Gisin, Nicolas; Buntschu, François; Perroud, Didier; Litzistorf, Gerald; Tavares, Jose; Ventura, Stefano; Junod, Pascal; Voirol, Raphael; Monbaron, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we present the architecture and results of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution (QKD) network. This three nodes triangular quantum network was running from March 2009 to January 2011 in the Geneva metropolitan area. The three trusted nodes were located at the University of Geneva (Unige), the CERN and the University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland in Geneva (hepia Geneva). This quantum network was deployed to prove reliability of QKD in telecommunication network over a long period. To facilitate integration of QKD in telecommunication network, this quantum network was composed of three layers: a quantum layer, a key management layer, and an application layer. The keys are distributed in the first layer; they are handled in the second layer; and they are used in the third layer.

  2. Copy Number Variation in Brown Swiss Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro; Schiavini, F

    CNVs are increasingly recognized as substantial source of genetic variation, fueling studies that assess their impact on complex traits. In particular rare CNVs have been suggested to potentially explain part of the missing heritability problem in genome wide association studies for complex traits....... The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define consensus CNV...... regions at the population level. We identified 29,975 deletion-, 1,489 duplication- and 365 complex CNVRs, respectively, which cover 3.3% of the UMD3.1 autosome. We further compared NGS based CNV calls to CNV calls detected by PennCNV based on Illumina HD chip data for 17 bulls with high quality data...

  3. SwissTex France at ITMA ASIA+CITME 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ SwissTex France SAS (previously known under the brands Verdol,ICBT,Rieter FYT and RITM),a major player in the field of textile machinery with 100 years experience in yarn machinery,is going to participate in ITMA ASIA+CITME show being held June 22-26,2010,at Booth D22.Hall W2 and present one of the most complete ranges for textile machinery.It offers today a very complete range on the market of:twisting machines for embroidery and sewing thread applications,single and double covering machines for hosiery,stockings,sportswear and technical yarns,air covering machines for hosiery,stockings and sportswear...and combined machines to twist and shrink nylon yarn through thermal treatment.

  4. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It aims to study the CMB temperature fluctuations by the means of the exact inhomogeneous Szekeres model. So far the impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations has been almost exclusively studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast of cosmic structures is larger than 1 this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without approximations such as small amplitude of the density contrast. This will allow us to examine the impact of light propagation effects on the CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities introduce - via light propagation effect...

  5. Generalized Swiss-Cheese Cosmologies II: Spherical Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Grenon, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The generalized Swiss - cheese model, consisting of a Lema\\^itre - Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois - Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  6. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-01

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaître-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  7. Antecedents and Covariates of Alcohol Consumption among Swiss Male Conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vetter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption frequency in a sample of Swiss conscripts (n=25,611 in order to identify factors that predispose for frequent consumption. A self-report of drinking frequencies, as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial variables, was collected at psychiatric baseline screening. Based on univariate analyses, relevant variables were included in a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Six percent were abstainers, 15% reported rarely drinking, 53% occasional drinking, 24% regular drinking and 2% daily drinking. Except for substance use, most associations followed a “J”-shaped curve across the categories of alcohol frequency. Abstinence and frequent drinking can be perceived as deviations from the social norm. Both behaviors are associated with more psychosocial stressors and might be therefore special targets for further studies and new prevention programs.

  8. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  9. 渐变五行K·SWISS Verstad SPT Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊

    2008-01-01

    1966年,一对热爱网球运动的瑞士兄弟宝纳(Art Brunner)和艾奈斯宾纳(Eamest Brunner)创立了K·SWISS品牌。凭着满腔热诚,他们造出了席卷全球的全皮网球鞋——K·SWISS经典鞋(K·SWISS Classic),鞋身上优美经典的五行间设计在面世后立即引起轰动。鞋品的选科、设计、功能一丝不苟,充分表现优雅舒适的典范。形象高雅大方,易于迎合衣着配饰,一直深受高贵典雅的时尚一族的青睐。

  10. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  11. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

    2001-01-01

    Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plat...

  12. Young people, parents and radical right voting. The case of the Swiss People's Party

    OpenAIRE

    Coffé, H.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly found that young people tend to adopt the political party choice of their parents. However, far less is known about the applicability of this theory when investigating radical right support. Using the Swiss Household panel data (1999e2007), this study empirically identifies the relationship between parents’ preference for the Swiss radical right party SVP and their attitudes toward immigrants and the EU, and their offspring’s preference for the SVP. Disaggregating fathers’ and ...

  13. Swiss Neutrality and Collective Security: The League of Nations and the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Sergio Stupan, Comment la Suisse a adhéré au Pacte de la Société des Nations (Lausanne: Université de Lausanne, 1943), 77ff. 40 In accepting these...resulted in a successful referendum.153 Active pacifist movements were established during World War I. According to Sergio Stupan, these movements...may be categorized into two groups. The first group, the Franco -Swiss Freemasons, the Swiss Peace Society, and the Socialists, had an “international

  14. The rat pink-eyed dilution (p) mutation: an identical intragenic deletion in pink-eye dilute-coat strains and several Wistar-derived albino strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Gohma, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kunio; Wedekind, Dirk; Hedrich, Hans J; Serikawa, Tadao

    2005-09-01

    We identified the rat pink-eyed dilution (p) and pink eye Mishima (p(m)) mutations. The p(m) mutation, which was isolated from a wild rat caught in Mishima Japan in 1961 and is carried in the NIG-III strain, is a splice donor site mutation in intron 5. The p mutation, which was first described in 1914 and is carried in several p/p rats including the RCS and BDV strains, is an intragenic deletion including exons 17 and 18. In addition to RCS and BDV strains, several albino strains, KHR, KMI and WNA, all descendants of albino stock of the Wistar Institute, are homozygous for the p allele. Analyses revealed that the colored p strains and the Wistar-derived albino p strains had the same marker haplotype spanning approximately 4 Mb around the P locus. This indicates that these p strains share a common ancestor and the p allele did not arise independently via recurrent mutations. The historical relationship among the p strains suggests that the p deletion had been maintained in stock heterogeneous for the C and P loci and then was inherited independently by the ancestor of the Wistar albino stock and the ancestor of the pink-eyed agouti rats in Europe.

  15. Development and validation of a food pyramid for Swiss athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mannhart, Christof; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Food-guide pyramids help translate nutrient goals into a visual representation of suggested food intake on a population level. No such guidance system has ever been specifically designed for athletes. Therefore, the authors developed a Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes that illustrates the number of servings per food group needed in relation to the training volume of an athlete. As a first step, an average energy expenditure of 0.1 kcal . kg(-1) . min(-1) for exercise was defined, which then was translated into servings of different food groups per hour of exercise per day. Variable serving sizes were defined for athletes' different body-mass categories. The pyramid was validated by designing 168 daily meal plans according to the recommendations of the pyramid for male and female athletes of different body-mass categories and training volumes of up to 4 hr/d. The energy intake of the meal plans met the calculated reference energy requirement by 97% +/- 9%. The carbohydrate and protein intakes were linearly graded from 4.6 +/- 0.6-8.5 +/- 0.8 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2-1.9 +/- 0.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1), respectively, for training volumes of 1-4 hr of exercise per day. The average micronutrient intake depended particularly on the dietary energy intake level but was well above the dietary reference intake values for most micronutrients. No tolerable upper intake level was exceeded for any micronutrient. Therefore, this Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes may be used as a new tool in sports nutrition education (e.g., teaching and counseling).

  16. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  17. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  18. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries.

  19. Prevention of dental accidents in Swiss boxing clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifkovits, Tatjana; Kühl, Sebastian; Connert, Thomas; Krastl, Gabriel; Dagassan-Berndt1, Dorothea; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Boxing involves a high risk of dental trauma due to the impact of enormous external forces against the head. Wearing a mouthguard is, therefore, mandatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental trauma as well as the utilization and quality of mouthguards in Swiss boxing clubs. In order to achieve this, data on the mouthguards of 217 boxers in total were collected using questionnaires and examination forms, which were statistically evaluated. Out of the 217 boxers, 75 (34.6%) had already experienced a dental accident, but only 8 (10.7%) of them while practicing their sport. Professional boxers were most frequently affected by dental trauma (p = 0.001). Crown fractures were most often observed, followed by tooth dislocations. All interviewed athletes owned a mouthguard, which they used much more consistently during full-contact sparring (practice fighting) than during regular partner exercises. Most of the boxers used prefabricated mouthguards, which could be individually adapted using the “boil and bite” system. The majority of the athletes received their mouthguards from the boxing club. Impaired speaking when wearing a mouthguard was, by far, the problem most frequently mentioned by the athletes. In terms of these bothering factors, custom-made mouthguards from dentists received the best rating (p = 0.002). The quality of the mouthguard was assessed by evaluating the following criteria: coverage of the buccolabial surface, occlusal support of the opposing dentition, thickness of the occlusal layer, and rounded edges. Of the 215 mouthguards examined, 193 (89.8%) were insufficient (p = 0.002). Despite the observed deficiencies, only a few dental injuries occurred during boxing. This study shows that although basic preventive measures do exist in Swiss boxing, they should be improved substantially by providing better instruction and more information.

  20. SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Marco; Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; Arnold, Konstantin; Studer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Tobias; Kiefer, Florian; Gallo Cassarino, Tiziano; Bertoni, Martino; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available. Fully automated servers such as SWISS-MODEL with user-friendly web interfaces generate reliable models without the need for complex software packages or downloading large databases. Here, we describe the latest version of the SWISS-MODEL expert system for protein structure modelling. The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure. The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models. The accuracy of the models generated by SWISS-MODEL is continuously evaluated by the CAMEO system. The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building. In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states. SWISS-MODEL is available at http://swissmodel.expasy.org/.

  1. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj G. Jain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

  2. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  3. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  4. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  5. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes.

  6. Citotoxicidad del cadmio en hepatocitos de ratón albino y sus posibles implicaciones en ambientes tropicales

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano, Letty; R. Faría, Clarisa de; Carruyo, Ingrid; Montiel, Xiomara

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un análisis de las alteraciones fenotípicas, estructurales y ultraestructurales inducidas por Cd+2 en hepatocitos de ratón albino suizo. El metal fue suministrado vía oral en solución acuosa de CdCl2 durante 100 días a concentraciones de 50 ppm, 100 ppm y 150 ppm, en los controles la solución de cadmio fue sustituida por agua destilada. Las muestras fueron procesadas utilizando la técnica de inclusión en parafina y teñidas con hematoxilina-eosina para microscopía óptica y por la té...

  7. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  8. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

  9. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamleshwar Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control or toxic control (3 mL/kg or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg or aprepitant (10 mg/kg, or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal.

  10. Evaluation of Pergularia daemia and metformin in the treatment of PCOS in testosterone propionate induced albino wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. POORNIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.

  11. Lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods: Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII of 5 animals each. Groups I, II and III were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight, coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight on the 7th day. Groups VI and VII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  12. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianjie; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3′ untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  13. Albino Leaf 2 is involved in the splicing of chloroplast group I and II introns in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Zhu, Haitao; Xing, Yi; Tan, Jianjie; Chen, Xionghui; Zhang, Jianjun; Peng, Haifeng; Xie, Qingjun; Zhang, Zemin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an essential role in plant growth and development through manipulating photosynthesis and the production of hormones and metabolites. Although many genes or regulators involved in chloroplast biogenesis and development have been isolated and characterized, identification of novel components is still lacking. We isolated a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, termed albino leaf 2 (al2), using genetic screening. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the al2 mutation caused obvious albino leaves at the early developmental stage, eventually leading to al2 seedling death. Electron microscopy investigations indicated that the chloroplast structure was disrupted in the al2 mutants at an early developmental stage and subsequently resulted in the breakdown of the entire chloroplast. Molecular cloning illustrated that AL2 encodes a chloroplast group IIA intron splicing facilitator (CRS1) in rice, which was confirmed by a genetic complementation experiment. Moreover, our results demonstrated that AL2 was constitutively expressed in various tissues, including green and non-green tissues. Interestingly, we found that the expression levels of a subset of chloroplast genes that contain group IIA and IIB introns were significantly reduced in the al2 mutant compared to that in the wild type, suggesting that AL2 is a functional CRS1 in rice. Differing from the orthologous CRS1 in maize and Arabidopsis that only regulates splicing of the chloroplast group II intron, our results demonstrated that the AL2 gene is also likely to be involved in the splicing of the chloroplast group I intron. They also showed that disruption of AL2 results in the altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes, including chlorophyll biosynthetic genes, plastid-encoded polymerases and nuclear-encoded chloroplast genes. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the function of nuclear-encoded chloroplast group I and II intron splicing factors in rice. PMID:27543605

  14. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities.

  16. Effect of different forms of acute stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K K; Mukkadan, J K

    2014-01-01

    Stress is common for all organisms either in the form of eustress (beneficial) or as distress (harmful). Stress is highly diverse in present world and its effects in organisms are well studied. This study is a comparative effect of stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats, which are seldom reported. Here animals were grouped into four and the test animals of each group were administered with any one of the following stress, namely forced swimming induced stress (FS), and noise induced stress (NS), immobilization stress (IS) and overcrowding stress (OS). After stress administration, serum cortisol was estimated as a bio marker of stress in the albino rats, and the liver homogenate were used to estimate superoxide dismutase (SOD) by using rat Elisa kit in the spectrophotometer. The data were processed with unpaired 't' test. The cortisol levels were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in all the groups as compared to the normal control. And the stress level was found to be maximum in the FS group in comparison with other groups. The mean cortisol level in different stress groups such as FS, NS, IS and OS were found to be 4.15, 3.7, 3.63, 3.62 μ gm/dl respectively. Among all the stressed groups, the SOD level in the FS group were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in comparison with normal control group. The SOD level in FS group was (30.75 U/mgm. protein) followed by OS (28.96), noise (28.88) and IS (28.77).

  17. Lipid proifle and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe; Callistus Izunna Iheme; Chinwe Slyvanus Alisi; Linus Ahuwaraeze Nwaogu; Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Aloysius Chinedu Ene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods:Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1 200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII) of 5 animals each. Groups I, II andIII were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight), coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight) and paracetamol (1 000 mg/kg body weight) respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight) and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight), respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1 000 mg/kg body weight) on the 7th day. GroupsVI andVII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  18. Swiss-cheese D3- D7 soft SUSY breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We address issues related to (i) a proposal for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology as regards reconciliation of requirements of different gravitino masses within the same string-theoretic framework, as well as (ii) evaluation of soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses in the context of type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the "big" divisor Σ as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. In addition, we also include perturbative α-corrections and non-perturbative world-sheet instanton corrections to the Kähler potential as well as Euclidean D3-instanton superpotential. First, using the toric data for the aforementioned Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau and GLSM techniques, we obtain in the large volume limit, the geometric Kähler potential for the big (and small) divisor(s) in terms of derivatives of genus-two Siegel theta functions. Next, we show that as the mobile space-time filling D3-brane moves from a particular non-singular elliptic curve embedded in the Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau to another non-singular elliptic curve, it is possible to obtain 10 12 GeV gravitino during the primordial inflationary era as well as, e.g., a TeV gravitino in the present era, within the same set up for the same volume of the Calabi-Yau stabilized at around 10ls6. Then by constructing local (i.e. localized around the location of the mobile D3-brane in the Calabi-Yau) appropriate involutively-odd harmonic one-form on the big divisor that lies in coker(H∂¯,-(0,1)(CY)→iH∂¯,-(0,1)(Σ)) and extremizing the potential, we show that it is possible to obtain an O(1)g from the wrapping of D7-branes on the big divisor due to competing contributions from the Wilson line moduli relative to the divisor volume modulus. To permit gaugino condensation, we take the rigid limit of the

  19. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  20. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaghofer Richard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no. The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis. Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2% and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%. The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%, followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%. Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time

  1. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  2. 夹竹桃叶色白化的原因探讨%Research on the Reason of Albino Oleander Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永亮; 赵歌; 李叶峰; 杨燕; 陆小平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The reason of the albino mutant of oleander leaf was researched from the structure of leaf, the chloroplast in leaf,the structure of sub-cellular and the pigment composition of leaf.[ Method] The chloroplast form of albino leaf of oleander in different developmental stages was observed under optical microscope and the composition of the photosynthetic pigment in albino leaf was analyzed with the technique of plate chromatography. [Results] There was no significant difference in mesophyll cell between the mutant and wild species of oleander,however in the palisade and spongy tissue of albino leaf the green could barely be seen. The experiment in the isolation of chloroplast from the normal plat and mutant indicated that few mature chloroplasts could be found in the mutant. The result from the analysis of plate chromatography showed that there was basically no photosynthetic pigment in the albino leaf. [Conclusion] The reason causing the albino leaf of oleander might be the lack of the chlorophyll due to the disruption of the chloroplast synthesis in leaf.%[目的]从叶片结构,叶绿体等亚细胞结构以及色素组成研究该突变体叶色白化的原因.[方法]以叶色白化的夹竹桃叶片为材料,用光学显微镜观察不同发育阶段的叶绿体形态;用板层析技术分析叶片中光合色素的组成.[结果]突变型与野生型的叶肉细胞无明显差异,但白化叶片中栅栏组织和海绵组织几乎看不到绿色存在;分离2种叶色的叶绿体发现,突变型的成熟叶绿体数量很少;板层析结果显示,白化夹竹桃中光合色素基本缺失.[结论]夹竹桃叶色白化可能是因叶绿体合成受阻引起叶绿素缺失造成的.

  3. SEBARAN STASIONER PADA SISTEM BONUS-MALUS SWISS SERTA MODIFIKASINYA (Stationary Distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System and its Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Galatia Ballangan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonus-Malus System is a system in actuary that introduce the premium class (state partition, where the state is influenced by the number of annual claims reported by the policy holder. We could base the determination of the state on the stationary distribution that represent the number of policy holders in any state. Swiss Bonus-Malus System has 22 state. The number of state that involved in this system result in the difficulty of stationary distribution determination. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study a method to obtain stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System by recursive formula, with this recursive formula, the stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System can be determined easier. Modification of this system with infinite state result in the changes of recursive formula to obtain the stationary. This changes including the determining of base value of the recursive formula. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem Bonus-Malus merupakan sistem dalam aktuaria yang memperkenalkan pembagian kelas premi (state yang dipengaruhi oleh jumlah klaim yang diajukan oleh pemegang polis tiap tahunnya. Penetapan state dalam sistem ini didasarkan pada pencarian sebaran stasioner yang menyatakan banyaknya pemegang polis dalam tiap state. Sistem Bonus-Malus Swiss (BMS memiliki 22 state. Banyaknya state yang terlibat dalam sistem ini mengakibatkan sulitnya penentuan sebaran stasioner pada sistem BMS tersebut. Karena itu dalam tulisan ini dipelajari suatu metode penentuan sebaran stasioner dari sistem BMS tersebut, yaitu dengan menggunakan formula rekursif. Dengan formula rekursif ini, sebaran stasioner sistem BMS dapat ditentukan dengan mudah. Modifikasi sistem BMS untuk jumlah state yang tak hingga mengakibatkan perubahan pada formula rekursif untuk mencari sebaran stasionernya. Perubahan ini meliputi penetapan nilai awal dari formula rekursif tersebut. Kata kunci: sebaran stasioner, formula rekursif, sistem Monus-Malus Swiss.

  4. Diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis in cattle in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Booth, Marcia C; Tor, Elizabeth R; Odermatt, Arnold

    2002-02-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, several cattle of a group of 80 heifers died acutely on a pasture in the Swiss Alps. The animals were Found dead between July 9th and 15th eachyear. Only 1 animal was examined on post-mortem, and no significant lesions were found. Aconitum vulpera, A napellus, and Delphinium elatum were identified in the pasture. The presence of diterpenoid alkaloid-containing plants in the pasture, the rapid death of the animals, and the lack of pathologic lesions suggested diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis as a cause of death. A multiresidue alkaloid screen using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometric detector was employed on rumen, abomasal, small intestine, and cecal contents from the I heifer. Deltaline, deltamine, and lycoctonine were identified. Aconitine was found in all gastrointestinal samples using a sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology for aconitine analysis. The findings ofditerpenoid alkaloids in the gastrointestinal contents confirmed exposure to Delphinium and Aconitum spp, possibly resulting in sudden death.

  5. On cosmological observables in a swiss-cheese universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Valerio; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter--distance relation, in the luminosity-distance--redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark ma...

  6. Cosmological observables in a Swiss-cheese universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a Swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter-distance relation, in the luminosity-distance-redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark matter models may lead to interesting effects on photon trajectories.

  7. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.

  8. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

  9. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  10. and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) and white Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn...... Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  11. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... importation into the continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest... importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  12. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Colombia into the continental United States. Based on that analysis, we have concluded that the application... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia....

  13. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth on excision wound by green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles leads to accelerated wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-07-01

    An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

  14. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

  15. CERN’s Rugby Club to play the Swiss Cup semi-finals: come and support the CERN team!

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    On Saturday 25 June, the CERN’s Rugby Club will be playing in the Swiss Cup semi-final against the Hermance Rugby Club. Although the CERN club has had a less than stellar year in the Swiss national first division, they earned a place in the Cup semi-final after beating Bern 30 – 0 and La Chaux-de-Fonds 38 – 7. The club last made it to the Swiss Cup semi-finals in 2002, where they lost to Hermance (the most successful Swiss rugby club, followed closely by CERN’s). Show your support for the CERN team and help them reach the Swiss Cup final by going to the 25 June match at 15.00 in the CERN pitch.  

  16. Effects of maternal administration of endoxan, vitamin A and vitamin B12 on the development of the fetal spinal cord of the albino mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawar, N N; Sakla, F B; Mahran, Z Y

    1979-01-01

    The effects of maternal administration of endoxan, vitamin A and vitamine B12 were studied on the cervical fetal spinal cord of the albino mouse. Endoxan caused dorsal and ventral herniation of the spinal cord, chromatolysis and degeneration of the neuroblasts together with neuroglial proliferation. Vitamin A and B12 resulted in an increase in the surface areas of both grey and white matter and an increase in the volume of the neuroblasts. The possible mechanisms concerned were discussed.

  17. Modulation of Tinospora rumphii and Zinc Salt on DNA Damage in Quinoline-Induced Genotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Male Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Salvacion Tan; Lydia M. Bajo

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora rumphii (T. rumphii) is a folkloric medicinal plant that is widely distributed in Asia and Africa. It has been widely used by locals to treat many diseases including jaundice, which is a manifestation of liver damage. We investigated the action of T. rumphii crude extract together with zinc sulphate, a known tumor modulator, on hepatic injuries induced by intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of quinoline on albino mice. The hepatotoxic effect was assessed by bilirubin concentration in t...

  18. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  19. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2009-09-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg(-1) body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis' homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  20. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahaid Al-Hashem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  1. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-Induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz S. Abu El-Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6 in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1 treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide

  2. ENET News November 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, November 2004, Nr. 59 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This last edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)'s magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include a review of energy research in Switzerland in general and the work of the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in particular and a look at the basis for energy-economical perspectives in Switzerland. Further articles take a look at activities in the solar-chemical area, biomass and small-hydro projects, wind and geothermal energy as well as solar heating, photovoltaics and the use of ambient heat. Energy-efficiency in the buildings and traffic areas and combustion and combined heat and power are further topics covered. Nuclear energy and process engineering, fuel cells and activities in the international sector are examined. The publication is completed with a list of recent publications in the energy area.

  3. Design and Test of Wire-Scanners for SwissFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Orlandi, G L; Brands, H; Heimgartner, P; Ischebeck, R; Kammerer, A; Löhl, F; Lüscher, R; Mohanmurthy, P; Ozkan, C; Schlott, V; Schulz, L; Rippstein, B; Seiler, C; Trovati, S; Valitutti, P; Zimoch, D

    2016-01-01

    The SwissFEL light-facility will provide coherent X-rays in the wavelength region 7-0.7 nm and 0.7-0.1 nm. In SwissFEL, view-screens and wire-scanners will be used to monitor the transverse profile of a 200/10pC electron beam with a normalized emittance of 0.4/0.2 mm.mrad and a final energy of 5.8 GeV. Compared to view screens, wire-scanners offer a quasi-non-destructive monitoring of the beam transverse profile without suffering from possible micro-bunching of the electron beam. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and beam-test of the SwissFEL wire-scanner prototype will be discussed.

  4. ENET News July 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Juli 2004, Nr. 58 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Magazine (SFOE) with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include research strategies, a discussion on oil reserves, technology transfer and innovation, Swiss biomass activities, winning power from the drinking water mains and the use of ambient heat. Further articles cover the topics of energy-efficiency and lighting in buildings, the use of batteries in vehicles, the increasing decentralisation of power generation and the use of supra-conducting current-limiters. Also, research on improved fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the wood fuels, photovoltaics and wind-energy areas as well as heat storage using geothermal techniques.

  5. DRIVING VEHICLES SUBJECT TO A CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS AGREEMENT WITH ORDINARY SWISS NUMBER PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations in Geneva has just confirmed to CERN that it is not necessary to hold a carte de légitimation or an attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs to drive a vehicle subject to a customs restrictions agreement (engagement douanier), i.e. purchased or imported free of tax and customs duty, provided that the vehicle concerned is registered on ordinary Swiss number plates and not on diplomatic plates. We should like to remind you that the documents published by the Relations with the Host States Service since 1996 can be consulted on the Service's Web pages (http://www.cern.ch/relations/), which are updated as soon as new information is received from the Authorities of the Host States.

  6. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008; Eidgenoessische Energieforschungskommission CORE. Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, K.

    2009-07-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  7. How would Swiss consumers decide if they had freedom of choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, P.; Scholderer, Joachim; Ermen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Swiss expressed their negative attitude towards genetic engineering in agriculture by voting in favor of a ban to use genetically modified (GM) crops in domestic agriculture. At the same time, certain GM food products remain approved but are not on offer since retailers assume...... that consumers would shun labeled GM food. In our study we tested this claim by conducting a large-scale field study with Swiss consumers. In our experimental design, three clearly labeled types of corn bread were offered at five different market stands across the French and German-speaking part of Switzerland...... choice analysis show that Swiss consumers treat GM foods just like any other type of novel food. We conclude from our findings that consumers tend to appreciate transparency and freedom of choice even if one of the offered product types is labeled as containing a genetically modified ingredient...

  8. ENET News March 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Maerz 2004, Nr. 57 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's (SFOE) magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include the Swiss research strategy for the period 2004 to 2007, a discussion on wind energy, saving electricity, stand-by losses of coffee machines and information on hydrogen and fuel-cells. Further articles cover road-traffic topics including zero-emission vehicles and clean engine technology. Also, research on better fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the use of photovoltaics, wood fuels and biomass. Results of a field-analysis of heat-pump installations and the storage of solar energy using zinc powder as well as building insulation are covered. Finally, the ETDE is honoured as being the largest collection of energy documents.

  9. Gender-specific effects of CGP 55845, GABAB receptor antagonist, on neuromuscular coordination, learning and memory formation in albino mouse following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Quratul Ane; Akbar, Atif; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-06-01

    GABAB receptor antagonists are experimentally proved as spatial memory enhancers in mouse models but their role has not been described following hypoxic-ischemic insult. 10-day-old albino mice were subjected to Murine model of hypoxia and ischemia. Following brain damage, mice were fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 weeks old. At this time point, mice were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline and group 2 received intraperitoneally CGP 55845 (1 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight) for 12 days. Behavioural observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test along with brain infarct measurement in both CGP 55845 treated and untreated groups. It was observed that application of GABAB receptor antagonist improved the over all motor function in male and female albino mice but effects were more pronounced in males. In open field, CGP 55845-treated female mice showed poor performance. CGP 55845 had no significant effect on learning and memory formation during Morris water maze test and also on brain infract size in both genders following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy. Effects of CGP 55845 can be further explored in a dose and duration dependent manner to improve the learning and memory in albino mice following neonatal brain damage.

  10. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  11. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  12. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  13. Genetic relationship between body condition score, fertility, type and production traits in Brown Swiss dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante; Luigi Gallo; Paolo Carnier; Riccardo Dal Zotto

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS), calving interval (CI), angularity (ANG), strength (FV) and milk yield (MY) on Brown Swiss cattle using data collected in the alpine provinces of Bolzano- Bozen and Trentino. The data set consisted of 28,538 test day records of BCS and MY from 3,282 Brown Swiss cows in lactation reared in 109 herds; production traits were merged with 13,796 repeated individual calving interval records and 38,711 type traits re...

  14. Protection for structures in extreme earthquakes: Full Base Isolation (3-D) by the Swiss Seismafloat System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudacher, K.

    1985-02-01

    Full Base Isolation (FBI, 3-D), an antiseismic concept for structures, adds vertical flexibility to horizontal base isolation (HBI, 2-D). Extensive experimental testing at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the University of California, Berkeley, has shown FBI to be a practicable way to reach the final goal of earthquake protection, i.e. elastic behavior of the structural frame in extreme earthquakes. Swiss engineers pioneered base isolation by the construction of the Pestalozzi School at Skopje in 1968. Further development has made Integral Earthquake Protection possible for structures and their contents. (orig.).

  15. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  16. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH01 9.3 allele in the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome in Swiss Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Jacqueline; Bartsch, Christine; Haas, Cordula

    2014-11-01

    Catecholamines, especially noradrenalin, are essential in the control of respiration and arousal. Thus, an impaired production of these neurotransmitters may contribute to the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The first step of the noradrenergic synthesis pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The TH-encoding gene contains a tetrameric short tandem repeat in intron 1 (TH01), with allele 9.3 reported to be associated with SIDS in German infants. We investigated the allelic frequency of the TH01 marker in 171 Swiss SIDS infants and 500 healthy and gender-matched Caucasian adults. In our study population, the allelic frequency of the 9.3 allele is similarly distributed in SIDS cases and controls (27.2% vs. 25.6%; p-value = 0.562). Nevertheless, the TH-encoding gene is only one of several genes involved in the noradrenergic biosynthesis pathway. Therefore, further genetic investigations are required with focus on the whole noradrenergic signaling system.

  17. Impaired cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder emptying incriminated in spontaneous "black" pigment gallstone formation in germfree Swiss Webster mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie E; Leonard, Monika R; Hayden, Joshua A; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bernert, Kara R; Lavoie, Brigitte; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Whary, Mark T; Mawe, Gary M; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Carey, Martin C; Fox, James G

    2015-02-15

    "Black" pigment gallstones form in sterile gallbladder bile in the presence of excess bilirubin conjugates ("hyperbilirubinbilia") from ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, or induced enterohepatic cycling (EHC) of unconjugated bilirubin. Impaired gallbladder motility is a less well-studied risk factor. We evaluated the spontaneous occurrence of gallstones in adult germfree (GF) and conventionally housed specific pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice. GF SW mice were more likely to have gallstones than SPF SW mice, with 75% and 23% prevalence, respectively. In GF SW mice, gallstones were observed predominately in heavier, older females. Gallbladders of GF SW mice were markedly enlarged, contained sterile black gallstones composed of calcium bilirubinate and cholecystokinin (CCK), gallbladders of fasted GF SW mice showed impaired emptying (females: 29%; males: 1% emptying), whereas SPF SW females and males emptied 89% and 53% of volume, respectively. Bilirubin secretion rates of GF SW mice were not greater than SPF SW mice, repudiating an induced EHC. Gallstones likely developed in GF SW mice because of gallbladder hypomotility, enabled by features of GF physiology, including decreased intestinal CCK concentration and delayed intestinal transit, as well as an apparent genetic predisposition of the SW stock. GF SW mice may provide a valuable model to study gallbladder stasis as a cause of black pigment gallstones.

  18. [Swiss Bechterew's Disease Association: a patient self-help organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberger, H

    1991-06-04

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the third most common form of rheumatism and as such of considerable economic and social significance due to its early outbreak, its course of flare-ups and its remissions, chronic persistence and risk of early invalidity. As there is no basic therapy, the main emphasis of modern treatment lies on the practice of regular and intensive AS-specific physical exercise, complemented by suitable sports. In these circumstances, the active cooperation of the patients themselves is of utmost importance; therefore, it was obvious that the information of AS patients on their disease and their interest to improve their physical and psychological situation would be further encouraged by the foundation of a self-assistance organization for AS patients, thereby lightening the blow fate had dealt them. The Swiss Ankylosing Spondylitis Association (Schweizerische Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, SVMB, Société de la spondylarthrite ankylosante, SSSA, Società svizzera morbo di Bechterew, SSMB), founded in 1978, has its headquarters in Zurich (Röntgenstrasse 22, CH-8005 Zurich, Tel. 01 272 78 66) and strives for the following: --the organization of local and regional therapy groups for AS gymnastics and sports --information for patients and their families on all aspects concerning AS --preparation of 'contact' meetings between AS patients to exchange experiences and thoughts --information for doctors on the latest developments in the field of AS and about the activities of the AS Society --promotion of research in the field of AS and its related diseases --information to the general population about the physical aspects of AS and the problems confronting AS patients --cooperation with other AS societies within the framework of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation, ASIF.

  19. Mapping organic carbon stocks of Swiss forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, M.; Papritz, A.; Baltensweiler, A.; Walthert, L.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration into forest sinks offsets greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto protocol. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for reporting greenhouse gas emissions. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the above ground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because of its high spatial variability. To date the greenhouse gas inventory relies only on sparse data and regionally differentiated predictions of SOC stocks in forest soils are currently not possible. Recently, more soil data and new explanatory variables for statistical modeling like high resolution elevation data and satellite images became available. Based on data from 1'033 sites, we modeled SOC stocks to a depth of 1 m including the organic layer for the Swiss forested area. We used a novel robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit a linear regression model with spatially correlated errors to the C stock data. For the regression analysis we used a broad range of covariates derived from climate data (precipitation, temperature, radiation), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) and spectral variables representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main cartographic categories of an overview soil map were used to broadly represent the parent material. The numerous covariates, that partly correlated strongly, were reduced to a first subset using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator). This subset of covariates was then further reduced based on cross validation of the robustly fitted spatial model. The levels of categorical covariates were partly aggregated during this process and interactions between covariates were explored to account for nonlinear dependence of C stocks on the covariates. Using the final model, robust kriging prediction and error maps were computed with a resolution of one hectare.

  20. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Acetone Extract from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Hepatotoxicity in Albinos Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konaté

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally liver disease in albinos Wistar rats. Animals received by gavage 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administration of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Cienfuegosia digitata presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of liver disease particularly hepatitis B in Burkina Faso.

  2. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  3. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ajiboye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05 in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  4. Ability of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera to effectively alleviate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental Wister albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogboma Dania

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the preventive, protective and ameliorative activity of the aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. (P. dactylifera against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: A total of 50 male albino rats were used for the study and 2 g/kg body weight of paracetamol and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of P. dactylifera were administered orally for the study. They were divided into 5 groups, namely group A (vehicle control, group B (paracetamol control, group C (preventive, group D (ameliorative and group E (protective, with 10 rats in each group. Group B was administered with paracetamol for 7 days; group C was administered with the extract for 7 days before administering with paracetamol for 7 days; group D was administered with paracetamol for 7 days, then the extract for 7 days; while group E was administered with paracetamol and the extract simultaneously for 7days. Results: The study revealed that the extracts of date palms contained active chemical compounds such as anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids and flavonoids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase were found to be reduced while malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the paracetamol-treated group. This trend was reversed in groups where the extract was administered, as the antioxidant enzymes level in the liver was raised. Conclusions: This study has shown that the aqueous extract of P. dactylifera can mitigate the hepatotoxicity effect of paracetamol with a better ameliorating effect than protective or preventive

  5. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Garlic oil as a modulating agent for oxidative stress and neurotoxicity induced by sodium nitrite in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Hafez, Hani S; Zeghebar, Fawzia E

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the neurobiochemical alterations and oxidative stress induced by food preservative; sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as well as the role of the garlic oil in amelioration of the neurotoxicity in male albino rats. Serum and brain homogenates of the rats received NaNO2 (80 mg/kg body weight) for 3 months exhibited significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as well as the levels of phospholipids, total protein and the endogenous antioxidant system (glutathione; GSH and superoxide dismutase; SOD). In contrast, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased. On the other hand, the oral administration of garlic oil (5 ml/kg body weight) daily for 3 months significantly improved the neurobiochemical disorders and inhibited the oxidative stress induced by NaNO2 ingestion. So, this study reveals the neural toxic effects of NaNO2 by exerting oxidative stress and retrograde the endogenous antioxidant system. However, garlic oil has a promising role in attenuating the obtained hazard effects of sodium nitrite by its high antioxidant properties which may eventually be related with the preservation of SOD activity and primary mitochondrial role against nitrite-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  7. Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

  8. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  9. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  10. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Imrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  11. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

  12. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  13. Effects of aqueous extracts of Acacia albida stem bark on Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection.

  14. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  15. EFFECT OF COSTUS SPECIOSUS KOEN ON REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF FEMALE ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Ansarul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Costus speciosus Koen. Retz. belongs to family Zingiberaceae. It is known as Crepe zinger in English and Jom lakhuti in Assamese. Traditionally, rhizome of this plant is used as ethno-medicine for curing different health ailments. This plant is widely used for fertility control in women by the rural people of Rangia Sub-division of Kamrup District, Assam. In ayurveda, the rhizomes are ascribed to be bitter, astringent, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, purgative, antihelminthic, depurative, febrifuge, expectorant and tonic. The methanolic rhizome extract was investigated for its effect on ovary and uterus of Gonado-intact female adult mice. The extract at two different doses (250 mg/kg, 500mg/kg body weight for 10 days has showed significant decrease in ovarian weight and increase in uterine weight in comparison to normal control. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites i.e., alkaloids and flavonoids. The finding of the present study put some light showing the endocrine active effects of the Costus speciosus in animal model.

  16. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  17. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  18. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  19. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  20. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.