Sample records for adtt

  1. Proton linac of the Moscow meson factory for the ADTT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, L.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research


    The accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) has attracted a lot of attention to eliminate long lived actinides and fission products, including plutonium. An accelerator creates an intense source of spallation neutrons at the blanket by bombarding a heavy metal target with high energy protons of about 800 MeV. The Moscow Meson Factory (MMF) proton linac and experimental hall could be used for the ADTT experiments. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Impact of ADTT concepts on the management of global plutonium inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of a number of current and future nuclear systems on global plutonium inventories is assessed under realistic forecasts of nuclear power growth. Advanced systems, such as those employing Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) and liquid metal reactors, show significant promise for meeting future plutonium management needs. These analyses also indicate requirements for a higher level of detail in the nuclear fuel cycle model and for development of a metric to more quantitatively assess the proliferation risk of plutonium arising from the civilian fuel cycle

  3. A beamline systems model for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facilities (United States)

    Todd, Alan M. M.; Paulson, C. C.; Peacock, M. A.; Reusch, M. F.


    A beamline systems code, that is being developed for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facility trade studies, is described. The overall program is a joint Grumman, G. H. Gillespie Associates (GHGA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory effort. The GHGA Accelerator Systems Model (ASM) has been adopted as the framework on which this effort is based. Relevant accelerator and beam transport models from earlier Grumman systems codes are being adapted to this framework. Preliminary physics and engineering models for each ADTT beamline component have been constructed. Examples noted include a Bridge Coupled Drift Tube Linac (BCDTL) and the accelerator thermal system. A decision has been made to confine the ASM framework principally to beamline modeling, while detailed target/blanket, balance-of-plant and facility costing analysis will be performed externally. An interfacing external balance-of-plant and facility costing model, which will permit the performance of iterative facility trade studies, is under separate development. An ABC (Accelerator Based Conversion) example is used to highlight the present models and capabilities.

  4. ECN contributions to ADTT `96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, A.J.


    An outline is presented of the status of nuclear data evaluation for accelerator-driven systems. The international effort consists mainly of measuring, compiling and calculating nuclear data for elements and isotopes relevant for transmutation of radioactive waste (ATW), energy amplification and other accelerator-related nuclear applications. We argue that input for global, macroscopic calculation schemes for hybrid nuclear systems basically should consist of three types of nuclear data: (a) High-energy transport codes for energies above about 150 MeV, (b) neutron and proton transport data files for energies below about 150 MeV and (c) neutron and proton transmutation/activation libraries below about 150 MeV. Our specific contribution to the field concerns (b) and (c). The progress of the evaluation of high-energy nuclear data files for the most important materials and the related compilation of nuclear reaction information is reported. The evaluated data are calculated with the computer codes ECIS95, MINGUS and GNASH and are stored in ENDF6-format. We illustrate the library production with a short outline of the employed physical methods. Finally, we briefly discuss the application of the activation/transmutation library ECNAF96. (orig.).

  5. The LA-0 project of experimental investigations of ADTT blankets with fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was an idea of experimental investigations of accelerator-driven transmuter blanket cores with fluoride salts on the experimental reactor LR-0 in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, the Czech Republic, which has been further developed and elaborated. The results of a preliminary proposal and assessment of possibility of a reconstruction of the LR-0 core for experiments simulating blankets with molten fluoride salt fuel were reported. There is a brief survey of essential conclusions of both those stages presented in this paper. The current status of the complex project called LA-0 which has been proposed to start in 1996 will be given in some details. The project consists of all the basic regions -neutron source and subcritical assembly design and other engineering problems including fluoride chemical technology - of such a system. Nevertheless, the main attention, in this paper, is focused on the methodology of all the regions, i.e. methods of neutronic characteristic predictions, both computational and experimental, as well as some methods selected in the other topical regions are mentioned. Among the methods being taken into account for the first phases of the experimental program the measurements of neutronic characteristics by use of oscillating samples method will be given at the first position. There is also an illustrative description of the existing LR-0 experimental reactor given in the paper. Finally, there are future stages of the project outlined in a rough frame only and their benefits as well as drawbacks critically discussed in the concluding part of the paper. 5 refs., 4 figs

  6. AIP conference on accelerator driven transmutation technologies and applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 25-29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was the first to bring together US and foreign researchers to define Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts in several important national and international application areas - nuclear waste transmutation, minimizing of world plutonium inventories, and long-term energy production. The conference covered a number of diverse technological areas - accelerators, target/blankets, separations, materials - that make up ADTT systems. The meeting provided one of the first opportunities for specialists in these technologies to meet together and learn about system requirements, components, and interface issues. It was also an opportunity to formulate plans for future developments in ADTT. During the conference over one hundred technical presentations were made describing ADTT system and technology concepts as well as the impact of ADTT on issues related to global plutonium management and the high-level nuclear waste problem areas. Separate abstracts have been entered into the database for articles from this report

  7. A long view of global plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dealing with the large and growing world inventories of fissile materials from all sources is a major part of the long term challenge of limiting the danger from nuclear weapons. Providing clean, safe nuclear power may also be needed to prevent conditions from arising which could lead to large scale nuclear weapon (re)armament. ADTT technologies might reconcile the seeming dilemma of providing nuclear power while maintaining a very low world inventory of nuclear materials which can be used in weapons. This vision for ADTT should be tested in a variety of ways, including comparisons with competing approaches and with other objectives. Such testing is one part of constructing a path for a decades-long, worldwide implementation campaign for ADTT

  8. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop (United States)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.


    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  9. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power

  10. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) Project carries three approaches for dealing with waste from the defense and commercial nuclear energy enterprise. First, the problem of excess weapons plutonium in the US and Russia originating both from stockpile reductions and from defense production site clean-up is one of significant current and long-term concern. The ADTT technology offers the possibility of almost complete destruction of this plutonium by fission. The technology might be particularly effective for destruction of the low quality plutonium from defense site clean-up since the system does not require the fabrication of the waste into fuel assemblies, does not require reprocessing and refabrication, and can tolerate a high level of impurities in the feed stream. Second, the ADTT system also can destroy the plutonium, other higher actinide, and long-lived fission product from commercial nuclear waste which now can only be dealt with by geologic storage. And finally, and probably most importantly the system can be used for the production of virtually unlimited electric power from thorium with concurrent destruction of its long-lived waste components so that geologic containment for them is not required. In addition plutonium is not a significant byproduct of the power generation so that non-proliferation concerns about nuclear power are almost completely eliminated. All of the ADTT systems operate with an accelerator supplementing the neutrons which in reactors are provided only by the fission process, and therefore the system can be designed to eliminate the possibility for a runaway chain reaction. The means for integration of the accelerator into nuclear power technology in order to make these benefits possible is described including estimates of accelerator operating parameters required for the three objectives

  11. Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Olesen, Morten Lykke;


    repair techniques and evaluating the use of two defects per knee. METHODS: Sixteen fully mature Göttingen minipigs were used. The minipigs received bilateral trochlear osteochondral drill-hole defects or chondral defects (Ø 6 mm), either one defect per knee or two defects per knee. The defects were...... treated with one of the following: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI), microfracture (MFx), autologous-dual-tissue transplantation (ADTT), autologous bone graft, autologous cartilage chips. Empty chondral and osteochondral defects were used as controls. MRI and CT were performed 3...

  12. A new approach to modeling linear accelerator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel computer code is being developed to generate system level designs of radiofrequency ion accelerators with specific applications to machines of interest to Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT). The goal of the Accelerator System Model (ASM) code is to create a modeling and analysis tool that is easy to use, automates many of the initial design calculations, supports trade studies used in accessing alternate designs and yet is flexible enough to incorporate new technology concepts as they emerge. Hardware engineering parameters and beam dynamics are to be modeled at comparable levels of fidelity. Existing scaling models of accelerator subsystems were used to produce a prototype of ASM (version 1.0) working within the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Code (SPARC) graphical user interface. A small user group has been testing and evaluating the prototype for about a year. Several enhancements and improvements are now being developed. The current version of ASM is described and examples of the modeling and analysis capabilities are illustrated. The results of an example study, for an accelerator concept typical of ADTT applications, is presented and sample displays from the computer interface are shown

  13. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  14. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems

  15. The Czech national R and D program of nuclear incineration of PWR spent fuel in a transmuter with liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel are listed and briefly analysed in the first part of the paper. On the basis of this analysis, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the following parts of the paper allowing to developed new reactor systems for nuclear incineration of spent fuel from conventional reactors and a new clean source of energy. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuel, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed in [1], has been proposed for a deeper, both theoretical and experimental studies in [2]. There will be a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-0 briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project [3]. (author)

  16. National R and D program of nuclear incineration of PWR spent fuel in a transmuter with liquid fuel as being developed in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel are listed and briefly analysed in the first part of the paper. On the basis of this analysis, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the following parts of the paper allowing to develop new reactor systems for nuclear incineration of spent fuel from conventional reactors and a new clean source of energy. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilise the advantages of liquid fuel, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT), has been proposed for a deeper, both theoretical and experimental studies. There will be a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-0 briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project

  17. Installation of a cw radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) has had a long history of cw proton beam development for production of intense neutron sources and fissile fuel breeders. In 1986 CRL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) entered into a collaborative effort to establish a base technologies program for the development of a cw radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The initial cw RFQ design had 50-keV proton injection energy with 600-keV output energy. The 75-mA design current at 600-keV beam energy was obtained in 1990. Subsequently, the RFQ output energy was increased to 1250 keV by replacing the RFQ vanes, still maintaining the 75-m A design current. A new 250-kW cw klystrode rf power source at 267-MHz was installed at CRL. By April of 1993, 55-mA proton beams had been accelerated to 1250 keV. Concurrent developments were taking place on proton source development and on 50-keV low-energy beam transport (LEBT) systems. Development of a dc, high-proton fraction (≥ 70%) microwave ion source led to utilization of a single-solenoid RFQ direct injection scheme. It was decided to continue this cw RFQ demonstration project at Los Alamos when the CRL project was terminated in April 1993. The LANL goals are to find the current limit of the 1250-keV RFQ, better understand the beam transport properties through the single-solenoid focusing LEBT, continue the application of the cw klystrode tube technology to accelerators, and develop a two-solenoid LEBT which could be the front end of an Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) linear accelerator

  18. 美国焊接桥梁的疲劳设计准则%Fatigue Design Criteria for Welded Bridges in the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Fifty years ago,fatigue design was not considered a serious bridge performance issue in the US.Fatigue design utilized the concept of Iimiting the maximum stress at details by using the R-ratio of minimum/maximum stress and an assumption that the fatigue limit occurred at 2 million cycle.The HS-20 design truck was usd for specific cycles based on the type of road and the average daily truck traffic (ADTT).Fatigue cracks were observed to develop in steel bridges in the late 1960s and early 70's.This development and the results of large scale beam tests on welded details that were carried out between 1967 and 1987 provided a statistically sound data base and established that stress range alone was the only statistical significant design stress.The fatigue provisions adopting stress range were changed by AASHTO in 1974.This meant that only the live load cyclic stress was important.The basic fatigue resistance curves provide a log normal lower bound design basis for fatigue life that is used world wide today.Experience with steel bridges also showed that a rule adopted after WWⅡ whiCH avoided welding to tension flanges,has resulted in extensive web gap cracking from out of plane distortions.During the last decade these small web gaps have resulted in unanticipated brittle fractures as a result of tri-axial stresses even in the absence of fatigue crack growth.%50年前,疲劳设计在美国人看来并非是一个很严重的桥梁性能问题.疲劳设计运用了限制最大应力的概念,即假定疲劳极限发生在2×106次循环荷载时,利用最小应力与最大应力的比R,限制各点的最大应力.根据道路类型与每日平均车流量,采用型号为HS-20的设计车来测定特定周期.在20世纪60年代末至70年代初,发现钢结构桥梁中存在疲劳裂纹.1967-1987年,针对焊接部位进行了大量的梁试验.根据试验结果,统计得到了数据库,并认为应力幅度才是唯一主要的设计应力.1974年,美国AASHTO规

  19. Review of national accelerator driven system programmes for partitioning and transmutation. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : Comprehensive presentations from groups conducting the most active research and development projects (Prof. Rubbia (on behalf of the '3 countries initiative': French-Italian-Spanish collaboration), CERN, CEA, JAERI, USA (LANL, BNL, LLNL, ANL, ONL), EC ADS-project (TARC, IABAT), Russian Federation. The presentations centered on the following issues: General issues and motivations: national/international views, specifically: Why is ADS needed for the country; Role of ADS in future nuclear cycles and waste management; General safety issues and requirements of ADS; Public acceptance; ADS Technology; Accelerators for ADTT (cyclotrons and linacs); Specific requirements and features of ADS accelerators; Reliability of operation; Design efficiency; Development of ADS-oriented codes and methods; Benchmark reports; Experiments and validation of codes; Deterministic and Monte-Carlo codes; Coupling of high and low energy transport; Static and dynamic methods for subcritical systems; Spallation and fission product modeling; Targets and nuclear assemblies for ADS; ADS Targets (solid and liquid); Damage to materials (Materials irradiation in Proton field, High energy neutron field, Temperature/shock effects, etc., experiments related to Technology of heavy liquid metals, Thermohydraulics, Corrosion); Experiments (Hg target experiments at BNL; Subcritical cores, Fuels and fuel processes, Molten salt reactors)