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Sample records for adsorption capacity increased

  1. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. Effect of the impregnation of carbon cloth with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on its adsorption capacity for the adsorption of several metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Amini, Azadeh; Karimi, Ziba

    2008-01-01

    Effect of loading of C-cloth with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the adsorption capacity for the adsorption of several metal cations was studied. The concentration of ions in the solution was monitored using atomic absorption spectrometry. The adsorption isotherm data for the cations were derived at 25 deg. C and treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich models and was found that for most of the investigated cations Langmuir model was more successful. Adsorption capacities determined from Langmuir isotherms. Loading of the adsorbent with EDTA increased the adsorption capacity for the adsorption of all of the investigation ions

  3. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  4. Adsorption of multi-heavy metals Zn and Cu onto surficial sediments: modeling and adsorption capacity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Meng; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Improved multiple regression adsorption models (IMRAMs) was developed to estimate the adsorption capacity of the components [Fe oxides (Fe), Mn oxides (Mn), organic materials (OMs), residuals] in surficial sediments for multi-heavy metal Zn and Cu. IMRAM is an improved version over MRAM, which introduces a computer program in the model developing process. As MRAM, Zn(Cu) IMRAM, and Cu(Zn) IMRAM again confirmed that there is significant interaction effects that control the adsorption of compounded Zn and Cu, which was neglected by additional adsorption model. The verification experiment shows that the relative deviation of the IMRAMs is less than 13%. It is revealed by the IMRAMs that Mn, which has the greatest adsorption capability for compounded Zn and Cu (54.889 and 161.180 mg/l, respectively), follows by interference adsorption capacity of Fe/Mn (-1.072 and -24.591 mg/l respectively). Zn and Cu influence each other through different mechanisms. When Zn is the adsorbate, compounded Cu mainly affects the adsorption capacities of Fe/Mn and Fe/Mn/OMs; while when Cu is the adsorbate, compounded Zn mainly exerts its effect on Mn, Fe/Mn, and Mn/OMs. It also shows that the compounded Zn or Cu weakened the interference adsorption of Fe/Mn, and meanwhile, strengthened the interference adsorption of Mn/OMs.

  5. Evaluation of adsorption capacity of acetaminophen on activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate varying dosage forms of activated charcoal obtained from community pharmacy outlets in Nigeria for their adsorption capacity when challenged with acetaminophen. Methods: Equilibruim kinetics of acetaminophen adsorption onto activated charcoal surface was determined via batch studies at ...

  6. Cadmium adsorption by coal combustion ashes-based sorbents-Relationship between sorbent properties and adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, Marco; Di Natale, Francesco; Erto, Alessandro; Lancia, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Montagnaro, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.montagnaro@unina.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Santoro, Luciano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    A very interesting possibility of coal combustion ashes reutilization is their use as adsorbent materials, that can also take advantage from proper beneficiation techniques. In this work, adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions was taken into consideration, with the emphasis on the intertwining among waste properties, beneficiation treatments, properties of the beneficiated materials and adsorption capacity. The characterization of three solid materials used as cadmium sorbents (as-received ash, ash sieved through a 25 {mu}m-size sieve and demineralized ash) was carried out by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, laser granulometry and mercury porosimetry. Cadmium adsorption thermodynamic and kinetic tests were conducted at room temperature, and test solutions were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Maximum specific adsorption capacities resulted in the range 0.5-4.3 mg g{sup -1}. Different existing models were critically considered to find out an interpretation of the controlling mechanism for adsorption kinetics. In particular, it was observed that for lower surface coverage the adsorption rate is governed by a linear driving force while, once surface coverage becomes significant, mechanisms such as the intraparticle micropore diffusion may come into play. Moreover, it was shown that both external fluid-to-particle mass transfer and macropore diffusion hardly affect the adsorption process, which was instead regulated by intraparticle micropore diffusion: characteristic times for this process ranged from 4.1 to 6.1 d, and were fully consistent with the experimentally observed equilibrium times. Results were discussed in terms of the relationship among properties of beneficiated materials and cadmium adsorption capacity. Results shed light on interesting correlations among solid properties, cadmium capture rate and maximum cadmium uptake.

  7. N-doping effectively enhances the adsorption capacity of biochar for heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenchao; Lian, Fei; Cui, Guannan; Liu, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    N-doping was successfully employed to improve the adsorption capacity of biochar (BC) for Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ by direct annealing of crop straws in NH 3 . The surface N content of BC increased more than 20 times by N-doping; meanwhile the content of oxidized-N was gradually diminished but graphitic-N was formed and increased with increasing annealing temperature and duration time. After N-doping, a high graphitic-N percentage (46.4%) and S BET (418.7 m 2 /g) can be achieved for BC. As a result, the N-doped BC exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity for Cu 2+ (1.63 mmol g -1 ) and Cd 2+ (1.76 mmol g -1 ), which was up to 4.0 times higher than that of the original BC. Furthermore, the adsorption performance of the N-doped BC remained stable even at acidic conditions. A positive correlation can be found between adsorption capacity with the graphitic N content on BC surface. The surface chemistry of N-doped BC before and after the heavy metal ions adsorption was carefully examined by XPS and FTIR techniques, which indicated that the adsorption mechanisms mainly included cation-π bonding and complexation with graphitic-N and hydroxyl groups of carbon surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Adsorption Capacity of a Volcanic Rock—Used in ConstructedWetlands—For Carbamazepine Removal, and Its Modification with Biofilm Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Tejeda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle for carbamazepine (CBZ adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity with biofilm growth. Adsorption essays were carried out under batch conditions by evaluating two particle sizes of tezontle, two values of the solution pH, and two temperatures; from these essays, optimal conditions for carbamazepine adsorption were obtained. The optimal conditions (pH 8, 25 °C and 0.85–2.0 mm particle-size were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, which was promoted through tezontle exposition to wastewater in glass columns, for six months. The maximum adsorption capacity of clean tezontle was 3.48 µg/g; while for the tezontle with biofilm, the minimum value was 1.75 µg/g (after the second week and the maximum, was 3.3 µg/g (after six months with a clear tendency of increasing over time. The adsorption kinetic was fitted to a pseudo-second model for both tezontle without biofilm and with biofilm, thus indicating a chemisorption process. On clean tezontle, both acid active sites (AAS and basic active sites (BAS were found in 0.087 and 0.147 meq/g, respectively. The increase in the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, along the time was correlated with a higher concentration of BAS, presumably from a greater development of biofilm. The presence of biofilm onto tezontle surface was confirmed through FTIR and FE-SEM. These results confirm the essential role of filter media for pharmaceutical removal in constructed wetlands (CWs.

  10. CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fast and selective adsorption of arsenic with high adsorption capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Chun; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and application of mesoporous CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the simultaneous removal of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The hybrid adsorbent had a core-shell and mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 260 nm. The nanoscale size and mesoporous character impart a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity for iAs. In total, 0.1 mg L−1 As(V) and As(III) could be adsorbed within 2 min, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 114.8 mg g−1 for As(V) and 143.6 mg g−1 for As(III), higher than most previously reported adsorbents. The anti-interference capacity for iAs adsorption was improved by the electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion effects of the MIL-100(Fe) shell, which also decreased the zero-charge point of the hybrid absorbent for a broad pH adsorption range. The adsorption mechanisms of iAs on the MNPs are proposed. An Fe-O-As structure was formed on CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) through hydroxyl substitution with the deprotonated iAs species. Monolayer adsorption of As(V) was observed, while hydrogen bonding led to the multi-layer adsorption of neutral As(III) for its high adsorption capacity. The high efficiency and the excellent pH- and interference-tolerance capacities of CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) allowed effective iAs removal from natural water samples, as validated with batch magnetic separation mode and a portable filtration strategy. PMID:28102334

  11. Influence of diatomite microstructure on its adsorption capacity for Pb(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadović S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microstructural changes caused by mechanical modification on adsorption properties of diatomite samples were investigated. The microstructure has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM while the degree of metal adsorption was evaluated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP AES. The results show that metal sorption capacity of diatomite is considerably improved after mechanical modification and it can be attributed to amorphysation of the material. Immobilization efficiency increased from 22% for untreated to 81% for the treated sample after 5h at BPR 4.This qualifies natural diatomite as a material for wastewater remediation.

  12. Relationship between carbon microstructure, adsorption energy and hydrogen adsorption capacity at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacek Jagiello; Matthias Thommes

    2005-01-01

    Various microporous materials such as activated carbons, nano-tubes, synthetic microporous carbons as well as metal organic framework materials are being considered for hydrogen storage applications by means of physical adsorption. To develop materials of practical significance for hydrogen storage it is important to understand the relationships between pore sizes, adsorption energies and adsorption capacities. The pore size distribution (PSD) characterization is traditionally obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K. However, a portion of the pores accessible to H 2 may not be accessible to N 2 at this temperature. Therefore, it was recently proposed to use the DFT analysis of H 2 adsorption isotherms to characterize pore structure of materials considered for hydrogen storage applications. In present work, adsorption isotherms of H 2 and N 2 at cryogenic temperatures are used for the characterization of carbon materials. Adsorption measurements were performed with Autosorb 1 MP (Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA). As an example, Fig 1 compares PSDs calculated for the activated carbon sample (F400, Calgon Carbon) using combined H 2 and N 2 data, and using N 2 isotherm only. The nitrogen derived PSD does not include certain amount of micropores which are accessible to H 2 but not to N 2 molecules. Obviously, the difference in the calculated PSDs by the two methods will depend on the actual content of small micropores in a given sample. Carbon adsorption properties can also be characterized by the isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, related to the adsorption energy and dependent on the carbon pore/surface structure. Fig 2 shows Qst data calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from H 2 isotherms measured at 77 K and 87 K for the carbon molecular sieve CMS 5A (Takeda), oxidized single wall nano-tubes (SWNT), and graphitized carbon black (Supelco). The Qst values decrease with increasing pore sizes. The

  13. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  14. Optimization of CO2 adsorption capacity and cyclical adsorption/desorption on tetraethylenepentamine-supported surface-modified hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouchprasitchai, Nutthavich; Pintuyothin, Nuthapol; Pongstabodee, Sangobtip

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate CO 2 adsorption capacity of tetraethylenepentamine-functionalized basic-modified calcined hydrotalcite (TEPA/b-cHT) sorbents at atmospheric pressure formed under varying TEPA loading levels, temperatures, sorbent weight to total gaseous flow rate (W/F) ratios and CO 2 concentrations in the influent gas. The TEPA/b-cHT sorbents were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis of nitrogen (N 2 ) adsorption/desorption and carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen (CHN) elemental analysis. Moreover, a full 2 4 factorial design with three central points at a 95% confidence interval was used to screen important factor(s) on the CO 2 adsorption capacity. It revealed that 85.0% variation in the capacity came from the influence of four main factors and the 15.0% one was from their interactions. A face-centered central composite design response surface method (FCCCD-RSM) was then employed to optimize the condition, the maximal capacity of 5.5-6.1mmol/g was achieved when operating with a TEPA loading level of 39%-49% (W/W), temperature of 76-90°C, W/F ratio of 1.7-2.60(g·sec)/cm 3 and CO 2 concentration of 27%-41% (V/V). The model fitted sufficiently the experimental data with an error range of ±1.5%. From cyclical adsorption/desorption and selectivity at the optimal condition, the 40%TEPA/b-cHT still expressed its effective performance after eight cycles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Jihai; Gu, Ji-Dong; Peng, Liang; Luo, Si; Luo, Huili; Yan, Zhiyong; Wu, Genyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO 4 was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO 4 . Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO 4 concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH 4 NO 3 and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO 4 modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water

  16. Relationship between carbon microstructure, adsorption energy and hydrogen adsorption capacity at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagiello, J.; Thommes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Various microporous materials such as activated carbons, nano-tubes, synthetic micro-porous carbons as well as metal organic framework materials are being considered for hydrogen storage applications by means of physical adsorption. To develop materials of practical significance for hydrogen storage it is important to understand the relationships between pore sizes, adsorption energies and adsorption capacities. The pore size distribution (PSD) characterization is traditionally obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K. However, a portion of the pores accessible to H 2 may not be accessible to N 2 at this temperature. Therefore, it was recently proposed to use the DFT analysis of H 2 adsorption isotherms to characterize pore structure of materials considered for hydrogen storage applications [1]. In present work, adsorption isotherms of H 2 and N 2 at cryogenic temperatures are used for the characterization of carbon materials. Adsorption measurements were performed with Autosorb 1 MP [Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA]. As an example, Fig 1 compares PSDs calculated for the activated carbon sample (F400, Calgon Carbon) using combined H 2 and N 2 data, and using N 2 isotherm only. The nitrogen derived PSD does not include certain amount of micro-pores which are accessible to H 2 but not to N 2 molecules. Obviously, the difference in the calculated PSDs by the two methods will depend on the actual content of small micro-pores in a given sample. Carbon adsorption properties can also be characterized by the isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, related to the adsorption energy and dependent on the carbon pore/surface structure. Fig 2 shows Qst data calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from H 2 isotherms measured at 77 K and 87 K for the carbon molecular sieve CMS 5A (Takeda), oxidized single wall nano-tubes (SWNT) [2], and graphitized carbon black (Supelco). The Qst values decrease with increasing pore

  17. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Jihai [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Gu, Ji-Dong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Peng, Liang; Luo, Si; Luo, Huili [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Yan, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhyyan111@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Wu, Genyi, E-mail: wugenyi99@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO{sub 4} was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO{sub 4}. Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO{sub 4} concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO{sub 4} modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water.

  18. Study on the Adsorption Capacities for Airborne Particulates of Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions in Beijing (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kang Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscape plants are an important component of the urban ecosystem, playing a significant role in the adsorption of airborne particulates and air purification. In this study, six common landscape plants in Beijing were chosen as research subjects, and the adsorption capacities for each different plant leaf and the effects of the leaf structures for the adsorption capacities for particulates were determined. Preliminary results show that needle-leaved tree species adsorbed more airborne particulates than broad-leaved tree species for the same leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis exhibits the highest adsorption capacity, at 3.89 ± 0.026 μg·cm−2, almost two times as much as that of Populus tomentosa (2.00 ± 0.118 μg·cm−2. The adsorption capacities for PM10 of the same tree species leaves, in different polluted regions had significant differences, and the adsorption capacities for PM10 of the tree species leaf beside the Fifth Ring Road were higher than those of the tree species leaves in the Botanical Garden, although the adsorption capacities for PM2.5 of the same tree species in different polluted regions had no significant differences. By determining the soluble ion concentrations of the airborne particulates in two regions, it is suggested that the soluble ion concentrations of PM10 in the atmosphere in the Botanical Garden and beside the Fifth Ring Road have significant differences, while those of PM2.5 in the atmosphere had no significant differences. In different polluted regions there are significant adaptive changes to the leaf structures, and when compared with slightly polluted region, in the seriously polluted region the epidermis cells of the plant leaves shrinked, the surface textures of the leaves became rougher, and the stomas’ frequency and the pubescence length increased. Even though the plant leaves exposed to the seriously polluted region changed significantly, these plants can still grow normally and healthily.

  19. Humic acid provenance influence to the adsorption capacity in uranium and thorium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.

    2018-01-01

    It is common knowledge that humic acid is organic compound without certain chemical composition since it is derived from different organic materials. Further this raises question whether the different humic acid sample used could lead to different adsorbent properties e.g. adsorption capacity. To address the problem, this paper is aimed to clarify the relation between the provenances of humic acid and synthesized adsorbent properties especially adsorption capacities by quantitative and qualitative functional groups determination including discussion on their effect to the metal ion adsorption mechanism using three humic acid samples. Two commercial samples were derived from recent compost while the other extracted from tertiary carbonaceous mudstone strata.

  20. Effect of the both texture and electrical properties of activated carbon on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeridi, W. [Research Laboratory: Engineering Process and Industrial Systems, National school of Engineers of Gabes, University of Gabes, St Omar Ibn Elkhattab, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Chimistry laboratory of Provence, University Aix-Marseille I, II, III- CNRS, UMR 6264, Centre de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille (France); Ouederni, A. [Research Laboratory: Engineering Process and Industrial Systems, National school of Engineers of Gabes, University of Gabes, St Omar Ibn Elkhattab, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Mansour, N.Ben [National Nanotechnology Research Centre, KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Llewellyn, P.L. [Chimistry laboratory of Provence, University Aix-Marseille I, II, III- CNRS, UMR 6264, Centre de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille (France); Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Research Centre, KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); El Mir, L., E-mail: djeridiwahid@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabes University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Physics, 11623 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • A series of activated carbon pellet without binder was prepared by chemical activation. • Carbon dioxide storage isotherm at 30 °C and up to 25 bars was measured for the microporous carbon. • Adsorption enthalpies have been correlated with the carbon dioxide uptake. • Pyrolysis temperature effect on the electrical conductivity of the samples. • Impact of the both texture and electrical properties on CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity have been deducted - Abstract: A series of activated carbon pellets (ACP) based on olive stones were studied for CO{sub 2} storage application. The surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter were evaluated from the analysis of N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm data. The characterization of carbon materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adsorption enthalpies were obtained by microcalorimetry. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on textural, electrical conductivity and gas adsorption capacities of the ACP were investigated by adsorbing CO{sub 2} at 303 K in the pressure range of 0–2.3 MPa. In fact the electrical conductivity is strongly affected by the microporosity of the samples and the size of the micropore. It increases when the pore size decreases which affect the CO{sub 2} adsorption. Also with increases temperature the free electrons concentration on the surface increases which affect the interaction of the adsorbed gas molecules.

  1. Structural properties and adsorption capacity of holocellulose aerogels synthesized from an alkali hydroxide-urea solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Hwang, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Hyon [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A tulip tree was used to synthesize a holocellulose aerogel from an aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution with the substitution of an organic solvent followed by freeze-drying. For comparison, the synthesized holocellulose aerogels were divided into two groups according to the source of the hydrogel, an upper suspended layer and a bottom concentrated layer of the centrifuged solution of cellulose and NaOH/urea solvents. We investigated the effects of the temperature of the pre-cooled NaOH/urea solution (i.e., dissolution temperature) on the pore structure and the adsorption capacity of the holocellulose aerogel. A nano-fibrillar network structure of the holocellulose aerogel was observed, with little morphological difference in pore structure for different dissolution temperatures. Both micropores and mesopores were observed in the holocellulose aerogel. The specific surface area of the holocellulose aerogel was generally greater at lower dissolution temperatures. In a series of adsorption tests using methylene blue, the holocellulose aerogel showed the greatest adsorption capacity at the lowest dissolution temperature tested ( -2 .deg. C). However, the dissolution temperature generally had little effect on the adsorption capacity. The holocellulose aerogel produced from the upper suspended layer of the centrifuged hydrogel solution showed a greater porosity and adsorption capacity than the one produced from the bottom concentrated layer. Overall, the aerogel made by utilizing a delignified tulip tree display a high surface area and a high adsorption property, indicating its possible application in eco-friendly adsorption materials.

  2. Structural properties and adsorption capacity of holocellulose aerogels synthesized from an alkali hydroxide-urea solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Hwang, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2014-01-01

    A tulip tree was used to synthesize a holocellulose aerogel from an aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution with the substitution of an organic solvent followed by freeze-drying. For comparison, the synthesized holocellulose aerogels were divided into two groups according to the source of the hydrogel, an upper suspended layer and a bottom concentrated layer of the centrifuged solution of cellulose and NaOH/urea solvents. We investigated the effects of the temperature of the pre-cooled NaOH/urea solution (i.e., dissolution temperature) on the pore structure and the adsorption capacity of the holocellulose aerogel. A nano-fibrillar network structure of the holocellulose aerogel was observed, with little morphological difference in pore structure for different dissolution temperatures. Both micropores and mesopores were observed in the holocellulose aerogel. The specific surface area of the holocellulose aerogel was generally greater at lower dissolution temperatures. In a series of adsorption tests using methylene blue, the holocellulose aerogel showed the greatest adsorption capacity at the lowest dissolution temperature tested ( -2 .deg. C). However, the dissolution temperature generally had little effect on the adsorption capacity. The holocellulose aerogel produced from the upper suspended layer of the centrifuged hydrogel solution showed a greater porosity and adsorption capacity than the one produced from the bottom concentrated layer. Overall, the aerogel made by utilizing a delignified tulip tree display a high surface area and a high adsorption property, indicating its possible application in eco-friendly adsorption materials.

  3. Chloride Ion Adsorption Capacity of Anion Exchange Resin in Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsu Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of anion exchange resin (AER on the adsorption of chloride ions in cement mortar. The kinetic and equilibrium behaviors of AER were investigated in distilled water and Ca(OH2 saturated solutions, and then the adsorption of chloride ions by the AER in the mortar specimen was determined. The AER was used as a partial replacement for sand in the mortar specimen. The mortar specimen was coated with epoxy, except for an exposed surface, and then immersed in a NaCl solution for 140 days. The chloride content in the mortar specimen was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron probe microanalysis. The results showed that the AER could adsorb the chloride ions from the solution rapidly but had a relatively low performance when the pH of its surrounding environment increased. When the AER was mixed in the cement mortar, its chloride content was higher than that of the cement matrix around it, which confirms the chloride ion adsorption capacity of the AER.

  4. Gas adsorption capacity in an all carbon nanomaterial composed of carbon nanohorns and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthusseri, Divya; Babu, Deepu J; Okeil, Sherif; Schneider, Jörg J

    2017-10-04

    Whereas vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) typically show a promising adsorption behavior at high pressures, carbon nanohorns (CNHs) exhibit superior gas adsorption properties in the low pressure regime due to their inherent microporosity. These adsorption characteristics are further enhanced when both materials are opened at their tips. The so prepared composite material allows one to investigate the effect of physical entrapment of CO 2 molecules within the specific adsorption sites of VACNTs composed of opened double walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and in specific adsorption sites created by spherically aggregated opened single walled carbon nanohorns. Combining 50 wt% of tip opened CNTs with tip opened CNHs increases the CO 2 adsorption capacity of this material by ∼24% at 30 bar and 298 K compared to opened CNHs alone.

  5. Gas-phase formaldehyde adsorption isotherm studies on activated carbon: correlations of adsorption capacity to surface functional group density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E; Ramirez, David

    2011-08-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) adsorption isotherms were developed for the first time on three activated carbons representing one activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth, one all-purpose granular activated carbon (GAC), and one GAC commercially promoted for gas-phase HCHO removal. The three activated carbons were evaluated for HCHO removal in the low-ppm(v) range and for water vapor adsorption from relative pressures of 0.1-0.9 at 26 °C where, according to the IUPAC isotherm classification system, the adsorption isotherms observed exhibited Type V behavior. A Type V adsorption isotherm model recently proposed by Qi and LeVan (Q-L) was selected to model the observed adsorption behavior because it reduces to a finite, nonzero limit at low partial pressures and it describes the entire range of adsorption considered in this study. The Q-L model was applied to a polar organic adsorbate to fit HCHO adsorption isotherms for the three activated carbons. The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon surfaces were characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm titrations. At low concentrations, HCHO adsorption capacity was most strongly related to the density of basic surface functional groups (SFGs), while water vapor adsorption was most strongly influenced by the density of acidic SFGs.

  6. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 1. Adsorption capacity and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative PhACs (naproxen and carbamazepine) and one EDC (nonylphenol) were evaluated on two granular activated carbons (GAC) namely coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. The primary objective was to investigate preloading effects by natural organic matter (NOM) on adsorption capacity and kinetics under conditions and concentrations (i.e., ng/L) relevant for drinking water treatment. Isotherms demonstrated that all compounds were significantly negatively impacted by NOM fouling. Adsorption capacity reduction was most severe for the acidic naproxen, followed by the neutral carbamazepine and then the more hydrophobic nonylphenol. The GAC with the wider pore size distribution had considerably greater NOM loading, resulting in lower adsorption capacity. Different patterns for the change in Freundlich KF and 1/n with time revealed different competitive mechanisms for the different compounds. Mass transport coefficients determined by short fixed-bed (SFB) tests with virgin and preloaded GAC demonstrated that film diffusion primarily controls mass transfer on virgin and preloaded carbon. Naproxen suffered the greatest deteriorative effect on kinetic parameters due to preloading, followed by carbamazepine, and then nonylphenol. A type of surface NOM/biofilm, which appeared to add an additional mass transfer resistance layer and thus reduce film diffusion, was observed. In addition, electrostatic interactions between NOM/biofilm and the investigated compounds are proposed to contribute to the reduction of film diffusion. A companion paper building on this work describes treatability studies in pilot-scale GAC adsorbers and the effectiveness of a selected fixed-bed model. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Suitability of adsorption isotherms for predicting the retention capacity of active slag filters removing phosphorus from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2009-01-01

    Active slag filters are an emerging technology for removing phosphorus (P) from wastewater. A number of researchers have suggested that adsorption isotherms are a useful tool for predicting P retention capacity. However, to date the appropriateness of using isotherms for slag filter design remains unverified due to the absence of benchmark data from a full-scale, field filter operated to exhaustion. This investigation compared the isotherm-predicted P retention capacity of a melter slag with the P adsorption capacity determined from a full-scale, melter slag filter which had reached exhaustion after five years of successfully removing P from waste stabilization pond effluent. Results from the standard laboratory batch test showed that P adsorption correlated more strongly with the Freundlich Isotherm (R(2)=0.97, Pretention capacity of 0.014 gP/kg slag; markedly lower than the 1.23 gP/kg slag adsorbed by the field filter. Clearly, the result generated by the isotherm bears no resemblance to actual field capacity. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed porous, reactive secondary minerals on the slag granule surfaces from the field filter which were likely created by weathering. This slow weathering effect, which generates substantial new adsorption sites, is not accounted for by adsorption isotherms rendering them ineffective in slag filter design.

  8. Oil Spill Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Tablets from Corncobs in Simulated Oil-Water Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonalyn V. Maulion

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill in bodies of water is one of severe environmental problems that is facing all over the country and in the world. Since oil is an integral part of the economy, increasing trend for its demand and transport of has led to a great treat in the surface water. One of the promising techniques in the removal of the oil spills in water bodies is adsorption using activated carbon form waste material such as corn cobs. The purpose of this study is to determine the adsorption capacity of activated carbon tablets derived from corncobs in the removal of oil. The properties of activated carbon produced have a pH of 7.0, bulk density of 0.26 g//cm3 , average pore size of 45nm, particle size of 18% at 60 mesh and 39% at 80 mesh, iodine number of 1370 mg/g and surface area of 1205 g/m2. The amount of bentonite clay as binder (15%,20%,30%, number of ACT (1,2,3 and time of contact(30,60,90 mins has been varied to determine the optimum condition where the activated carbon will have the best adsorption capacity in the removal of oil. Results showed that at 15% binder, 60 mins contact time and 3 tablets of activated carbon is the optimum condition which give a percentage adsorption of 22.82% of oil. Experimental data also showed that a Langmuir isotherm was the best fit isotherm for adsorption of ACT.

  9. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Adsorption of lysozyme unto silica and polystyrene surfaces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption capacity of lysozyme (chicken egg white) from aqueous solutions unto silica and polystyrene interfaces was studied at varying lysozyme concentrations and ionic strength. The studies revealed an increase in adsorption capacity with increase in concentration and with maximum adsorption densities of 1.34 ...

  11. Effect of degree of deacetylation of chitosan on adsorption capacity and reusability of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/TiO2 nano composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Joo, Tan Chin; Siddique, Tawsif A; Salleh, Areisman; Ang, Bee Chin; Afifi, Amalina M

    2017-11-01

    The chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/TiO 2 composite was synthesized. Two different degrees of deacetylation of chitosan were prepared by hydrolysis to compare the effectiveness of them. The composite was analyzed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, weight loss test and adsorption study. The FTIR and XRD results proved the interaction among chitosan, PVA and TiO 2 without any chemical reaction. It was found that, chitosan with higher degree of deacetylation has better stability. Furthermore, it also showed that higher DD of chitosan required less time to reach equilibrium for methyl orange. The adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were fitted well for isotherm study. Adsorption capacity was higher for the composite containing chitosan with higher DD. The dye removal rate was independent of the dye's initial concentration. The adsorption capacity was increased with temperature and it was found from reusability test that the composite containing chitosan with higher DD is more reusable. It was notable that adsorption capacity was even after 15 runs. Therefore, chitosan/PVA/TiO 2 composite can be a very useful material for dye removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption of arsenate on soils. Part 2: Modeling the relationship between adsorption capacity and soil physiochemical properties using 16 Chinese soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan Xiaoquan; Feng Muhua; Zhu Yongguan; McLaren, Ron G.

    2005-01-01

    An attempt has been made to elucidate the effects of soil properties on arsenate adsorption by modeling the relationships between adsorption capacity and the properties of 16 Chinese soils. The model produced was validated against three Australian and three American soils. The results showed that nearly 93.8% of the variability in arsenate adsorption on the low-energy surface could be described by citrate-dithionite extractable Fe (Fe CD ), clay content, organic matter content (OM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC); nearly 87.6% of the variability in arsenate adsorption on the high-energy surface could be described by Fe CD , DOC and total arsenic in soils. Fe CD exhibited the most important positive influence on arsenate adsorption. Oxalate extractable Al (Al OX ), citrate-dithionite extractable Al (Al CD ), extractable P and soil pH appeared relatively unimportant for adsorption of arsenate by soils. - Citrate-dithionite extractable Fe has the most important positive influence on arsenate adsorption on soils

  13. Effects of igneous intrusion on microporosity and gas adsorption capacity of coals in the Haizi Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120 m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R(o)) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054 cm(3)/g to a maximum of 0.0146 cm(3)/g and then decreased to 0.0079 cm(3)/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60-160 m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine.

  14. Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120 m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R o) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054 cm3/g to a maximum of 0.0146 cm3/g and then decreased to 0.0079 cm3/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60–160 m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

  15. Direct observation of solid-phase adsorbate concentration profile in powdered activated carbon particle to elucidate mechanism of high adsorption capacity on super-powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Naoya; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon (PAC) by pulverization increases its adsorption capacities for natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, which is used as a model adsorbate). A shell adsorption mechanism in which NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle and instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle has been proposed as an explanation for this adsorption capacity increase. In this report, we present direct evidence to support the shell adsorption mechanism. PAC particles containing adsorbed PSS were sectioned with a focused ion beam, and the solid-phase PSS concentration profiles of the particle cross-sections were directly observed by means of field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDXS). X-ray emission from sulfur, an index of PSS concentration, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of the particles. The X-ray emission profile observed by EDXS did not agree completely with the solid-phase PSS concentration profile predicted by shell adsorption model analysis of the PSS isotherm data, but the observed and predicted profiles were not inconsistent when the analytical errors were considered. These EDXS results provide the first direct evidence that PSS is adsorbed mainly in the vicinity of the external surface of the PAC particles, and thus the results support the proposition that the increase in NOM and PSS adsorption capacity with decreasing particle size is due to the increase in external surface area on which the molecules can be adsorbed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fugitive gas adsorption capacity of biomass and animal-manure derived biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research characterized and investigated ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gas adsorption capacities of low- and high-temperature biochars made from wood shavings and chicken litter. The biochar samples were activated with steam or phosphoric acid. The specific surface areas and pore volumes of the a...

  17. Adsorption capacity of methylene blue, an organic pollutant, by montmorillonite clay

    KAUST Repository

    Feddal, I.; Ramdani, Amina; Taleb, Safia; Gaigneaux, E. M.; Batis, Narjè s Harrouch; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2013-01-01

    The isotherms and kinetics of the adsorption of a cationic dye in aqueous solution, methylene blue, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, sodium and thermally activated at 300 and 500°C) were determined experimentally. Various parameters influencing the adsorption were optimized, mainly solid-liquid contact time, mass of adsorbent, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics were fast: 30 min for the raw clay mineral, and 20 min for sodium clay mineral (SC) and thermally activated at 300°C, whereas with the clay mineral calcined at 500°C, the equilibrium was reached after 150 min only. The maximum adsorption capacity was reached at pH 6.6. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. In addition, it was found that the kinetics were in the order of 2 (K = 2.457 × 106 g/mg.h) for sodium clay and were limited by an intra-particle diffusion. SC was found to be a better adsorbent to remove methylene blue from industrial wastewater. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  18. Adsorption capacity of methylene blue, an organic pollutant, by montmorillonite clay

    KAUST Repository

    Feddal, I.

    2013-11-19

    The isotherms and kinetics of the adsorption of a cationic dye in aqueous solution, methylene blue, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, sodium and thermally activated at 300 and 500°C) were determined experimentally. Various parameters influencing the adsorption were optimized, mainly solid-liquid contact time, mass of adsorbent, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics were fast: 30 min for the raw clay mineral, and 20 min for sodium clay mineral (SC) and thermally activated at 300°C, whereas with the clay mineral calcined at 500°C, the equilibrium was reached after 150 min only. The maximum adsorption capacity was reached at pH 6.6. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. In addition, it was found that the kinetics were in the order of 2 (K = 2.457 × 106 g/mg.h) for sodium clay and were limited by an intra-particle diffusion. SC was found to be a better adsorbent to remove methylene blue from industrial wastewater. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cadmium Adsorption on HDTMA Modified Montmorillionite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Elmuntasir I. Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified montmorillonite clay is investigated. Batch adsorption experiments performed revealed an enhanced removal of cadmium using HDTMA modified montmorillonite to 100% of its exchange capacity. Modified montmorillonite adsorption capacity increases at higher pHs suggesting adsorption occurs as a result of surface precipitation and HDTMA complex formation due to the fact that the original negatively charged montmorillonite is now covered by a cationic layer of HDTMA. Adsorption isotherms generated followed a Langmuir isotherm equation possibly indicating a monolayer coverage. Adsorption capacities of up to 49 mg/g and removals greater than 90% were achieved. Anionic selectivity of the HDTMA modified monmorillonite is particularly advantageous in water treatment applications where high concentrations of less adsorbable species are present, and the lack of organoclay affinity for these species may allow the available capacity to be utilized selectively by the targeted species.

  1. Mesoporous g-C₃N₄ Nanosheets: Synthesis, Superior Adsorption Capacity and Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Huang, Wei-Qing; Zou, Lan-Rong; Pan, Anlian; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-08-01

    Elimination of pollutants from water is one of the greatest challenges in resolving global environmental issues. Herein, we report a high-surface-area mesoporous g-C3N4 nanosheet with remarkable high adsorption capacity and photocatalytic performance, which is prepared through directly polycondensation of urea followed by a consecutive one-step thermal exfoliation strategy. This one-pot method to prepare mesoporous g-C3N4 nanosheet is facile and rapid in comparison with others. The superior adsorption capacity of the fabricated mesoporous g-C3N4 nanostructures is demonstrated by a model organic pollutant-methylene blue (MB), which is up to 72.2 mg/g, about 6 times as that of the largest value of various g-C3N4 adsorbents reported so far. Moreover, this kind of porous g-C3N4 nanosheet exhibits high photocatalytic activity to MB and phenol degradation. Particularly, the regenerated samples show excellent performance of pollutant removal after consecutive adsorption/degradation cycles. Therefore, this mesoporous g-C3N4 nanosheet may be an attractive robust metal-free material with great promise for organic pollutant elimination.

  2. [Adsorption characteristics of acetone and butanone onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Luan, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Qiang; Ye, Ping-Wei; Li, Kai; Wang, Xi-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Adsorption capacity of acetone and acetone-butanone mixture onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve was measured in this paper, and the influences of relative humidity, initial adsorbate concentration and airflow velocity on the adsorption process were investigated. Besides, adsorption performance parameters were calculated by Wheeler's equation. The results showed that relative humidity had no obvious influence on the acetone adsorption performance, which suggests that this material has good hydrophobic ability; in the low concentration range, the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity of acetone increased with the increase of initial concentration, but in the occasion of high concentration of acetone gas (more than 9 mg x L(-1)), the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity maintained at a certain level and did not vary with the increase of initial concentration; the increase of air flow velocity resulted in significant increase of acetone adsorption rate constant, at the same time the critical layer thickness of the adsorbent bed also increased significantly. In the cases of acetone-butanone mixture, the adsorption capacity of butanone onto ZSM-5 was clearly higher than that of acetone.

  3. Improved CO_2 adsorption capacity and cyclic stability of CaO sorbents incorporated with MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah Diana Mohd Daud; Kumaravel Vignesh; Srimala Sreekantan; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) sorbents incorporated with magnesium oxide (MgO) were synthesized using a co-precipitation route. The sorbents were prepared with different MgO concentrations (from 5 wt% to 30 wt%). The as-prepared sorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET surface area analysis techniques. The sintering effect of CaO sorbents was decreased after the incorporation of MgO. The sorbents with 5 wt% and 10 wt% of MgO retained their CO_2 adsorption capacity over multiple cycles. Most importantly, CaO with 10 wt% MgO showed constant CO_2 adsorption capacity over 30 carbonation cycles. The results revealed that CaO with 10 wt% MgO is sufficient to produce sorbents with high surface area, good structural stability and enhanced CO_2 adsorption capacity. (authors)

  4. Complexes of DOTA-bisphosphonate conjugates: probes for determination of adsorption capacity and affinity constants of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitha, Tomas; Kubícek, Vojtech; Hermann, Petr; Kolar, Zvonimir I; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Peters, Joop A; Lukes, Ivan

    2008-03-04

    The adsorption on hydroxyapatite of three conjugates of a bisphosphonate and a macrocycle having C1, C2, and C3 spacers and their terbium complexes was studied by the radiotracer method using 160Tb as the label. The radiotracer-containing complex of the conjugate with the C3 spacer was used as a probe for the determination of the adsorption parameters of other bisphosphonates that lack a DOTA unit. A physicochemical model describing the competitive adsorption was successfully applied in the fitting of the obtained data. The maximum adsorption capacity of bisphosphonates containing bulky substituents is determined mainly by their size. For bisphosphonates having no DOTA moiety, the maximum adsorption capacity is determined by the electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged bisphosphonate groups. Compounds with a hydroxy or amino group attached to the alpha-carbon atom show higher affinities. Macrocyclic compounds containing a short spacer between the different bisphosphonic acid groups and the macrocyclic unit exhibit high affinities, indicating a synergic effect of the bisphosphonic and the macrocyclic groups during adsorption. The competition method described uses a well-characterized complex and allows a simple evaluation of the adsorption behavior of bisphosphonates. The application of the macrocycle-bisphosphonate conjugates allows easy radiolabeling via complexation of a suitable metal isotope.

  5. Potassium adsorption behaviour of three Malaysian rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.T.M.A.; Khanif, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency exists in different rice growing areas of Malaysia. A study on K adsorption was carried out in three Malaysian rice soils (Guar, Hutan and Kangar series) using six levels of K (0.00,28.77, 33.57, 38.37, 43.16 and 47.96 mmol kg/sup -1/). The data on K adsorption were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption equations. Adsorption data were also correlated with pH, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of the soils. Potassium adsorption increased linearly with increasing level of added K in all the three soils. The rate of increase was the highest in Guar series followed by Kangar and Hutan series, respectively. Potassium adsorption in two soils (Hutan and Kangar) fitted into Langmuir equation while he adsorption data in Guar series did not fit into this equation. Adsorption data in none of the soils fitted well in Freundlich and Temkin adsorption equations. Correlation between K adsorption and pH was significant (r = 0.881,), whereas, correlation of K adsorption with either organic matter content or cation exchange capacity was non-significant. The results of this study indicated that K adsorption is mainly dependent on soil pH. In soils with higher adsorption capacity, more K fertilizer may be needed to get immediate crop response. (author)

  6. [Blood plasma protein adsorption capacity of perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by proxanol 268 (in vitro and in vivo studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklifas, A N; Zhalimov, V K; Temnov, A A; Kukushkin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption abilities of the perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by Proxanol 268 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the saturation point for the blood plasma proteins was nearly reached after five minutes of incubation of the emulsion with human/rabbit blood plasma and was stable for all incubation periods studied. The decrease in volume ratio (emulsion/plasma) was accompanied by the increase in the adsorptive capacity of the emulsion with maximal values at 1/10 (3.2 and 1.5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion, for human and rabbit blood plasma, respectively) that was unchanged at lower ratios. In vivo, in rabbits, intravenously injected with the emulsion, the proteins with molecular masses of 12, 25, 32, 44, 55, 70, and 200 kDa were adsorbed by the emulsion (as in vitro) if it was used 6 hours or less before testing. More delayed testing (6 h) revealed elimination of proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 44 kDa and an additional pool of adsorpted new ones of 27, 50, and 150 kDa. Specific adsorptive capacity of the emulsion enhanced gradually after emulsion injection and reached its maximum (3.5-5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion) after 24 hours.

  7. Effect of immobilized amine density on cadmium(II) adsorption capacities for ethanediamine-modified magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Tingting [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Liangrong, E-mail: lryang@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Feng; Xing, Huifang; Wang, Li; Yu, Jiemiao [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qu, Hongnan [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Rong, Meng [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Huizhou, E-mail: hzliu@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-04-01

    A series of ethanediamine (EDA) – modified magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) (m-PGMA-EDA)microspheres with different amine density were synthesized and their cadmium saturation adsorption capacities were examined. The results showed that the cadmium saturation adsorption capacity increased with the immobilized amine density. However, they did not show strong positive linear correlation in the whole range of amine density examined. The molar ratio of amine groups to the adsorbed cadmium decreased with the increase of amine density and eventually reached a minimum value about 4. It suggested that low immobilized amine density led to low coordination efficiency of the amine. It is hypothesized that the immobilized amine groups needed to be physically close enough to form stable amine-metal complex. When the amine density reached to a critical value 1.25 m mol m{sup −2}, stable amine-cadmium complex (4:1 N/Cd) was proposed to form. To illustrate the coordination mechanism (structure and number) of amine and Cd, FT-IR spectra of m-PGMA-EDA and m-PGMA-EDA-Cd , and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of PGMA–EDA and PGMA-EDA-Cd were examined and analyzed. - Highlights: • A series of magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) (m-PGMA-EDA)microspheres with different amine density were synthesized and their cadmium saturation adsorption capacities were examined. • The molar ratio of amine groups to adsorbed cadmium decreased with the increase of amine density and eventually reached a minimum value about 4. • when the amine density reached high enough, 4:1 N/Cd complex was proposed to form, and the hydroxyl also participated in the chelating with Cd.

  8. Determination of Adsorption Capacity and Kinetics of Amidoxime-Based Uranium Adsorbent Braided Material in Unfiltered Seawater Using a Flume Exposure System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Park, Jiyeon; Bonheyo, George T.; Jeters, Robert T.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; Wood, Jordana R.

    2015-01-01

    PNNL has developed a recirculating flume system for exposing braided adsorbent material to natural seawater under realistic temperature and flow-rate exposure conditions. The flumes are constructed of transparent acrylic material; they allow external light to pass into the flumes and permit photosynthetic growth of naturally present marine organisms (biofouling). Because the system consists of two flumes, replicate experiments can be conducted in which one of the flumes can be manipulated relative to the other. For example, one flume can be darkened to eliminate light exposure by placing a black tarp over the flume such that dark/light experiments can be conducted. Alternatively, two different braided adsorbents can be exposed simultaneously with no potential cross contamination issues. This report describes the first use of the PNNL flume system to study the impact of biofouling on adsorbent capacity. Experiments were conducted with the ORNL AI8 braided adsorbent material in light-exposed and darkened flumes for a 42-day exposure experiment. The major objective of this effort is to develop a system for the exposure of braided adsorbent material to unfiltered seawater, and to demonstrate the system by evaluating the performance of adsorption material when it is exposed to natural marine biofouling as it would be when the technology is used in the marine environment. Exposures of amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents prepared by Oak Ridge Natural Laboratory (ORNL) were exposed to ambient seawater at 20°C in a flume system. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity were assessed using time series determinations of uranium adsorption and one-site ligand saturation modeling. Biofouling in sunlight surface seawater has the potential to significantly add substantial biogenic mass to adsorption material when it is exposed for periods greater than 21 days. The observed biomass increase in the light flume was approximately 80% of the adsorbent mass after 42 days

  9. Determination of Adsorption Capacity and Kinetics of Amidoxime-Based Uranium Adsorbent Braided Material in Unfiltered Seawater Using a Flume Exposure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Schlafer, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.

    2015-08-31

    PNNL has developed a recirculating flume system for exposing braided adsorbent material to natural seawater under realistic temperature and flow-rate exposure conditions. The flumes are constructed of transparent acrylic material; they allow external light to pass into the flumes and permit photosynthetic growth of naturally present marine organisms (biofouling). Because the system consists of two flumes, replicate experiments can be conducted in which one of the flumes can be manipulated relative to the other. For example, one flume can be darkened to eliminate light exposure by placing a black tarp over the flume such that dark/light experiments can be conducted. Alternatively, two different braided adsorbents can be exposed simultaneously with no potential cross contamination issues. This report describes the first use of the PNNL flume system to study the impact of biofouling on adsorbent capacity. Experiments were conducted with the ORNL AI8 braided adsorbent material in light-exposed and darkened flumes for a 42-day exposure experiment. The major objective of this effort is to develop a system for the exposure of braided adsorbent material to unfiltered seawater, and to demonstrate the system by evaluating the performance of adsorption material when it is exposed to natural marine biofouling as it would be when the technology is used in the marine environment. Exposures of amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents prepared by Oak Ridge Natural Laboratory (ORNL) were exposed to ambient seawater at 20°C in a flume system. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity were assessed using time series determinations of uranium adsorption and one-site ligand saturation modeling. Biofouling in sunlight surface seawater has the potential to significantly add substantial biogenic mass to adsorption material when it is exposed for periods greater than 21 days. The observed biomass increase in the light flume was approximately 80% of the adsorbent mass after 42 days

  10. Novel sandwich structure adsorptive membranes for removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuexin [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); School of Pharmacy, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063000 (China); Jia, Zhiqian, E-mail: zhqjia@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Novel sandwich PES-SPES/PS-PDVB/PTFE adsorptive membranes were prepared. • The removal efficiency for 4-nitrotoluene is greater than 95% after five recycles. • The membrane showed higher adsorption capacity than that of mixed matrix membrane. - Abstract: Novel sandwich PES-SPES/PS-PDVB/PTFE adsorptive membranes were prepared by a filtration/immersion precipitation method and employed for the removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water. The static adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics, dynamic adsorption/desorption and membrane reusability were investigated. The results showed that the Freundlich model describes the adsorption isotherm satisfactorily. With increased PS-PDVB content, the maximum static adsorption capacity, partition coefficient, apparent adsorption rate constant, and dynamic adsorption capacity all significantly increased. The sandwich membranes showed much higher removal efficiency and adsorption capacity than those of mixed matrix membranes. With respect to dynamics adsorption/desorption, the sandwich membranes exhibited excellent reusability, with a removal efficiency greater than 95% even after five recycles.

  11. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    , the reductions compared to control (Hoegberg et al. 2002) varied between 11% and 26%. Even though a reduction in drug adsorption to activated charcoal was observed when food mixture or ice cream was added, the remaining adsorption capacity of both types of activated charcoal theoretically was still able......The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...

  12. [Adsorption of heavy metals on the surface of birnessite relationship with its Mn average oxidation state and adsorption sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tan, Wen-Feng; Feng, Xiong-Han; Qiu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Fan

    2011-10-01

    Adsorption characteristics of mineral surface for heavy metal ions are largely determined by the type and amount of surface adsorption sites. However, the effects of substructure variance in manganese oxide on the adsorption sites and adsorption characteristics remain unclear. Adsorption experiments and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were combined to examine the adsorption characteristics of Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ sequestration by birnessites with different Mn average oxidation state (AOS), and the Mn AOS dependent adsorption sites and adsorption characteristics. The results show that the maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ increased with increasing birnessite Mn AOS. The adsorption capacity followed the order of Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. The observations suggest that there exist two sites on the surface of birnessite, i. e., high-binding-energy site (HBE site) and low-binding-energy site (LBE site). With the increase of Mn AOS for birnessites, the amount of HBE sites for heavy metal ions adsorption remarkably increased. On the other hand, variation in the amount of LBE sites was insignificant. The amount of LBE sites is much more than those of HBE sites on the surface of birnessite with low Mn AOS. Nevertheless, both amounts on the surface of birnessite with high Mn AOS are very close to each other. Therefore, the heavy metal ions adsorption capacity on birnessite is largely determined by the amount of HBE sites. On birnessite surface, adsorption of Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ mostly occurred at HBE sites. In comparison with Zn2+ and Cd2+, more Cu2+ adsorbed on the LBW sites. Pb2+ adsorption maybe occupy at both LBE sites and HBE sites simultaneously.

  13. Reservoir capacity estimates in shale plays based on experimental adsorption data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Tan

    from different measurement techniques using representative fluids (such as CH4 and CO2) at elevated pressures, and the adsorbed density can range anywhere between the liquid and the solid state of the adsorbate. Whether these discrepancies are associated with the inherent heterogeneity of mudrocks and/or with poor data quality requires more experiments under well-controlled conditions. Nevertheless, it has been found in this study that methane GIP estimates can vary between 10-45% and 10-30%, respectively, depending on whether the free or the total amount of gas is considered. Accordingly, CO2 storage estimates range between 30-90% and 15-50%, due to the larger adsorption capacity and gas density at similar pressure and temperature conditions. A manometric system has been designed and built that allows measuring the adsorption of supercritical fluids in microporous materials. Preliminary adsorption tests have been performed using a microporous 13X zeolite and CO 2 as an adsorbing gas at a temperature of 25oC and 35oC and at pressures up to 500 psi. Under these conditions, adsorption is quantified with a precision of +/- 3%. However, relative differences up to 15-20% have been observed with respect to data published in the literature on the same adsorbent and at similar experimental conditions. While it cannot be fully explained with uncertainty analysis, this discrepancy can be reduced by improving experiment practice, thus including the application of a higher adsorbent's regeneration temperature, of longer equilibrium times and of a careful flushing of the system between the various experimental steps. Based on the results on 13X zeolite, virtual tests have been conducted to predict the performance of the manometric system to measure adsorption on less adsorbing materials, such as mudrocks. The results show that uncertainties in the estimated adsorbed amount are much more significant in shale material and they increase with increasing pressure. In fact, relative

  14. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanhui, E-mail: liyanhui@tsinghua.org.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xia, Yanzhi, E-mail: xiayzh@qdu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai [Key Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing by Material Processing Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m{sup 2}/g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m 2 /g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  16. Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions using collagen-tannin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xia; Huang Xin [Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Liao Xuepin, E-mail: xpliao@scu.edu.cn [Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Shi Bi, E-mail: shibi@scu.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2011-02-28

    The collagen-tannin resin (CTR), as a novel adsorbent, was prepared via a reaction of collagen with black wattle tannin and aldehyde, and its adsorption properties to Cu(II) were systematically investigated, including pH effect, adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics, and column adsorption. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) on CTR was pH-dependent, and it increased with the increase of solution pH. The adsorption isotherms were well described by Langmuir isotherm model with correlating constant (R{sup 2}) higher than 0.99. The adsorption capacity determined at 303 K was high up to 0.26 mmol/g, which was close to the value (0.266 mmol/g) estimated from Langmuir equation. The adsorption capacity was increased with the increase of temperature, and thermodynamic calculations suggested that the adsorption of Cu(II) on CTR is an endothermic process. The adsorption kinetics were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Further column studies suggested that CTR was effective for the removal of Cu(II) from solutions, and more than 99% of Cu(II) was desorbed from column using 0.1 mol/L HNO{sub 3} solution. The CTR column can be reused to adsorb Cu(II) without any loss of adsorption capacity.

  17. Synthesis of polycationic bentonite-ionene complexes and their benzene adsorption capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Campos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to structurally modify clays in order to incorporate water-insoluble molecules, such as petroleum hydrocarbons. The potential for ion exchange of quaternary ammonium salts was studied, which revealed their ability to interact with anions on the cationic surface, for environmental applications of the material. Ionenes, also known as polycations, have many potential uses in environmental applications. In this work, cationic aliphatic ammonium polyionenes, specifically 3,6-ionene and 3,6-dodecylionene, were prepared for incorporation into clay to form bentonite-ionene complexes. The intercalation of bentonite with ionene polymers resulted in an increase in the basal spacing of 3,6-dodecylionene from 1.5-3.5 nm. The higher d001 spacing of 3,6-dodecylionene samples than that of 3,6-ionene samples may be attributed to their longer tail length. The behavior of the TG/DTG curves and the activation energy values suggest that 3,6-dodecylionene (E = 174.85 kJ mol–1 is thermally more stable than 3,6 ionene (E = 115.52 kJ mol–1 complexes. The adsorption of benzene by 3,6-ionene and 3,6-dodecylionene was also investigated. The increase in benzene concentrations resulted in increased benzene adsorption by the sorbents tested in this work. The sorption capacity of benzene on ionene-modified bentonite was in the order of 3,6-dodecylionene > 3,6-ionene.

  18. Evaluation of physical properties and adsorption capacity of regenerated granular activated carbons (GACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Seon-Ha; Kim, Seong-Su; Park, No-Suk; Jeong, Woochang

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variation in physical properties and investigate the adsorption capacity after regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC). A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the iodide number and loss rate. The experimental results showed that the loss rate of regenerated carbon should be related to the usage time of GAC. Physical properties including the effective size and uniformity coefficient were similar to those of virgin GAC. This result indicates that the function of GAC as an adsorption medium may be recovered completely. Although the iodine number and specific surface area of the regenerated GAC were smaller than those of virgin GAC, the cumulative pore volume of the former was larger. The removal efficiency of organic matter from the regenerated GAC column was equal to or slightly higher than that from the virgin GAC column. Consequently, regeneration may increase the number of mesopores which are responsible for the removal of organic matter

  19. Evaluation of physical properties and adsorption capacity of regenerated granular activated carbons (GACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Seon-Ha; Kim, Seong-Su; Park, No-Suk [Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woochang [Kyungnam University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variation in physical properties and investigate the adsorption capacity after regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC). A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the iodide number and loss rate. The experimental results showed that the loss rate of regenerated carbon should be related to the usage time of GAC. Physical properties including the effective size and uniformity coefficient were similar to those of virgin GAC. This result indicates that the function of GAC as an adsorption medium may be recovered completely. Although the iodine number and specific surface area of the regenerated GAC were smaller than those of virgin GAC, the cumulative pore volume of the former was larger. The removal efficiency of organic matter from the regenerated GAC column was equal to or slightly higher than that from the virgin GAC column. Consequently, regeneration may increase the number of mesopores which are responsible for the removal of organic matter.

  20. Experimental study on removals of SO2 and NOX using adsorption of activated carbon/microwave desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Yao, Juan-Juan; Gao, Li; Ma, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies on desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using activated carbon irradiated by microwave. The influences of the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), the flue gas coexisting compositions, on adsorption properties of activated carbon and efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification were investigated. The results show that adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of NO decrease with the increasing of SO 2 concentrations in flue gas; adsorption capacity of NO increases slightly first and drops to 12.79 mg/g, and desulfurization efficiency descends with the increasing SO 2 concentrations. Adsorption capacity of SO 2 declines with the increasing of O 2 content in flue gas, but adsorption capacity of NO increases, and removal efficiencies of NO and SO 2 could be larger than 99%. Adsorption capacity of NO declines with the increase of moisture in the flue gas, but adsorption capacity of SO 2 increases and removal efficiencies of NO and SO 2 would be relatively stable. Adsorption capacities of both NO and SO 2 decrease with the increasing of CO 2 content; efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification augment at the beginning stage, then start to fall when CO 2 content exceeds 12.4%. The mechanisms of this process are also discussed. [Box: see text].

  1. Porous carbon with small mesoporesas an ultra-high capacity adsorption medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Biaofeng; Zhou, Haitao; Chen, De; Yang, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Resins (732-type), abundant and inexpensive resources were used to prepare porous carbon with small mesopores (CSM) by carbonization and post-chemical-activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). The N2 adsorption measurements revealed that CSM had high surface areas (1776.5 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (1.10 cm3 g-1), and nearly optimal narrow small mesopore sizes ranging from 2 to 7 nm. CSM was used as adsorbent to investigate the adsorption behavior for Rhodamine B (RhB). Due to the optimal pore size distributions (PSD), intensive-stacking interaction, S-doped, and electrostatic attraction, the CSM exhibited an ultra-high-capacity of 1590 mg g-1 for RhB in aqueous solutions.

  2. Improving the capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries by tailoring the polysulfide adsorption efficiency of hierarchical oxygen/nitrogen-functionalized carbon host materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Artur; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2017-03-22

    The use of monolithic carbons with structural hierarchy and varying amounts of nitrogen and oxygen functionalities as sulfur host materials in high-loading lithium-sulfur cells is reported. The primary focus is on the strength of the polysulfide/carbon interaction with the goal of assessing the effect of (surface) dopant concentration on cathode performance. The adsorption capacity - which is a measure of the interaction strength between the intermediate lithium polysulfide species and the carbon - was found to scale almost linearly with the nitrogen level. Likewise, the discharge capacity of lithium-sulfur cells increased linearly. This positive correlation can be explained by the favorable effect of nitrogen on both the chemical and electronic properties of the carbon host. The incorporation of additional oxygen-containing surface groups into highly nitrogen-functionalized carbon helped to further enhance the polysulfide adsorption efficiency, and therefore the reversible cell capacity. Overall, the areal capacity could be increased by almost 70% to around 3 mA h cm -2 . We believe that the design parameters described here provide a blueprint for future carbon-based nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-sulfur cells.

  3. Effect of agitation speed on adsorption of imidacloprid on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorptive characteristics of imidacloprid on powdered activated carbon were described. The adsorption experiments were carried out as function of time, initial concentration and agitation speed. The equilibrium data fits well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while the kinetic data fits well to Pseudo second order kinetic model. The kinetic experiments were carried out at 200, 250, 300 and 350 rpm and it was found that the equilibrium time increases with increase in initial concentration and decreases with increase in agitation speed. This is due to the increased turbulence and as a consequence, the decrease boundary layer thickness around the adsorbent particles as a result of increasing the degree of mixing. At 300 rpm the adsorption capacity was maximum and beyond this there was no significant increase in adsorption capacity. Weber intra particle diffusion model was used to describe the adsorption mechanism. It was found that both the boundary layer and intra particle diffusion for both adsorbents played important role in the adsorption mechanisms of the adsorbate. The effects of temperature and pH on adsorption were also studied. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent decreases with increase in temperature. There was no significant change in adsorption from pH 2 to 8, however at high pH a decrease in adsorption of imidacloprid on activated carbon was observed. (author)

  4. Investigation of adsorption performance deterioration in silica gel–water adsorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dechang; Zhang Jipeng; Xia Yanzhi; Han Yanpei; Wang Shuwei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adsorption deterioration of silica gel in refrigeration systems is verified. ► Possible factors to cause such deterioration are analyzed. ► Specific surface area, silanol content and adsorption capacity are tested. ► The pollution is the primary factor to decline the adsorption capacity. ► Deteriorated samples are partly restored after being processed by acid solution. - Abstract: Silica gel acts as a key role in adsorption refrigeration systems. The adsorption deterioration must greatly impact the performance of the silica gel–water adsorption refrigeration system. In order to investigate the adsorption deterioration of silica gel, many different silica gel samples were prepared according to the application surroundings of silica gel in adsorption refrigeration systems after the likely factors to cause such deterioration were analyzed. The specific surface area, silanol content, adsorption capacity and pore size distribution of those samples were tested and the corresponding adsorption isotherms were achieved. In terms of the experimental data comparisons, it could be found that there are many factors to affect the adsorption performance of silica gel, but the pollution was the primary one to decline the adsorption capacity. In addition, the adsorption performance of the deteriorated samples after being processed by acid solution was explored in order to find the possible methods to restore its adsorption performance.

  5. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment.

  6. Effect of carbonation temperature on CO_2 adsorption capacity of CaO derived from micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni; Sreekantan, Srimala; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Thant, Aye Aye; Othman, Radzali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Salime, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, CaO-based synthetic materials have been attracted attention as potential adsorbents for CO_2 capture mainly due to their high CO_2 adsorption capacity. In this study, micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO_3 was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with using polyacrylamide (PAM). The structural, morphological and thermal properties of the synthesized sample were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG-DTA). The XRD and FESEM results showed that the obtained sample was aragonite CaCO_3 with aggregated nanorods and microspheres composed of nanorods. A TG-DTA apparatus with Thermoplus 2 software was used to investigate the effect of carbonation temperature on the CO_2 adsorption capacity of CaO derived from aragonite CaCO_3 sample. At 300 °C, the sample reached the CO_2 adsorption capacity of 0.098 g-CO_2/g-adsorbent, whereas the sample achieved the highest capacity of 0.682 g-CO_2/g-adsorbent at 700 °C. The results showed that the carbonation temperature significantly influenced on the CO_2 adsorption capacity of the CaO derived from aragonite CaCO_3.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Namhoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane

  8. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: nhlee@anyang.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  9. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution of Ash Content Related to Methane Adsorption Behaviors of Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane adsorption isotherms on coals with varying ash contents were investigated. The textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K, and methane adsorption characteristics were measured at pressures up to 4.0 MPa at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K, respectively. The Dubinin-Astakhov model and the Polanyi potential theory were employed to fit the experimental data. As a result, ash content correlated strongly to methane adsorption capacity. Over the ash range studied, 9.35% to 21.24%, the average increase in methane adsorption capacity was 0.021 mmol/g for each 1.0% rise in ash content. With the increasing ash content range of 21.24%~43.47%, a reduction in the maximum adsorption capacities of coals was observed. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the saturated adsorption capacity and the specific surface area and micropore volume of samples. Further, this study presented the heat of adsorption, the isosteric heat of adsorption, and the adsorbed phase specific heat capacity for methane adsorption on various coals. Employing the proposed thermodynamic approaches, the thermodynamic maps of the adsorption processes of coalbed methane were conducive to the understanding of the coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  11. Adsorption of malachite green and iodine on rice husk-based porous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yupeng; Zhang Hui; Tao Nannan; Liu Yanhua; Qi Juirui; Wang Zichen; Xu Hongding

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of I 2 and malachite green (MG) by rice husk-based porous carbons (RHCs) from aqueous medium have been studied. Three samples of carbons prepared by NaOH-activation, three samples prepared by KOH-activation and two samples of commercial carbons have been studied. And the adsorption isotherms have been determined after modifying the carbon surfaces by oxidation with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and after degassing at 800 deg. C. The results have been found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Three samples of N series have larger capacity for removing I 2 and MG from solution compared to that of the tested commercial carbons. The adsorption capacity of I 2 is similar for K series and commercial carbons. And the capacity of commercial carbons for MG is larger than K series. The adsorption capacity of I 2 on oxidation carbons has increased for hydrogen peroxide treatment and decreased for nitric acid, and that of MG is decreased. But the adsorption capacities of I 2 and MG increase on degassing. On the other hand, the adsorption of I 2 increases after modifying the carbon surfaces by HCl without oxidation. Suitable mechanisms have been proposed

  12. Characterization of the cation-binding capacity of a potassium-adsorption filter used in red blood cell transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao; Muto, Shigeaki; Miyata, Yukio; Maeda, Takao; Odate, Takayuki; Shimanaka, Kimio; Kusano, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    A K(+) -adsorption filter was developed to exchange K(+) in the supernatant of stored irradiated red blood cells with Na(+) . To date, however, the filter's adsorption capacity for K(+) has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, we characterized the cation-binding capacity of this filter. Artificial solutions containing various cations were continuously passed through the filter in 30 mL of sodium polystyrene sulfonate at 10 mL/min using an infusion pump at room temperature. The cation concentrations were measured before and during filtration. When a single solution containing K(+) , Li(+) , H(+) , Mg(2+) , Ca(2+) , or Al(3+) was continuously passed through the filter, the filter adsorbed K(+) and the other cations in exchange for Na(+) in direct proportion to the valence number. The order of affinity for cation adsorption to the filter was Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >K(+) >H(+) >Li(+) . In K(+) -saturated conditions, the filter also adsorbed Na(+) . After complete adsorption of these cations on the filter, their concentration in the effluent increased in a sigmoidal manner over time. Cations that were bound to the filter were released if a second cation was passed through the filter, despite the different affinities of the two cations. The ability of the filter to bind cations, especially K(+) , should be helpful when it is used for red blood cell transfusion at the bedside. The filter may also be useful to gain a better understanding of the pharmacological properties of sodium polystyrene sulfonate. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  13. Kinetic studies of uranyl ion adsorption on acrylonitrile (AN) / polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating networks (IPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycik, G.A.; Gurellier, R.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of the adsorption of uranyl ions on amidoximated acrylonitrile (AN)/ polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating network (IPNs) from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of time and temperature. Adsorption analyses were performed for definite uranyl ion concentrations of 1x10 -2 M and at four different temperatures as 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K. Adsorption time was increased from zero to 48 hours. Adsorption capacities of uranyl ions by PEG/AN IPNS were determined by gamma spectrometer. The results indicate that adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing temperature. The max adsorption capacity was found as 602 mgu/g IPN at 308K. Adsorption rate was evaluated from the curve plotted of adsorption capacity versus time, for each temperature. Rate constants for uranyl ions adsorption on amidoximated ipns were calculated for 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K at the solution concentration of 1x10 -2 M . The results showed that as the temperature increases the rate constant increases exponentially too. The mean activation energy of uranyl ions adsorption was found as 34.6 kJ/mole by using arrhenius equation. (author)

  14. Molecular simulation of methane adsorption characteristics on coal macromolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyuan; He, Xiaoxiao; Meng, Zhuoyue; Xue, Wenying

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the molecular model of anthracite named Wender2 was selected to study the adsorption behaviour of single component CH4 and the competitive adsorption of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2. The molecular model of anthracite was established by molecular simulation software (Materials Studio 8.0), and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were carried out to investigate the single and binary component adsorption. The effects of pressure and temperature on the adsorption position, adsorption energy and adsorption capacity were mainly discussed. The results show that for the single component adsorption, the adsorption capacity of CH4 increases rapidly with the pressure ascending, and then tends to be stable after the first step. The low temperature is favourable for the adsorption of CH4, and the high temperature promotes desorption quantity of CH4 from the coal. Adsorbent molecules are preferentially adsorbed on the edge of coal macromolecules. The order of adsorption capacity of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2 in the binary component is H2O>CO2>CH4>N2. The change of pressure has little effect on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent in the competitive adsorption, but it has a great influence on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and there is a positive correlation between them.

  15. Kinetic modelling and mechanism of dye adsorption on unburned carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.B.; Li, H.T. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Textile dyeing processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes by producing coloured wastewaters. The adsorption method using unburned carbon from coal combustion residue was studied for the decolourisation of typical acidic and basic dyes. It was discovered that the unburned carbon showed high adsorption capacity at 1.97 x 10{sup -4} and 5.27 x 10{sup -4} mol/g for Basic Violet 3 and Acid Black 1, respectively. The solution pH, particle size and temperature significantly influenced the adsorption capacity. Higher solution pH favoured the adsorption of basic dye while reduced the adsorption of acid dye. The adsorption of dye increased with increasing temperature but decreased with increasing particle size. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption mechanism consisted of two processes, external diffusion and intraparticle diffusion, and the external diffusion was the dominating process.

  16. Construction of horizontal stratum landform-like composite foams and their methyl orange adsorption capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiajia; Shi, Xiaowen; Zhan, Yingfei; Qiu, Xiaodan; Du, Yumin; Deng, Hongbing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CS/REC/CNTs composite foams were prepared by unidirectional freeze-casting. • Horizontal stratum landform-like structure was successful built up in foam. • The addition of REC and CNTs promoted the mechanical properties of foam. • The introduction of REC and CNTs enhanced the adsorption capacity of foam on dye. - Abstract: Chitosan (CS)/rectorite (REC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite foams with good mechanical properties were successfully fabricated by unidirectional freeze-casting technique. The morphology of the foam showed the well-ordered porous three-dimensional layers and horizontal stratum landform-like structure. The holes on the layers looked like the wings of butterfly. Additionally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicated the successful addition of CNTs and REC. The intercalated REC with CS chains was confirmed by small-angle X-ray diffraction. The surface structure of the foams was also analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption experiments showed that when the mass ratio of CS to REC was 10:1 and CNTs content was 20%, the composite foam performed best in adsorbing low concentration methyl orange, and the largest adsorption capacity was 41.65 mg/g.

  17. Construction of horizontal stratum landform-like composite foams and their methyl orange adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiajia; Shi, Xiaowen; Zhan, Yingfei; Qiu, Xiaodan; Du, Yumin; Deng, Hongbing, E-mail: hbdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • CS/REC/CNTs composite foams were prepared by unidirectional freeze-casting. • Horizontal stratum landform-like structure was successful built up in foam. • The addition of REC and CNTs promoted the mechanical properties of foam. • The introduction of REC and CNTs enhanced the adsorption capacity of foam on dye. - Abstract: Chitosan (CS)/rectorite (REC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite foams with good mechanical properties were successfully fabricated by unidirectional freeze-casting technique. The morphology of the foam showed the well-ordered porous three-dimensional layers and horizontal stratum landform-like structure. The holes on the layers looked like the wings of butterfly. Additionally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicated the successful addition of CNTs and REC. The intercalated REC with CS chains was confirmed by small-angle X-ray diffraction. The surface structure of the foams was also analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption experiments showed that when the mass ratio of CS to REC was 10:1 and CNTs content was 20%, the composite foam performed best in adsorbing low concentration methyl orange, and the largest adsorption capacity was 41.65 mg/g.

  18. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems

  19. Study on sorption capacity and characterization of Sr2+ on synthetic zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Yi Facheng

    2010-01-01

    Sr 2+ adsorption capacity of synthetic zeolite(ZF) are studied with the intermittence method, and ZF adsorbed the Sr 2+ is characterized and analyzed by XRD, as a reference for the evaluation of the disposal effectiveness of low and medium radwastes. The results show that Sr 2+ adsorption capacity of ZF is good, and the equilibrium time for ZF to adsorb Sr 2+ is in range of 5-14 days. Sr 2+ concentration has the greatest effect on ZF adsorption capacity,and the medium,temperature and pH value of the solution also have effect on ZF adsorption capacity. With the augment of Sr 2+ concentration,the Sr 2+ equilibrium adsorption quantity of ZF increases,but the equilibrium adsorption rate and equilibrium adsorption ratio decreases. Sr 2+ adsorption capacity of ZF improves with the augment of pH value. Sr 2+ adsorption capacity of ZF is complicate and varies with the different ion, concentration and other components in the medium solution. Sr 2+ adsorption capacity of ZF increases with the augment of temperature. As a whole, when Sr 2+ concentration in the solution is 0.005mol/L, the pH value of the solution, and the temperature of medium and solution have less effect on the Sr 2+ adsorption capacity of ZF, and the unit cell parameter of ZF adsorbed Sr 2+ decreases. (authors)

  20. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  1. Comparative study of carbon nanotubes and granular activated carbon: Physicochemical properties and adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangupomu, Roja Haritha; Sattler, Melanie L; Ramirez, David

    2016-01-25

    The overall goal was to determine an optimum pre-treatment condition for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to facilitate air pollutant adsorption. Various combinations of heat and chemical pre-treatment were explored, and toluene was tested as an example hazardous air pollutant adsorbate. Specific objectives were (1) to characterize raw and pre-treated single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) CNTs and compare their physical/chemical properties to commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), (2) to determine the adsorption capacities for toluene onto pre-treated CNTs vs. GAC. CNTs were purified via heat-treatment at 400 °C in steam, followed by nitric acid treatment (3N, 5N, 11N, 16N) for 3-12 h to create openings to facilitate adsorption onto interior CNT sites. For SWNT, Raman spectroscopy showed that acid treatment removed impurities up to a point, but amorphous carbon reformed with 10h-6N acid treatment. Surface area of SWNTs with 3 h-3N acid treatment (1347 m(2)/g) was higher than the raw sample (1136 m(2)/g), and their toluene maximum adsorption capacity was comparable to GAC. When bed effluent reached 10% of inlet concentration (breakthrough indicating time for bed cleaning), SWNTs had adsorbed 240 mg/g of toluene, compared to 150 mg/g for GAC. Physical/chemical analyses showed no substantial difference for pre-treated vs. raw MWNTs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Equilibrium Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Okeola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on freema (combination of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow an adsorbent prepared from moringa pod. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined. Effect of such factors as initial concentration of the adsorbate solution, contact time with the adsorbent, pH of the dye solution, and temperature of the dye solution on the adsorption capacity of the absorbent was determined. The result showed that the optimum adsorption was attained at pH of 3, adsorption equilibrium was attained within 60 min. The adsorption capacity increases with increase in initial concentration of the dye solution. The result of the kinetics study showed that the adsorption process was better described by the pseudo-second order rate equation. The adsorption process fitted well with both Freundlich (R2 = 0.983 and Langmuir (R2 = 0.933 models. Thermodynamic result showed ΔH and ΔS were all negative. Gibbs free energy change (ΔG increases with increase in temperature of the dye solution.

  3. Preparation and properties of chitosan-metal complex: Some factors influencing the adsorption capacity for dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sadia; Shen, Chensi; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jianshe; Li, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan-metal complexes have been widely studied in wastewater treatment, but there are still various factors in complex preparation which are collectively responsible for improving the adsorption capacity need to be further studied. Thus, this study investigates the factors affecting the adsorption ability of chitosan-metal complex adsorbents, including various kinds of metal centers, different metal salts and crosslinking degree. The results show that the chitosan-Fe(III) complex prepared by sulfate salts exhibited the best adsorption efficiency (100%) for various dyes in very short time duration (10min), and its maximum adsorption capacity achieved 349.22mg/g. The anion of the metal salt which was used in preparation played an important role to enhance the adsorption ability of chitosan-metal complex. SO 4 2- ions not only had the effect of crosslinking through electrostatic interaction with amine group of chitosan polymer, but also could facilitate the chelation of metal ions with chitosan polymer during the synthesis process. Additionally, the pH sensitivity and the sensitivity of ionic environment for chitosan-metal complex were analyzed. We hope that these factors affecting the adsorption of the chitosan-metal complex can help not only in optimizing its use but also in designing new chitosan-metal based complexes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Adsorption of tannic acid from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jianwei, E-mail: jwlin@shou.edu.cn [College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, No. 999 Hucheng Huan Road, Pudong District, Shanghai 201306 (China); Zhan, Yanhui; Zhu, Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing, Yunqing [College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, No. 999 Hucheng Huan Road, Pudong District, Shanghai 201306 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZs) with various loadings of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) were used as adsorbents to remove tannic acid (TA) from aqueous solution. Highlights: {yields} Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZs) have a good tannic acid (TA) adsorption capacity. {yields} Adsorption capacity for SMZ with bilayer was relatively high at solution pH 3.5-7.0. {yields} Adsorption was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. {yields} Adsorption fitted well with Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherm models. {yields} Coexisting Cu(II) in aqueous solution resulted in markedly enhanced TA adsorption. - Abstract: Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZs) with various loadings of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) were used as adsorbents to remove tannic acid (TA) from aqueous solution. The TA adsorption efficiencies for natural zeolite and various SMZs were compared. SMZ presented higher TA adsorption efficiency than natural zeolite, and SMZ with higher loading amount of CPB exhibited higher TA adsorption efficiency. The adsorption of TA onto SMZ as a function of contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, temperature, ionic strength, coexisting Cu(II) and solution pH was investigated. The adsorbents before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The adsorption kinetics of TA onto SMZ with CPB bilayer coverage (SMZ-CBC) followed a pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium adsorption data of TA onto SMZ-CBC were well represented by Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherm models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that TA adsorption onto SMZ-CBC was spontaneous and exothermic. The TA adsorption capacity for SMZ-CBC slightly decreased with increasing ionic strength but significantly increased with increasing Cu(II) concentration. The TA adsorption

  5. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    Butanol is considered a promising, infrastructure-compatible biofuel. Butanol has a higher energy content than ethanol and can be used in conventional gas engines without modifications. Unfortunately, the fermentation pathway for butanol production is restricted by its toxicity to the microbial strains used in the process. Butanol is toxic to the microbes, and this can slow fermentation rates and reduce butanol yields. Gas stripping technology can efficiently remove butanol from the fermentation broth as it is produced, thereby decreasing its inhibitory effects. Traditional butanol separation heavily depends on the energy intensive distillation method. One of the main issues in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is that butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth are low, ranging from 1 to 1.2 percent in weight, because of its toxicity to the microorganisms. Therefore distillation of butanol is even worse than distillation of corn ethanol. Even new separation methods, such as solid- extraction methods involve adding substances, such as polymer resin and zeolite or activated carbon, to biobutanol fermentatioon broth did not achieve energy efficient separation of butanol due to low adsorption selectivity and fouling in broth. Gas-stripping - condensation is another new butanol recovery method, however, the butanol in gas-stripping stream is too low to be condensed without using expensive and energy intensive liquid nitrogen. Adsorption can then be used to recover butanol from the vapor phase. Activated carbon (AC) samples and zeolite were investigated for their butanol vapor adsorption capacities. Commercial activated carbon was modified via hydrothermal H2O2 treatment, and the specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of activated carbon were tested before and after treatment. Hydrothermal H2O 2 modification increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, micropore volume, and total pore volume of active carbon

  6. Simultaneous adsorption of SO2 and NO from flue gas over mesoporous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Huang, Bin; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous alumina (MA) with a higher ability to simultaneously remove SO2 and NO was prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The adsorption capacities of MA are 1.79 and 0.702 mmol/g for SO2 and NO, respectively. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method was used to characterize the adsorbent. Simultaneous adsorption of SO2 and NO from flue gas over MA in different operating conditions had been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The effects of temperature, oxygen concentration and water vapour were investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimum temperature for MA to simultaneously remove SO2 and NO was 90°C. The simultaneous adsorption capacities of SO2 and NO could be enhanced by increasing O2 when its concentration was below 5%. The changes of simultaneous adsorption capacities were not obvious when O2 concentration was above 5%. The increase in relative humidity results in an increase after dropping of SO2 adsorption capacity, whereas the adsorption capacity of NO showed an opposite trend. The results suggest that MA is a great adsorbent for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas.

  7. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  8. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodong, Dai [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia); Zou, Linda [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA5095 (Australia); Zifeng, Yan [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Millikan, Mary [Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia)

    2009-08-30

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO{sub 2} particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  9. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaodong; Zou, Linda; Yan Zifeng; Millikan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N 2 adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO 2 particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  10. Effect of hydrophobicity of pharmaceuticals and personal care products for adsorption on activated carbon: Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harkirat; Bansiwal, Amit; Hippargi, Girivyankatesh; Pophali, Girish R

    2017-09-11

    Adsorption of three pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), namely caffeine, ibuprofen and triclosan on commercial powdered activated carbon was examined in aqueous medium. The contaminants were chosen based on their diverse log K ow (octanol-water partition coefficient) viz. - 0.07 for caffeine, 3.97 for ibuprofen and 4.76 for triclosan to examine the role of hydrophobicity on adsorption process. The adsorbent characterisation was achieved using BET surface area, SEM, pore size distribution studies and FTIR. Influence of mass of PAC, contact time, solution pH and initial concentration on adsorption capacity of PAC was studied. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics were applied to establish the mechanism of adsorption. The kinetics followed pseudo-second order with physisorption occurring through particle diffusion. The Freundlich model fitted best among the isotherm models. The adsorption capacity increased in the order CFN activated carbon.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on CO2 adsorption of KOH-activated graphite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin

    2010-12-15

    In this work, graphite nanofibers (GNFs) were successfully expanded intercalating KOH followed by heat treatment in the temperature range of 700-1000 °C. The aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the GNFs by increasing the porosity of GNFs. The effects of heat treatment on the pore structures of GNFs were investigated by N(2) full isotherms, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The CO(2) adsorption capacity was measured by CO(2) isothermal adsorption at 25 °C and 1 atm. From the results, it was found that the activation temperature had a major influence on CO(2) adsorption capacity and textural properties of GNFs. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and mesopore volume of the GNFs increased after heat treatment. The CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that G-900 exhibited the best CO(2) adsorption capacity with 59.2 mg/g. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of porous diatomite-templated carbons with large adsorption capacity and mesoporous zeolite K-H as a byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yuan, Weiwei; Deng, Liangliang; Yu, Wenbin; Sun, Hongjuan; Yuan, Peng

    2014-06-15

    In this study, KOH activation was performed to enhance the porosity of the diatomite-templated carbon and to increase its adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB). In addition to serving as the activation agent, KOH was also used as the etchant to remove the diatomite templates. Zeolite K-H was synthesized as a byproduct via utilization of the resultant silicon- and potassium-containing solutions created from the KOH etching of the diatomite templates. The obtained diatomite-based carbons were composed of macroporous carbon pillars and tubes, which were derived from the replication of the diatomite templates and were well preserved after KOH activation. The abundant micropores in the walls of the carbon pillars and tubes were derived from the break and reconfiguration of carbon films during both the removal of the diatomite templates and KOH activation. Compared with the original diatomite-templated carbons and CO2-activated carbons, the KOH-activated carbons had much higher specific surface areas (988 m(2)/g) and pore volumes (0.675 cm(3)/g). Moreover, the KOH-activated carbons possessed larger MB adsorption capacity (the maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity: 645.2 mg/g) than those of the original carbons and CO2-activated carbons. These results showed that KOH activation was a high effective activation method. The zeolite K-H byproduct was obtained by utilizing the silicon- and potassium-containing solution as the silicon and potassium sources. The zeolite exhibited a stick-like morphology and possessed nanosized particles with a mesopore-predominant porous structure which was observed by TEM for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of textural and surface characteristics of microporous activated carbons on the methane adsorption capacity at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos-Neto, M.; Canabrava, D.V.; Torres, A.E.B.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E.; Jimenez-Lopez, A.; Azevedo, D.C.S.; Cavalcante, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to relate textural and surface characteristics of selected microporous activated carbons to their methane storage capacity. In this work, a magnetic suspension balance (Rubotherm, Germany) was used to measure methane adsorption isotherms of several activated carbon samples. Textural characteristics were assessed by nitrogen adsorption on a regular surface area analyzer (Autosorb-MP, by Quantachrome, USA). N 2 adsorption was analysed by conventional models (BET, DR, HK) and by Monte Carlo molecular simulations. Elemental and surface analyses were performed by X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) for the selected samples. A comparative analysis was then carried out with the purpose of defining some correlation among the variables under study. For the system under study, pore size distribution and micropore volume seem to be a determining factor as long as the solid surface is perfectly hydrophobic. It was concluded that the textural parameters per se do not unequivocally determine natural gas storage capacities. Surface chemistry and methane adsorption equilibria must be taken into account in the decision-making process of choosing an adsorbent for gas storage

  14. Adsorption of mercury compounds by tropical soils. I. Adsorption in soil profiles in relation to their physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semu, E.; Singh, B.R.; Selmer-Olsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Mercury adsorption of HgCl/sub 2/ and 2-methoxyethylmercury chloride (Aretan) (100 mg Hg L/sup -1/) was measured for three soil profiles from Morogoro, Arusha, and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. The adsorption was investigated for the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of soils. All soil samples showed greater capacity for adsorption of Aretan than for HgCl/sub 2/. In the Morogoro profile Hg adsorption decreased with depth but in the other two soils, the minimum adsorption occurred in the third horizon and increased both upwards and downwards. In the Morogoro profile, Aretan adsorption correlated well with pH. Adsorption of both Aretan and HgCl/sub 2/ correlated well with the distribution of organic C and with the cation exchange capacity of the soils. In the Arusha and Dar es Salaam profiles Hg adsorption was not significantly correlated with any of the soil properties tested.

  15. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Namhoon

    2013-10-01

    Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of carbonation temperature on CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of CaO derived from micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: nwenihlaing76@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: srimala@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi, E-mail: hinode@ide.titech.ac.jp; Kurniawan, Winarto, E-mail: Kurniawan.w.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Thant, Aye Aye, E-mail: a2thant@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Othman, Radzali, E-mail: radzali@utem.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@eng.usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salime, Chris, E-mail: chris.salim@surya.ac.id [Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang, 15810 Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-07-06

    Recent years, CaO-based synthetic materials have been attracted attention as potential adsorbents for CO{sub 2} capture mainly due to their high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. In this study, micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO{sub 3} was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with using polyacrylamide (PAM). The structural, morphological and thermal properties of the synthesized sample were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG-DTA). The XRD and FESEM results showed that the obtained sample was aragonite CaCO{sub 3} with aggregated nanorods and microspheres composed of nanorods. A TG-DTA apparatus with Thermoplus 2 software was used to investigate the effect of carbonation temperature on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of CaO derived from aragonite CaCO{sub 3} sample. At 300 °C, the sample reached the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 0.098 g-CO{sub 2}/g-adsorbent, whereas the sample achieved the highest capacity of 0.682 g-CO{sub 2}/g-adsorbent at 700 °C. The results showed that the carbonation temperature significantly influenced on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of the CaO derived from aragonite CaCO{sub 3}.

  17. Adsorptive Removal and Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoroquinolone by Nano-Hydroxyapatite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Chen

    Full Text Available Various kinds of antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs have been widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases in human and livestock. For their poorly absorbed by living organisms, large-scale misuse or abuse of FQs will foster drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, as well as a variety of environmental problems when they were released in the environment. In this work, the adsorption properties of two FQs, namely norfloxacin (NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP, by nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption curves of FQs by n-HAP were simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results shown that NOR and CIP can be adsorbed effectively by the adsorbent of n-HAP, and the adsorption capacity of FQs increase with increasing dosage of n-HAP. The optimum dosage of n-HAP for FQs removal was 20 g · L(-1, in which the removal efficiencies is 51.6% and 47.3%, and an adsorption equilibrium time is 20 min. The maximum removal efficiency occurred when pH is 6 for both FQs. The adsorption isotherm of FQs fits well for both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of both FQs by n-HAP follows second-order kinetics.

  18. Adsorptive Removal and Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoroquinolone by Nano-Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yajun; Lan, Tao; Duan, Lunchao; Wang, Fenghe; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Shengtian; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) have been widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases in human and livestock. For their poorly absorbed by living organisms, large-scale misuse or abuse of FQs will foster drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, as well as a variety of environmental problems when they were released in the environment. In this work, the adsorption properties of two FQs, namely norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), by nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption curves of FQs by n-HAP were simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results shown that NOR and CIP can be adsorbed effectively by the adsorbent of n-HAP, and the adsorption capacity of FQs increase with increasing dosage of n-HAP. The optimum dosage of n-HAP for FQs removal was 20 g·L-1, in which the removal efficiencies is 51.6% and 47.3%, and an adsorption equilibrium time is 20 min. The maximum removal efficiency occurred when pH is 6 for both FQs. The adsorption isotherm of FQs fits well for both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of both FQs by n-HAP follows second-order kinetics. PMID:26698573

  19. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Adsorption Equations for Chromium (VI) Waste Adsorption by Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murni Handayani; Eko Sulistiyono

    2009-01-01

    The research of chromium (VI) waste adsorption by zeolite has done. Wastes which are produced by Industries, both radioactive waste and heavy metal waste need done more processing so that they are not endanger environment and human health. Zeolite has very well-ordered crystal form with cavity each other to way entirely so that cause surface wide of zeolite become very big and very good as adsorbents. This research intends to know appropriate isotherm adsorption method to determine maximum capacity of zeolite to chromium (VI) waste. The equations which used in adsorption process are Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm Adsorption equations. The instrument was used in adsorption process by using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment result showed that the biggest mass of chromium (VI) metal ion which was absorb by zeolite in 20 ppm concentration was 7.71 mg/gram zeolite. Adsorption process of Chromium (VI) waste by zeolite followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations with R 2 >0,9 . Appropriate equation to determine maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite for chromium (VI) waste adsorption is Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite is 52.25 mg/gram. (author)

  20. Polanyi Evaluation of Adsorptive Capacities of Commercial Activated Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Surma, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial activated carbons from Calgon (207C and OVC) and Cabot Norit (RB2 and GCA 48) were evaluated for use in spacecraft trace contaminant control filters. The Polanyi potential plots of the activated carbons were compared using to those of Barnebey-Cheney Type BD, an untreated activated carbon with similar properties as the acid-treated Barnebey-Sutcliffe Type 3032 utilized in the TCCS. Their adsorptive capacities under dry conditions were measured in a closed loop system and the sorbents were ranked for their ability to remove common VOCs found in spacecraft cabin air. This comparison suggests that these sorbents can be ranked as GCA 48 207C, OVC RB2 for the compounds evaluated.

  1. Characterization of trichloroethylene adsorption onto waste biocover soil in the presence of landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Kong, Jiaoyan

    2015-09-15

    Waste biocover soils (WBS) have been demonstrated to have great potential in mitigating trichloroethylene (TCE) emission from landfills, due to the relatively high TCE-degrading capacity. In this study, the characteristics of TCE adsorption on WBS in the presence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were investigated in soil microcosms. The adsorption isotherm of TCE onto WBS was fitted well with linear model within the TCE concentrations of 7000 ppmv. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto WBS was affected by temperature, soil moisture content and particle size, of which, temperature was the dominant factor. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto the experimental materials increased with the increasing organic matter content. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the adsorption capacity of TCE and the organic matter content of experimental materials that had relatively higher organic content (r = 0.988, P = 0.044). To better understand WBS application in practice, response surface methodology was developed to predict TCE adsorption capacity and emissions through WBS in different landfills in China. These results indicated that WBS had high adsorption capacity of TCE in LFG and temperature should be paid more attention to manipulate WBS to reduce TCE emissions from landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on adsorption capacity of clay-Sargassum sp biosorbent for Cr (VI) removal in wastewater from electroplating industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprianti, Tine; Aprilyanti, Selvia; Apriani, Rachmawati; Sisnayati

    2017-11-01

    Various raw biosorbents have been studied for pollutant treatment of heavy metals contained in wastewater. In this study, clay and brown seaweed, Sargassum sp, are used for hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] biosorption. The adsorption capacity is adequately improved by combining clay and Sargassum sp as the adsorbent agent. Ion exchange of metal ions has shown strong coordination cross-linkage due to organic functional hydroxyl groups (OH-) contained in brown seaweed that provide sites to capture and bind the metal ions. Clay is known as an inexpensive adsorbent due to its wide availability besides its large specific surface area. Combining clay and Sargassum sp as biosorbent resulting better adsorption, the adsorption capacity reaches most favorable results of 99.39% at Sargassum: clay ratio of 40:60 on contact time 10 h. This study has proven that composit biosorbent used has succeeded in reducing hexavalent chromium pollutant in wastewater.

  3. Summary of Adsorption Capacity and Adsorption Kinetics of Uranium and Other Elements on Amidoxime-based Adsorbents from Time Series Marine Testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Gary A.; Das, Sadananda; Mayes, Richard; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree S.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Tsouris, Costas; Wai, Chien M.; Pan, Horng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting marine testing of uranium adsorbent materials for the Fuel Resources Program, Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) beginning in FY 2012. The marine testing program is being conducted at PNNL's Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL), located at Sequim Bay, along the coast of Washington. One of the main efforts of the marine testing program is the determination of adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics for uranium and selected other elements (e.g. vanadium, iron, copper, nickel, and zinc) for adsorbent materials provided primarily by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), but also includes other Fuel Resources Program participants. This report summarizes the major marine testing results that have been obtained to date using time series sampling for 42 to 56 days using either flow-through column or recirculating flume exposures. The major results are highlighted in this report, and the full data sets are appended as a series of Excel spreadsheet files. Over the four year period (2012-2016) that marine testing of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents was conducted at PNNL's Marine Science Laboratory, there has been a steady progression of improvement in the 56-day adsorbent capacity from 3.30 g U/kg adsorbent for the ORNL 38H adsorbent to the current best performing adsorbent prepared by a collaboration between the University of Tennessee and ORNL to produce the adsorbent SB12-8, which has an adsorption capacity of 6.56 g U/kg adsorbent. This nearly doubling of the adsorption capacity in four years is a significant advancement in amidoxime-based adsorbent technology and a significant achievement for the Uranium from Seawater program. The achievements are evident when compared to the several decades of work conducted by the Japanese scientists beginning in the 1980's (Kim et al., 2013). The best adsorbent capacity reported by the Japanese scientists was 3.2 g U/kg adsorbent for a 180

  4. Summary of Adsorption Capacity and Adsorption Kinetics of Uranium and Other Elements on Amidoxime-based Adsorbents from Time Series Marine Testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Schlafer, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Janke, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, Sadananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Suree S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Constantinos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); LCW Supercritical Technologies, Seattle, WA (United States); Pan, Horng-Bin [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2016-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting marine testing of uranium adsorbent materials for the Fuel Resources Program, Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) beginning in FY 2012. The marine testing program is being conducted at PNNL’s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL), located at Sequim Bay, along the coast of Washington. One of the main efforts of the marine testing program is the determination of adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics for uranium and selected other elements (e.g. vanadium, iron, copper, nickel, and zinc) for adsorbent materials provided primarily by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), but also includes other Fuel Resources Program participants. This report summarizes the major marine testing results that have been obtained to date using time series sampling for 42 to 56 days using either flow-through column or recirculating flume exposures. The major results are highlighted in this report, and the full data sets are appended as a series of Excel spreadsheet files. Over the four year period (2012-2016) that marine testing of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents was conducted at PNNL’s Marine Science Laboratory, there has been a steady progression of improvement in the 56-day adsorbent capacity from 3.30 g U/kg adsorbent for the ORNL 38H adsorbent to the current best performing adsorbent prepared by a collaboration between the University of Tennessee and ORNL to produce the adsorbent SB12-8, which has an adsorption capacity of 6.56 g U/kg adsorbent. This nearly doubling of the adsorption capacity in four years is a significant advancement in amidoxime-based adsorbent technology and a significant achievement for the Uranium from Seawater program. The achievements are evident when compared to the several decades of work conducted by the Japanese scientists beginning in the 1980’s (Kim et al., 2013). The best adsorbent capacity reported by the Japanese scientists was 3.2 g U/kg adsorbent for a

  5. Evaluation of the adsorption capacity of nano-graphene and nano-graphene oxide for xylene removal from air and their comparison with the standard adsorbent of activated carbon to introduce the optimized one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Tabrizi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Volatile organic compounds from industrial activities are one of the most important pollutants released into the air and have adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, they should be removed before releasing into atmosphere. The aim of the study was to evaluate xylene removal from air by nano-grapheme and nano-graphene oxide in comparison with activated carbon adsorbent. Material and Method:  After preparing adsorbents of activated carbon, nano-graphene, and nano-graphene oxide, experiments adsorption capacity in static mode (Batch were carried out in a glass vial. Some variables including contact time, the amount of adsorbent, the concentration of xylene, and the temperature were studied. Langmuir absorption isotherms were used in order to study the adsorption capacity of xylene on adsorbents. Moreover, sample analysis was done by gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. Results: The adsorption capacities of activated carbon, nano-graphene oxide and nano-graphene for removal of xylene were obtained 349.8, 14.5, and 490 mg/g, respectively. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM for nano-graphene and nano-graphene oxide showed particle size of less than 100 nm. While, the results of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM showed particle size of 45nm for nano-graphene and 65 nm for nano-graphene oxide. Also, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD showed cube structure of nano-adsorbents. Conclusion: In constant humidity, increase in exposure time and temperature caused an increase in the adsorption capacity. The results revealed greater adsorption capacity of xylene removal for nano-graphene compared to the activated carbon, and nano-graphene oxide.

  6. Reactive adsorption of SO2 on activated carbons with deposited iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcibar-Orozco, Javier A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2013-02-15

    The effect of iron particle size anchored on the surface of commercial activated carbon on the removal of SO(2) from a gas phase was studied. Nanosize iron particles were deposited using forced hydrolysis of FeCl(3) with or without H(3)PO(4) as a capping agent. Dynamic adsorption experiments were carried out on either dry or pre-humidified materials and the adsorption capacities were calculated. The surface of the initial and exhausted materials was extensively characterized by microscopic, porosity, thermogravimetric and surface chemistry. The results indicate that the SO(2) adsorption capacity increased two and half times after the prehumidification process owing to the formation of H(2)SO(4) in the porous system. Iron species enhance the SO(2) adsorption capacity only when very small nanoparticles are deposited on the pore walls as a thin layer. Large iron nanoparticles block the ultramicropores decreasing the accessibility of the active sites and consuming oxygen that rest adsorption centers for SO(2) molecules. Iron nanoparticles of about 3-4 nm provide highly dispersed adsorption sites for SO(2) molecules and thus increase the adsorption capacity of about 80%. Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) was detected on the surface of exhausted samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased adsorption of histidine-tagged proteins onto tissue culture polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), as well as adsorption performed at different pH and ionic strength indicates that the high adsorption is caused by electrostatic interaction between negatively charged carboxylate groups on the TCPS surface and positively charged histidine residues in the proteins. Pre......In this study we compare histidine-tagged and native proteins with regards to adsorption properties. We observe significantly increased adsorption of proteins with an incorporated polyhistidine amino acid motif (HIS-tag) onto tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) compared to similar proteins without...... a HIS-tag. The effect is not observed on polystyrene (PS). Adsorption experiments have been performed at physiological pH (7.4) and the effect was only observed for the investigated proteins that have pI values below or around 7.4. Competitive adsorption experiments with imidazole...

  8. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  9. Pyrolysis conditions and ozone oxidation effects on ammonia adsorption in biomass generated chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Miller, Joby; Das, K C

    2009-05-30

    Ammonia adsorbents were generated via pyrolysis of biomass (peanut hulls and palm oil shells) over a range of temperatures and compared to a commercially available activated carbon (AC) and solid biomass residuals (wood and poultry litter fly ash). Dynamic ammonia adsorption studies (i.e., breakthrough curves) were performed using these adsorbents at 23 degrees C from 6 to 17 ppmv NH(3). Of the biomass chars, palm oil char generated at 500 degrees C had the highest NH(3) adsorption capacity (0.70 mg/g, 6 ppmv, 10% relative humidity (RH)), was similar to the AC, and contrasted to the other adsorbents (including the AC), the NH(3) adsorption capacity significantly increased if the relative humidity was increased (4 mg/g, 7 ppmv, 73% RH). Room temperature ozone treatment of the chars and activated carbon significantly increased the NH(3) adsorption capacity (10% RH); resultant adsorption capacity, q (mg/g) increased by approximately 2, 6, and 10 times for palm oil char, peanut hull char (pyrolysis only), and activated carbon, respectively. However, water vapor (73% RH at 23 degrees C) significantly reduced NH(3) adsorption capacity in the steam and ozone treated biomass, yet had no effect on the palm shell char generated at 500 degrees C. These results indicate the feasibility of using a low temperature (and thus low energy input) pyrolysis and activation process for the generation of NH(3) adsorbents from biomass residuals.

  10. 玉米秸秆基改性生物质活性炭对Cd的吸附特性%Adsorption capacity of modified corn straw based activated biocarbon to Cd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吐尔逊·吐尔洪; 帕提古丽·伊克木; 阿热祖古丽·达吾提; 阿马努拉·依明尼亚孜

    2018-01-01

    以玉米秸秆为原料,制备了生物质活性炭(以下简称生物炭),用HNO3、NaOH、沸水、四氢呋喃(THF)对其进行改性,并比较了不同生物炭对Cd的吸附特性,对沸水和 T HF滤液进行了光谱分析,结果显示:随着Cd初始浓度的增加,玉米秸秆基生物炭及改性产物对Cd的吸附量大体增强;Cd初始质量浓度超过25.0 mg/L时,吸附量表现为碱改性生物炭> 未改性生物炭> T HF改性生物炭> 沸水改性生物炭> 酸改性生物炭.NaO H通过改变玉米秸秆基生物炭表面官能团和元素构成,增强了其吸附能力.HNO3使玉米秸秆基生物炭孔隙带正电荷,从而抑制了对Cd的吸附.沸水和 T HF从玉米秸秆基生物炭孔隙中溶出了有利于吸附反应的部分表面官能团,从而降低了其对Cd的吸附能力.随着Cd初始浓度增加,玉米秸秆基生物炭对Cd的吸附量大体增加,滤液pH大体降低.用玉米秸秆基生物炭处理污水中的Cd时,建议用碱改性法来提高其吸附能力.%Corn straw based activated biocarbon was prepared and modified with HNO3,NaOH,hot water and tetrahydrofuran(T HF).Adsorption capacities of original and modified activated biocarbons to Cd,as well as spectrum of filtrate of hot water and THF modified activated biocarbons were tested.Result showed that adsorption capacities of activated biocarbons increased with the concentration of initial Cd solution.The order of adsorption capacities was NaOH modified activated biocarbons>original activated biocarbons> THF modified activated biocarbons >hot water modified activated biocarbons > HNO3modified activated biocarbons when initial Cd exceeded 25.0 mg/L.NaOH enhanced the adsorption capacity of original activated biocarbon by changing the surface functional group and elemental contents.HNO3inhibited the adsorption by charging the surface of activated biocarbon with positive charge.Hot water and THF scoured off some surface groups which were favorable for adsorption

  11. Experimental study on removals of SO2 and NO(x) using adsorption of activated carbon/microwave desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Yao, Juan-Juan; Gao, Li; Ma, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies on desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using activated carbon irradiated by microwave. The influences of the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), the flue gas coexisting compositions, on adsorption properties of activated carbon and efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification were investigated. The results show that adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of NO decrease with the increasing of SO2 concentrations in flue gas; adsorption capacity of NO increases slightly first and drops to 12.79 mg/g, and desulfurization efficiency descends with the increasing SO2 concentrations. Adsorption capacity of SO2 declines with the increasing of O2 content in flue gas, but adsorption capacity of NO increases, and removal efficiencies of NO and SO2 could be larger than 99%. Adsorption capacity of NO declines with the increase of moisture in the flue gas, but adsorption capacity of SO2 increases and removal efficiencies of NO and SO2 would be relatively stable. Adsorption capacities of both NO and SO2 decrease with the increasing of CO2 content; efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification augment at the beginning stage, then start to fall when CO2 content exceeds 12.4%. The mechanisms of this process are also discussed. The prominent SO2 and NOx treatment techniques in power plants are wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and the catalytic decomposition method like selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or nonselective catalytic reduction (NSCR). However, these processes would have some difficulties in commercial application due to their high investment, requirement of expensive catalysts and large-scale equipment, and so on. A simple SO2 and NOx reduction utilizing decomposition by microwave energy method can be used. The pollutants control of flue gas in the power plants by the method of microwave-induced decomposition using adsorption of activated carbon/microwave desorption can meet the

  12. Impact of salinity and dispersed oil on adsorption of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons by activated carbon and organoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, Jessica M.; Walsh, Margaret E., E-mail: mwalsh2@dal.ca

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Powdered activated carbon (PAC) outperformed organoclay for dissolved aromatics removal • Dispersed oil reduced the adsorption capacity of PAC but not organoclay • Salinity did not affect phenol or naphthalene removal by PAC or BTMA-organoclay • Commercial organoclay had reduced adsorption capacity in saline water due to aggregation • PAC performed better in single solute systems than multi-solute systems - Abstract: Adsorption capacity of phenol and naphthalene by powdered activated carbon (PAC), a commercial organoclay (OC) and a lab synthesized organoclay (BTMA) was studied using batch adsorption experiments under variable feed water quality conditions including single- and multi- solute conditions, fresh water, saline water and oily-and-saline water. Increasing salinity levels was found to reduce adsorption capacity of OC, likely due to destabilization, aggregation and subsequent removal of organoclay from the water column, but did not negatively impact adsorption capacity of PAC or BTMA. Increased dispersed oil concentrations were found to reduce the surface area of all adsorbents. This decreased the adsorption capacity of PAC for both phenol and naphthalene, and reduced BTMA adsorption of phenol, but did not negatively affect naphthalene removals by either organoclay. The presence of naphthalene as a co-solute significantly reduced phenol adsorption by PAC, but had no impact on organoclay adsorption. These results indicated that adsorption by PAC occurred via a surface adsorption mechanism, while organoclay adsorption occurred by hydrophobic or pi electron interactions. In general, PAC was more sensitive to changes in water quality than either of the organoclays evaluated in this study. However, PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for phenol and naphthalene compared to both organoclays even in adverse water quality conditions.

  13. Impact of salinity and dispersed oil on adsorption of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons by activated carbon and organoclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, Jessica M.; Walsh, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Powdered activated carbon (PAC) outperformed organoclay for dissolved aromatics removal • Dispersed oil reduced the adsorption capacity of PAC but not organoclay • Salinity did not affect phenol or naphthalene removal by PAC or BTMA-organoclay • Commercial organoclay had reduced adsorption capacity in saline water due to aggregation • PAC performed better in single solute systems than multi-solute systems - Abstract: Adsorption capacity of phenol and naphthalene by powdered activated carbon (PAC), a commercial organoclay (OC) and a lab synthesized organoclay (BTMA) was studied using batch adsorption experiments under variable feed water quality conditions including single- and multi- solute conditions, fresh water, saline water and oily-and-saline water. Increasing salinity levels was found to reduce adsorption capacity of OC, likely due to destabilization, aggregation and subsequent removal of organoclay from the water column, but did not negatively impact adsorption capacity of PAC or BTMA. Increased dispersed oil concentrations were found to reduce the surface area of all adsorbents. This decreased the adsorption capacity of PAC for both phenol and naphthalene, and reduced BTMA adsorption of phenol, but did not negatively affect naphthalene removals by either organoclay. The presence of naphthalene as a co-solute significantly reduced phenol adsorption by PAC, but had no impact on organoclay adsorption. These results indicated that adsorption by PAC occurred via a surface adsorption mechanism, while organoclay adsorption occurred by hydrophobic or pi electron interactions. In general, PAC was more sensitive to changes in water quality than either of the organoclays evaluated in this study. However, PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for phenol and naphthalene compared to both organoclays even in adverse water quality conditions.

  14. Adsorption of palladium ions by modified carbons from rice husks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Steam activated carbon of high surface area does not show palladium ions adsorption. Treatment of this carbon with HF acid increases to a great extent the gas adsorption capacity expressed as nitrogen surface area as well as the adsorption capacity of palladium ions from aqueous solution. HHB was loaded in different amounts on to these carbons. The acid sites represent the active fraction of the surface on which the adsorption palladium ions proceed. The uptake of palladium ions by HHB treated carbons is related to the total number of HHB molecules loaded on the carbon surface. (author)

  15. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of lindane, carbofuran and methyl parathion on various Indian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama Krishna, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ramakrishnaiitm@gmail.com; Philip, Ligy [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ligy@iitm.ac.in

    2008-12-30

    Adsorption and desorption characteristics of three insecticides on four Indian soils were studied. Insecticides used were representative of organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbomate groups. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: lindane > methyl parathion > carbofuran. Compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. The order of adsorption capacity of various soils were: compost soil > clayey soil > red soil > sandy soil. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted to Freundlich model and K{sub f} values increased with increase in organic matter content of the soils. Thermodynamic parameters indicated favorable adsorption of all the three pesticides in four different soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Distilled water desorbed 30-60% of adsorbed pesticides whereas; organic solvents were able to affect 50-80% of sorbed pesticides. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. Hysteresis effect was observed in red, clayey and compost soils. Hysteresis effect increased with increase in organic matter and clay content of the soils.

  16. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of lindane, carbofuran and methyl parathion on various Indian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Krishna, K.; Philip, Ligy

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption characteristics of three insecticides on four Indian soils were studied. Insecticides used were representative of organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbomate groups. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: lindane > methyl parathion > carbofuran. Compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. The order of adsorption capacity of various soils were: compost soil > clayey soil > red soil > sandy soil. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted to Freundlich model and K f values increased with increase in organic matter content of the soils. Thermodynamic parameters indicated favorable adsorption of all the three pesticides in four different soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Distilled water desorbed 30-60% of adsorbed pesticides whereas; organic solvents were able to affect 50-80% of sorbed pesticides. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. Hysteresis effect was observed in red, clayey and compost soils. Hysteresis effect increased with increase in organic matter and clay content of the soils

  17. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  18. Functionalized SBA-15 materials for bilirubin adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jun; Deng, Feng

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials, a comparative study was carried out between pure siliceous SBA-15 and three functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous materials: CH 3-SBA-15 (MS), NH 2-SBA-15 (AS), and CH 3/NH 2-SBA-15 (AMS) that were synthesized by one-pot method. The obtained materials exhibited large surface areas (553-810 m 2/g) and pore size (6.6-7.1 nm) demonstrated by XRD and N 2-ad/desorption analysis. The SEM images showed that the materials had similar fiberlike morphology. The functionalization extent was calculated according to 29Si MAS NMR spectra and it was close to the designed value (10%). The synthesized mesoporous materials were used as bilirubin adsorbents and showed higher bilirubin adsorption capacities than the commercial active carbon. The adsorption capacities of amine functionalized samples AMS and AS were larger than those of pure siliceous SBA-15 and MS, indicating that electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials. Increasing the ionic strength of bilirubin solution by adding NaCl would decrease the bilirubin adsorption capacity of mesoporous material, which further demonstrated that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption. In addition, the hydrophobic interaction provided by methyl groups could promote the bilirubin adsorption.

  19. Synthesis of alumina nano-sheets via supercritical fluid technology with high uranyl adsorptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yu; Jun Wang; Zhanshuang Li; Qi Liu; Milin Zhang; Hongbin Bai; Caishan Jiao; Jun Wang; Lianhe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is beneficial to the synthesis of superior ultrafine and uniform materials due to its high chemical stability, low viscosity, high diffusivity, and 'zero' surface tension. γ-Alumina nano-sheets were obtained by a simple hydrothermal route in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and nitrogen sorption isotherm were employed to characterize the samples. Alumina as-prepared has a high specific surface area of up to 200 ± 6 m 2 g -1 , which presents a high adsorption capacity (4.66 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) for uranyl ions from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. (authors)

  20. Influence of organobentonite structure on toluene adsorption from water solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Vidal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase water pollution by organic compound derived from hydrocarbons such as toluene, several alternative technologies for remediation of polluted water have been originated. In this work natural bentonites were modified with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA+ for obtaining organophilic bentonites. The obtained CTMA-bentonites would be suitable for use as adsorbents of toluene present in water. The influence of structural characteristics of CTMA-bentonites on their adsorption capacity was studied. It was shown that adsorption of toluene depended on homogeneous interlayer space associated with arrangements of CTMA+ paraffin-monolayer and bilayer models, accompanied by a high degree ordering of the carbon chain of organic cation in both arrangements. However, packing density would not have an evident influence on the retention capacity of these materials. The solids obtained were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffractions and infrared spectroscopy. Toluene adsorption was measured by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Adsorption capacity was studied by determining adsorption isotherms and adsorption coefficient calculation. The adsorption isotherms were straight-line indicating a partition phenomenon of toluene between the aqueous and organic phase present in organophilic bentonites.

  1. Adsorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution by a new low-cost adsorbent-Bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Hui, E-mail: wanghui@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma Jianwei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted for the adsorption of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution by bamboo charcoal. The results showed that the adsorption of Cd (II) ions was very fast initially and the equilibrium time was 6 h. High pH ({>=}8.0) was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Cd (II) ions. Higher initial Cd concentrations led to lower removal percentages but higher adsorption capacity. As the adsorbent dose increased, the removal of Cd increased, while the adsorption capacity decreased. Adsorption kinetics of Cd (II) ions onto bamboo charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Cd (II) ions fitted Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich isotherms well, but followed Langmuir isotherm most precisely, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.08 mg/g. EDS analysis confirmed that Cd (II) was adsorbed onto bamboo charcoal. This study demonstrated that bamboo charcoal could be used for the removal of Cd (II) ions in water treatment.

  2. Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of hydrogen adsorption on aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mee Kyung [Bioinformatics and Molecular Design Research Center, B138A, Yonsei Engineering Research Complex, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); No, Kyoung Tai [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2009-03-15

    The hydrogen adsorption simulations were carried for several model AlPOs (VPI-5, AlPO-5, AlPO-11 and AlPO-25) employing the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations at 77 K to investigate the effect of pore size and the pore volume on the hydrogen uptake. The adsorption capacity showed no relationship with the pore size, surface area and micropore volume of AlPOs. However, the adsorption capacity per unit micropore volume increased as the pore size decreases. The heat of adsorption also increased as the pore size decreases. For all model AlPOs, the hydrogen exists homogeneously near the oxygen atoms in the framework. (author)

  3. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of crystal violet in bottom ash column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiya Veetil Nidheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described adsorption of Crystal Violet (CV by bottom ash in fixed-bed column mode. Equilibrium of adsorption was studied in batch mode for finding adsorption capacity of bottom ash. In fixed bed column adsorption, the effects of bed height, feed flow rate, and initial concentration were studied by assessing breakthrough curve. The slope of the breakthrough curve decreased with increasing bed height. The breakthrough time and exhaustion time were decreased with increasing influent CV concentration and flow rates. The effect of bed depth, flow rate and CV concentration on the adsorption column design parameters were analyzed. Bed depth service time (BDST model was applied for analysis of crystal violet adsorption in the column. The adsorption capacity of bottom ash was calculated at 10% breakthrough point for different flow rates and concentrations. Desorption studies reveals that recovery of CV from bottom ash was effective by using CH3COOH than H2SO4, NaOH, HCl and NaCl solutions.

  4. ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL VIOLET IN BOTTOM ASH COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiya Veetil Nidheesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study described adsorption of Crystal Violet (CV by bottom ash in fixed-bed column mode. Equilibrium of adsorption was studied in batch mode for finding adsorption capacity of bottom ash. In fixed bed column adsorption, the effects of bed height, feed flow rate, and initial concentration were studied by assessing breakthrough curve. The slope of the breakthrough curve decreased with increasing bed height. The breakthrough time and exhaustion time were decreased with increasing influent CV concentration and flow rates. The effect of bed depth, flow rate and CV concentration on the adsorption column design parameters were analyzed. Bed depth service time (BDST model was applied for analysis of crystal violet adsorption in the column. The adsorption capacity of bottom ash was calculated at 10% breakthrough point for different flow rates and concentrations. Desorption studies reveals that recovery of CV from bottom ash was effective by using CH3COOH than H2SO4, NaOH, HCl and NaCl solutions.

  5. Effects of coal storage in air on physical and chemical properties of coal and on gas adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Solano-Acosta, W.; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in the high-volatile bituminous Lower Block Coal Member from Indiana owing to moisture availability and oxidation in air at ambient pressure and temperature over storage time. Specifically, it investigates changes in chemistry, in surface area, and pore structure, as well as changes in methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacities. Our results document that the methane adsorption capacity increased by 40%, whereas CO2 adsorption capacity increased by 18% during a 13-month time period. These changes in adsorption are accompanied by changes in chemistry and surface area of the coal. The observed changes in adsorption capacity indicate that special care must be taken when collecting samples and preserving coals until adsorption characteristics are measured in the laboratory. High-pressure isotherms from partially dried coal samples would likely cause overestimation of gas adsorption capacities, lead to a miscalculation of coal-bed methane prospects, and provide deceptively optimistic prognoses for recovery of coal-bed methane or capture of anthropogenic CO2. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Superb adsorption capacity of hierarchical calcined Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides for Congo red and Cr(VI) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Chunsheng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhu, Xiaofeng [College of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhu, Bicheng; Jiang, Chuanjia; Le, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (NMA-LDHs) synthesized. • NMA-LDHs with hierarchically hollow microsphere structure. • Calcined NMA-LDHs have large adsorption capacities for CR and Cr(VI) ions. - Abstract: The preparation of hierarchical porous materials as catalysts and sorbents has attracted much attention in the field of environmental pollution control. Herein, Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (NMA-LDHs) hierarchical flower-like hollow microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. After the NMA-LDHs was calcined at 600 °C, NMA-LDHs transformed into Ni/Mg/Al layered double oxides (NMA-LDOs), which maintained the hierarchical flower-like hollow structure. The crystal phase, morphology, and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption−desorption methods. Both the calcined and non-calcined NMA-LDHs were examined for their performance to remove Congo red (CR) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ions in aqueous solution. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of CR and Cr(VI) ions over the NMA-LDOs sample were 1250 and 103.4 mg/g at 30 °C, respectively. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. In addition, the addition of coexisting anions negatively influenced the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) ions, in the following order: CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} > Cl{sup −}. This work will provide new insight into the design and fabrication of advanced adsorption materials for water pollutant removal.

  7. Novel hollow microspheres of hierarchical zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides and their enhanced adsorption capacity for phosphate in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Yang, Siliang; Yu, Jiaguo; Shu, Zhan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs hollow microspheres were first synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. → The morphology of Zn-Al LDHs can be tailored from irregular platelet to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. → The as-prepared samples exhibit high adsorption capacity (54.1-232 mg/g) for phosphate from aqueous solution. - Abstract: Hollow microspheres of hierarchical Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. The morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphology of hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs can be tuned from irregular platelets to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. The effects of initial phosphate concentration and contact time on phosphate adsorption using various Zn-Al LDHs and their calcined products (LDOs) were investigated from batch tests. Our results indicate that the equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 54.1-232 mg/g; adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model. In addition, Zn-Al LDOs are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing phosphate from aqueous solutions due to their hierarchical porous structures and high specific surface areas.

  8. Adsorption and degradation of model volatile organic compounds by a combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangyao; Li Guiying; He Zhigui; An Taicheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Adsorptive combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalysts synthesized. → All catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities of multinary VOCs. → All catalysts preferred to adsorb the VOCs with higher polarity. → CTMS80 can effectively photocatalytically remove VOCs of various components. - Abstract: A series of adsorptive photocatalysts, combined titania-montmorillonite-silica were synthesized. The resultant photocatalysts consisted of more and more spherically agglomerated TiO 2 particles with increasing of TiO 2 content, and anatase was the only crystalline phase with nano-scale TiO 2 particles. With increasing of the cation exchange capacity to TiO 2 molar ratio, specific surface area and pore volume increased very slightly. In a fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor by choosing toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanethiol as model pollutants, all catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities and preferred to adsorb higher polarity pollutants. Langmuir isotherm model better described equilibrium data compared to Freundlich model. Competitive adsorptions were observed for the mixed pollutants on the catalysts, leading to decrease adsorption capacity for each pollutant. The combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic removal ability to model pollutants of various components. Almost 100% of degradation efficiency was achieved within 120 min for each pollutant with about 500 ppb initial concentration, though the efficiencies of multi-component compounds slightly decreased. All photocatalytic reactions followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Degradation rate constants of multi-component systems were lower than those for single systems, following the order of toluene < ethyl acetate < ethanethiol, and increased with the increase of adsorption capacities for different pollutants of various components.

  9. Increased adsorption of histidine-tagged proteins onto tissue culture polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene

    2012-04-01

    In this study we compare histidine-tagged and native proteins with regards to adsorption properties. We observe significantly increased adsorption of proteins with an incorporated polyhistidine amino acid motif (HIS-tag) onto tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) compared to similar proteins without a HIS-tag. The effect is not observed on polystyrene (PS). Adsorption experiments have been performed at physiological pH (7.4) and the effect was only observed for the investigated proteins that have pI values below or around 7.4. Competitive adsorption experiments with imidazole and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), as well as adsorption performed at different pH and ionic strength indicates that the high adsorption is caused by electrostatic interaction between negatively charged carboxylate groups on the TCPS surface and positively charged histidine residues in the proteins. Pre-adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) does not decrease the adsorption of HIS-tagged proteins onto TCPS. Our findings identify a potential problem in using HIS-tagged signalling molecule in assays with cells cultured on TCPS, since the concentration of the molecule in solution might be affected and this could critically influence the assay outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption of phenol on metal treated by granular activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kwang Cheol; Kwon, Soo Han; Kim, Seung Soo; Baik, Min Hoon; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Jin Won

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effect of metal treatment on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) was investigated in the context of phenol adsorption. Cobalt(II) nitrate, and zinc(II) nitrate solution were used for metal treated. The specific surface area and the pore structure were evaluated from nitrogen adsorption data at 77 K. The phenol adsorption rates onto GAC were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Iodine adsorption capacity of Co-GAC is much better then that of the GAC. The Co-GAC with mesopore is more efficient than other adsorbents for the adsorption of polymer such as methyleneblue. The adsorption capacity of reference-GAC and metal-GAC were increased in order of Co-GAC>Zn-GAC>Reference-GAC, in spite of a decrease in specific surface area which was resulted from pore blocking by metal

  11. Adsorptive removal of arsenic by novel iron/olivine composite: Insights into preparation and adsorption process by response surface methodology and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Kattil, Krishna V; Yadav, Manoj K; Gupta, Ashok K

    2018-03-01

    Olivine, a low-cost natural material, impregnated with iron is introduced in the adsorptive removal of arsenic. A wet impregnation method and subsequent calcination were employed for the preparation of iron/olivine composite. The major preparation process parameter, viz., iron loading and calcination temperature were optimized through the response surface methodology coupled with a factorial design. A significant variation of adsorption capacity of arsenic (measured as total arsenic), i.e., 63.15 to 310.85 mg/kg for arsenite [As(III) T ] and 76.46 to 329.72 mg/kg for arsenate [As(V) T ] was observed, which exhibited the significant effect of the preparation process parameters on the adsorption potential. The iron loading delineated the optima at central points, whereas a monotonous decreasing trend of adsorption capacity for both the As(III) T and As(V) T was observed with the increasing calcination temperature. The variation of adsorption capacity with the increased iron loading is more at lower calcination temperature showing the interactive effect between the factors. The adsorbent prepared at the optimized condition of iron loading and calcination temperature, i.e., 10% and 200 °C, effectively removed the As(III) T and As(V) T by more than 96 and 99%, respectively. The material characterization of the adsorbent showed the formation of the iron compound in the olivine and increase in specific surface area to the tune of 10 multifold compared to the base material, which is conducive to the enhancement of the adsorption capacity. An artificial neural network was applied for the multivariate optimization of the adsorption process from the experimental data of the univariate optimization study and the optimized model showed low values of error functions and high R 2 values of more than 0.99 for As(III) T and As(V) T . The adsorption isotherm and kinetics followed Langmuir model and pseudo second order model, respectively demonstrating the chemisorption in this

  12. An insight into the removal of Cu (II) and Pb (II) by aminopropyl-modified mesoporous carbon CMK-3: Adsorption capacity and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, Hussein, E-mail: hussein.hamad@ul.edu.lb [Platform for Research and Analysis in Environmental Sciences (PRASE), Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Ezzeddine, Zeinab; Lakis, Fatima; Rammal, Hassan [Platform for Research and Analysis in Environmental Sciences (PRASE), Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Srour, Mortada [Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences (I), Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hijazi, Akram [Platform for Research and Analysis in Environmental Sciences (PRASE), Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the adsorption of heavy metal ions onto ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 was investigated. CMK-3 has been synthesized using SBA-15 as the hard template and then directly amino-functionalized by the treatment with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) without the need of oxidation before. The thus obtained modified mesoporous carbon has been characterized by nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Its adsorption efficiency for the removal of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions was tested. The effects of contact time, pH and initial metal ions concentration were investigated as well. The adsorption capacities were very high (3.5 mmol g{sup −1} and 8.6 mmol g{sup −1} for Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} respectively). These values depend largely on the speciation of metal ions as a function of pH. The selectivity was also dependent on the nature of metal ions rather than the adsorbent used. The mechanism of adsorption is complex where several types of interaction between metal ions and the adsorbent surface are involved. - Highlights: • Mesoporous carbon CMK-3 was successfully synthesized and functionalized. • No oxidation treatment was done prior to aminopropyl functionalization. • The adsorbent adsorption capacity is high (3.5 mmol g{sup −1} for Cu{sup 2+} and 8.6 mmol g{sup −1} for Pb{sup 2+}). • The maximum Cu{sup 2+} adsorption capacity is related to its speciation as a function of pH. • The mechanism of adsorption is complex including different types of interaction.

  13. A one-step thermal decomposition method to prepare anatase TiO2 nanosheets with improved adsorption capacities and enhanced photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenting; Shang, Chunli; Li, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anatase TiO 2 nanosheets (NSs) with high surface area have been prepared. • Only one type of surfactant, oleylamine (OM), is used as capping agents. • TiO 2 NSs possess high adsorption capacities MB and high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Anatase TiO 2 nanosheets (NSs) with high surface area have been prepared via a one-step thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in oleylamine (OM), and their adsorption capacities and photocatalytic activities are investigated by using methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) as model pollutants. During the synthesis procedure, only one type of surfactant, oleylamine (OM), is used as capping agents and no other solvents are added. Structure and properties of the TiO 2 NSs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption analysis, UV–vis spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Photoluminescence (PL) methods. The results indicate that the TiO 2 NSs possess high surface area up to 378 m 2 g −1 . The concentration of capping agents is found to be a key factor controlling the morphology and crystalline structure of the product. Adsorption and photodegradation experiments reveal that the prepared TiO 2 NSs possess high adsorption capacities of model pollutants MB and high photocatalytic activity, showing that TiO 2 NSs can be used as efficient pollutant adsorbents and photocatalytic degradation catalysts of MB in wastewater treatment.

  14. AUSTRALIAN PINE CONES-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ADSORPTION OF COPPER IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSLIM A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Pine cones (APCs was utilised as adsorbent material by physical and chemical activation for the adsorption Cu(II in aqueous solution. FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted to obtain the active site and to characterise the surface morphology of the APCs activated carbon (APCs AC prepared through pyrolysis at 1073.15 K and alkaline activation of NaOH. The independent variables effect such as contact time, Cu(II initial concentration and the activator ratio in the ranges of 0-150 min, 84.88-370.21 mg/l and 0.2-0.6 (NaOH:APCs AC, respectively on the Cu(II adsorption capacity were investigated in the APCs activated carbon-solution (APCs ACS system with 1 g the APCs AC in 100 mL Cu(II aqueous solution with magnetic stirring at 75 rpm, room temperature of 298.15 K (± 2 K, 1 atm and pH 5 (±0.25. As the results, Cu(II adsorption capacity dramatically increased with increasing contact time and Cu(II initial concentration. The optimal Cu(II adsorption capacity of 26.71 mg/g was obtained in the APCs ACS system with 120-min contact time, 340.81 m/l initial Cu(II and 0.6 activator ratio. The kinetics study showed the Cu(II adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics with 27.03 mg/g of adsorption capacity, 0.09 g/mg.min of rate constant and 0.985-R2. In addition, the Cu(II adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir model with 12.82 mg/g of the mono-layer adsorption capacity, 42.93 l/g of the over-all adsorption capacity and 0.954-R2.

  15. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan-Citral Schiff Base for Wastewater Pre-Treatment in Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava K. Tsaneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the Schiff base chitosan-citral for its application in dairy wastewater pre-treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction was the factor used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. The maximum COD percentage reduction of 35.3% was obtained at 40.0 °C, pH 9.0, adsorbent dose 15 g L-1, contact time 180 min and agitation speed 100 rpm. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm fitted well the equilibrium data of COD uptake (R2 = 0.968, whereas the kinetic data were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model (R2=0.999. Enhancement of the adsorption efficiency up to 29.8% in dependence of the initial COD concentration of the dairy wastewater was observed by adsorption with the Schiff base chitosan-citral adsorbent compared to the non-modified chitosan at the same experimental conditions. The results indicated that the Schiff base chitosan-citral can be used for dairy wastewater physicochemical pretreatment by adsorption, which might be applied before the biological unit in the wastewater treatment plant to reduce the load.

  16. Environmentally benign working pairs for adsorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Qun; Tao Gang; Chen Haijun; Guo Xinyue; Yao Huqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins from adsorption working pairs: water and ethanol were selected as refrigerants; 13x molecular sieve, silica gel, activated carbon, adsorbent NA and NB, proposed by authors, were selected as adsorbents, and the performance of adsorption working pairs in adsorption refrigeration cycle was studied. The adsorption isotherms of adsorbents (NA and NB) were obtained by high-vacuum gravimetric method. Desorption properties of adsorbents were analyzed and compared by thermal analysis method. The performance of adsorption refrigeration was studied on simulation device of adsorption refrigeration cycle. After presentation of adsorption isotherms, the thermodynamic performance for their use in adsorption refrigeration system was calculated. The results show: (1) the maximum adsorption capacity of water on adsorbent NA reaches 0.7 kg/kg, and the maximum adsorption capacity of ethanol on adsorbent NB is 0.68 kg/kg, which is three times that of ethanol on activated carbon, (2) the refrigeration capacity of NA-water working pair is 922 kJ/kg, the refrigeration capacity of NB-ethanol is 2.4 times that of activated carbon-methanol, (3) as environmental friendly and no public hazard adsorption working pair, NA-H 2 O and NB-ethanol can substitute activated carbon-methanol in adsorption refrigeration system using low-grade heat source

  17. Resorcinol adsorption from aqueous solution over activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Diego A; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the adsorption behavior of Resorcinol a monohydroxylated phenol, poorly acid to 298 K, over activated carbon is analyzed by studying the solution's pH influence and the surface reduction in the adsorption process. To do this, an activated carbon of lignocellulose origin and a reduced activated carbon was used. The interaction solid solution is characterized by the analyses of adsorption in the isotherms to 298 K and pH values of 7. 00, 9.00 and 11.00 for a period of 48 hours. The capacity adsorption of activated carbons increases when the solution's pH decreases and the retained amount increases in the reduced coal to the pH of maximum adsorption.

  18. Adsorption of aliphatic alcohols on ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, L.B.; Zakumbaeva, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption is studied of allyl-, propyl- and propargyl alcohols on a ruthenium catalyst-electrode at 20, 30 and 40 deg C in H 2 SO 4 in helium. Above adsorption has been found to grow with increased concentration of the alcohols in the solution. In solutions with the same concentration, propargyl alcohol has been noted to show highest sorptive capacity, followed by that of allyl- and propyl alcohols. With variations in the ruthenium electrode potential, alcohol adsorption occurs via maximum at potential = 0.18

  19. Thermal activation of serpentine for adsorption of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun-Yan [College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University, Jinzhou (China); Liang, Cheng-Hua, E-mail: liang110161@163.com [College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang (China); Yin, Yan [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Du, Li-Yu [College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Thermal activated serpentine was prepared by changing heated temperature. • Thermal activated serpentine exhibited excellent adsorption behavior for cadmium. • The adsorption mechanisms could be explained as formation of CdCO{sub 3} and Cd(OH){sub 2}. • The adsorption obeyed Langmuir model and pseudo second order kinetics model. - Abstract: Thermal activated serpentine with high adsorption capacity for heavy metals was prepared. The batch experiment studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of Cd{sup 2+} in aqueous solution using thermal activated serpentine as adsorbent. These samples before and after adsorption were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, XPS, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption at low temperature. It was found that serpentine with layered structure transformed to forsterite with amorphous structure after thermal treatment at over 700 °C, while the surface area of the samples was increased with activated temperature and the serpentine activated at 700 °C (S-700) presented the largest surface area. The pH of solution after adsorption was increased in different degrees due to hydrolysis of MgO in serpentine, resulting in enhancing adsorption of Cd{sup 2+}. The S-700 exhibited the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity (15.21 mg/g), which was 2 times more than pristine serpentine. Langmuir isotherm was proved to describe the equilibrium adsorption data better than Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics model could fit the adsorption kinetics processes well. Based on the results of characterization with XPS and XRD, the adsorption mechanisms could be explained as primarily formation of CdCO{sub 3} and Cd(OH){sub 2} precipitation on the surface of serpentine.

  20. Thermal activation of serpentine for adsorption of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun-Yan; Liang, Cheng-Hua; Yin, Yan; Du, Li-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal activated serpentine was prepared by changing heated temperature. • Thermal activated serpentine exhibited excellent adsorption behavior for cadmium. • The adsorption mechanisms could be explained as formation of CdCO_3 and Cd(OH)_2. • The adsorption obeyed Langmuir model and pseudo second order kinetics model. - Abstract: Thermal activated serpentine with high adsorption capacity for heavy metals was prepared. The batch experiment studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of Cd"2"+ in aqueous solution using thermal activated serpentine as adsorbent. These samples before and after adsorption were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, XPS, and N_2 adsorption-desorption at low temperature. It was found that serpentine with layered structure transformed to forsterite with amorphous structure after thermal treatment at over 700 °C, while the surface area of the samples was increased with activated temperature and the serpentine activated at 700 °C (S-700) presented the largest surface area. The pH of solution after adsorption was increased in different degrees due to hydrolysis of MgO in serpentine, resulting in enhancing adsorption of Cd"2"+. The S-700 exhibited the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity (15.21 mg/g), which was 2 times more than pristine serpentine. Langmuir isotherm was proved to describe the equilibrium adsorption data better than Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics model could fit the adsorption kinetics processes well. Based on the results of characterization with XPS and XRD, the adsorption mechanisms could be explained as primarily formation of CdCO_3 and Cd(OH)_2 precipitation on the surface of serpentine.

  1. Adsorption of Monobutyl Phthalate from Aqueous Phase onto Two Macroporous Anion-Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As new emerging pollutants, phthalic acid monoesters (PAMs pose potential ecological and human health risks. In the present study, adsorption performance of monobutyl phthalate (MBP onto two macroporous base anion-exchange resins (D-201 and D-301 was discussed. It was found that the adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Langmuir equation while the adsorption kinetics were well described by pseudo-first-order model. Analyses of sorption isotherms and thermodynamics proved that the adsorption mechanisms for DBP onto D-201 were ion exchange. However, the obtained enthalpy values indicate that the sorption process of MBP onto D-301 is physical adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption capacities and adsorption rates of DBP on two different resins increased with the increasing temperature of the solution. D-301 exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of MBP than D-201. These results proved that D-301, as an effective sorbent, can be used to remove phthalic acid monoesters from aqueous solution.

  2. Assessment of the adsorptive capacity of the Kaolin deposit targeting its use on the removal of colors in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, S.C.; Hildebrando, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonic region has large and valuable kaolin deposits. The state of Para by itself comprises three large industries which process kaolin. It has been noticed that the waste resulting from the processing of kaolin is rich in silico-aluminate, presenting potential in adsorption processes. Thus, this research's objective is to assess the kaolin waste produced during the processing phase, aiming at its application as low cost adsorbent material. For that, the kaolin waste has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis (XRF), and then sieved and calcined at 700 ° C, being then subjected to the adsorption process and observed qualitatively its capacity of retention by methylene blue (AM). Preliminary results show that the kaolin waste has satisfactory adsorption capacity at concentrations of up to 50.0 mg / MP, demonstrating the potential that it be used in the removal of dyes in wastewater treatment. (author)

  3. Effective Microporosity for Enhanced Adsorption Capacity of Cr (VI) from Dilute Aqueous Solution: Isotherm and Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd Mukosha; Maurice S. Onyango; Aoyi Ochieng; John Siame

    2017-01-01

    The adsorbent pore structure significant to enhanced adsorption capacity of Cr (VI) from dilute aqueous solution is evaluated. As reference, low-cost micro-mesoporous activated carbon (AC) of high basicity, mesoporosity centred about 2.4 nm, and effective microporosity centred about 0.9 nm was tested for removal of Cr (VI) from dilute aqueous solution in batch mode. At pH 2 the low-cost AC exhibited highly improved Langmuir Cr (VI) capacity of 115 mg/g which was competitive to high performanc...

  4. Highly Efficient Adsorption of Copper Ions by a PVP-Reduced Graphene Oxide Based On a New Adsorptions Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongji Zhang; HuiJuan Chi; WenHui Zhang; Youyi Sun; Qing Liang; Yu Gu; Riya Jing

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummers method and was used as adsorbent for removing Cu ions from wastewater. The effects of contact time and ions concentration on adsorption capacity were examined. The maximum adsorption capacity of 1689 mg/g was observed at an initial p H value of 3.5 after agitating for 10 min. It was demonstrated that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide had a huge adsorption capacity for Cu ions, which was 10 times higher than maximal value reported in previous works. The adsorption mechanism was also discussed by density functional theory. It demonstrates that Cu ions are attracted to surface of reduced graphene oxide by C atoms in reduced graphene oxide modified by polyvinylpyrrolidone through physisorption processes, which may be responsible for the higher adsorption capacity. Our results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide is an effective adsorbent for removing Cu ions in wastewater. It also provides a new way to improve the adsorption capacity of reduced graphene oxide for dealing with the heavy metal ion in wastewater.

  5. Adsorption of lead and cadmium ions in aqueous solutions onto modified lignin from alkali glycerol delignication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2004-01-01

    Adsorptions of toxic metal ions (Pb(II) and Cd(II)) onto modified lignin from beech and poplar woods by alkali glycerol delignification are presented in this paper. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the adsorption data follow the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities are 8.2-9.0 and 6.7-7.5 mg/g of the modified lignin for Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The maximum adsorption percentage is 95.8 for Pb(II) for 4 h at 330 K and is 95.0 for Cd(II) for 10 h at 290 K. The adsorption of both the metal ions increased with increasing temperature indicating endothermic nature of the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption percentages of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions decrease with time till 48 and 42 h and then again increase slightly with time. The adsorption of both heavy metal ions increases with pH. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions reached a maximum at a 5.0 value of pH

  6. Adsorption behavior of strontium on binary mineral mixtures of Montmorillonite and Kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bascetin, Elvan [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, P.K.1 34149, Atatuerk Airport, Istanbul (Turkey); Atun, Guelten [Engineering Faculty, Chemistry Department, Istanbul University, 34850 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: gultena@istanbul.edu.tr

    2006-08-15

    The adsorption behavior of kaolinite and montmorillonite minerals and their mixtures in respect of Sr ion were studied by means of a batch method using {sup 90}Sr as a radio tracer. The effect of several parameters such as temperature, pH, Sr concentration and supporting electrolyte were investigated. Experimentally measured distribution coefficients showed a good agreement to within 98.5-99.7% with theoretically calculated values. The values of adsorption capacity of adsorbents and mean adsorption energy of adsorption were calculated by fitting the adsorption data to Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The adsorption capacity of clay mixtures decreased as kaolinite fractions increased. The mean adsorption energy values of 8.0-9.5 kJ mol{sup -1} showed that adsorption was governed by ion exchange. The Freundlich parameters were used to characterize a site distribution function for binary exchange between Sr and Na.

  7. Adsorption behavior of strontium on binary mineral mixtures of Montmorillonite and Kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascetin, Elvan; Atun, Guelten

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of kaolinite and montmorillonite minerals and their mixtures in respect of Sr ion were studied by means of a batch method using 90 Sr as a radio tracer. The effect of several parameters such as temperature, pH, Sr concentration and supporting electrolyte were investigated. Experimentally measured distribution coefficients showed a good agreement to within 98.5-99.7% with theoretically calculated values. The values of adsorption capacity of adsorbents and mean adsorption energy of adsorption were calculated by fitting the adsorption data to Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The adsorption capacity of clay mixtures decreased as kaolinite fractions increased. The mean adsorption energy values of 8.0-9.5 kJ mol -1 showed that adsorption was governed by ion exchange. The Freundlich parameters were used to characterize a site distribution function for binary exchange between Sr and Na

  8. A one-step thermal decomposition method to prepare anatase TiO{sub 2} nanosheets with improved adsorption capacities and enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenting; Shang, Chunli; Li, Xue, E-mail: chm_lix@ujn.edu.cn

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanosheets (NSs) with high surface area have been prepared. • Only one type of surfactant, oleylamine (OM), is used as capping agents. • TiO{sub 2} NSs possess high adsorption capacities MB and high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanosheets (NSs) with high surface area have been prepared via a one-step thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in oleylamine (OM), and their adsorption capacities and photocatalytic activities are investigated by using methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) as model pollutants. During the synthesis procedure, only one type of surfactant, oleylamine (OM), is used as capping agents and no other solvents are added. Structure and properties of the TiO{sub 2} NSs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption analysis, UV–vis spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Photoluminescence (PL) methods. The results indicate that the TiO{sub 2} NSs possess high surface area up to 378 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The concentration of capping agents is found to be a key factor controlling the morphology and crystalline structure of the product. Adsorption and photodegradation experiments reveal that the prepared TiO{sub 2} NSs possess high adsorption capacities of model pollutants MB and high photocatalytic activity, showing that TiO{sub 2} NSs can be used as efficient pollutant adsorbents and photocatalytic degradation catalysts of MB in wastewater treatment.

  9. [Study on treatment of methylene blue wastewater by fly ash adsorption-Fenton and thermal regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Ai-Li; Zhou, Ji-Ti

    2012-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of water-washed fly ash (FA) and acid modified fly ash (M-FA) were investigated. The adsorption of methylene blue by FA and M-FA were studied by batch experiments. Two methods, Fenton-drive oxidation regeneration and thermal regeneration, were used for regeneration of the used FA and M-FA. The result showed that the rate of adsorption process followed the second order kinetics and the adsorption followed Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium time was 30 min, and the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FA and M-FA were 4.22 mg x g(-1) and 5.98 mg x g(-1) respectively. The adsorption capability of M-FA was higher than that of FA. In the range of pH 2-12, the adsorption capacity of M-FA increased with the increase of pH, whereas the adsorption capacity of FA decreased slowly until the pH 8 and then increased. Electrostatic adsorption was the major factor on the adsorption capacity. Around 61% and 55% percentage regeneration (PR) were obtained for FA and M-FA respectively when 78.4 mmol x L(-1) H2O2 and 0.72 mmol x L(-1) Fe2+ were used. When the condition of thermal regeneration was 400 degrees C and 2 h, a positive correlation can be found between the PRs of FA and regeneration times, the PRs were 102%, 104% and 107% in three cycles of adsorption-thermal regeneration process. However a negative correlation can be found between the PRs of M-FA and regeneration times, the PRs were 82%, 75% and 74% in three cycles of adsorption-thermal regeneration process. The PR of FA was higher than that of M-FA, and thermal regeneration was superior to Fenton-drive regeneration.

  10. ADSORPTION OF PITCH AND STICKIES ON MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES TREATED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERAURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium aluminum hydroxides (MAH of nitrate and carbonate forms were prepared by co-precipitation, dried at different temperatures, and employed as an adsorbent for pitch and stickies in papermaking. Results indicated that MAH that had been heat-treated had higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and stickies at neutral pH. Low-temperature-dried magnesium aluminum hydroxides of nitrate form (MAH-NO3 had higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and model stickies than those of the carbonate form (MAH-CO3. Increasing the drying temperature of MAH reduced the difference of adsorption capacity between MAH-NO3 and MAH-CO3. Higher-temperature-dried magnesium aluminum hydroxides also showed higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and stickies when the drying temperature was lower than 550 oC. MAH displayed higher adsorption capacity while a lower initial adsorption rate of model stickies than of model pitch. The model pitch and stickies were adsorbed on MAH significantly by charge neutralization and distributed mainly on the surface of the platelets of magnesium aluminum hydroxides. The experimental isothermal adsorption data of model pitch and stickies on MAH dried at 500 oC fit well to the Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm equations.

  11. Effect of Crop-Straw Derived Biochars on Pb(II) Adsorption in Two Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tian-yu; XU Ren-kou; GU Tian-xia; JIANG Jun

    2014-01-01

    Two variable charge soils were incubated with biochars derived from straws of peanut, soybean, canola, and rice to investigate the effect of the biochars on their chemical properties and Pb(II) adsorption using batch experiments. The results showed soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH signiifcantly increased after 30 d of incubation with the biochars added. The incorporation of the biochars markedly increased the adsorption of Pb(II), and both the electrostatic and non-electrostatic adsorption mechanisms contributed to Pb(II) adsorption by the variable charge soils. Adsorption isotherms illustrated legume-straw derived biochars more greatly increased Pb(II) adsorption on soils through the non-electrostatic mechanism via the formation of surface complexes between Pb(II) and acid functional groups of the biochars than did non-legume straw biochars. The adsorption capacity of Pb(II) increased, while the desorption amount slightly decreased with the increasing suspension pH for the studied soils, especially in a high suspension pH, indicating that precipitation also plays an important role in immobilizing Pb(II) to the soils.

  12. Amine-tethered solid adsorbents coupling high adsorption capacity and regenerability for CO2 capture from ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Gray, McMahan L; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-05-23

    Silica supported poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) materials are prepared via impregnation and demonstrated to be promising adsorbents for CO(2) capture from ultra-dilute gas streams such as ambient air. A prototypical class 1 adsorbent, containing 45 wt% PEI (PEI/silica), and two new modified PEI-based aminosilica adsorbents, derived from PEI modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (A-PEI/silica) or tetraethyl orthotitanate (T-PEI/silica), are prepared and characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. The modifiers are shown to enhance the thermal stability of the polymer-oxide composites, leading to higher PEI decomposition temperatures. The modified adsorbents present extremely high CO(2) adsorption capacities under conditions simulating ambient air (400 ppm CO(2) in inert gas), exceeding 2 mol(CO (2)) kg(sorbent)(-1), as well as enhanced adsorption kinetics compared to conventional class 1 sorbents. The new adsorbents show excellent stability in cyclic adsorption-desorption operations, even under dry conditions in which aminosilica adsorbents are known to lose capacity due to urea formation. Thus, the adsorbents of this type can be considered promising materials for the direct capture of CO(2) from ultra-dilute gas streams such as ambient air. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hexavalent chromium adsorption from aqueous solution using carbon nano-onions (CNOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Poapolathep, Amnart; Satapanajaru, Tunlawit; Poapolathep, Saranya

    2017-10-01

    The capacity of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution was investigated. Batch experiments were performed to quantify the effects of the dosage rate, pH, counter ions, and temperature. The adsorption of Cr(VI) onto CNOs was best described by a pseudo-second order rate expression. The adsorption efficiency increased with increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time and reached equilibrium in 24 h. The equilibrium data showed better compliance with a Langmuir isotherm than a Freundlich isotherm. Effective removal of Cr(VI) was demonstrated at pH values ranging from 2 to 10. The adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) was found to be highest (82%) at pH 3.4 and greatly depended on the solution pH. We found that Cr(VI) adsorption decreased with increasing pH over the pH range of 3.4-10. The adsorption capacity increased dramatically when the temperature increased from 10 °C to 50 °C regardless of the amount of CNOs used. Cr(VI) removal decreased by ∼13% when Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) were present, while there were no significant changes observed when NO 3 - or SO 4 2- was present. The overall results support that CNOs can be used as an alternative adsorbent material to remove Cr(VI) in the water treatment industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Volatile organic compound adsorption in a gas-solid fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y L; Yan, R; Tsen, L T S; Yong, L C; Liu, M; Liang, D T

    2004-01-01

    Fluidization finds many process applications in the areas of catalytic reactions, drying, coating, combustion, gasification and microbial culturing. This work aims to compare the dynamic adsorption characteristics and adsorption rates in a bubbling fluidized bed and a fixed bed at the same gas flow-rate, gas residence time and bed height. Adsorption with 520 ppm methanol and 489 ppm isobutane by the ZSM-5 zeolite of different particle size in the two beds enabled the differentiation of the adsorption characteristics and rates due to bed type, intraparticle mass transfer and adsorbate-adsorbent interaction. Adsorption of isobutane by the more commonly used activated carbon provided the comparison of adsorption between the two adsorbent types. With the same gas residence time of 0.79 seconds in both the bubbling bed and fixed bed of the same bed size of 40 mm diameter and 48 mm height, the experimental results showed a higher rate of adsorption in the bubbling bed as compared to the fixed bed. Intraparticle mass transfer and adsorbent-adsorbate interaction played significant roles in affecting the rate of adsorption, with intraparticle mass transfer being more dominant. The bubbling bed was observed to have a steeper decline in adsorption rate with respect to increasing outlet concentration compared to the fixed bed. The adsorption capacities of zeolite for the adsorbates studied were comparatively similar in both beds; fluidizing, and using smaller particles in the bubbling bed did not increase the adsorption capacity of the ZSM-5 zeolite. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon for isobutane was much higher than the ZSM-5 zeolite for isobutane, although at a lower adsorption rate. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was used as an analytical tool for the quantification of gas concentration. Calibration was done using a series of standards prepared by in situ dilution with nitrogen gas, based on the ideal gas law and relating partial pressure to gas

  15. Rapid and tunable selective adsorption of dyes using thermally oxidized nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Hossein; Shojaei, Akbar; Pourghaderi, Alireza

    2018-03-27

    In the present study, capability of nanodiamond (ND) for the adsorption of anionic (methyl orange, MO) and cationic (methylene blue, MB) dyes from aqueous solution was investigated. Employing fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Boehm titration method and zeta potential, it was found that the simple thermal oxidation of ND at 425 °C, increased the content of carboxylic acid of ND and accordingly the zeta potential of ND decreased considerably. Therefore, a series of oxidized NDs (OND) at various oxidation times and as-received untreated ND (UND) was used as adsorbents of MO and MB. The adsorption experiments exhibited that UND had large adsorption capacity, very fast adsorption kinetics and excellent selectivity for MO over MB. These results suggested that the adsorption tendency of UND toward anionic MO dye followed not only by electrostatic interactions but also via the chemical interaction caused by the strong hydrogen bond between the sulfonate groups of MO and the oxygen containing groups on the surface of UND. In contrast, ONDs exhibited higher adsorption capacity for cationic MB whose tendency toward MB increased by increasing the thermal oxidation time due to the promotion of the negative charge on the surface of OND leading to the higher electrostatic attraction. The adsorption rate of MB on ONDs was also very high. Kinetics data was well fitted with the pseudo- second-order model for most of the adsorbents. The adsorption selectivity analysis revealed that ONDs displayed more adsorption capacity for MB compared with MO which was also attributed to high electrostatic interactions of cationic dye with negative charges of ONDs. Finally, the release behavior of NDs was also demonstrated after soaking in ethanol and acetone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetic and equilibrium study of uranium(VI) adsorption by Bacillus licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-ji Yi; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing; Jun Yao

    2012-01-01

    Uranium pollution is a severe problem worldwide. Biosorption has been proposed as one of the most promising technologies for the removal of uranyl cations. Here we report on the adsorption behavior of uranium(VI) [U(VI)] on Bacillus licheniformis biomass to explore the potentiality of its application in uranium contamination control. The adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics, and effects of temperature, pH and initial biosorbent dosage on the adsorption equilibrium were investigated in detail through batch experiments. The adsorption process is pronouncedly affected by the solution pH and the optimum pH range should be 4.5-5.0.Temperature range from 25 to 45 deg C has a certain effect on the rate of biosorption, but little effect on the equilibrium adsorption capacity. The U(VI) percentage removal increased concurrently with increasing biomass dosage, whereas the adsorption capacity decreased. The process follows the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics data were fitted very well by the pseudo-first-order rate model. Finally, the calculation results of thermodynamic constant (ΔG a = 9.98 kJ/mol) reveal that the adsorption process can be identified as a spontaneous chemical process. The present results suggest that B. licheniformis has considerable potential for the removal of uranyl from aqueous solution. (author)

  17. Adsorption of emerging contaminant metformin using graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Liu, Yun-Guo; Liu, Shao-Bo; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Lu-Hua; Tan, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Lu; Zeng, Wei; Li, Ting-Ting; Yang, Chun-Ping

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence of emerging contaminants in our water resources poses potential threats to the livings. Due to the poor treatment in wastewater management, treatment technologies are needed to effectively remove these products for living organism safety. In this study, Graphene oxide (GO) was tested for the first time for its capacity to remove a kind of emerging wastewater contaminants, metformin. The research was conducted by using a series of systematic adsorption and kinetic experiments. The results indicated that GO could rapidly and efficiently reduce the concentration of metformin, which could provide a solution in handling this problem. The uptake of metformin on the graphene oxide was strongly dependent on temperature, pH, ionic strength, and background electrolyte. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that almost 80% removal of metformin was achieved within 20 min for all the doses studied, corresponding to the relatively high k 1 (0.232 min -1 ) and k 2 (0.007 g mg -1  min -1 ) values in the kinetic models. It indicated that the highest adsorption capacity in the investigated range (q m ) of GO for metformin was at pH 6.0 and 288 K. Thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous (ΔG 0  adsorption of metformin increased when the pH values changed from 4.0 to 6.0, and decreased adsorption were observed at pH 6.0-11.0. GO still exhibited excellent adsorption capacity after several desorption/adsorption cycles. Besides, both so-called π-π interactions and hydrogen bonds might be mainly responsible for the adsorption of metformin onto GO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy metal ion adsorption behavior in nitrogen-doped magnetic carbon nanoparticles: Isotherms and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Keun-Young; Hong, Jin-Yong; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → The monodisperse and multigram-scale N-MCNPs are fabricated by carbonization of polypyrrole as a carbon precursor. → The synthesized N-MCNPs provide an enhanced adsorption uptake for various heavy metal ions. → The N-MCNPs can be applied to the Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. → The iron-impregnated N-MCNPs are reused up to 5 times with no loss of removal efficiency. - Abstract: To clarify the heavy metal adsorption mechanism of nitrogen-doped magnetic carbon nanoparticles (N-MCNPs), adsorption capacity was investigated from the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics points of view. The obtained results showed that the equilibrium adsorption behavior of Cr 3+ ion onto the N-MCNPs can be applied to the Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. It indicated that the fabricated N-MCNPs had the homogenous surface for adsorption and all adsorption sites had equal adsorption energies. Furthermore, the adsorption onto N-MCNPs taken place through a chemical process involving the valence forces. According to the thermodynamics, the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature which means that the adsorption capacity increases with increasing temperature due to the enhanced mobility of adsorbate molecules. The effects of the solution pH and the species of heavy metal ion on the adsorption uptake were also studied. The synthesized N-MCNPs exhibited an enhanced adsorption capacity for the heavy metal ions due to the high surface area and large amount of nitrogen contents.

  19. Adsorption-desorption reactions of selenium (VI) in tropical cultivated and uncultivated soils under Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, J H L; Araujo, A M; Silva, G N T; Guilherme, L R G; Lopes, G

    2016-12-01

    Soil management may affect selenium (Se) adsorption capacity. This study investigated adsorption and desorption of Se (VI) in selected Brazilian soils from the Cerrado biome, an area of ever increasing importance for agriculture expansion in Brazil. Soil samples were collected from cultivated and uncultivated soils, comprising clayed and sandy soils. Following chemical and mineralogical characterization, soil samples were subjected to Se adsorption and desorption tests. Adsorption was evaluated after a 72-h reaction with increasing concentrations of Se (0-2000 μg L -1 ) added as Na 2 SeO 4 in a NaCl electrolyte solution (pH 5.5; ionic strength 15 mmol L -1 ). Desorption, as well as distribution coefficients (K d ) for selenate were also assessed. Soil management affected Se adsorption capacity, i.e., Se adsorbed amounts were higher for uncultivated soils, when compared to cultivated ones. Such results were also supported by data of K d and maximum adsorption capacity of Se. This fact was attributed mainly to the presence of greater amounts of competing anions, especially phosphate, in cultivated soils, due to fertilizer application. Phosphate may compete with selenate for adsorption sites, decreasing Se retention. For the same group of soils (cultivated and uncultivated), Se adsorption was greater in the clayed soils compared to sandy ones. Our results support the idea that adding Se (VI) to the soil is a good strategy to increase Se levels in food crops (agronomic biofortification), especially when crops are grown in soils that have been cultivated over the time due to their low Se adsorption capacity (high Se availability). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Mishra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their unique surface morphology. In the present work, we have demonstrated the CO2 adsorption capacity of graphene, prepared via hydrogen induced exfoliation of graphitic oxide at moderate temperatures. The CO2 adsorption study was performed using high pressure Sieverts apparatus and capacity was calculated by gas equation using van der Waals corrections. Physical adsorption of CO2 molecules in graphene was confirmed by FTIR study. Synthesis of graphene sheets via hydrogen exfoliation is possible at large scale and lower cost and higher adsorption capacity of as prepared graphene compared to other carbon nanostructures suggests its possible use as CO2 adsorbent for industrial application. Maximum adsorption capacity of 21.6 mmole/g was observed at 11 bar pressure and room temperature (25 ºC.

  1. Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tong; Lu, Ping; He, Nan

    2013-05-01

    Mulberry twig chars were prepared by pyrolysis, steam activation and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Textural characteristics and surface functional groups were performed using nitrogen adsorption and FTIR, respectively. Mercury adsorption of different modified MT chars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed absorber. The results indicated that steam activation and H2O2-impregnation can improve pore structure significantly and H2O2-impregnation and chloride-impregnation promote surface functional groups. However, chloride-impregnation has adverse effect on pore structure. Mercury adsorption capacities of impregnated MT chars with 10% or 30% H2O2 are 2.02 and 1.77 times of steam activated MT char, respectively. Mercury adsorption capacity of ZnCl2-impregnated MT char increase with increasing ZnCl2 content and is better than that of NaCl-impregnated MT char at the same chloride content. The modified MT char (MT873-A-Z5) prepared by steam activation following impregnation with 5% ZnCl2 exhibits a higher mercury adsorption capacity (29.55 μg g(-1)) than any other MT chars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorption and separation of n/iso-pentane on zeolites: A GCMC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui; Qin, Hansong; Wang, Yajun; Liu, Yibin; Yang, Chaohe; Shan, Honghong

    2018-03-01

    Separation of branched chain hydrocarbons and straight chain hydrocarbons is very important in the isomerization process. Grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the adsorption and separation of iso-pentane and n-pentane in four types of zeolites: MWW, BOG, MFI, and LTA. The computation of the pure components indicates that the adsorption capacity is affected by physical properties of zeolite, like pore size and structures, and isosteric heat. In BOG, MFI and LTA, the amount of adsorption of n-pentane is higher than iso-pentane, while the phenomenon is contrary in MWW. For a given zeolite, a stronger adsorption heat corresponds to a higher loading. In the binary mixture simulations, the separation capacity of n-and iso-pentane increases with the elevated pressure and the increasing iso-pentane composition. The adsorption mechanism and competition process have been examined. Preferential adsorption contributions prevail at low pressure, however, the size effect becomes important with the increasing pressure, and the relatively smaller n-pentane gradually competes successfully in binary adsorption. Among these zeolites, MFI has the best separation performance due to its high shape selectivity. This work helps to better understand the adsorption and separation performance of n- and iso-pentane in different zeolites and explain the relationship between zeolite structures and adsorption performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium ( q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (Δ G 0), enthalpy (Δ H 0) and entropy (Δ S 0) were determined and the positive value of (Δ H) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  4. Facile synthesis of hydroxy-modified MOF-5 for improving the adsorption capacity of hydrogen by lithium doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masaru; Hagi, Hayato; Shimojima, Atsushi; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2013-11-01

    A facile synthesis of partially hydroxy-modified MOF-5 and its improved H2-adsorption capacity by lithium doping are reported. The reaction of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with a mixture of terephthalic acid (H2BDC) and 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (H2BDC-OH) in DMF gave hydroxy-modified MOF-5 (MOF-5-OH-x), in which the molar fraction (x) of BDC-OH(2-) was up to 0.54 of the whole ligand. The MOF-5-OH-x frameworks had high BET surface areas (about 3300 m(2) g(-1)), which were comparable to that of MOF-5. We suggest that the MOF-5-OH-x frameworks are formed by the secondary growth of BDC(2-)-rich MOF-5 seed crystals, which are nucleated during the early stage of the reaction. Subsequent Li doping into MOF-5-OH-x results in increased H2 uptake at 77 K and 0.1 MPa from 1.23 to 1.39 wt.% and an increased isosteric heat of H2 adsorption from 5.1-4.2 kJ mol(-1) to 5.5-4.4 kJ mol(-1). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metal and proton adsorption capacities of natural and cloned Sphagnum mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Aridane G; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Di Palma, Anna; Adamo, Paola; Giordano, Simonetta; Angel Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial mosses are commonly used as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. However, there is a lack of standardization of the biomonitoring preparation technique and the efficiency of metal adsorption by various moss species is poorly known. This is especially true for in vitro-cultivated moss clones, which are promising candidates for a standardized moss-bag technique. We studied the adsorption of copper and zinc on naturally grown Sphagnum peat moss in comparison with in vitro-cultivated Sphagnum palustre samples in order to provide their physico-chemical characterization and to test the possibility of using cloned peat mosses as bioindicators within the protocol of moss-bag technique. We demonstrate that in vitro-grown clones of S. palustre exhibit acid-base properties similar to those of naturally grown Sphagnum samples, whereas the zinc adsorption capacity of the clones is approx. twice higher than that of the samples from the field. At the same time, the field samples adsorbed 30-50% higher amount of Cu(2+) compared to that of the clones. This contrast may be related to fine differences in the bulk chemical composition, specific surface area, morphological features, type and abundance of binding sites at the cell surfaces and in the aqueous solution of natural and cloned Sphagnum. The clones exhibited much lower concentration of most metal pollutants in their tissues relative to the natural samples thus making the former better indicators of low metal loading. Overall, in vitro-produced clones of S. palustre can be considered as an adequate, environmentally benign substitution for protected natural Sphagnum sp. samples to be used in moss-bags for atmospheric monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption kinetic investigations of low concentrated uranium in aqua media by polymeric adsorban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerellier, R.

    2004-02-01

    In order to remove the uranium from aqueous media, the solution of polyethylene glycol in acrylonitrile was irradiated using ''6' degree Celsius Co γ-ray source and Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) was formed. After IPNs were amidoximated at 65 0 for 3.5 hours, they were kept in 10''-''2 M of uranil nitrate solution at 17, 25, 35, 45 degree Celsius temperatures until to establish the adsorption equilibrium. Adsorption analyses were measured by gamma spectrometer, gravimetry and UV spectrofotometer. Structure analysis of IPN, before and after amidoximation and after the adsorption of uranium, was interpreted by FTIR spectrometer. It was found that as the temperature increased the amount of max adsorption also increased. The amount of max adsorption capacity at 45 degree Celsius was 602 mg U/g IPN. In addition to, it was determined that the uranium adsorption increased a little in shaking media. The reaction was determined as 'zeroth degree' until 240 minutes due to the changing of adsorption capacity by the time at different temperatures. It was observed that as the temperature increased, the adsorption rate also increased and the activation energy was calculated as 34.6 kJ/mol. By using the changing of adsorption equilibrium coefficient by the temperature, thermodynamic quantities of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG were calculated consecutively. Adsorption reaction was determined as endothermic and it was interpreted that the adsorption was controlled by particular diffusion, namely it was a physical adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were found by changing the solution concentrations from 5X10''4 to parallel x parallel O''- 2 M at 20, 25, 35, 45 degree Celsius temperatures. The obtained data from this study was applied to different adsorption isotherms. It was observed that at lower temperatures, the adsorption isotherms were fitted to Giles C type, at higher temperatures, they were fitted to Freundlich type

  7. DNA adsorption characteristics of hollow spherule allophane nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoko; Iyoda, Fumitoshi; Arakawa, Shuichi; John, Baiju; Okamoto, Masami; Hayashi, Hidetomo

    2013-01-01

    To understand the propensity of natural allophane to adsorb the DNA molecules, the adsorption characteristics were assessed against natural allophane (AK70), using single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-AMP) as a reference molecule. The adsorption capacity of ss-DNA on AK70 exhibited one order of magnitude lower value as compared with that of 5′-AMP. The adsorption capacity of ss-DNA decreased with increasing pH due to the interaction generated between phosphate groups of ss-DNA and functional Al–OH groups on the wall perforations through deprotonating, associated with higher energy barrier for the adsorption of ss-DNA. The adsorption morphologies consisting of the individual ss-DNA with mono-layer coverage of the clustered allophane particle were observed successfully through transmission electron microscopy analysis. - Highlights: • The interaction between phosphate groups of ss-DNA and Al–OH groups • Higher energy barrier for the adsorption of ss-DNA • The individual ss-DNA with mono-layer coverage of the allophane clustered particle

  8. Helium Adsorption on Carbon Nanotube Bundles with Different Diameters:. Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation to study helium adsorption capacity of carbon nanotube bundles with different diameters. Homogeneous carbon nanotube bundles of (8,8), (9,9), (10,10), (11,11), and (12,12) single walled carbon nanotubes have been considered. The results indicate that the exohedral adsorption coverage does not depend on the diameter of carbon nanotubes, while the endohedral adsorption coverage is increased by increasing the diameter.

  9. Modelling phosphate adsorption to the soil: Application of the non-ideal competitive adsorption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Nohra, Joumana S.; Madramootoo, Chandra A.; Hendershot, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport in subsurface runoff has increased despite the limited mobility of P in soils. This study investigated the ability of the non-ideal competitive adsorption (NICA) model to describe phosphate (PO 4 ) adsorption for soils in southern Quebec (Canada). We measured the surface charge and PO 4 adsorption capacity for 11 agricultural soils. Using the experimental data and a nonlinear fitting function, we derived the NICA model parameters. We found that the NICA model described accurately the surface charge of these soils with a mean R 2 > 0.99, and described the adsorption data with a mean R 2 = 0.96. We also found that the variable surface charge was distributed over the two binding sites with the low pH sites demonstrating a stronger binding energy for hydroxyl and PO 4 ions. We established that the NICA model is able to describe P adsorption for the soils considered in this study. - The NICA model accurately described the adsorption of phosphate to some southern Quebec soils

  10. Study on adsorption mechanism of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater by natural heulandite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuekai JIN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the adsorption mechanism and optimal regeneration method of natural heulandite to high ammonia nitrogen wastewater, the natural heulandite from Hebei Province is selected as the research object. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics are studied by single factor test. The results show that the adsorption process of ammonia nitrogen on heulandite with particle size range of 50~600 μm complies with the quasi-second order kinetic equation with ammonia nitrogen concentration of 500 mg/L at temperature of 25 ℃. Particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion are the dominated process of the adsorption. The adsorption capacity of heulandite is 7.81 mg/g at temperature of 45 ℃. The adsorption isotherm of ammonia nitrogen on the experimental heulandite is fitted well with Freundlich model. Gibbs free energy ΔG is calculated to be less than zero, indicating that the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on the experimental heulandite is a spontaneous endothermic reaction. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of heulandite increases with appropriate increaseing in temperature. The optimal regeneration solvent of the saturated heulandite is 0.1 mol/L of NaCl, with which the desorption rate increases to 79%, and the times of elution and regeneration are more than 5. The results of this study can improve the economic benefits and environmental value of heulandite in the treatment of ammonia nitrogen wastewater. It can be seen that heulandite in the industrial wastewater treatment has broad prospects for application.

  11. Co-adsorption of Trichloroethylene and Arsenate by Iron-Impregnated Granular Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Baolin; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Co-adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and arsenate [As(V)] was investigated using modified granular activated carbons (GAC): untreated, sodium hypochlorite-treated (NaClO-GAC), and NaClO with iron-treated GAC (NaClO/Fe-GAC). Batch experiments of single- [TCE or As(V)] and binary- [TCE and As(V)] components solutions are evaluated through Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and adsorption kinetic tests. In the single-component system, the adsorption capacity of As(V) was increased by the NaClO-GAC and the NaClO/Fe-GAC. The untreated GAC showed a low adsorption capacity for As(V). Adsorption of TCE by the NaClO/Fe-GAC was maximized, with an increased Freundlich constant. Removal of TCE in the binary-component system was decreased 15% by the untreated GAC, and NaClO- and NaClO/Fe-GAC showed similar efficiency to the single-component system because of the different chemical status of the GAC surfaces. Results of the adsorption isotherms of As(V) in the binary-component system were similar to adsorption isotherms of the single-component system. The adsorption affinities of single- and binary-component systems corresponded with electron transfer, competitive adsorption, and physicochemical properties.

  12. Characteristics and mechanisms of nickel adsorption on biochars produced from wheat straw pellets and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yunhui; McMillan, Oliver; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of Ni 2+ on four-standard biochars produced from wheat straw pellets (WSP550, WSP700) and rice husk (RH550, RH700) at 550 and 700 °C, respectively, were investigated. The kinetic results show that the adsorption of Ni 2+ on the biochars reached an equilibrium within 5 min. The increase of the solid to liquid ratio resulted in an increase of Ni 2+ removal percentage but a decrease of the adsorbed amount of Ni 2+ per weight unit of biochar. The Ni 2+ removal percentage increased with the increasing of initial solution pH values at the range of 2-4, was relatively constant at the pH range of 4-8, and significantly increased to ≥98% at pH 9 and stayed constantly at the pH range of 9-10. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities of Ni 2+ for the biochars follow the order of WSP700 > WSP550 > RH700 > RH550. Both cation exchange capacity and pH of biochar can be a good indicator of the maximum adsorption capacity for Ni 2+ showing a positively linear and exponential relationship, respectively. This study also suggests that a carefully controlled standardised production procedure can make it reliable to compare the adsorption capacities between different biochars and investigate the mechanisms involved.

  13. Preparation and Adsorption Ability of Polysulfone Microcapsules Containing Modified Chitosan Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; LUO Guangsheng; YANG Weiwei; WANG Yujun

    2005-01-01

    Chemically modified chitosan beads containing polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared to improve the metal ion adsorption capacity of the chitosan beads and their mechanical stability and to limit their biodegradability. The modified beads were encapsulated with the polymer material polysulfone by a novel surface coating method named the emulsion phase inversion method. The adsorption properties of the modified beads and the microstructures of the polysulfone coating layer were then analyzed. The experimental results showed that the PEI was successfully linked onto the chitosan beads. The density of the -NH2 groups in the modified beads was significantly increased, while the water content was reduced. The coating layer thickness was about 200 (m. The modified chitosan gel beads had excellent Cu(II) adsorption capacity, with a maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity 1.34 times higher than that of the unmodified beads. The results show that even with the polysulfone coating the adsorption kinetics of the modified beads is still better than those of the unmodified beads. The modifications improve the mass transfer performance of the chitosan beads as well as the bead stability.

  14. The Influence of Salt Anions on Heavy Metal Ion Adsorption on the Example of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Mandy; Schwarz, Dana; Steinbach, Christine; Schwarz, Simona

    2018-01-01

    The biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan possesses protonated and natural amino groups at medium pH values and has therefore been used as an adsorbing material for nickel salts in water treatment. Nickel is a problematic heavy metal ion which can cause various diseases and disorders in living organisms. Here, we show the influence of oxyanions (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) to the adsorption of nickel ions. Hence, simultaneously we are addressing the increasing global problem of nitrate and sulfate ion pollution in groundwater and surface water. A series of adsorption experiments was carried out in order to determine (i) the adsorption equilibrium, (ii) the adsorption capacity in dependence on the initial nickel ion concentration, and (iii) the influence of the anion presented in solution for the adsorption capacity. Surface morphology of chitosan flakes before and after the adsorption process has been studied with SEM-EDX analysis. The chitosan flakes exhibited promising adsorption capacities of 81.9 mg·g−1 and 21.2 mg·g−1 for nickel (sulfate) and nickel (nitrate), respectively. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy change ΔG0 confirm the higher adsorption of nickel ions in presence of sulfate ions. Hence, higher anion valence leads to a higher adsorption capacity. PMID:29510485

  15. Adsorption of strontium on different sodium-enriched bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Sanja R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonites from three different deposits (Wyoming, TX, USA and Bogovina, Serbia with similar cation exchange capacities were sodium enriched and tested as adsorbents for Sr2+ in aqueous solutions. X-Ray diffraction analysis confirmed successful Na-exchange. The textural properties of the bentonite samples were determined using low-temperature the nitrogen physisorption method. Significant differences in the textural properties between the different sodium enriched bentonites were found. Adsorption was investigated with respect to adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and the initial concentration of Sr2+. The adsorption capacity increased with pH. In the pH range from 4.0–8.5, the amount of adsorbed Sr2+ was almost constant but 2–3 times smaller than at pH ≈11. Further experiments were performed at the unadjusted pH since extreme alkaline conditions are environmentally hostile and inapplicable in real systems. The adsorption capacity of all the investigated adsorbents toward Sr2+ was similar under the investigated conditions, regardless of significant differences in the specific surface areas. It was shown and confirmed by the Dubinin–Radushkevich model that the cation exchange mechanism was the dominant mechanism of Sr2+ adsorption. Their developed microporous structures contributed to the Sr2+ adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics obeyed the pseudo-second-order model. The isotherm data were best fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45001

  16. Adsorptive removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution with metal-organic frameworks, porous chromium-benzenedicarboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Enamul; Lee, Ji Eun; Jang, In Tae; Hwang, Young Kyu; Chang, Jong-San; Jegal, Jonggeon; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Two typical highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials based on chromium-benzenedicarboxylates (Cr-BDC) obtained from Material of Institute Lavoisier with special structure of MIL-101 and MIL-53 have been used for the adsorptive removal of methyl orange (MO), a harmful anionic dye, from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetic constant of MIL-101 are greater than those of MIL-53, showing the importance of porosity and pore size for the adsorption. The performance of MIL-101 improves with modification: the adsorption capacity and kinetic constant are in the order of MIL-101 < ethylenediamine-grafted MIL-101 < protonated ethylenediamine-grafted MIL-101 (even though the porosity and pore size are slightly decreased with grafting and further protonation). The adsorption capacity of protonated ethylenediamine-grafted MIL-101 decreases with increasing the pH of an aqueous MO solution. These results suggest that the adsorption of MO on the MOF is at least partly due to the electrostatic interaction between anionic MO and a cationic adsorbent. Adsorption of MO at various temperatures shows that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process and that the entropy increases (the driving force of the adsorption) with MO adsorption. The adsorbent MIL-101s are re-usable after sonification in water. Based on this study, MOFs can be suggested as potential re-usable adsorbents to remove anionic dyes because of their high porosity, facile modification and ready re-activation.

  17. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Layer double hydroxide Mg/Al was synthesized by inorganic synthetic method. Material was characterized using FTIR and XRD analyses and used as adsorbent of procion red dye in aqueous medium.  Factors that affect the adsorption process are adsorption time as the kinetic parameter; and the temperature and concentration of procion red as the thermodynamic parameter. FTIR spectra of layer double hydroxides showed unique vibration at wavenumber 1300 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1. Characterization using XRD shows diffraction angles at 29o, 27o, and 28o, which are typical of Mg/Al double layer hydroxides. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al resulted adsorption rate 7.1 minutes-1, maximum adsorption capacity 111.1 mg/g at 60 oC with increasing energy by increasing adsorption temperature.   Keywords: Layered double hydroxides, adsorption, procion red.

  18. Synthesis of magnetic wheat straw for arsenic adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wu, Min; Lin, Xiaobo; Huang, Pei; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work provides a way for fabricating low-cost arsenic adsorbents using agro- or plant-residues. → The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhances the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . → This magnetic adsorbent can be separated and collected by magnetic control easily and rapidly. → This adsorbent can be regenerated. → - Abstract: Magnetic wheat straw (MWS) with different Fe 3 O 4 content was synthesized by using in-situ co-precipitation method. It was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). This material can be used for arsenic adsorption from water, and can be easily separated by applied magnetic field. The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhanced the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . Among three adsorption isotherm models examined, the data fitted Langmuir model better. Fe 3 O 4 content and initial pH value influenced its adsorption behavior. Higher Fe 3 O 4 content corresponded to a higher adsorption capacity. In the pH range of 3-11, As(V) adsorption was decreased with increasing of pH; As(III) adsorption had the highest capacity at pH 7-9. Moreover, by using 0.1 mol L -1 NaOH aqueous solution, it could be regenerated. This work provided an efficient way for making use of agricultural waste.

  19. Adsorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solution by magnetic Fe@graphite nano-composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicki Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution by iron nanoparticles encapsulated by graphitic layers (Fe@G was investigated. Nanoparticles Fe@G were prepared by chemical vapor deposition CVD process using methane as a carbon source and nanocrystalline iron. The properties of Fe@G were characterized by X-ray Diffraction method (XRD, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, BET surface area and zeta potential measurements. The effects of initial Ni2+ concentration (1–20 mg L−1, pH (4–11 and temperature (20–60°C on adsorption capacity were studied. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium increased from 2.96 to 8.78 mg g−1, with the increase in the initial concentration of Ni2+ from 1 to 20 mg L−1 at pH 7.0 and 20oC. The experimental results indicated that the maximum Ni2+ removal could be attained at a solution pH of 8.2 and the adsorption capacity obtained was 9.33 mg g−1. The experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 9.20 mg g−1. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamics parameters, ΔHO, ΔGO and ΔSO, were calculated, indicating that the adsorption of Ni2+ onto Fe@G was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  20. The adsorption behavior of functional particles modified by polyvinylimidazole for Cu(II) ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixin; Men, Jiying; Gao, Baojiao [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, North University of China, Taiyuan (China)

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, a novel composite material the silica grafted by poly(N-vinyl imidazole) (PVI), i.e., PVI/SiO{sub 2}, was prepared using 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPS) as intermedia through the ''grafting from'' method. The adsorption behavior of metal ions by PVI/SiO{sub 2} was researched by both static and dynamic methods. Experimental results showed that PVI/SiO{sub 2} possessed very strong adsorption ability for metal ions. For different metal ions, PVI/SiO{sub 2} exhibited different adsorption abilities with the following order of adsorption capacity: Cu{sup 2+}> Cd{sup 2+}> Zn{sup 2+}. The adsorption material PVI/SiO{sub 2} was especially good at adsorbing Cu(II) ion and the saturated adsorption capacity could reach up to 49.2 mg/g. The empirical Freundlich isotherm was found to describe well the equilibrium adsorption data. Higher temperatures facilitated the adsorption process and thus increased the adsorption capacity. The pH and grafting amount of PVI had great influence on the adsorption amount. In addition, PVI/SiO{sub 2} particles had excellent eluting and regenerating property using diluted hydrochloric acid solution as eluent. The adsorption ability trended to steady during 10 cycles. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Study of algae's adsorption to uranium ion in water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yang; Qiu Yongmei; Dan Guiping; Zhang Dong; Lei Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption efficiencies of the algae to uranium ion were determined at various pH, uranium ion concentrations, adsorption temperatures and the species of coexisted metal ions, and the effect of coexisted metal ion on the adsorption efficiency was researched. The experimental results at pH= 5-8 are as follows. 1) the adsorption capacity is a constant to be about 1.40 μg/g for the Yantai red alga and the sea spinach, and is changeable in the range of 1.03-2.23 μg/g with pH for the sea edible fungus; 2) for the algae the adsorption efficiency and adsorption capacity are related to uranium ion concentration, and the maximum adsorption efficiency and capacity is 95.8% and 65.4 μg/g, respectively; 3) the adsorption process for 24 h is not dependent on the temperature; 4) the effect of the species of coexisted metal ions on the adsorption capacity of uranium ion is various with the time during adsorption process. (authors)

  2. A comparison of basic dye adsorption onto zeolitic materials synthesized from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, Guelten; Hisarli, Guel; Kurtoglu, Ayse Engin; Ayar, Nihat

    2011-01-01

    This investigation reveals the adsorption characteristics of two basic dyes, thionine (TH) and safranine T (ST), onto fly ash (FA) and its three zeolitized products prepared at different hydrothermal conditions. Typical two-step isotherms were observed for TH adsorption onto four adsorbents, whereas the isotherms of the larger ST molecules were S-shaped. The adsorption capacities of the zeolitized fly ash (ZFA) estimated from the first plateau region of the TH isotherms was nearly twice the FA capacity. The capacities increased by up to five times in the second plateau region. The adsorption capacity of FA for ST is equivalent that of TH, whereas the capacities of ZFA are lower than those found for TH. The equilibrium results were well-described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetic data obtained in the temperature range of 298-318 K was analyzed using Paterson's and Nernst Plank's approximations based on the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The thermodynamic functions for the transition state were evaluated from the temperature-dependence of the surface diffusion coefficients by applying the Eyring model.

  3. A comparison of basic dye adsorption onto zeolitic materials synthesized from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atun, Guelten, E-mail: gultena@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34850 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Hisarli, Guel; Kurtoglu, Ayse Engin; Ayar, Nihat [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34850 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    This investigation reveals the adsorption characteristics of two basic dyes, thionine (TH) and safranine T (ST), onto fly ash (FA) and its three zeolitized products prepared at different hydrothermal conditions. Typical two-step isotherms were observed for TH adsorption onto four adsorbents, whereas the isotherms of the larger ST molecules were S-shaped. The adsorption capacities of the zeolitized fly ash (ZFA) estimated from the first plateau region of the TH isotherms was nearly twice the FA capacity. The capacities increased by up to five times in the second plateau region. The adsorption capacity of FA for ST is equivalent that of TH, whereas the capacities of ZFA are lower than those found for TH. The equilibrium results were well-described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetic data obtained in the temperature range of 298-318 K was analyzed using Paterson's and Nernst Plank's approximations based on the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The thermodynamic functions for the transition state were evaluated from the temperature-dependence of the surface diffusion coefficients by applying the Eyring model.

  4. Modelling equilibrium adsorption of single, binary, and ternary combinations of Cu, Pb, and Zn onto granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Shim, Wang Geun; Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep; Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Nur, Tanjina; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2018-03-30

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in water can be toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. A study was conducted on the removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by a commonly used water treatment adsorbent, granular activated carbon (GAC), from three single, three binary (Cu-Pb, Cu-Zn, Pb-Zn), and one ternary (Cu-Pb-Zn) combination of metals. It also investigated seven mathematical models on their suitability to predict the metals adsorption capacities. Adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn increased with pH with an abrupt increase in adsorption at around pH 5.5, 4.5, and 6.0, respectively. At all pHs tested (2.5-7.0), the adsorption capacity followed the order Pb > Cu > Zn. The Langmuir and Sips models fitted better than the Freundlich model to the data in the single-metal system at pH 5. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb, Cu, and Zn (mmol/g) obtained from the model's fits were 0.142, 0.094, and 0.058, respectively. The adsorption capacities (mmol/g) for these metals at 0.01 mmol/L equilibrium liquid concentration were 0.130, 0.085, and 0.040, respectively. Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS)-Langmuir and IAS-Sips models fitted well to the binary and ternary metals adsorption data, whereas the Extended Langmuir and Extended Sips models' fits to the data were poor. The selectivity of adsorption followed the same order as the metals' capacities and affinities of adsorption in the single-metal systems.

  5. Adsorption of uranium from aqueous solution by PAMAM dendron functionalized styrene divinylbenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaiyaraja, P., E-mail: chemila07@gmail.com [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Singha Deb, Ashish Kumar; Sivasubramanian, K. [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Ponraju, D. [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A new chelating resin PAMAMG{sub 3} -SDB has been synthesized for uranium adsorption. ► The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 130.25 mg g{sup −1} at pH 5.5. ► Adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing dendron generation. ► The adsorbed uranium shall be easily desorbed by simply adjusting the pH < 3. ► Quantitative adsorption of uranium was observed even at high ionic strength. -- Abstract: A new polymeric chelating resin was prepared by growing third generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAMG{sub 3}) dendron on the surface of styrene divinylbenzene (SDB) and characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The ideal branching of dendron in the chelating resin was determined from potentiometric titration. Adsorption of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution using PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB chelating resin was studied in a series of batch experiments. Effect of contact time, pH, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, initial U(VI) concentration, dendron generation and temperature on adsorption of U(VI) were investigated. Kinetic experiments showed that U(VI) adsorption on PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model appropriately and equilibrium data agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS°, ΔG°) were evaluated from temperature dependent adsorption data and the uranium adsorption on PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The sticking probability value (5.303 × 10{sup −9}), kinetic and isotherm data reveal the chemisorption of uranium on PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB and adsorption capacity of the chelating resin was estimated to be 130.25 mg g{sup −1} at 298 K. About 99% of adsorbed U(VI) can be desorbed from PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB by a simple acid treatment suggesting that the chelating resin is reusable.

  6. Effects of Mn, Cu doping concentration to the properties of magnetic nanoparticles and arsenic adsorption capacity in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Tran Minh; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation the decrease of saturate magnetic moment of Fe 3 O 4 over time. • Substitution of Mn, Cu ions into Fe position to create stable properties of materials. • Investigate the surface and mesopore structure of nanoparticles. • The arsenic adsorption capacity of Cu doped Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials is higher than of Fe 3 O 4 and Mn doped Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials. - Abstract: The research results of Fe 3 O 4 and Mn, Cu doped Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials synthesized by a chemical method for As(III) wastewater treatment are presented in this paper. The X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy images showed that samples had the cubic spinel structure with the grain sizes were varied from 9.4 nm to 18.1 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer measurements at room temperature showed that saturation magnetic moments of Fe 1−x Cu x Fe 2 O 4 and Fe 1−x Mn x Fe 2 O 4 samples decreased from 65.9 emu/g to 53.2 emu/g and 65.9 emu/g to 61.5 emu/g, respectively, with the increase of Cu, Mn concentrations from 0.0 to 0.15. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm of a typical Fe 3 O 4 sample at 77 K was studied in order to investigate the surface and porous structure of nanoparticles by BET method. The specific surface area of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles was calculated about of 100.2 m 2 /g. The pore size distribution of about 15–20 nm calculated by the BJH (Barrett, Joyner, and Halendar) method at a relative pressure P/P 0 of about 1. Although the saturation magnetic moments of samples decreased when the increase of doping concentration, but the arsenic adsorption capacity of Cu doped Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles is better than that of Fe 3 O 4 and Mn doped Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in a solution with pH = 7. In the solution with a pH > 14, the arsenic adsorption of magnetic nanoparticles is insignificant

  7. Characteristics of phosphorus adsorption by sediment mineral matrices with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particle size of sediment is one of the main factors that influence the phosphorus physical adsorption on sediment. In order to eliminate the effect of other components of sediment on the phosphorus physical adsorption the sediment mineral matrices were obtained by removing inorganic matter metal oxides, and organic matter from natural sediments, which were collected from the Nantong reach of the Yangtze River. The results show that an exponential relationship exists between the median particle size (D50 and specific surface area (Sg of the sediment mineral matrices, and the fine sediment mineral matrix sample has a larger specific surface area and pore volume than the coarse sediment particles. The kinetic equations were used to describe the phosphorus adsorption process of the sediment mineral matrices, including the Elovich equation, quasi-first-order adsorption kinetic equation, and quasi-second-order adsorption kinetic equation. The results show that the quasi-second-order adsorption kinetic equation has the best fitting effect. Using the mass conservation and Langmuir adsorption kinetic equations, a formula was deduced to calculate the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the sediment mineral matrices. The results of this study show that the phosphorus adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of D50, indicating that the specific surface area and pore volume are the main factors in determining the phosphorus adsorption capacity of the sediment mineral matrices. This study will help understand the important role of sediment in the transformation of phosphorus in aquatic environments.

  8. Competitive effects of humic acid and wastewater on adsorption of Methylene Blue dye by activated carbon and non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Audrey; Örmeci, Banu

    2018-04-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM), present in natural waters and wastewater, decreases adsorption of micropollutants, increasing treatment costs. This research investigated mechanisms of competition for non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) and activated carbon with humic acid and wastewater. Three different types of activated carbons (Norit PAC 200, Darco KB-M, and Darco S-51) were used for comparison with the NIP. The lower surface area and micropore to mesopore ratio of the NIP led to decreased adsorption capacity in comparison to the activated carbons. In addition, experiments were conducted for single-solute adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) dye, simultaneous adsorption with humic acid and wastewater, and pre-loading with humic acid and wastewater followed by adsorption of MB dye using NIP and Norit PAC 200. Both the NIP and PAC 200 showed significant decreases of 27% for NIP (p=0.087) and 29% for PAC 200 (p=0.096) during simultaneous exposure to humic acid and MB dye. There was no corresponding decrease for NIP or PAC 200 pre-loaded with humic acid and then exposed to MB. In fact, for PAC 200, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon increased when it was pre-loaded with humic acid by 39% (p=0.0005). For wastewater, the NIP showed no significant increase or decrease in adsorption capacity during either simultaneous exposure or pre-loading. The adsorption capacity of PAC 200 increased by 40% (p=0.001) for simultaneous exposure to wastewater and MB. Pre-loading with wastewater had no effect on MB adsorption by PAC 200. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on activated carbons: effects of solution chemistry and presence of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Toledo, M I; Méndez-Díaz, J D; Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Ferro-García, M A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of activated carbon in removing sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and to analyze the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons that are involved in the adsorption process. Studies were also performed on the influence of operational variables (pH, ionic strength, and presence of microorganisms) and on the kinetics and interactions involved in the adsorption of this pollutant on activated carbon. The kinetics study of SDBS adsorption revealed no problems in its diffusion on any of the activated carbons studied, and Weisz-Prater coefficient (C WP) values were considerably lower than unity for all activated carbons studied. SDBS adsorption isotherms on these activated carbons showed that: (i) adsorption capacity of activated carbons was very high (260-470 mg/g) and increased with larger surface area; and (ii) dispersive interactions between SDBS and carbon surface were largely responsible for the adsorption of this pollutant. SDBS adsorption was not significantly affected by the solution pH, indicating that electrostatic adsorbent-adsorbate interactions do not play an important role in this process. The presence of electrolytes (NaCl) in the medium favors SDBS adsorption, accelerating the process and increasing adsorption capacity. Under the working conditions used, SDBS is not degraded by bacteria; however, the presence of bacteria during the process accelerates and increases SDBS adsorption on the activated carbon. Microorganism adsorption on the activated carbon surface increases its hydrophobicity, explaining the results observed.

  10. Sub-ambient carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara, E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in [Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2015-04-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption on carbon surface can be enhanced by doping the surface with heterogeneous atoms, which can increase local surface affinity. This study presents the carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene at low pressures (<100 kPa). Graphene was exposed to nitrogen plasma, which dopes nitrogen atoms into carbon hexagonal lattice, mainly in pyridinic and pyrrolic forms. It is found that nitrogen doping significantly improves the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at all temperatures, due to the enrichment of local Lewis basic sites. In general, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters suggest that doped nitrogen sites have nearly same adsorption energy of surface defects and residual functional groups. The isosteric heat of adsorption remains in physisorption range, which falls with surface coverage, suggesting the distribution of magnitude of adsorption energy. The absolute values of isosteric heat and entropy of adsorption are slightly increased upon nitrogen doping.

  11. Surface modification, characterization and adsorptive properties of a coconut activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xincheng [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang Jianchun, E-mail: lhs_ac2011@yahoo.cn [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Sun Kang; Xie Xinping; Hu Yiming [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2012-08-01

    A coconut activated carbon was modified using chemical methods. Different concentration of nitric acid oxidation of the conventional sample produced samples with weakly acidic functional groups. The oxidized samples were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, Bothem method, pH titration, adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and the adsorption mechanism of activated carbons was investigated. The results showed that BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbons were decreased after oxidization process, while acidic functional groups were increased. The surface morphology of oxidized carbons looked clean and eroded which was caused by oxidization of nitric acid. The oxidized carbons showed high adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and chemical properties of activated carbon played an important role in adsorption of metal ions and organic pollutants.

  12. Study on Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by Activated Carbon from Cassava Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhui; Li, Chuanshu; Yang, Bin; Kang, Sijun; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new type of adsorbent prepared by waste sludge from alcohol production industry was used to adsorb Cr (VI) in activated carbon from cassava sludge. A series of static adsorption experiments were carried out on the initial concentration of solution Cr (VI), pH value of solution, adsorption time and dosage of adsorbent. The results of single factor experiments show that the removal rate of Cr (VI) increases with the initial concentration of Cr(VI), while the adsorption amount is opposite. When the pH value of the solution is low, the adsorption effect of activated carbon is better.The adsorption time should be controlled within 40-60min. When the activated carbon dosage is increased, the removal rate increases but the adsorption capacity decreases.

  13. Kinetic Study of Water Contaminants Adsorption by Bamboo Granular Activated and Non-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opololaoluwa Oladimarun Ijaola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive capacity of metal ions from surface water with activated and non-activated carbon derived from bamboo was investigated. The validation of adsorption kinetics of Cl, PO4 and Pb was done by pseudo-first and second order model while adsorption isotherms was proved by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model for activated and non- activated bamboo granular carbon. Generally, the amount of metal ions uptake increases with time and activation levels and the pH of bamboo granular carbon increase with activation. Similarly, the pore space of the activated carbon also increases with activation levels. The correlation coefficients (R2 show that the pseudo-second order model gave a better fit to the adsorption process with 0.9918 as the least value and 1.00 as the highest value as compared with the pseudo-first order with 0.813 as the highest value and 0 as the least. The Freundlich isotherm was more favorable when compared with the Langmuir isotherm in determining the adsorptive capacity of bamboo granular activated carbon. The study has shown that chemical activation increases the pore space, surface area and the pH of bamboo granular carbon which ultimately increases the adsorption rate of metal ions in the contaminated surface water.

  14. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni; Vignesh, K.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Pung, Swee-Yong; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Othman, Radzali; Thant, Aye Aye; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Salim, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH)_2 precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH)_2 was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO_2 adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH)_2 was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)_2) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH)_2 based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO_2) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO_2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)_2 was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO_2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)_2 precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH)_2 phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH)_2 precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  15. Ammonia modification of activated carbon to enhance carbon dioxide adsorption: Effect of pre-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafeeyan, Mohammad Saleh; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Houshmand, Amirhossein; Arami-Niya, Arash

    2011-02-01

    A commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was subjected to thermal treatment with ammonia for obtaining an efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent. In general, CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon can be increased by introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities onto the carbon surface. In this work, the effect of oxygen surface groups before introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities to the carbon surface on CO2 adsorption capacity was investigated. For this purpose two different approaches of ammonia treatment without preliminary oxidation and amination of oxidized samples were studied. Modified carbons were characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study the impact of changes in surface chemistry and formation of specific surface groups on adsorption properties. The texture of the samples was characterized by conducting N2 adsorption/desorption at -196 °C. CO2 capture performance of the samples was investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in both modification techniques, the presence of nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface generally increased the CO2 adsorption capacity. The results indicated that oxidation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment (800 °C) considerably enhanced the CO2 uptake at higher temperatures.

  16. Adsorption of antibiotics on microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Kaina; Zhang, Hua

    2018-06-01

    Microplastics and antibiotics are two classes of emerging contaminants with proposed negative impacts to aqueous ecosystems. Adsorption of antibiotics on microplastics may result in their long-range transport and may cause compound combination effects. In this study, we investigated the adsorption of 5 antibiotics [sulfadiazine (SDZ), amoxicillin (AMX), tetracycline (TC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and trimethoprim (TMP)] on 5 types of microplastics [polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] in the freshwater and seawater systems. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis revealed that microplastics have different surface characterizes and various degrees of crystalline. Adsorption isotherms demonstrated that PA had the strongest adsorption capacity for antibiotics with distribution coefficient (K d ) values ranged from 7.36 ± 0.257 to 756 ± 48.0 L kg -1 in the freshwater system, which can be attributed to its porous structure and hydrogen bonding. Relatively low adsorption capacity was observed on other four microplastics. The adsorption amounts of 5 antibiotics on PS, PE, PP, and PVC decreased in the order of CIP > AMX > TMP > SDZ > TC with K f correlated positively with octanol-water partition coefficients (Log K ow ). Comparing to freshwater system, adsorption capacity in seawater decreased significantly and no adsorption was observed for CIP and AMX. Our results indicated that commonly observed polyamide particles can serve as a carrier of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sonochemical surface functionalization of exfoliated LDH: Effect on textural properties, CO2 adsorption, cyclic regeneration capacities and subsequent gas uptake for simultaneous methanol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Collins I; Huang, Xiani; Yang, Xiaogang; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    To improve CO 2 adsorption, amine modified Layered double hydroxide (LDH) were prepared via a two stage process, SDS/APTS intercalation was supported by ultrasonic irradiation and then followed by MEA extraction. The prepared samples were characterised using Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The characterisation results were compared with those obtained using the conventional preparation method with consideration to the effect of sonochemical functionalization on textural properties, adsorption capacity, regeneration and lifetime of the LDH adsorbent. It is found that LDHs prepared by sonochemical modification had improved pore structure and CO 2 adsorption capacity, depending on sonic intensity. This is attributed to the enhanced deprotonation of activated amino functional groups via the sonochemical process. Subsequently, this improved the amine loading and effective amine efficiency by 60% of the conventional. In addition, the sonochemical process improved the thermal stability of the adsorbent and also, reduced the irreversible CO 2 uptake, CUirrev, from 0.18mmol/g to 0.03mmol/g. Subsequently, improving the lifetime and ease of regenerating the adsorbent respectively. This is authenticated by subjecting the prepared adsorbents to series of thermal swing adsorption (TSA) cycles until its adsorption capacity goes below 60% of the original CO 2 uptake. While the conventional adsorbent underwent a 10 TSA cycles before breaking down, the sonochemically functionalized LDH went further than 30 TSA cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation of the adsorption capacity of polar organic compounds and dyes from water onto activated carbons: Model development and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warisa Bunmahotama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A model approach is developed to simulate the adsorption isotherms of low-molecular-weight polar organic compounds (LMWPOCs, halogenated LMWPOCs, and dye molecules onto activated carbons (AC. The models were based on the Dubinin–Astakhov equation, with the limiting pore volume of adsorbent estimated from the pore size distribution data, and the adsorption affinity of the adsorbate described by the molecular connectivity index. The models were used to simulate the adsorption data of 87 LMWPOCs onto six ACs, 25 halogenated LMWPOCs onto two ACs and 22 dyes onto three ACs. The developed models follow the experimental data fairly well, with errors of 49, 33 and 43% for the tested LMWPOCs, halogenated LMWPOCs, and dyes, respectively. This study shows that the developed model approach may provide a simple means for the estimation of adsorption capacity for LMWPOCs and dyes onto ACs in water.

  19. [Adsorption of Cu on Core-shell Structured Magnetic Particles: Relationship Between Adsorption Performance and Surface Properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-ning; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Gao-sheng

    2015-12-01

    In order to reveal the relationship between the adsorption performance of adsorbents and their compositions, structure, and surface properties, the core-shell structured Fe₃O₄/MnO2 and Fe-Mn/Mn₂2 magnetic particles were systematically characterized using multiple techniques and their Cu adsorption behaviors as well as mechanism were also investigated in details. It was found that both Fe₃O4 and Fe-Mn had spinel structure and no obvious crystalline phase change was observed after coating with MnO₂. The introduction of Mn might improve the affinity between the core and the shell, and therefore enhanced the amount and distribution uniformity of the MnO₂ coated. Consequently, Fe-Mn/MnO₂ exhibited a higher BET specific surface area and a lower isoelectric point. The results of sorption experiments showed that Fe-Mn had a higher maximal Cu adsorption capacity of 33.7 mg · g⁻¹ at pH 5.5, compared with 17.5 mg · g⁻¹ of Fe₃O4. After coating, the maximal adsorption capacity of Fe-Mn/MnO₂ was increased to 58.2 mg · g⁻¹, which was 2.6 times as high as that of Fe₃O₄/MnO₂ and outperformed the majority of magnetic adsorbents reported in literature. In addition, a specific adsorption of Cu occurred at the surface of Fe₃O₄/MnO₂ or Fe-Mn/MnO₂ through the formation of inner-sphere complexes. In conclusion, the adsorption performance of the magnetic particles was positively related to their compositions, structure, and surface properties.

  20. Synthesis and granulation of a titanosilicate with adsorption capacity for Cs to be used for treating de ILLW of the Ezeiza Radioisotope Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curi, Rodrigo; Bianchi, Hugo L; Luca, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The sitinakite structured titanosilicate is widely used for treating ILLW thanks to its capacity for adsorbing both Cs-137 and Sr-90. Its effectiveness lies in its incredibly high selectivity for such radioisotopes, which makes it useful in complex isotope solutions and even in strong acid and alkaline conditions. In Argentina, an off-the-shelve titanosilicate was used in Ezeiza's radioisotope production plant. Because of commercial restrictions, it is no longer available so an inhouse production is being developed. The aim of this project consists of the following: 1. Synthesis of titanosilicate and structural characterization 2. Adsorption kinetics of Cs + 3. Upscale of the synthesis process 4. Assessment of the influence of synthesis temperature and time on product crystallinity 5. Measurement of adsorption capacity of commercial titanosilicates IE910, IE911 and novel RC15H 6. Separative performance column essay and breakthrough plot 7. Chemical and radiolysis resistance of the adsorbent powder binder Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in contact with the actual waste Throughout this work we have studied the optimum synthesis conditions capable of rendering a sitinakite structured titanosilicate, assessed its Cs + adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity, crystal phase and purity via DRX, particle size with Laser Light Scattering technique. We have also conducted column breakthrough experiments and tried the chemical and radiolysis resistance of the final product (author)

  1. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  2. Resorcinol adsorption from aqueous solution on activated carbon: Relation adsorption isotherm and immersion enthalpy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Diago A; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    The resorcinol adsorption on a modified activated carbon, obtained from an activated commercial carbon Carbochem T M - PS30, CAG, modified by means of chemical treatment with HNO 3 7M oxidized activated carbon (CAO) and heat treatment under H 2 flow, reduced activated carbon (CAR) are studied. The influence of solution pH, the reduction and oxidation of the activated surface carbons in resorcinol aqueous solutions is determined. The interaction solid solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis at 298 K and at pHs of 7.9 and 11 in order to evaluate the system on and below the value of resorcinol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases with diminishing solution pH. The amount retained increases in the reduced carbon at maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. the experimental results of the adsorption isotherms are adjusted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models, obtaining values for the Q m ax parameter Langmuir model in the CAG of 179, 156 and 44 mgg - 1 For pH values of 7,9 and 11 respectively. In this case of modified carbons values of 233, 179 and 164 mgg - 1 Are obtained for CAR, CAG and CAO to pH 7 respectively, as general tendency the resorcinol adsorption increases in the following order CAR > CAG > CAO. Similar conclusions from immersion enthalpies are obtained, their values increase with the amount of solute retained. In the case of the CAG, immersion enthalpies between 25.8 to 40.9 Jg - 1, are obtained for resorcinol aqueous solutions in a range from 20 to 1500 mgL - 1

  3. Granular activated carbon adsorption of organic micro-pollutants in drinking water and treated wastewater--Aligning breakthrough curves and capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Stützer, Christian; Jekel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Small-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) tests for the adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) were conducted with drinking water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. In both waters, three influent OMP concentration levels were tested. As long as the influent OMP concentrations are below certain thresholds, the relative breakthrough behavior is not impacted in the respective water. Accordingly, the GAC capacity for OMP is directly proportional to the influent OMP concentration in the corresponding water. The differences between the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent can be attributed to the concentrations of the low molecular weight acid and neutral (LMW) organics of the waters. Presenting the relative OMP concentrations (c/c0) over the specific throughput of the LMW organics (mg LMW organics/g GAC), the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent superimpose each other. This superimposition can be further increased if the UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) of the LMW organics is considered. In contrast, using the specific throughput of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not suffice to obtain superimposed breakthrough curves. Thus, the LMW organics are the major water constituent impacting OMP adsorption onto GAC. The results demonstrate that knowing the influent OMP and LMW organics concentrations (and UV254) of different waters, the OMP breakthroughs and GAC capacities corresponding to any water can be applied to all other waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption of ionizable organic contaminants on multi-walled carbon nanotubes with different oxygen contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaona; Zhao Huimin; Quan Xie; Chen Shuo; Zhang Yaobin; Yu Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), which are considered to be promising candidates for the adsorption of toxic organics, are released into aqueous environment with their increasing production and application. In this study, the adsorption behaviors of five structurally related ionizable organic contaminants namely perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP) onto MWNTs with different oxygen contents (3.84-22.85%) were investigated. The adsorption kinetics was investigated and simulated with pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms were found to be fitted with Freundlich model and influenced by both the properties of organic chemicals and the oxygen contents of MWNTs. As adsorption capacity decreases dramatically with the increasing of oxygen contents, the MWNTs with the lowest oxygen contents possess the highest adsorption capacity among four MWNTs. For the MWNTs with the oxygen contents of 3.84%, the adsorption affinity related with hydrophobic interaction and π-electron polarizability decreased in the order of 4-NP > PFOSA > PFOS > 2,4-D > PFOA. Furthermore, the adsorption characters of five contaminants were affected by solution pH and solute pK a considering electrostatic repulse force and hydrogen bonding, which showed the adsorption of MWNTs with lower oxygen content is much sensitive to solution chemistry.

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  6. Protein Adsorption in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    initially-adsorbed protein. Interphase protein concentration CI increases as VI decreases, resulting in slow reduction in interfacial energetics. Steady-state is governed by a net partition coefficient P=(/CBCI). In the process of occupying space within the interphase, adsorbing protein molecules must displace an equivalent volume of interphase water. Interphase water is itself associated with surface-bound water through a network of transient hydrogen bonds. Displacement of interphase water thus requires an amount of energy that depends on the adsorbent surface chemistry/energy. This “adsorption-dehydration” step is the significant free-energy cost of adsorption that controls the maximum amount of protein that can be adsorbed at steady state to a unit adsorbent-surface area (the adsorbent capacity). As adsorbent hydrophilicity increases, protein adsorption monotonically decreases because the energetic cost of surface dehydration increases, ultimately leading to no protein adsorption near an adsorbent water wettability (surface energy) characterized by a water contact angle θ → 65°. Consequently, protein does not adsorb (accumulate at interphase concentrations greater than bulk solution) to more hydrophilic adsorbents exhibiting θ protein/surface interactions can be highly favorable, causing protein to adsorb in multilayers in a relatively thick interphase. A straightforward, three-component free energy relationship captures salient features of protein adsorption to all surfaces predicting that the overall free energy of protein adsorption ΔGadso is a relatively small multiple of thermal energy for any surface chemistry (except perhaps for bioengineered surfaces bearing specific ligands for adsorbing protein) because a surface chemistry that interacts chemically with proteins must also interact with water through hydrogen bonding. In this way, water moderates protein adsorption to any surface by competing with adsorbing protein molecules. This Leading Opinion ends

  7. Effect of textural and chemical characteristics of activated carbons on phenol adsorption in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Diana P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of textural and chemical properties such as: surface area, pore volume and chemical groups content of the granular activated carbon and monoliths on phenol adsorption in aqueous solutions was studied. Granular activated carbon and monolith samples were produced by chemical activation. They were characterized by using N2 adsorption at 77 K, CO2 adsorption at 273 K, Boehm Titrations and immersion calorimetry in phenol solutions. Microporous materials with different pore size distribution, surface area between 516 and 1685 m2 g−1 and pore volumes between 0.24 and 0.58 cm3 g−1 were obtained. Phenol adsorption capacity of the activated carbon materials increased with increasing BET surface area and pore volume, and is favored by their surface functional groups that act as electron donors. Phenol adsorption capacities are in ranged between 73.5 and 389.4 mg · g−1.

  8. Kinetic studies of uranyl ion adsorption on acrylonitrile (AN)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating networks (IPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycik, G.A.; Gurellier, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The kinetics of the adsorption of uranyl ions on amidoximated acrylonitrile (AN)/ polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating network (IPNs) from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of time and temperature. The IPNs were prepared by irradiation initiated gamma polymerisation using Co-60 gamma source. Adsorption capacities were performed for definite uranyl ion concentrations of 1x10 -2 M and at four different temperatures as 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K by gamma spectrometer. Adsorption time was increased from zero to 48 hours. The results indicate that adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing temperature. Temperature and agitation hardly influence equilibrium and kinetics and decreasing of temperature results in a slightly greater time to reach equilibrium. The adsorption of uranyl ions has been studied in a multi step mechanism processes thus comparing chemical sorption and diffusion sorption processes. The experimental data was analysed using various kinetic models to determine the best-fit equation for the adsorption mechanisms. However, it was shown that all models, in general according to the reaction time and uranyl ion concentration in the solution, could describe the adsorption of uranyl ion onto amidoximated IPN, the adsorption kinetics was best described by zeroth order and intraparticle diffusion model whereas that of in increasing time by pseudo first and pseudo second order response respectively. External-intraparticle diffusion and zeroth order process in the IPN structure is proposed as a mass transfer mechanism and the results indicate a diffusion-controlled process. The Mean Activation Energy Of Uranyl Ions Adsorption Was Found As 4,1 Kj/Mole By Using Arrhenius Equation. The Rate Constant, The Equilibrium Adsorption Capacity And The Initial Adsorption Rate Were Calculated For All Models At Each Temperature. Kinetic Parameters Of All Models And The Normalized Standard Deviations Between The Measured And Predicted

  9. Synthesis and adsorption performance of Mg(OH)2 hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mengdi; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Ho, Wingkei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheets with various mass of GO were prepared. • Mg(OH) 2 –GO composite showed enhanced adsorption capacity to congo red. • Zeta potential was used to explain preparation and adsorption mechanism. - Abstract: A series of Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide (GO) composites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method using magnesium nitrate and GO as precursors, sodium nitrate and sodium oxalate as additives, and sodium hydroxide and ammonia as precipitants. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption affinity of the as-prepared samples toward congo red (CR) in water was analyzed and investigated. Results indicated that GO addition influenced the thickness, morphology, and adsorption performance of Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheets. As GO concentration increased, the thickness decreased. Especially at high GO concentration (1 wt%), Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheets changed into aggregated flower-like spheres. Addition of small amounts of GO also increased the adsorption capacity of Mg(OH) 2 . The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on the composite were further investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich models, indicating that the Langmuir model was much more suitable for the experimental data. The sample prepared with 0.5 wt% GO showed the highest adsorption capacity with 118 mg g −1 . The experimental data were then fitted using pseudo-second order kinetics, suggesting that pseudo-second order kinetics could well describe the adsorption of CR on composites. Adsorption thermodynamics analysis showed that the adsorption activation energy was 29.2 kJ mol −1 , suggesting that the adsorption of CR onto the samples was physical adsorption. Adsorption between the samples and CR was mainly due to the strong electrostatic attraction

  10. Theoretical study on the gas adsorption capacity and selectivity of CPM-200-In/Mg and CPM-200-In/Mg-X (-X = -NH2, -OH, -N, -F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-le; Chen, Guang-Hui; Wang, Xiu-Jun; Li, Peng; Song, Yi-Bing; Li, Rui-Yan

    2017-11-15

    The adsorption capacities of a heterometallic metal-organic framework (CPM-200-In/Mg) to VOCs (HCHO, C 2 H 4 , CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 3 H 8 , C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 3 Cl, C 2 H 2 Cl 2 , CH 2 Cl 2 and CHCl 3 ) and some inorganic gas molecules (HCN, SO 2 , NO, CO 2 , CO, H 2 S and NH 3 ), as well as its selectivity in ternary mixture systems of natural gas and post-combustion flue gas are theoretically explored at the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and density functional theory (DFT) levels. It is shown that CPM-200-In/Mg is suitable for the adsorption of VOCs, particularly for HCHO (up to 0.39 g g -1 at 298 K and 1 bar), and the adsorption capacities of some inorganic gas molecules such as SO 2 , H 2 S and CO 2 match well with the sequence of their polarizability (SO 2 > H 2 S > CO 2 ). The large adsorption capacities of HCN and HCHO in the framework result from the strong interaction between adsorbates and metal centers, based on analyzing the radial distribution functions (RDF). Comparing C 2 H 4 and CH 4 molecules interacting with CPM-200-In/Mg by VDW interaction, we speculate that the high adsorption capacities of their chlorine derivatives in the framework could be due to the existence of halogen bonding or strong electrostatic and VDW interactions. It is found that the basic groups, including -NH 2 , -N and -OH, can effectively improve both the adsorption capacities and selectivity of CPM-200-In/Mg for harmful gases. Note that the adsorption capacity of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) (245 cm 3 g -1 ) for CO 2 exceeded that of MOF-74-Mg (228 cm 3 g -1 ) at 273 K and 1 bar and that for HCHO can reach 0.41 g g -1 , which is almost twice that of 438-MOF and nearly 45 times of that in active carbon. Moreover, for natural gas mixtures, the decarburization and desulfurization abilities of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) have exceeded those of the MOF-74 series, while for post-combustion flue gas mixtures, the desulfurization ability of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) is still

  11. Adsorption of Pb(II by Activated Pyrolytic Char from Used Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a renewable resource, the pyrolytic char derived from used tire has promising adsorption capacities owing to its similar structure and properties with active carbon. The purification and activation of the pyrolytic char from used tire, as well as the application of this material in the adsorption of Pb(II in water is conducted. The influences on the adsorption capacity by temperature and pH value are investigated and discussed; the adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics are also studied. The results show that the pyrolytic char from used tire has remarkable adsorption capacity for Pb(II, and the adsorption is an endothermic process complying with the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics is a pseudo second-order reaction.

  12. Nickel adsorption by sodium polyacrylate-grafted activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewecharoen, A. [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Thiravetyan, P., E-mail: paitip@hotmail.com [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Wendel, E.; Bertagnolli, H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A novel sodium polyacrylate grafted activated carbon was produced by using gamma radiation to increase the number of functional groups on the surface. After irradiation the capacity for nickel adsorption was studied and found to have increased from 44.1 to 55.7 mg g{sup -1}. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed nickel on activated carbon and irradiation-grafted activated carbon was coordinated with 6 oxygen atoms at 2.04-2.06 A. It is proposed that this grafting technique could be applied to other adsorbents to increase the efficiency of metal adsorption.

  13. The effect of moisture on the methane adsorption capacity of shales: A study case in the eastern Qaidam Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Yu, Qingchun

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of moisture on high-pressure methane adsorption in carboniferous shales from the Qaidam Basin, China. The shale characteristics, including the organic/inorganic compositions and pore structure (volume and surface) distribution, were obtained using various techniques. Gibbs adsorption measurements were performed over a pressure range up to 6 MPa and temperatures of 308.15 K on dry samples and moisture-equilibrated samples to analyze the correlations between organic/inorganic matter, pore structure, and moisture content on the methane sorption capacity. Compared to dry samples, the sorption capacity of wet samples (0.44-2.52% of water content) is reduced from 19.7 ± 5.3% to 36.1% ± 6.1%. Langmuir fitting is conducted to investigate moisture-dependent variations of adsorbed methane density, Langmuir pressure, and volume. By combining the pore volume and surface distribution analyses, our observations suggested that the main competition sites for CH4-H2O covered pores of approximately 2-7 nm, whereas the effective sites for methane and water were predominantly distributed within smaller (10 nm), respectively. Regarding the compositional correlations, the impact of moisture on the amount of adsorbed methane shows a roughly linearly decreasing trend with increasing TOC content ranging from 0.62 to 2.88%, whereas the correlation between the moisture effect and various inorganic components is more complicated. Further fitting results indicate that illite/smectite mixed formations are closely related to the methane capacity, whereas the illite content show an evident connection to the pore structural (volume and surface) variations in the presence of moisture.

  14. Adsorption of dyes onto activated carbon cloth: using QSPRs as tools to approach adsorption mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metivier-Pignon, Hélène; Faur, Catherine; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the adsorption of dyes onto activated carbon cloths. Kinetics and isotherms were studied based on results of batch reactors to constitute databases for the adsorption rates and capacities of 22 commercial dyes. Added to a qualitative analysis of experimental results, quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) were used to determine the structural features that influence most adsorption processes. QSPRs consisted of multiple linear regressions correlating adsorption parameters with molecular connectivity indices (MCIs) as molecular descriptors. Results related to adsorption kinetics showed that the size of molecules was the significant feature, the high order MCIs involved in QSPRs indicating the influence of a critical size on adsorption rate. Improved statistical fits were obtained when the database was divided according to the chemical classes of dyes. As regards to adsorption isotherms, their particular form led to the use of saturation capacity as the adsorption parameter. By contrast with adsorption kinetics, molecular overcrowding seemed to be of less influence on adsorption equilibrium. In this case, MCIs included in the QSPR were more related to details of the molecular structure. The robustness of the QSPR assessed for azo dyes was studied for the other dyes. Although the small size of the database limited predictive ability, features relevant to the influence of the database composition on QSPRs have been highlighted.

  15. Removal of nitroimidazole antibiotics from aqueous solution by adsorption/bioadsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Utrilla, J; Prados-Joya, G; Sánchez-Polo, M; Ferro-García, M A; Bautista-Toledo, I

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the behaviour of activated carbon with different chemical and textural properties in nitroimidazole adsorption, also assessing the combined use of microorganisms and activated carbon in the removal of these compounds from waters and the influence of the chemical nature of the solution (pH and ionic strength) on the adsorption process. Results indicate that the adsorption of nitroimidazoles is largely determined by activated carbon chemical properties. Application of the Langmuir equation to the adsorption isotherms showed an elevated adsorption capacity (X(m)=1.04-2.04 mmol/g) for all contaminants studied. Solution pH and electrolyte concentration did not have a major effect on the adsorption of these compounds on activated carbon, confirming that the principal interactions involved in the adsorption of these compounds are non-electrostatic. Nitroimidazoles are not degraded by microorganisms used in the biological stage of a wastewater treatment plant. However, the presence of microorganisms during nitroimidazole adsorption increased their adsorption on the activated carbon, although it weakened interactions between the adsorbate and carbon surface. In dynamic regime, the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon was markedly higher in surface water and groundwater than in urban wastewaters.

  16. Temperature Dependence of Uranium and Vanadium Adsorption on Amidoxime-Based Adsorbents in Natural Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Li-Jung [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Gill, Gary A. [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Rao, Linfeng [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Pan, Horng-Bin [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow ID 83844 USA; Wai, Chien M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow ID 83844 USA; Janke, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Wood, Jordana R. [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Schlafer, Nicholas [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; D' Alessandro, Evan K. [Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Miami, Miami FL 33149 USA

    2018-01-16

    The apparent enthalpy and entropy of the complexation of uranium (VI) and vanadium (V) with amidoxime ligands grafted onto polyethylene fiber was determined using time series measurements of adsorption capacities in natural seawater at three different temperatures. The complexation of uranium was highly endothermic, while the complexation of vanadium showed minimal temperature sensitivity. Amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents exhibit significantly increased uranium adsorption capacities and selectivity in warmer waters.

  17. Adsorption Characteristics of Polyvinyl Alcohols in Solution on Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite (EG adsorbent was prepared with 50 mesh graphite as raw materials, potassium permanganate as oxidant, and vitriol as intercalation compound. Three kinds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different degree of polymerization (DP in aqueous solution were used as adsorbates. We have studied the influence of initial PVA concentration, temperature and ionic strength on adsorption capacity. Langmuir constants and Gibbs free energy change (⊿G° were calculated according to experimental data respectively. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the equilibrium adsorbance of PVA on EG increase with the rise of SO42– concentration. Adsorption isotherms of PVA with different degree of polymerization are all types and we deduce PVA molecules lie flat on EG surface. Adsorption processes are all spontaneous. Kinetic studies show that the kinetic data can be described by pseudo second-order kinetic model. Second-order rate constants and the initial adsorption rate rise with the increasing of temperature and half-adsorption time decreases with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption activation energy of each PVA is less than 20 kJ•mol−1, physical adsorption is the major mode of the overall adsorption process.

  18. Influences of salt concentration, loading and pH on strontium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.; Kaplan, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of Sr on clay with contains zeolites and montmorillonite mixtures was investigated in solutions of NaCl by means of a batch technique. Sr retention was reduced with increasing NaCl concentration from 5*10 -4 to 5*10 -1 M. Distribution coefficients (K d ) linearly increased with pH in the acidic region but they were almost independent of pH in neutral and alkaline solutions. By fitting the data of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm, the mean energies of adsorption and adsorption capacities of Sr at different pH values were calculated. The results showed that the mode of adsorption below pH 4.5 is ion exchange, while above that value a multilayer adsorption occurs. Adsorption data were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm and from empirical Freundlich parameters a site distribution function was calculated. (author)

  19. Utilization of Natural Zeolite from Ponorogo and Purworejo for Naphthol Substance Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandiani, Sundus; Indira, Christine; Johan, Anthony; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has many zeolite producing areas yet untapped. Researchers developed the utilization of natural zeolites useful for the adsorption of naphthol dyes commonly found in batik waste. In this study researchers used natural zeolites from Purworejo and Ponorogo that are activated using hydrochloric acid that is used for adsorption. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of natural zeolite activation from Ponorogo and Purworejo on the effectiveness of adsorption of naphthol dyes widely used in batik industry. Natural zeolite was activated using HCl concentration of 1.3N; 1.8N; 3.2N; and 3.9N for 60 minutes. The methods are preparation of natural zeolite from Purworejo and Ponorogo, dealumination using hydrochloric acid, adsorption process of naphthol dyes using activated zeolite, and test of adsorption result with uv-vis spectrophotometry. The test results showed that the higher HCl concentration will increase adsorption capacity. This can be known from the concentration of naphthol dye which decreased both using natural zeolite Ponorogo and Purworejo. While the effectiveness of adsorption shows natural zeolite Purworejo has a greater adsorption capacity than Ponorogo with optimum conditions of dealumination using concentration HCl 3,9N.

  20. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake behavior at assorted adsorption temperatures and pressures whilst comparing them to the commercial silica gels of AD plants. The surface characteristics are first carried out using N2 gas adsorption followed by the water vapor uptake analysis for temperature ranging from 20°C to 80°C. We propose a hybrid isotherm model, composing of the Henry and the Sips isotherms, which can be integrated to satisfactorily fit the experimental data of water adsorption on the FAM-Z01. The hybrid model is selected to fit the unusual isotherm shapes, that is, a low adsorption in the initial section and followed by a rapid vapor uptake leading to a likely micropore volume filling by hydrogen bonding and cooperative interaction in micropores. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FAM-Z01 can be up to 5 folds higher than that of conventional silica gels. Owing to the quantum increase in the adsorbate uptake, the FAM-Z01 has the potential to significantly reduce the footprint of an existing AD plant for the same output capacity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  1. A Novel Absorbent of Nano-Fe Loaded Biomass Char and Its Enhanced Adsorption Capacity for Phosphate in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite adsorbent of Fe loaded biomass char (Fe-BC was fabricated to treat phosphorus in water. Fe-BC was prepared by a procedure including metal complex anion incorporation and precipitation with the pyrolysis char of corn straw as supporting material. The abundant porous structures of the as-prepared sample can be easily observed from its scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. Observations by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses show that inorganic nanoiron oxides deposited in the composite could be amorphous hydrous iron oxide α-FeOOH. Adsorption of phosphate onto the Fe-BC composite and its precursor (BC from aqueous solutions were investigated and discussed. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate was described by Langmuir and Freundlich models, and Langmuir isotherm was found to be better fitted than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity for phosphate of Fe-BC was as high as 35.43 mg/g, approximately 2.3 times of BC at 25°C. The adsorption kinetics data were better fitted by pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model, indicating that the adsorption process was complex. The Fe-BC composite has been proved as an effective adsorbent of phosphate from aqueous solutions owing to its unique porous structures and the greater Lewis basicity of the α-FeOOH.

  2. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: nwenihlaing76@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Vignesh, K., E-mail: vignesh134@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Anano Sphere Sdn Bhd, Lorong Industri 11, Kawasan Industri Bukit Panchor, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: srimala@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Pung, Swee-Yong [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Othman, Radzali [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Thant, Aye Aye [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salim, Chris [Department of Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang 15810, Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH){sub 2} was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH){sub 2} based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH){sub 2} phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  3. Adsorptive Removal of Nitrate from Aqueous Solution Using Nitrogen Doped Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Motoi; Goto, Tatsuru; Amano, Yoshimasa; Iida, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been widely applied for adsorptive removal of organic contaminants from aqueous phase, but not for ionic pollutants. In this study, nitrogen doped AC was prepared to increase the adsorption capacity of nitrate from water. AC was oxidized with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 solution to maximize oxygen content for the first step, and then NH 3 gas treatment was carried out at 950°C to aim at forming quaternary nitrogen (N-Q) species on AC surface (Ox-9.5AG). Influence of solution pH was examined so as to elucidate the relationship between surface charge and adsorption amounts of nitrate. The results showed that Ox-9.5AG exhibited about twice higher adsorption capacity than non-treatment AC at any initial nitrate concentration and any equilibrium solution pH (pH e ) investigated. The more decrease in pH e value, the more adsorption amount of negatively charged nitrate ion, because the surface charge of AC and Ox-9.5AG could become more positive in acidic solution. The oxidation and consecutive ammonia treatments lead to increase in nitrogen content from 0.35 to 6.4% and decrease in the pH of the point of zero charge (pH pzc ) from 7.1 to 4.0 implying that positively charged N-Q of a Lewis acid was created on the surface of Ox-9.5AG. Based on a Langmuir data analysis, maximum adsorption capacity attained 0.5-0.6 mmol/g of nitrate and adsorption affinity was 3.5-4.0 L/mmol at pH e 2.5 for Ox-9.5AG.

  4. Effect of water on methane adsorption on the kaolinite (0 0 1) surface based on molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Kang, Jianting; Kang, Tianhe

    2018-05-01

    CH4 adsorption isotherms of kaolinite with moisture contents ranging from 0 to 5 wt% water, the effects of water on maximum adsorption capacity, kaolinite swelling, and radial distribution function were modelled by the implementing combined Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 293.15 K (20 °C) and a pressure range of 1-20 MPa. The simulation results showed that the absolute adsorption of CH4 on both dry and moist kaolinite followed a Langmuir isotherm within the simulated pressure range, and both the adsorption capacity and the rate of CH4 adsorption decreased with the water content increases. The adsorption isosteric heats of CH4 on kaolinite decreased linearly with increasing water content, indicating that at higher water contents, the interaction energy between the CH4 and kaolinite was weaker. The interaction between kaolinite and water dominates and was the main contributing factor to kaolinite clay swelling. Water molecules were preferentially adsorbed onto oxygen and hydrogen atoms in kaolinite, while methane showed a tendency to be adsorbed only onto oxygen. The simulation results of our study provide the quantitative analysis of effect of water on CH4 adsorption capacity, adsorption rate, and interaction energy from a microscopic perspective. We hope that our study will contribute to the development of strategies for the further exploration of coal bed methane and shale gas.

  5. Single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption on activated carbon of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel daiem, Mahmoud M; Rivera-Utrilla, José; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl

    2015-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption of phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on two activated carbons with different chemical natures and similar textural characteristics. The adsorption mechanism was also elucidated by analyzing the influence of solution pH and ionic strength. The activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption capacity to remove all micropollutants due to the presence of active sites on their surfaces, which increase dispersive interactions between the activated carbon graphene layers and the aromatic ring of pollutants. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons increased in the order: DPApH (pHactivated carbon decreased by around 50% and 70% in the presence of DPA and BPA, respectively, indicating that both compounds are adsorbed on the same adsorption sites of the activated carbon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption removal of Sr by Barium impregnated 4A Zeolite(BaA) from high radioactive seawater waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Kwang Wook; Kim, Ik Soo; Chung, Dong Yong; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the removal of Sr, which was one of the high radioactive nuclides, by adsorption with Barium (Ba) impregnated 4A zeolite (BaA) from high-radioactive seawater waste (HSW). Adsorption of Sr by BaA (BaA-Sr), in the impregnated Ba concentration of above 20.2wt%, was decreased by increasing the impregnated Ba concentration, and the impregnated Ba concentration was suitable at 20.2wt%. The BaA-Sr adsorption was added to the co-precipitation of Sr with BaSO4 precipitation in the adsorption of Sr by 4A (4A-Sr) within BaA. Thus, it was possible to remove Sr more than 99% at m/V (adsorbent weight/solution volume)=5 g/L for BaA and m/V >20 g/L for 4A, respectively, in the Sr concentration of less than 0.2 mg/L (actual concentration level of Sr in HSW). It shows that BaA-Sr adsorption is better than 4A-Sr adsorption in for the removal capacity of Sr per unit gram of adsorbent, and the reduction of the secondary solid waste generation (spent adsorbent etc.). Also, BaA-Sr adsorption was more excellent removal capacity of Sr in the seawater waste than distilled water. Therefore, it seems to be effective for the direct removal of Sr from HSW. On the other hand, the adsorption of Cs by BaA (BaA-Cs) was mainly performed by 4A within BaA. Accordingly, it seems to be little effect of impregnated Ba into BaA. Meanwhile, BaA-Sr adsorption kinetics could be expressed the pseudosecond order rate equation. By increasing the initial Sr concentrations and the ratios of V/m, the adsorption rate constants (k2) were decreased, but the equilibrium adsorption capacities (qe) were increasing. However, with increasing the temperature of solution, k2 was conversely increased, and qe was decreased. The activation energy of BaA-Sr adsorption was 38 kJ/mol. Thus, the chemical adsorption seems to be dominant rather than physical adsorption, although it is not a chemisorption with strong bonding form.

  7. Highly efficient fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by nepheline prepared from kaolinite through alkali-hydrothermal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Li, Zishun; Tang, Xuekun; Li, Guangze

    2017-07-01

    A direct alkali-hydrothermal induced transformation process was adopted to prepare nepheline from raw kaolinite (shortened form RK in this paper) and NaOH solution in this paper. Structure and morphology characterizations of the synthetic product showed that the nepheline possessed high degree of crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. Specific surface area of nepheline is 18 m 2 /g, with a point of zero charge at around pH 5.0-5.5. The fluoride (F - ions) adsorption by the synthetic nepheline (shortened form SN in this paper) from aqueous solution was also investigated under different experimental conditions. The adsorption process well matched the Langmuir isotherm model with an amazing maximum adsorption capacity of 183 mg/g at 323 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔS 0 ) for adsorption on SN were also determined from the temperature dependence. The adsorption capacities of fluoride on SN increased with increasing of temperature and initial concentration. Initial pH value also had influence on adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride was rapidly increased in 5-60 min and thereafter increased slowly to reach the equilibrium in about 90-180 min under all conditions. The adsorption followed a pseudo-second order rate law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multicomponent Adsorption Model for Polar and Associating Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    of these problems could be due to the fact that the original MPTA assumes that a given adsorbent has the same adsorption capacity (for example, porous volume) for all the adsorbed substances and is adjusted simultaneously to many data. This is a simplified picture, as experimental data indicate that the adsorption......-Radushkevich-Astakhov potentials and the potentials directly restored from experimental data by solving the inverse problem. Application of the latter potentials Clearly demonstrates the importance of the difference in adsorption capacities. However, the quality of prediction of binary adsorption is similar for both potentials...

  9. Synthesis and adsorption performance of Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mengdi; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies and Centre for Education in Environmental Sustainability, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T. Hong Kong (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheets with various mass of GO were prepared. • Mg(OH){sub 2}–GO composite showed enhanced adsorption capacity to congo red. • Zeta potential was used to explain preparation and adsorption mechanism. - Abstract: A series of Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide (GO) composites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method using magnesium nitrate and GO as precursors, sodium nitrate and sodium oxalate as additives, and sodium hydroxide and ammonia as precipitants. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption affinity of the as-prepared samples toward congo red (CR) in water was analyzed and investigated. Results indicated that GO addition influenced the thickness, morphology, and adsorption performance of Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheets. As GO concentration increased, the thickness decreased. Especially at high GO concentration (1 wt%), Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheets changed into aggregated flower-like spheres. Addition of small amounts of GO also increased the adsorption capacity of Mg(OH){sub 2}. The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on the composite were further investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich models, indicating that the Langmuir model was much more suitable for the experimental data. The sample prepared with 0.5 wt% GO showed the highest adsorption capacity with 118 mg g{sup −1}. The experimental data were then fitted using pseudo-second order kinetics, suggesting that pseudo-second order kinetics could well describe the adsorption of CR on composites. Adsorption thermodynamics analysis showed that the adsorption activation energy was 29.2 kJ mol{sup −1}, suggesting that the adsorption of CR onto the samples was physical adsorption. Adsorption between the samples and CR was mainly due to the

  10. Selective adsorption of Pb (II) over the zinc-based MOFs in aqueous solution-kinetics, isotherms, and the ion exchange mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhang, Jinmiao; Xiong, Zhenhu

    2017-06-01

    Two series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with similar formula units but different central metal ions (M) or organic linkers (L), M-BDC (BDC = terephthalate, M = Zn, Zr, Cr, or Fe), or Zn-L (L = imidazolate-2-methyl, BDC, BDC-NH 2 ), were prepared and employed as the receptors for adsorption lead ions. It was found that the Zn-BDC exhibited a much higher adsorption capacity than the other M-BDC series with various metal ions which have very closely low capacities at same conditions. Furthermore, the Zn-L (L = imidazolate-2-methyl, BDC, BDC-NH 2 ) still have highly efficient adsorption capacity of lead ions, although the adsorption capacity varies with different ligand, as well as the adsorption rate and the equilibrium pH of the solution. This significant high adsorption over Zn-L, different from other M-BDC series with various metal ions (Zr, Cr, or Fe), can be explained by ion exchange between the central metal ions of Zn-L and lead ion in solution. Based on the analysis of FT-IR, X-ray diffraction pattern, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the zeta potentials, and the results, a plausible adsorption mechanism is proposed. When equivalent Zn-L were added to equal volume of aqueous solution with different concentration of lead ion, the content of zinc ion in the solution increases with the increase of the initial concentration of lead ions. The new findings could provide a potential way to fabricate new metal organic frameworks with high and selective capacities of the heavy metal ions.

  11. Enhancement of methylbenzene adsorption capacity through cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-modified activated carbon derived from Astragalus residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ningchuan; Zhang, Yumei; Fan, Wei; Zhu, Meilin

    2018-02-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from astragalus residue by KOH and then treated with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and used for the removal of methylbenzene from aqueous solution. The samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and Boehm titration. The results showed that CTAB changed the physicochemical properties of activated carbon significantly. The isotherm adsorption studies of methylbenzene onto the astragalus residue activated carbon (ASC) and CTAB-modified astragalus residue activated carbon (ASCCTAB) were examined by using batch techniques and agreed well with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of ASC and ASC-CTAB for methylbenzene determined from the Langmuir model was183.56 mg/g and 235.18 mg/g, respectively. The results indicated that using CTAB as a modifier for ASC modification could markedly enhance the methylbenzene removal from water.

  12. Volatile organic compounds adsorption using different types of adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimanmes Chanayotha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbents were synthesized from coconut shell, coal and coke by pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process. These synthesized materials were used as adsorbents in adsorption test to determine the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs namely, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and Alkanes standard solution (C8-C20. The adsorption capacities of both synthesized adsorbents and commercial grade adsorbents (Carbotrap™ B and Carbotrap™ C were also compared. It was found that adsorbent A402, which was produced from coconut shell, activated with 40% (wt. potassium hydroxide and at activating temperature of 800°C for 1 hr, could adsorb higher amount of both HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane than other synthesized adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent A402 in adsorbing HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane were 77.87% and 50.82% respectively. These adsorption capabilities were 79.73% and 70.07% of the adsorption capacity of the commercial adsorbent Carbotrap™ B respectively. All three types of the synthesized adsorbent (A402, C302, C402 showed the capability to adsorb alkanes standard solution through the range of C8-C20 . However, their adsorption capacities were high in a specific range of C10-C11. The result from the isotherm plot was indicated that surface adsorption of synthesized adsorbent was isotherm type I while the surface adsorption of commercial adsorbent was isotherm type III.

  13. Selective adsorption behavior of Cd(II) ion imprinted polymers synthesized by microwave-assisted inverse emulsion polymerization: Adsorption performance and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Fang; Li, Luwei; Xing, Junde

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave assisted inverse emulsion polymerization was applied to prepare Cd(II) imprinted polymers. • The adsorption capacity was evaluated by static adsorption experiments. • Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model had the best agreement with the experimental data. • The adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. • Cd(II) imprinted polymers have specific identification for Cd(II). - Abstract: Microwave-assisted inverse emulsion polymerization method was used to prepare Cd(II) imprinted polymer (IIP) by using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer, epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crossing-linking agent, ammonium persulfate as initiator. The Cd(II) imprinted polymer was characterized by SEM, FTIR and TGA. The influences of initial concentration of Cd(II), pH values, temperature, time and competitive ions on adsorption capacity and recognition properties are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the adsorption capacity could reach 107 mg/g. Furthermore, pseudo first order kinetic model, pseudo second order kinetic model and intra-particular diffusion model were used to describe the adsorption kinetic behavior. Results showed that the pseudo-second-order model (R"2 0.9928–0.9961) had the best agreement with the experimental data. Langmuir adsorption isotherm model described the experimental data well, which indicated that adsorption was mainly monolayer absorption. Moreover, the study of adsorption thermodynamics (ΔG"0 0, ΔS"0 > 0) suggested that the adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Competitive selectivity experiment revealed that imprinted polymer could selectively recognize Cd(II). It provides a new idea for removing Cd(II) from aqueous solution.

  14. Adsorption/oxidation of sulfur-containing gases on nitrogen-doped activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shell-based activated carbon (CAC was used for the removal of methyl mercaptan (MM. CAC was modified by urea impregnation and calcined at 450°C and 950°C. The desulfurization activity was determined in a fixed bed reactor under room temperature. The results showed that the methyl mercaptan adsorption/oxidation capacity of modified carbon caicined at 950°C is more than 3 times the capacity of original samples. On the other hand, the modified carbon caicined at 950°C also has a high capacity for the simultaneous adsorption/oxidation of methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide.The introduce of basic nitrogen groups siginificantly increases the desulfurization since it can facilitate the electron transfer process between sulfur and oxygen. The structure and chemical properties are characterized using Boehm titration, N2 adsorption-desorption method, thermal analysis and elemental analysis. The results showed that the major oxidation products were dimethyl disulfide and methanesulfonic acid which adsorbed in the activated carbon.

  15. Post-combustion CO2 capture with activated carbons using fixed bed adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mesfer, Mohammed K.; Danish, Mohd; Fahmy, Yasser M.; Rashid, Md. Mamoon

    2018-03-01

    In the current work, the capturing of carbon dioxide from flue gases of post combustion emission using fixed bed adsorption has been carried out. Two grades of commercial activated carbon (sorbent-1 and sorbent-2) were used as adsorbent. Feed consisting of CO2 and N2 mixture was used for carrying out the adsorption. The influence of bed temperature, feed rate, equilibrium partial pressure and initial % CO2 in feed were considered for analyzing adsorption-desorption process. It was found that the total adsorption-desorption cycle time decreases with increased column temperature and feed rates. The time required to achieve the condition of bed saturation decreases with increased bed temperature and feed rates. The amount of CO2 adsorbed/Kg of the adsorbent declines with increased bed temperature with in studied range for sorbent-1 and sorbent-2. It was suggested that the adsorption capacity of the both the sorbents increases with increased partial pressure of the gas.

  16. Effects of ammonium hydroxide on the structure and gas adsorption of nanosized Zr-MOFs (UiO-66).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Hussein Rasool; Ang, Ha Ming; Wang, Shaobin

    2012-05-21

    Several zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (Zr-MOFs) have been synthesized using ammonium hydroxide as an additive in the synthesis process. Their physicochemical properties have been characterized by N(2) adsorption/desorption, XRD, SEM, FTIR, and TGA, and their application in CO(2) adsorption was evaluated. It was found that addition of ammonium hydroxide produced some effects on the structure and adsorption behavior of Zr-MOFs. The pore size and pore volume of Zr-MOFs were enhanced with the additive, however, specific surface area of Zr-MOFs was reduced. Using an ammonium hydroxide additive, the crystal size of Zr-MOF was reduced with increasing amount of the additive. All the samples presented strong thermal stability. Adsorption tests showed that capacity of CO(2) adsorption on the Zr-MOFs under standard conditions was reduced due to decreased micropore fractions. However, modified Zr-MOFs had significantly lower adsorption heat. The adsorption capacity of carbon dioxide was increased at high pressure, reaching 8.63 mmol g(-1) at 987 kPa for Zr-MOF-NH(4)-2.

  17. Adsorption of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) from aqueous solution by thiourea-modified chitosan microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Limin; Liu Jinhui; Liu Zhirong

    2009-01-01

    The chitosan microparticles were prepared using the inverse phase emulsion dispersion method and modified with thiourea (TCS). TCS was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, sulfur elemental analysis, specific surface area and pore diameter. The effects of various parameters, such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and temperature, on the adsorption of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) by TCS were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was found at pH 2.0 for both Pt(IV) and Pd(II). TCS can selectively adsorb Pt(IV) and Pd(II) from binary mixtures with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ca(II), and Mg(II). The adsorption reaction followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating the main adsorption mechanism of chemical adsorption. The isotherm adsorption equilibrium was well described by Langmuir isotherms with the maximum adsorption capacity of 129.9 mg/g for Pt(IV) and 112.4 mg/g for Pd(II). The adsorption capacity of both Pt(IV) and Pd(II) decreased with temperature increasing. The negative values of enthalpy (ΔH o ) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ) indicate that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The adsorbent was stable without loss of the adsorption capacity up to at least 5 cycles and the desorption efficiencies were above 95% when 0.5 M EDTA-0.5 M H 2 SO 4 eluent was used. The results also showed that the preconcentration factor for Pt(IV) and Pd(II) was 196 and 172, respectively, and the recovery was found to be more than 97% for both precious metal ions.

  18. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Tetraethylenepentamine Impregnated PMMA Sorbents with Different Pore Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Park, Cheonggi; Jung, Hyunchul; Kim, Sung Hyun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) supports and amine additives were investigated to adsorb CO{sub 2}. PMMA supports were fabricated by using different ratio of pore forming agents (porogen) to control the BET specific surface area, pore volume and distribution. Toluene and xylene are used for porogens. Supported amine sorbents were prepared by wet impregnation of tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) on PMMA supports. So we could identify the effect of the pore structure of supports and the quantity of impregnated TEPA on the adsorption capacity. The increased amount of toluene as pore foaming agent resulted in the decreased average pore diameter and the increased BET surface area. Polymer supports with huge different pore distribution could be fabricated by controlling the ratio of porogen. After impregnation, the support with micropore structure is supposed the pore blocking and filling effect so that it has low CO{sub 2} capacity and kinetics due to the difficulty of diffusing. Macropore structure indicates fast adsorption capacity and low influence of amine loading. In case of support with mesopore, it has high performance of adsorption capacity and kinetics. So high surface area and meso-/macro- pore structure is suitable for CO{sub 2} capture.

  19. Improving lead adsorption through chemical modification of wheat straw by lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ruimin; Wang, Minxiang; Bu, Qingwei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Yanli

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the creation of a new cellulosic material derived from wheat straw modified by lactic acid for adsorption of lead in aqueous solution, called 0.3LANS (the concentration of the lactic acid were 0.3mol/L). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of initial pH value, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Elemental analysis, BET surface area and Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) analysis were used to investigate the chemical modification. Adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich were used to analyse the equilibrium data, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the best correlation, means that the adsorption was chemical monolayer adsorption and the adsorption capacity qm was increased with increasing temperature, and reached 51.49mg/g for 0.3LANS at 35°C, showing adsorption was exothermic.

  20. Flue gas adsorption by single-wall carbon nanotubes: A Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hermida, M I; Romero-Enrique, J M; Morales-Flórez, V; Esquivias, L

    2016-08-21

    Adsorption of flue gases by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The flue gas is modeled as a ternary mixture of N2, CO2, and O2, emulating realistic compositions of the emissions from power plants. The adsorbed flue gas is in equilibrium with a bulk gas characterized by temperature T, pressure p, and mixture composition. We have considered different SWCNTs with different chiralities and diameters in a range between 7 and 20 Å. Our results show that the CO2 adsorption properties depend mainly on the bulk flue gas thermodynamic conditions and the SWCNT diameter. Narrow SWCNTs with diameter around 7 Å show high CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, but they decrease abruptly as the SWCNT diameter is increased. For wide SWCNT, CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, much smaller in value than for the narrow case, decrease mildly with the SWCNT diameter. In the intermediate range of SWCNT diameters, the CO2 adsorption properties may show a peculiar behavior, which depend strongly on the bulk flue gas conditions. Thus, for high bulk CO2 concentrations and low temperatures, the CO2 adsorption capacity remains high in a wide range of SWCNT diameters, although the corresponding selectivity is moderate. We correlate these findings with the microscopic structure of the adsorbed gas inside the SWCNTs.

  1. Flue gas adsorption by single-wall carbon nanotubes: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Hermida, M. I.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Morales-Flórez, V.; Esquivias, L.

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of flue gases by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The flue gas is modeled as a ternary mixture of N 2 , CO 2 , and O 2 , emulating realistic compositions of the emissions from power plants. The adsorbed flue gas is in equilibrium with a bulk gas characterized by temperature T, pressure p, and mixture composition. We have considered different SWCNTs with different chiralities and diameters in a range between 7 and 20 Å. Our results show that the CO 2 adsorption properties depend mainly on the bulk flue gas thermodynamic conditions and the SWCNT diameter. Narrow SWCNTs with diameter around 7 Å show high CO 2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, but they decrease abruptly as the SWCNT diameter is increased. For wide SWCNT, CO 2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, much smaller in value than for the narrow case, decrease mildly with the SWCNT diameter. In the intermediate range of SWCNT diameters, the CO 2 adsorption properties may show a peculiar behavior, which depend strongly on the bulk flue gas conditions. Thus, for high bulk CO 2 concentrations and low temperatures, the CO 2 adsorption capacity remains high in a wide range of SWCNT diameters, although the corresponding selectivity is moderate. We correlate these findings with the microscopic structure of the adsorbed gas inside the SWCNTs.

  2. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic core coated by silver and functionalized with N-acetyl cysteine as novel nanoparticles in ferritin adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akduman, Beguem [Faculty of Science and Arts, Adnan Menderes University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey); Uygun, Murat [Kocarl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Vocational and Training School, Adnan Menderes University (Turkey); Uygun, Deniz Aktas, E-mail: daktas@adu.edu.tr [Faculty of Science and Arts, Adnan Menderes University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey); Antalik, Marian [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Science, Department of Biophysics (Slovakia)

    2013-04-15

    A novel metal-chelate affinity matrix utilizing N-acetyl cysteine as a metal chelating agent was synthesized. For this, magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core was coated with silver by chemical reduction. Then, these magnetic silver nanoparticles were covered with N-acetyl cysteine, and Fe{sup 3+} was chelated to this modified magnetic silver nanoparticle. These magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, AFM, EDX, and ESR analysis. Synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and average size is found to be 69 nm. Fe{sup 3+} chelated magnetic silver nanoparticles were used for the adsorption of ferritin from its aqueous solution. Optimum conditions for the ferritin adsorption experiments were performed at pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and 25 Degree-Sign C of medium temperature and the maximum ferritin adsorption capacity is found to be 89.57 mg/g nanoparticle. Ferritin adsorption onto magnetic silver nanoparticles was increased with increasing ferritin concentration while adsorption capacity was decreased with increasing ionic strength. Affinity of the magnetic silver nanoparticles to the ferritin molecule was shown with SPR analysis. It was also observed that the adsorption capacity of the magnetic silver nanoparticles was not significantly changed after the five adsorption/desorption cycles.

  3. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  4. Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Mann, Nicholas R [Rigby, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Herbst, Ronald S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-05-24

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  5. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of Th(IV) from aqueous solution onto kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongxia Zhang; Zhiwei Niu; Zhi Liu; Zhaodong Wen; Weiping Li; Xiaoyun Wang; Wangsuo Wu

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of Th(IV) on the kaolin were studied by using batch method. In addition, the experimental data were studied by dynamic and thermodynamic models. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent increased with increasing temperature and solid liquid ratio, but decreased with increasing initial Th(IV) ion concentration, and the best fit was obtained for the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The calculated activation energy for adsorption was about 45 kJ/mol, which indicated the adsorption process to be chemisorption. The adsorption isotherm data could be well described by the Langmuir as well as Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The mean free energy (E) of adsorption was calculated to be about 15 kJ/mol. The thermodynamic data calculated showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and enhanced at higher temperature. Considering kinetics and equilibrium studies, the adsorption on the sites was the rate-limiting step and that adsorption was mainly a chemisorption process through cation exchange. (author)

  6. Supercritical CO2 Assisted Synthesis of EDTA-Fe3O4 Nanocomposite with High Adsorption Capacity for Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of EDTA functionalized nanoparticles in adsorption of chromium (VI from water was investigated in this study. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were synthesized by a simple chemical coprecipitation route and EDTA coating onto IONPs was attained via supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc CO2, a technology with green sustainable properties. The obtained nanoparticles were then characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and vibrating magnetometric analysis (VSM. The synthesized nanoparticle and its modified variant were evaluated as adsorbent for chromium (VI removal from water through batch adsorption technique and the effect of analytic concentration; contact time and adsorbent concentration were studied at pH 2. The results showed higher removal efficiency for modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs (i.e., 99.9% than their nonmodified variant IONPs, that is, 34.06% for the same concentration after 18 hours of incubation. Also maximum adsorption capacity (qe = 452.26 mg/g of MIONPs attained can be related to their preparation in Sc CO2 as qe calculated from IONPs, that is, 170.33 mg/g, is lower than that of MIONPs. The adsorption data fit well with Freundlich isotherm equation while kinetic adsorption studies of chromium (VI were modeled by pseudo-second-order model.

  7. Removal of Basic Red 46 dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto Moroccan clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A. Bennani; Mounir, B.; Hachkar, M.; Bakasse, M.; Yaacoubi, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Moroccan crude clay of Safi, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, is used as adsorbent for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the Basic Red 46 (BR46) in aqueous solutions at various dye concentrations, adsorbent masses and pH values. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the dye increased by initial dye concentration and pH values. Two kinetic models (the pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order) were used to calculate the adsorption rate constants. The adsorption kinetics of the basic dye followed pseudo-second-order model. The experimental data isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevish equations. The monolayer adsorption capacity for BR46 dye is 54 mg/g of crude clay. Nearly 20 min of contact time was found to be sufficient for the dye adsorption to reach equilibrium. Thermodynamical parameters were also evaluated for the dye-adsorbent system and revealed that the adsorption process is exothermic in nature.

  8. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of pesticide adsorption capacity of cellulose fibre by high-energy irradiation-initiated grafting of glycidyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, E.; Wojnarovits, L.; Borsa, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Sustainable development needs renewable raw materials applied wherever possible. Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth; various modifications of its properties for special uses are important issues of the research. Some contaminations in wastewaters, e.g. pesticides, are hydrophobic materials; their adsorption on hydrophilic cellulose substrates is very limited. Cotton cellulose was grafted by glycidyl methacrylate in simultaneous grafting using gamma irradiation initiation. Water uptake of cellulose significantly decreased while adsorption of phenol and a pesticide molecule (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: 2,4-D) increased upon grafting. As the figure shows on untreated sample even negative 2,4-D adsorption occurred, due to the selective adsorption of water from the solution; the adsorption did not approach its saturation value even in a 30 hours time period investigated. Saturation of phenol adsorption was achieved after 5-6 hours; adsorption equilibrium data of phenol fitted the Langmuir isotherm.

  10. Selective adsorption behavior of Cd(II) ion imprinted polymers synthesized by microwave-assisted inverse emulsion polymerization: Adsorption performance and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fang, E-mail: zhufang@tyut.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030024 (China); Li, Luwei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030024 (China); Xing, Junde [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030024 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Microwave assisted inverse emulsion polymerization was applied to prepare Cd(II) imprinted polymers. • The adsorption capacity was evaluated by static adsorption experiments. • Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model had the best agreement with the experimental data. • The adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. • Cd(II) imprinted polymers have specific identification for Cd(II). - Abstract: Microwave-assisted inverse emulsion polymerization method was used to prepare Cd(II) imprinted polymer (IIP) by using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer, epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crossing-linking agent, ammonium persulfate as initiator. The Cd(II) imprinted polymer was characterized by SEM, FTIR and TGA. The influences of initial concentration of Cd(II), pH values, temperature, time and competitive ions on adsorption capacity and recognition properties are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the adsorption capacity could reach 107 mg/g. Furthermore, pseudo first order kinetic model, pseudo second order kinetic model and intra-particular diffusion model were used to describe the adsorption kinetic behavior. Results showed that the pseudo-second-order model (R{sup 2} 0.9928–0.9961) had the best agreement with the experimental data. Langmuir adsorption isotherm model described the experimental data well, which indicated that adsorption was mainly monolayer absorption. Moreover, the study of adsorption thermodynamics (ΔG{sup 0} < 0, ΔH{sup 0} > 0, ΔS{sup 0} > 0) suggested that the adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Competitive selectivity experiment revealed that imprinted polymer could selectively recognize Cd(II). It provides a new idea for removing Cd(II) from aqueous solution.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of Bisphenol-A on tailored activated carbon in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Lv, Di; Huang, Xinwen; Shi, Huixiang; Zhang, Geshan

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption behavior of pharmaceuticals and personal care product, Bisphenol-A (BPA), according to four coal-based and four wood-based granular activated carbons modified using outgassing treatment, acidic treatment or alkaline treatment was studied. The adsorption isotherm results indicated that carbon surface acidity played a very important role in the adsorption of BPA. It was found that increasing surface acidity would increase the hydrogen bonding effects and increase adsorption of BPA on activated carbon. The acidic modified sample (F600-A and OLC-A) represented the best adsorption capacity, and the equilibrium adsorption amounts reached 346.42 and 338.55 mg/g, respectively. Further, effects of surface charge and surface basicity were examined. It was found that the adsorbed amount of BPA decreased with the increase of surface charge. Finally, there appeared to be a significant oligomerization phenomenon with BPA molecules onto the surface of activated carbon. OLC and OLC-OG, which have higher micropore percentages, are very effective in hampering the oligomerization of BPA under oxic conditions.

  12. Synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites with high adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Haojie, E-mail: shj6922@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Liu Lei [Pharmaceutic College of Henan University (China); Jia Xiaohua; Min Chunying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China)

    2012-12-15

    A hybrid nanostructure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and {beta}-ferric oxyhydroxide ({beta}-FeOOH) nanoparticles is synthesized by ultrasonic-assisted in situ hydrolysis of the precursor ferric chloride and CNTs. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy , and transmission electron microscopy establishes the nanohybrid structure of the synthesized sample. The results revealed that the surface of CNTs was uniformly assembled by numerous {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles and had an average diameter of 3 nm. The formation route of anchoring {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles onto CNTs was proposed as the intercalation and adsorption of iron ions onto the wall of CNTs, followed by the nucleation and growth of {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles. The values of remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of the as-synthesized CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites were 0.1131 emu g, and 490.824 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites showed a very high adsorption capacity of Congo red and thus these nanocomposites can be used as good adsorbents and can be used for the removal of the dye of Congo red from the waste water system.

  13. Adsorption of NI (II on activated Carbon of Coconut shell Chemicaly Modifieded with Acid Nitric Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research the effect of modification of coconut shell activated carbon with diluted solutions of nitric acid, in its chemical characteristics and removal capacity of the nickel (II ions present in modeling solutions of sulfates with similar characteristics to the acid liquor waste of the nickel industry, was studied. The characterization of the adsorbent material evidenced that the modification process increases the superficial acids groups according with the increase of acid nitric concentration employee in the treatment. The adsorption equilibrium tests, carried out with metallic species solutions at concentrations between 0,5 and 3,5 g/L evidenced that the process is described by Freundlich model. The effect of chemical modification of the adsorbent material in adsorption capacity of nickel (II ions was evaluated using a traditional experimental design at pH of 1,2 and 6,9 units, obtaining that the increase of acid groups in the carbon surface causes an increase of adsorption capacity and removal percentages of nickel (II, due to specific interactions of these groups with the metal cations.

  14. Development of TREN dendrimers over mesoporous SBA-15 for CO2 adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagiyalakshmi, Margandan; Park, Sang Do; Cha, Wang Seog; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized using rice husk ash (RHA) as the silica source and their defective Si-OH groups were grafted with tris(2-aminoethyl) amine (TREN) dendrimers generation through step-wise growth technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption results of parent SBA-15 obtained from RHA, suggests its resemblance with SBA-15 synthesized using conventional silica sources. Furthermore, the nitrogen adsorption/desorption results of SBA-15/TREN dendrimer generations (G1-G3) illustrates the growth of dendrimer inside the mesopores of SBA-15 and their CO 2 adsorption capacity was determined at 25 deg. C. The maximum CO 2 adsorption capacity of 5-6 and 7-8 wt% over second and third dendrimer generation was observed which is discernibly higher than the reported melamine and PAMAM dendrimers. The experimental CO 2 adsorption capacity was found to be less than theoretically calculated CO 2 adsorption capacity due to inter and intra molecular amidation as result of steric hindrance during the dendrimer growth. These SBA-15/TREN dendrimer generations also exhibit thermal stability up to 350 deg. C and CO 2 adsorption capacity remains unaltered upon seven consecutive runs.

  15. Effects of carbon nanotubes on phosphorus adsorption behaviors on aquatic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Li, Kun; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Shen, Mengmeng; Liu, Jingjing; Tian, Xin; Lu, Bianhe

    2017-08-01

    Aquatic sediments are believed to be an important sink for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). With novel properties, CNTs can potentially disturb the fate and mobility of the co-existing contaminants in the sediments. Only toxic pollutants have been investigated previously, and to the best of our knowledge, no data has been published on how CNTs influence phosphorus (P) adsorption on aquatic sediments. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were selected as model CNTs. Experimental results indicated that compared to pseudo-first order and intraparticle diffusion models, the pseudo-second-order model is better for describing the adsorption kinetics of sediments and MWCNT-contaminated sediments. Adsorption isotherm studies suggested that the Langmuir model fits the isotherm data well. With the increase in the MWCNT-to-sediment ratio from 0.0% to 5.0%, the theoretical maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (Q max ) for P increased from 0.664 to 0.996mg/g. However, the Langmuir isotherm coefficient (K L ) significantly decreased from 4.231L/mg to 2.874L/mg, indicating the decrease in the adsorption free energy of P adsorbed on the sediments after MWCNT contamination. It was suggested that P was released more easily to the overlying water after the re-suspension of sediments. Moreover, the adsorption of sediments and sediment-MWCNT mixture was endothermic and physical in nature. Results obtained herein suggested that the change in the specific surface area and zeta potential of sediments is related to MWCNT contamination, and the large adsorption capacity of MWCNTs is probably the main factor responsible for the variation in the adsorption of P on aquatic sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adsorption Cooling System Using Metal-Impregnated Zeolite-4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuk Trisupakitti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption cooling systems have been developed to replace vapor compression due to their benefits of being environmentally friendly and energy saving. We prepared zeolite-4A and experimental cooling performance test of zeolite-water adsorption system. The adsorption cooling test-rig includes adsorber, evaporator, and condenser which perform in vacuum atmosphere. The maximum and minimum water adsorption capacity of different zeolites and COP were used to assess the performance of the adsorption cooling system. We found that loading zeolite-4A with higher levels of silver and copper increased COP. The Cu6%/zeolite-4A had the highest COP at 0.56 while COP of zeolite-4A alone was 0.38. Calculating the acceleration rate of zeolite-4A when adding 6% of copper would accelerate the COP at 46%.

  17. Role of the oxidation state of cerium on the ceria surfaces for silicate adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jihoon [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jinok [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Clean/CMP Technology Team, Memory, Samsung Electronics, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Kangchun [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Junha [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Materials R& D Center, K.C.Tech, Anseong (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Heesung [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Dong Kee, E-mail: vitalis@mju.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Ungyu, E-mail: upaik@hanyang.ac.kr [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We investigated the role of Ce oxidation state (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) on the CeO{sub 2} surfaces for the silicate adsorption. • As the Ce{sup 3+} concentration increased from 19.3 to 27.6%, the surface density of −OH group increased from 0.34 to 0.72 OH/nm{sup 2}. • The Freundlich constant for the relative adsorption capacity (K{sub F}) and adsorption intensity (1/n) indicated that CeO{sub 2} NPs with high Ce{sup 3+} concentration show higher adsorption affinity with silicate ions. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated the role of the Ce oxidation state (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) on the CeO{sub 2} surfaces for silicate adsorption. In aqueous medium, the Ce{sup 3+} sites lead to the formation of −OH groups at the CeO{sub 2} surface through H{sub 2}O dissociation. Silicate ions can adsorb onto the CeO{sub 2} surface through interaction with the −OH groups (−Ce−OH− + −Si−O{sup −} ↔ −Ce−O−Si− + OH{sup −}). As the Ce{sup 3+} concentration increased from 19.3 to 27.6%, the surface density of −OH group increased from 0.34 to 0.72 OH/nm{sup 2}. To evaluate the adsorption behaviors of silicate ions onto CeO{sub 2} NPs, we carried out an adsorption isothermal analysis, and the adsorption isotherm data followed the Freundlich model. The Freundlich constant for the relative adsorption capacity (K{sub F}) and adsorption intensity (1/n) indicated that CeO{sub 2} NPs with high Ce{sup 3+} concentration show higher adsorption affinity with silicate ions. As a result, we have demonstrated that the Ce oxidation state (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) on the CeO{sub 2} surface can have a significant influence on the silicate adsorption.

  18. Paraquat adsorption on NaX and Al-MCM-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongchapo, Wina; Deekamwong, Krittanun; Loiha, Sirinuch; Prayoonpokarach, Sanchai; Wittayakun, Jatuporn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine paraquat adsorption capacity of zeolite NaX and Al-MCM-41. All adsorbents were synthesized by hydrothermal method using rice husk silica. For Al-MCM-41, aluminum (Al) was added to the synthesis gel of MCM-41 with Al content of 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. The faujasite framework type of NaX and mesoporous characteristic of Al-MCM-41 were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Surface area of all adsorbents determined by N2 adsorption-desorption analysis was higher than 650 m2/g. Al content and geometry were determined by X-ray fluorescence and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance, respectively. Morphology of Al-MCM-41 were studied by transmission electron microscopy; macropores and defects were observed. The paraquat adsorption experiments were conducted using a concentration range of 80-720 mg/L for NaX and 80-560 mg/L for Al-MCM-41. The paraquat adsorption isotherms from all adsorbents fit well with the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of NaX was 120 mg/g-adsorbent. Regarding Al-MCM-41, the 10% Al-MCM-41 exhibited the lowest capacity of 52 mg/g-adsorbent while the other samples had adsorption capacity of 66 mg/g-adsorbent.

  19. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  20. Humic Acid Adsorption Onto Iron Oxide Magnetic Nano Particles in Aquious Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Foroghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Humic Acid (HA compounds affects water quality, such as color, taste and odor. The compounds not only react with disinfectants to produce disinfection by-products (DBPs harmful to human health. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have a high adsorption capacity to adsorb to organic matter. In this study HA removal by IOMNPs was surveyed in aqueous solutions. Methods:  The effects of pH value, agitation rate, adsorbent dose, contact time and the adsorbate concentration on the adsorption efficiency were studied as critical parameters. In addition, effect of ionic strength on the adsorption process and effluent turbidity was surveyed. The MNPs was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Results: Results revealed that at HA concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 4.5, adsorbent dose of 2.7 g/l, agitation rate of 250 rpm and contact time of 90 min at presence of 0.1 M NaCl as an ionic strength agent, the HA removal reached to about 98%. Also, the turbidity of treated samples was increased with increasing of HA loading. On the other hand, increases of ionic strength resulting in increase of removal efficiency and decrees of effluent turbidity. Conclusion: With increasing HA concentration, adsorption capacity of MNPs was increased and HA removal efficiency was decreased. Increasing of ionic strength leads to increase of removal efficiency and decrease of nano particles release. MNPs are easily attracted to the magnetic field application leads to easy separation from aquatic environment.

  1. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HNO 3 oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O 3 oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO 3 oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions

  2. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Esther, E-mail: esther@lequia.udg.cat [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Lemus, Jesús [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Palomar, José [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Martin, María J. [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • HNO{sub 3} oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O{sub 3} oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO{sub 3} oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions.

  3. Enhancement in CO2 Adsorption Capacity and Selectivity in the Chalcogenide Aerogel CuSb2S4 by Post-synthetic Modification with LiCl

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2015-09-11

    The new chalcogel CuSb2S4 was obtained by reacting Cu(OAc)2·H2O with KSbS2 in a water/formamide mixture at room temperature. In order to modify the gas adsorption capacity the synthesized CuSb2S4 aerogel was loaded with different amounts of LiCl. CO2 adsorption measurements on the CuSb2S4 aerogel before and after treatment with LiCl showed more than three times increased uptake of the LiCl-modified chalcogel. The selectivities of the gas pairs CO2/H2 and CO2/CH4 in the LiCl-treated chalcogel are 235 and 105 respectively and amongst the highest reported for chalcogenide-based aerogels. In comparison with other porous materials like zeolites, activated carbon and most of the Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) or Porous Organic Frameworks (POFs), our synthesized aerogels show good air and moisture stability. Although, the CO2 storage capacity of our aerogels is relatively low, however the selectivity of CO2 over H2 or CH4 in LiCl-loaded aerogels are higher than in zeolites, activated carbon as well as some MOFs like Cu-BTC and MOF-5 etc.

  4. Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Banerjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of saw dust for the removal of an anionic dye, tartrazine, from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The experiments were carried out in batch mode. Effect of the parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 70 min. Maximum adsorption of dye was achieved at pH 3. Removal percent was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum removal was found to be 97% at 1 mg/L of tartrazine. The removal increases from 71% to 97% when the initial concentration of dye solution decreases from 15 mg/L to 1 mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The (Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is found to be 4.71 mg/g at 318 K. Kinetic modeling of the process of removal was carried out and the process of removal was found to follow a pseudo second order model and the value of rate constant for adsorption process was calculated as 2.7 × 10−3 g mg−1 min−1 at 318 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (ΔG°, enthalpy (ΔH° and entropy (ΔS° were determined and the negative values of ΔG° indicated that the process of removal was spontaneous at all values of temperatures. Further, the values of ΔH° indicated the endothermic nature of the process of removal.

  5. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of Basic Yellow 28 and Basic Red 46 by a boron industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olgun, Asim; Atar, Necip

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption characteristics of Basic Yellow 28 (BY 28) and Basic Red 46 (BR 46) onto boron waste (BW), a waste produced from boron processing plant were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of two dyes could be described reasonably well by a generalized isotherm. Kinetic studies indicated that the kinetics of the adsorption of BY 28 and BR 46 onto BW follows a pseudo-second-order model. The result showed that the BW exhibited high-adsorption capacity for basic dyes and the capacity slightly decreased with increasing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of BY 28 and BR 46 are reported at 75.00 and 74.73 mg g -1 , respectively. The dye adsorption depended on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at about pH 9 and electrokinetic behavior of BW. Activation energy of 15.23 kJ/mol for BY 28 and 18.15 kJ/mol for BR 46 were determined confirming the nature of the physisorption onto BW. These results indicate that BW could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of the textile dyes from effluents

  6. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of Basic Yellow 28 and Basic Red 46 by a boron industry waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Asim [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and science, University of Dumlupinar, Kuetahya (Turkey)], E-mail: aolgun@dumlupinar.edu.tr; Atar, Necip [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and science, University of Dumlupinar, Kuetahya (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the adsorption characteristics of Basic Yellow 28 (BY 28) and Basic Red 46 (BR 46) onto boron waste (BW), a waste produced from boron processing plant were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of two dyes could be described reasonably well by a generalized isotherm. Kinetic studies indicated that the kinetics of the adsorption of BY 28 and BR 46 onto BW follows a pseudo-second-order model. The result showed that the BW exhibited high-adsorption capacity for basic dyes and the capacity slightly decreased with increasing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of BY 28 and BR 46 are reported at 75.00 and 74.73 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. The dye adsorption depended on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at about pH 9 and electrokinetic behavior of BW. Activation energy of 15.23 kJ/mol for BY 28 and 18.15 kJ/mol for BR 46 were determined confirming the nature of the physisorption onto BW. These results indicate that BW could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of the textile dyes from effluents.

  7. Adsorption decontamination of radioactive waste solvent by activated alumina and bauxites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Marra, J.C.; Kyser, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    An adsorption process utilizing activated alumina and activated bauxite adsorbents was evaluated as a function of operating parameters for the removal of low level radioactive contaminants from organic waste solvent generated in the fuel reprocessing facilities and support operations at Savannah River Site. The waste solvent, 30% volume tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin diluent, was degraded due to hydrolysis and radiolysis reactions of tributyl phosphate and n-paraffin diluent, producing fission product binding degradation impurities. The process, which has the potential for removing these activity-binding degradation impurities from the solvent, was operated downflow through glass columns packed with activated alumina and activated bauxite adsorbents. Experimental breakthrough curves were obtained under various operating temperatures and flow rates. The results show that the adsorption capacity of the activated alumina was in the order 10 4 dpm/g and the capacity of the activated bauxite was 10 5 dpm/g. The performance of the adsorption process was evaluated in terms of dynamic parameters (i.e. adsorption capacity, the height and the efficiency of adsorption zone) in such a way as to maximize the adsorption capacity and to minimize the height of the mass transfer or adsorption zone

  8. Perchlorate adsorption by granular activated carbon modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin-Xian, P.; Lu, Z.; Cui-Yun, C.; Ming-Long, Z.; Yang, Z.; Chun-Du, W.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the adsorption of perchlorate (ClO/sub 4/ in contaminated water, granular activated carbon (GAC) was modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC). To investigate the adsorption mechanism of perchlorate the structure of GAC-CTAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. Then the GAC-CTAC was used for the adsorption of perchlorate in water. The effects of the adsorption time, pH, initial ClO/sub 4/ concentration, and co-existed anions on perchlorate adsorbed by GAC-CTAC were studied. The results show that the GAC-CTAC could absorb perchlorate better in water. The adsorption capacity of perchlorate on GAC-CTAC decreases in the alkaline solution, and increases with increasing the - initial concentration. The competitive adsorption exists between co-existed anions and ClO/sub 4/ on GAC-CTAC. In addition, adsorption of ClO/sub 4/ on GAC-CTAC fits the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isothermal models in the range of the experimental concentration. The adsorption process follows pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  9. Adsorption of Phosphate Ion in Water with Lithium-Intercalated Gibbsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riwandi Sihombing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance adsorption capacity of gibbsite (Al(OH3 as an adsorbent for the adsorption of phosphate in water, gibbsite was modified through lithium-intercalation. The purification method of Tributh and Lagaly was applied prior to intercalation. The Li-Intercalation was prepared by the dispersion of gibbsite into LiCl solution for 24 hours. This intercalation formed an cationic clay with the structure of [LiAl2(OH6]+ and exchangeable Cl- anions in the gibbsite interlayer. A phosphate adsorption test using Lithium-intercalated gibbsite (LIG resulted in optimum adsorption occurring at pH 4.5 with an adsorption capacity of 11.198 mg phosphate/g LIG which is equivalent with 1.04 wt% LIG. The adsorption capacity decreased with decreasing amounts of H2PO4-/HPO4- species in the solution. This study showed that LIG has potential as an adsorbent for phosphate in an aqueous solution with pH 4.5–9.5.

  10. Adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yijiang; Chen Yan; Li Meisheng; Zhou Shouyong; Xue Ailian; Xing Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg 2+ were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg 2+ onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g -1 . The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg 2+ adsorption. Hg 2+ adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  11. Adsorption behaviour of methylene blue onto Jordanian diatomite: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Khraisheh, Majeda A M; Ahmad, Mohammad N M; Allen, Stephen

    2009-06-15

    The effect of initial concentration, particle size, mass of the adsorbent, pH and agitation speed on adsorption behaviour of methylene blue (MB) onto Jordanian diatomite has been investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity, q, increased from 75 to 105 mg/g when pH of the dye solution increased from 4 to 11. It is clear that the ionisable charge sites on the diatomite surface increased when pH increased from 4 to 11. When the solution pH was above the pH(ZPC), the diatomite surface had a negative charge, while at low pH (pHdiatomite did not follow the pseudo-first order model and had low correlation coefficients (R(2)diatomite when the particle size distribution is less than 250-500 microm. While at larger particle size 250-500 microm, the maximum uptake capacity was dependent on the particle size. It would imply that the MB adsorption is limited by the external surface and that intraparticle diffusion is reduced. The effect of the agitation speeds on the removal of MB from aqueous solution using the diatomite is quite low. The MB removal increased from 43 to 100% when mass of the diatomite increased from 0.3 to 1.7 g.

  12. Flue gas adsorption by single-wall carbon nanotubes: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Hermida, M. I. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Departamento de Física Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Romero-Enrique, J. M. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Área de Física Teórica, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Morales-Flórez, V.; Esquivias, L. [Departamento de Física Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC/US), Av. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-08-21

    Adsorption of flue gases by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The flue gas is modeled as a ternary mixture of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}, emulating realistic compositions of the emissions from power plants. The adsorbed flue gas is in equilibrium with a bulk gas characterized by temperature T, pressure p, and mixture composition. We have considered different SWCNTs with different chiralities and diameters in a range between 7 and 20 Å. Our results show that the CO{sub 2} adsorption properties depend mainly on the bulk flue gas thermodynamic conditions and the SWCNT diameter. Narrow SWCNTs with diameter around 7 Å show high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and selectivity, but they decrease abruptly as the SWCNT diameter is increased. For wide SWCNT, CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and selectivity, much smaller in value than for the narrow case, decrease mildly with the SWCNT diameter. In the intermediate range of SWCNT diameters, the CO{sub 2} adsorption properties may show a peculiar behavior, which depend strongly on the bulk flue gas conditions. Thus, for high bulk CO{sub 2} concentrations and low temperatures, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity remains high in a wide range of SWCNT diameters, although the corresponding selectivity is moderate. We correlate these findings with the microscopic structure of the adsorbed gas inside the SWCNTs.

  13. Design and performance prediction of a new generation adsorption chiller using composite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, L.X.; Wang, R.Z.; Xia, Z.Z.; Chen, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Composite adsorbent 'employing lithium chloride in silica gel' and water as working pair. → A new type adsorbent bed is used to accommodate the composite adsorbent. → A dynamic model of the adsorption chiller is built. → The coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity will be improved. -- Abstract: This paper presents a novel adsorption chiller using composite adsorbent 'employing lithium chloride in silica gel' as adsorbent and water as adsorbate. A new type adsorbent bed is used to accommodate the composite adsorbent. The mass recovery between two adsorbent beds usually results in the adsorbate unbalance. So a novel auto water makeup unite is used to solve the problem. A dynamic model of the adsorption chiller is built based on the adsorption isotherms to predict the performance. The simulation result shows that the coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity will increase by using this new composite adsorbent. When the temperatures of hot water inlet, cooling water inlet, and chilled water inlet are 363, 303 and 293 K, COP will be 0.43, and the cooling capacity will be 5.295 kW. Also operation strategy is optimized. Different temperatures of hot water inlet, cooling water inlet and chilling water inlet will result in different COP and cooling capacity.

  14. Prediction of equilibrium parameters of adsorption of lead (II) ions onto diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Taylan; Ardalı, Yüksel; Gamze Turan, N.

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial wastewaters are one of the most important environmental issues to be solved today. Due to their toxicity and nonbiodegradable nature, heavy metals cause environmental and public health problems. Various techniques have been developed to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. These include chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis, ion Exchange and adsorption. Among them, adsorption is considered to be a particularly competitive and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. There is growing interest in using low cost, commercially available materials for the adsorption of heavy metals. Diatomite is a siliceous sedimentary rock having an amorphous form of silica (SiO2. nH2O) containing a small amount of microcrystalline material. It has unique combination of physical and chemical properties such as high porosity, high permeability, small particle size, large surface area, and low thermal conductivity. In addition, it is available in Turkey and in various locations around the world. Therefore, diatomite has been successfully used as adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals. The aim of the study is to investigate the adsorption properties of diatomite. The equilibrium adsorption data were applied to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevic (D-R) isotherm models. Adsorption experiments were performed under batch process, using Pb (II) initial concentration, pH of solution and contact time as variables. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb (II) was strongly dependent on pH of solution. The effect of pH on adsorption of Pb(II) on diatomite was conducted by varying pH from 2 to 12 at 20 oC. In the pH range of 2.0-4.0, the adsorption percentage increases slightly as the pH increasing. At pH>4, the adsorption percentage decreases with increasing pH because hydrolysis product and the precipitation begin to play an important role in the sorption of Pb (II). At pH4, the maximum adsorption

  15. Adsorption of Copper Ion using Acrylic Acid-g-Polyaniline in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Sabariah; Mohammad, Masita

    2018-04-01

    A conductive polymer, polyaniline (PANI) has unique electrical behaviour, stable in the environment, easy synthesis and have wide application in various fields. Modification of PANI in order to improve its adsorption capacity has been done. In this study, the polyaniline-grafted acrylic acid has been prepared and followed by adsorption of copper ion in aqueous solution. Acrylic acid, PANI and acrylic acid-g-polyaniline (Aag-PANI) were characterized by FTIR and SEM to determine its characteristic. The adsorption capacity was investigated to study the removal capacity of Cu ion from aqueous solution. Two parameters were selected which are pH (2, 4 and 6) and initial metal ion concentration (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L). The maximum adsorption capacity for PANI and Aag-PANI are 1.7 mg/g and 64.6 mg/g, respectively, at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and Freundlich adsorption isotherm model have been used and showed that it is heterolayer adsorption by follows the Freundlich isotherm model.

  16. Adsorption of Cr(III) on ozonised activated carbon. Importance of Cpi-cation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Utrilla, J; Sánchez-Polo, M

    2003-08-01

    The adsorption of Cr(III) in aqueous solution was investigated on a series of ozonised activated carbons, analysing the effect of oxygenated surface groups on the adsorption process. A study was carried out to determine the adsorption isotherms and the influence of the pH on the adsorption of this metal. The adsorption capacity and affinity of the adsorbent for Cr(III) increased with the increase in oxygenated acid groups on the surface of the activated carbon. These findings imply that electrostatic-type interactions predominate in the adsorption process, although the adsorption of Cr(III) on the original (basic) carbon indicates that other forces also participate in the adsorption process. Thus, the ionic exchange of protons in the -Cpi-H3O(+) interaction for Cr(III) accounts for the adsorption of cationic species in basic carbons with positive charge density. Study of the influence of pH on the adsorption of Cr(III) showed that, in each system, the maximum adsorption occurred when the charge of the carbon surface was opposite that of the species of Cr(III) present at the pH of the experiment. These results confirmed that electrostatic interactions predominate in the adsorption process.

  17. Adsorptive removal of fermentation inhibitors from concentrated acid hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Tuomo; Turku, Irina; Heinonen, Jari

    2011-05-01

    Adsorptive purification of concentrated acid hydrolyzate of lignocellulose was investigated. Cation exchange resin (CS16GC), neutral polymer adsorbent (XAD-16), and granulated activated carbon (GAC) were studied to remove furfural, HMF, and acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolyzate containing 20 wt.% H(2)SO(4). Adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally. Loading and regeneration were investigated in a laboratory scale column. GAC has the highest adsorption capacity, but regeneration with water was not feasible. XAD-16 and CS16GC had lower adsorption capacities but also shorter cycle times due to easier regeneration. Productivity increased when regenerating with 50 wt.% EtOH(aq) solution. To compare adsorbents, process performance was quantified by productivity and fraction of inhibitors removed. GAC yields highest performance when high purity is required and ethanol can be used in regeneration. For lower purities, XAD-16 and GAC yield approximately equal performance. When using ethanol must be avoided, CS16GC offers highest productivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Low Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatraya Jirekar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seed husk powder has been investigated as low cost adsorbent for the removal of hazardous chemicals like Congo Red (CR dye from aqueous solution. Various parameters such as effect of contact time, initial CR dye concentration, adsorbent dose, effect of pH, zero-point pH were studied. Batch adsorption technique was employed to optimize the process parameter. The result indicated that, the percentage adsorption of Congo Red increased with increase in contact time, dose of adsorbent and initial concentration of Congo Red and decreased with addition of salt. The adsorption of Congo Red was 78% at the optimum pH of 6. Adsorption equilibrium was found to be reached in 24 h for 5 to 25 g/50 mL Congo red concentrations. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were found to provide an excellent fitting of the adsorption data.  The adsorption of CR follows Second order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameter (δGo showed that it was an exothermic process. This adsorbent was found to be effective and economically attractive. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.834

  19. Evaluation of ferrolysis in arsenate adsorption on the paddy soil derived from an Oxisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Dai, Zhaoxia; Sun, Rui; Zhao, Zhenjie; Dong, Ying; Hong, Zhineng; Xu, Renkou

    2017-07-01

    Iron oxides are dominant effective adsorbents for arsenate in iron oxide-rich variable charge soils. Oxisol-derived paddy soils undergo intensive ferrolysis, which results in high leaching and transformation of iron oxides. However, little information is available concerning the effect of ferrolysis on arsenate adsorption by paddy soil and parent Oxisol. In the present study, we examined the arsenate affinity of soils using arsenate adsorption/desorption isotherms, zeta potential, adsorption kinetics, pH effect and phosphate competition experiments. Results showed that ferrolysis in an alternating flooding-drying Oxisol-derived paddy soil resulted in a significant decrease of free iron oxides and increase of amorphous iron oxides in the surface and subsurface layers. There were more reactive sites exposed on amorphous than on crystalline iron oxides. Therefore, disproportionate ratios of arsenate adsorption capacities and contents of free iron oxides were observed in the studied Oxisols compared with paddy soils. The Gibbs free energy values corroborated that both electrostatic and non-electrostatic adsorption mechanisms contributed to the arsenate adsorption by bulk soils, and the kinetic adsorption data further suggested that the rate-limiting step was chemisorption. The zeta potential of soil colloids decreased after arsenate was adsorbed on the surfaces, forming inner-sphere complexes and thus transferring their negative charges to the soil particle surfaces. The adsorption/desorption isotherms showed that non-electrostatic adsorption was the main mechanism responsible for arsenate binding to the Oxisol and derived paddy soils, representing 91.42-94.65% of the adsorption capacities. Further studies revealed that arsenate adsorption was greatly inhibited by increasing suspension pH and incorporation of phosphate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On thermodynamics of methane+carbonaceous materials adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical frameworks for the thermodynamic quantities namely the heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy for the adsorption of methane onto various carbonaceous materials. The proposed theoretical

  1. Supercritical CO2 Assisted Synthesis of EDTA-Fe3O4 Nano composite with High Adsorption Capacity for Hexavalent Chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, G.; Neupane, S.; Makaju, R.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency of EDTA functionalized nanoparticles in adsorption of chromium (Vi) from water was investigated in this study. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized by a simple chemical coprecipitation route and EDTA coating onto IONPs was attained via supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc CO 2 ), a technology with green sustainable properties. The obtained nanoparticles were then characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating magnetometric analysis (VSM). The synthesized nanoparticle and its modified variant were evaluated as adsorbent for chromium (Vi) removal from water through batch adsorption technique and the effect of analytic concentration; contact time and adsorbent concentration were studied at ph 2. The results showed higher removal efficiency for modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) (i.e., 99.9%) than their non modified variant IONPs, that is, 34.06% for the same concentration after 18 hours of incubation. Also maximum adsorption capacity (q e = 452.26 mg/g) of MIONPs attained can be related to their preparation in Sc CO 2 asq e calculated from IONPs, that is, 170.33 mg/g, is lower than that of MIONPs. The adsorption data fit well with Freundlich isotherm equation while kinetic adsorption studies of chromium (Vi) were modeled by pseudo-second-order model

  2. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics for dibenzothiophene on activated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adsorption isotherms were obtained and desulphurization kinetics were carried out on solutions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and thiophene in a model fuel. The efficiencies of DBT and thiophene removal were reported. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The highest adsorption capacity for ...

  3. Surface grafting of styrene on polypropylene fibers by argon plasma and its adsorption-regeneration of BTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. J.; Guo, M. L.; Chen, Q. G.; Lian, Z. Y.; Wei, W. J.; Luo, Z. W.; Xie, G.; Chen, H. N.; Dong, K.

    2017-08-01

    Active macromolecular free radicals were generated on polypropylene (PP) fibers surfaces by argon (Ar) plasma irradiation, then, PP surface modified fibers (PP-g-St fibers) were prepared by in-situ grafting reaction of styrene monomers (St). Effects of reaction parameters on grafting percentage were studied and adsorption capacities of PP-g-St fibers for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) were evaluated. Afterwards, regeneration adsorption efficiencies after maximum adsorption were explored. The results indicated that the optimum input power, irradiation time and grafting reaction time are 90 W, 3 min and 3 h respectively and the grafting percentage of St reached 5.7 %. The adsorption capacities of PP-g-St fibers towards toluene and xylene emulsions and solutions in water increased by 336.89 % and 344.57 % respectively, compared to pristine PP fibers. In addition, regeneration adsorption efficiencies of modified fibers remained > 90 % after six cycles of regeneration-adsorption experiments, which showed excellent regeneration ability.

  4. Effect of pH to adsorption behavior of Pu on bentonite in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiang; Tuo Xianguo; Li Pingchuan; Leng Yangchun; Su Jilong; Yueping

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH to the adsorption behavior of Pu in GMZ-bentonite, Lingshou Ca-bentonite, Na-bentonite and bleaching earth were tested by static adsorption experiments in aqueous environment. The results show that the adsorption equilibrium time of Pu is four days in GMZ-bentonite and 5-6 days in bleaching earth, Ca-bentonite and Na-bentonite. In aqueous environment, the adsorption capacity of bentonite to Pu increases with pH in water phase, and it is weak in acidic aqueous environment and strong in alkaline aqueous environment extremely. (authors)

  5. Powdered activated carbon adsorption of two fishy odorants in water: Trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption of two fishy odorants, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal (HDE) and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (DDE), was investigated. Both the pseudo first-order and the pseudo second-order kinetic models well described the kinetics curves, and DDE was more readily removed by PAC. In isotherm tests, both Freundlich and Modified Freundlich isotherms fitted the experimental data well. PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for DDE than for HDE, which could be ascribed to the difference in their hydrophobicity. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) indicated an exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process. PAC dosage, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM) presence were found to influence the adsorption process. With increasing PAC dosage, the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order rate constants both increased. The value of pH had little influence on HDE or DDE molecules but altered the surface charge of PAC, and the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH9. The presence of NOM, especially the fraction with molecular weight less than 1k Dalton, hindered the adsorption. The study showed that preloaded NOM impaired the adsorption capacity of HDE or DDE more severely than simultaneously fed NOM did. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  7. Competitive Adsorption of Chloroform and Bromoform Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained were checked with Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. This model expresses well adsorption of one THM species in the presence of another with R2 > 0.95. Based on the model, adsorption capacity of Calgon F200 and Norit GCN1240 were found higher for bromoform than chloroform. Calgon F200 ...

  8. Potential theory of adsorption for associating mixtures: possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel; Shapiro, Alexander; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of the Multicomponent Potential Theory of Adsorption (MPTA) for prediction of the adsorption equilibrium of several associating binary mixtures on different industrial adsorbents is investigated. In the MPTA the adsorbates are considered to be distributed fluids subject...... to describe the solid-fluid interactions. The potential is extended to include adsorbate-absorbent specific capacities rather than an adsorbent specific capacity. Correlations of pure component isotherms are generally excellent with individual capacities, although adsorption on silicas at different...... temperatures still poses a challenge. The quality of the correlations is usually independent on the applied EoS. Predictions for binary mixtures indicate that the MPTA+SRK is superior when adsorption occurs on non-polar or slightly polar adsorbents, while MPTA+CPA performs better for polar adsorbents, or when...

  9. Excellent performance of copper based metal organic framework in adsorptive removal of toxic sulfonamide antibiotics from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Muhammad Rizwan; Abid, Hussein Rasool; Sun, Hongqi; Periasamy, Vijay; Tadé, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-09-15

    The increasing concerns on toxicity of sulfonamide antibiotics in water require a prompt action to establish efficient wastewater treatment processes for their removal. In this study, adsorptive removal of a model sulfonamide antibiotic, sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), from wastewater is presented for the first time using a metal organic framework (MOF). A high surface area and thermally stable MOF, HKUST-1, was synthesized by a facile method. Batch adsorption studies were systematically carried out using HKUST-1. The high surface area and unsaturated metal sites resulted in a significant adsorption capacity with faster kinetics. Most of the SCP was removed in 15min and the kinetic data were best fitted with the pseudo second order model. Moreover, isothermal data were best fitted with the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic results showed that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The adsorption capacity of HKUST-1 is 384mg/g at 298K which is the highest compared to most of the materials for the antibiotics. The high adsorption capacity is attributed mainly to π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolitic sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, F.; Brad, S.; Lazar, A.

    2001-01-01

    For hydrogen isotope separation, adsorption molecular sieves and active carbon were used. Adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. Commercial zeolites have the same proprieties with natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure. They also have affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen temperature (77.4 K) and liquid hydrogen revealed the efficient behaviour of the active carbon and zeolitic sieves for hydrogen isotopes temporary storage. We study adsorption of the synthetic zeolites in a wide range of temperatures and pressures and we used the molecular sieves 4A, 5A and active carbon. The 4A and 5A zeolites have a tridimensional structure with 11.4 A diameter. When the hydration water is eliminated, the material keeps a porous structure. The porous volume represents 45% from the zeolite mass for 4A and 5A sieves. The activation temperature of the zeolite and the carbon is very important for obtaining a high adsorption capacity. If the temperature used for activation is low, the structural water will be not eliminated and the adsorption capacity will be low. The excessive temperature will destroy the porous structure. The adsorption capacity for the hydrogen isotopes was calculated with the relation: A = V ads /m (cm 3 /g). The adsorption capacity and efficiency for the adsorbent materials, are given. Physical adsorption process of the hydrogen isotopes was carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature. The flux gas used in the adsorption system is composed of dry deuterium and protium. This mixture is cooled in liquid nitrogen and then is passed to the adsorbent getter at the same temperature (77.4 K). The gas flux in the adsorbent getter is 5 and 72 l/h (which correspond to 0.008 and 0.134 discharge velocity, respectively). (authors)

  11. Evaluation of Optimal Pore Size of (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane Grafted MCM-41 for Improved CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An array of new MCM-41 with substantially larger average pore diameters was synthesized through adding 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB as the swelling agent to explore the effect of pore size on final adsorbent properties. The pore expanded MCM-41 was also grafted with (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES to determine the optimal pore size for CO2 adsorption. The pore-expanded mesoporous MCM-41s showed relatively less structural regularity but significant increments of pore diameter (4.64 to 7.50 nm; the fraction of mesopore volume also illustrated an increase. The adsorption heat values were correlated with the order of the adsorption capacities for pore expanded MCM-41s. After amine functionalization, the adsorption capacities and heat values showed a significant increase. APTES-grafted pore-expanded MCM-41s depicted a high potential for CO2 capture regardless of the major drawback of the high energy required for regeneration.

  12. Micro-milling of spent granular activated carbon for its possible reuse as an adsorbent: Remaining capacity and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Takagi, Yuichi; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2017-05-01

    We milled granular activated carbons (GACs) that had been used for 0-9 years in water treatment plants and produced carbon particles with different sizes and ages: powdered activated carbons (PAC, median diameter 12-42 μm), superfine PAC (SPAC, 0.9-3.5 μm), and submicron-sized SPAC (SSPAC, 220-290 nm). The fact that SPAC produced from 1-year-old GAC and SSPAC from 2-year-old GAC removed 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) from water with an efficiency similar to that of virgin PAC after a carbon contact time of 30 min suggests that spent GAC could be reused for water treatment after being milled. This potential for reuse was created by increasing the equilibrium adsorption capacity via reduction of the carbon particle size and improving the adsorption kinetics. During long-term (>1 year) use in GAC beds, the volume of pores in the carbon, particularly pores with widths of 0.6-0.9 nm, was greatly reduced. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the carbon for compounds with molecular sizes in this range could therefore decrease with increasing carbon age. Among these compounds, the decreases of capacities were prominent for hydrophobic compounds, including MIB. For hydrophobic compounds, however, the equilibrium adsorption capacities could be increased with decreasing carbon particle size. The iodine number, among other indices, was best correlated with the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the MIB and would be a good index to assess the remaining MIB adsorption capacity of spent carbon. Spent GAC can possibly be reused as SPAC or SSPAC if its iodine number is ≥ 600 mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of Cr(VI) using silica-based adsorbent prepared by radiation-induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Jingyi; Wang Ziyue; Li Huibo; Xu Ling; Peng Jing; Zhai Maolin; Yang Chao; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan

    2009-01-01

    Silica-based adsorbent was prepared by radiation-induced grafting of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto the silanized silica followed by a protonation process. The FTIR spectra and XPS analysis proved that DMAEMA was grafted successfully onto the silica surface. The resultant adsorbent manifested a high ion exchange capacity (IEC) of ca. 1.30 mmol/g and the Cr(VI) adsorption behavior of the adsorbent was further investigated, revealing the recovery of Cr(VI) increased with the adsorbent feed and the equilibrium adsorption could be achieved within 40 min. The adsorption capacity, strongly depended on the pH of the solution, reached a maximum Cr(VI) uptake (ca. 68 mg/g) as the pH was in the range of 2.5-5.0. Furthermore, even in strong acidic (4.0 mol/L HNO 3 ) or alkaline media (pH 11.0), the adsorbent had a sound Cr(VI) uptake capacity (ca. 22 and 30 mg/g, respectively), and the adsorption followed Langmuir mode. The results indicated that this adsorbent, prepared via a convenient approach, is applicable for removing heavy-metal-ion pollutants (e.g. Cr(VI)) from waste waters.

  14. Adsorptive removal of organics from aqueous phase by acid-activated coal fly ash: preparation, adsorption, and Fenton regenerative valorization of "spent" adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Hao, Linlin; Chen, Jiaqing; Zhao, Qiang; Xu, Han

    2018-05-01

    Raw coal fly ash was activated to an adsorbent by sulfuric acid impregnation. The activation condition, the adsorption capacity, and the regenerative valorization of the adsorbent were studied. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions of the adsorbent are [H 2 SO 4 ] = 1 mol L -1 , activation time = 30 min, the ratio of coal fly ash to acid = 1:20 (g:mL), calcination temperature = 100 °C. The adsorption of p-nitrophenol on the adsorbent accords with the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and the adsorption rate constant is 0.089 g mg -1  min -1 . The adsorption on this adsorbent can be considered enough after 35 min, when the corresponding adsorption capacity is 1.07 mg g -1 (85.6% of p-nitrophenol removal). Compared with raw coal fly ash, the adsorbent has a stable adsorption performance at low pH range (pH = 1-6) and the adsorption of p-nitrophenol is an exothermic process. Ninety minutes is required for the regenerative valorization of saturated adsorbent by Fenton process. The regenerative valorization for this saturated adsorbent can reach 89% under the optimal proposed conditions (30 °C, pH = 3, [H 2 O 2 ] = 5.0 mmol L -1 , [Fe 2+ ] = 5.5 mmol L -1 ). Within 15 experimental runs, the adsorbent has a better and better stability with the increase of experimental runs. Finally, the mechanism of activating coal fly ash is proposed, being verified by the results of the SEM and BET test.

  15. Influence of alumina phases on the molybdenum adsorption capacity and chemical stability for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes-Silva, Cecilia C.; Ferreira, Thiago dos Santos; Paula, Carolina M. de; Otubo, Larissa, E-mail: cecilia.guedes@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Flavio M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2016-07-15

    Technetium-{sup 99m} is the clinically most used radionuclide worldwide. Although many techniques can be applied to separate {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used method is the column chromatography with alumina as stationary phase. However, the alumina nowadays used has limited adsorption capacity of molybdate ions which implies the need to develop or improve materials to produce high specific activity generators. In this paper, alumina was obtained by a solid state method and heat treatments at different conditions. The powders had a microstructure with porous particles of γ, δ, θ and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases as well as specific surface area between 36 and 312 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Most interesting results were reached by powders calcined at 900 deg C for 5 hours which had high chemical stability and a molybdenum adsorption capacity of 92.45 mg Mo per g alumina. (author)

  16. Enhanced CO2 Adsorption on Activated Carbon Fibers Grafted with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multiscale composites formed by grafting N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNs on the surface of polyamide (PAN-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs were investigated and their adsorption performance for CO2 was determined. The spaghetti-like and randomly oriented CNs were homogeneously grown onto ACFs. The pre-immersion of cobalt(II ions for ACFs made the CNs grow above with a large pore size distribution, decreased the oxidation resistance, and exhibited different predominant N-functionalities after chemical vapor deposition processes. Specifically, the CNs grafted on ACFs with or without pre-immersion of cobalt(II ions were characterized by the pyridine-like structures of six-member rings or pyrrolic/amine moieties, respectively. In addition, the loss of microporosity on the specific surface area and pore volume exceeded the gain from the generation of the defects from CNs. The adsorption capacity of CO2 decreased gradually with increasing temperature, implying that CO2 adsorption was exothermic. The adsorption capacities of CO2 at 25 °C and 1 atm were between 1.53 and 1.92 mmol/g and the Freundlich equation fit the adsorption data well. The isosteric enthalpy of adsorption, implying physical adsorption, indicated that the growth of CNTs on the ACFs benefit CO2 adsorption.

  17. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The SO2 adsorption behaviors of activated carbons produced from Illinois coal and of commercially prepared activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were compared. There was no relation between surface area of coal-based carbons and SO2 adsorption, whereas adsorption of SO2 on the series of ACFs was inversely proportional to N2 BET surface area. Higher surface area ACFs had wider pores and adsorbed less SO2; thus, pore size distribution is thought to play a significant role in SO2 adsorption for these materials. Oxidation with HNO3 and/or H2SO4, followed by heat treatment at 700−925°C to remove carbon−oxygen complexes, resulted in increased SO2 adsorption for both coal chars and ACFs. This behavior was explained by an increase in the available number of free sites, previously occupied by oxygen and now available for SO2 adsorption. The use of nitrogen-containing functional groups on ACFs of proper pore size shows promise for further increasing SO2 adsorption capacities. Knowledge of the relationship among the number of free sites, pore size, and surface chemistry on corresponding SO2 adsorption should lead to the development of more efficient adsorbents prepared from either coal or ACFs.

  18. Adsorption properties of Congo Red from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Wang Aiqin

    2008-01-01

    A series of surfactant-modified montmorillonites (MMT) were prepared using octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and stearyltrimethylammonium bromide (STAB), and the organification of MMT was proved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrographic (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The adsorption of Congo Red (CR) anionic dye from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified MMT was carried out. Compared with MMT, the adsorption capacity of surfactant-modified MMT for CR was greatly enhanced and MMT modified with CTAB (2.0 CEC) exhibited the higher adsorption capacity. The effects of pH value of the dye solution, adsorption temperature, adsorption time and the initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity of CR on CTAB-MMT have been investigated. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic of CR on CTAB-MMT could be best described by the pseudo-second-order model and that the adsorption isotherm of CR was in good agreement with the Langmuir equation. The IR spectra and SEM analysis also revealed that the adsorption of CTAB-MMT was a chemical adsorption process between CTAB and the NH 2 , -N=N- and SO 3 groups of CR

  19. Uniform Cu2Cl(OH)3 hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-01-01

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m 2 g −1 , respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail

  20. Enhancing Nitrogen Availability, Ammonium Adsorption-Desorption, and Soil pH Buffering Capacity using Composted Paddy Husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, O.; Ahmed, O. H.; Abdul Majid, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Form of nitrogen present in soils is one of the factors that affect nitrogen loss. Nitrate is mobile in soils because it does not absorb on soil colloids, thus, causing it to be leached by rainfall to deeper soil layers or into the ground water. On the other hand, temporary retention and timely release of ammonium in soils regulate nitrogen availability for crops. In this study, composted paddy husk was used in studies of soil leaching, buffering capacity, and ammonium adsorption and desorption to determine the: (i) availability of exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, and total nitrogen in an acid soil after leaching the soil for 30 days, (ii) soil buffering capacity, and (iii) ability of the composted paddy husk to adsorb and desorb ammonium from urea. Leaching of ammonium and nitrate were lower in all treatments with urea and composted paddy husk compared with urea alone. Higher retention of soil exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, and total nitrogen of the soils with composted paddy husk were due to the high buffering capacity and cation exchange capacity of the amendment to adsorb ammonium thus, improving nitrogen availability through temporary retention on the exchange sites of the humic acids of the composted paddy husk. Nitrogen availability can be enhanced if urea is amended with composted paddy husk.

  1. A study of equilibrium and FTIR, SEM/EDS analysis of trimethoprim adsorption onto K10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekçi, Zehra; Seki, Yoldaş; Kadir Yurdakoç, M.

    2007-02-01

    The sorption behavior of K10, a type of montmorillonite for trimethoprim (TMP) drug, was studied by using batch technique under different pH and temperature. The interaction between K10 and TMP was investigated using SEM, and FTIR. It was observed that adsorption was increased between pH 2.5 and 6.3. By performing kinetic experiments, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provides the best fit for TMP adsorption onto K10 montmorillonite. The sorption of TMP reached the equilibrium state after 6 h sorption time and has been described by using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations to obtain adsorption capacity values. The results indicate that the relative adsorption capacity values ( Kf) are decreasing with the increase of temperature in the range of 298-318 K. The sorption energy values obtained from DR isotherm show that sorption of TMP onto K10 can be explained by ion exchange mechanism at 298, 308 and 318 K. The thermodynamic studies were conducted to find the thermodynamic parameters Δ H°, Δ S° and Δ G°. It was determined that adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

  2. Adsorptive removal of dibenzothiophene from model fuels over one-pot synthesized PTA@MIL-101(Cr) hybrid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shao-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Fei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Liu, Yong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Qin, Feng-Xiang; Ren, Hai-Tao [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Wu, Song-Hai, E-mail: songhaiwu@gmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • One-pot synthesized PTA@MIL-101(Cr) shows high capacity of benzothiophene. • PTA/MIL-101(Cr) obtained via post-modification performs poor in the adsorption. • PTA and MIL-101(Cr) exhibit synergetic effect on adsorption of benzothiophene. • In the presence of aromatics, PTA@MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101(Cr) remain their capacity. • PTA-dispersed MOFs adsorb dibenzothiophene through acid–base interaction. -- Abstract: Hybrid nanomaterials comprising phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and MIL-101(Cr) were prepared through one-pot synthesis and post-modification methods and then were used as adsorbents of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from simulated diesel fuels. Samples obtained by different ways (encapsulation and impregnation) were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and series of adsorption experiments. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) illustrated that the direct introduction of PTA into MIL-101(Cr) during synthesis resulted in a 10.7% increase compared with MIL-101(Cr). However, porous hybrid adsorbent PTA/MIL-101(Cr) prepared via post-modification method exhibited lower adsorption capacity than virgin MIL-101(Cr). The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) is 136.5 mg S/g adsorbent, 4.2 times of MIL-101(Cr). Even in competitive adsorption between aromatic compounds, which possess strong affinity with MOFs, and DBT, PTA@MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101(Cr) remained their effectiveness in removal of DBT in the system. Based on these results, it can be presumed that MIL-101(Cr), modified properly, can be used as a promising adsorbent for eliminating aromatics and S-compounds in commercial fuels simultaneously.

  3. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  4. Defect-Mediated Lithium Adsorption and Diffusion on Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Fu, Y Q

    2015-12-22

    Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high capacities. In this work, first principle calculations based on spin density functional theory were performed to investigate adsorption and diffusion of lithium on monolayer MoS2 with defects, such as single- and few-atom vacancies, antisite, and grain boundary. The values of adsorption energies on the monolayer MoS2 with the defects were increased compared to those on the pristine MoS2. The presence of defects causes that the Li is strongly bound to the monolayer MoS2 with adsorption energies in the range between 2.81 and 3.80 eV. The donation of Li 2s electron to the defects causes an enhancement of adsorption of Li on the monolayer MoS2. At the same time, the presence of defects does not apparently affect the diffusion of Li, and the energy barriers are in the range of 0.25-0.42 eV. The presence of the defects can enhance the energy storage capacity, suggesting that the monolayer MoS2 with defects is a suitable anode material for the Li-ion batteries.

  5. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Chang; Zheng, Zuhong; Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe n+ but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe n+ was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where phosphate

  6. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhigang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Chang, E-mail: zhangchang@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zheng, Zuhong [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000, Hubei Province (China); Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe{sup n+} but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe {sup n+} was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where

  7. Effect of the surface oxygen groups on methane adsorption on coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Shixiong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Wen Jie [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu Xiaopeng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Chu Wei, E-mail: chuwei1965_scu@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modified one coal with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} and HNO{sub 3} respectively, to prepare coal samples with different surface properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen groups on coal surface were characterized by XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The textures of the coal samples were investigated by N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption behaviors were measured by volumetric method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There was a negative correlation between methane saturated adsorption capacity and the O{sub total}/C{sub total}. - Abstract: To investigate the influence of surface oxygen groups on methane adsorption on coals, one bituminous coal was modified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} and HNO{sub 3} respectively, to prepare coal samples with different surface properties. The oxygen groups on coal surface were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The textures of the coal samples were investigated by N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K. Their surface morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The methane adsorption behaviors of these coal samples were measured at 303 K in pressure range of 0-5.3 MPa by volumetric method. The adsorption data of methane were fitted to the Langmuir model and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) model. The fitting results showed that the D-A model fitted the isotherm data better than the Langmuir model. It was observed that there was, in general, a positive correlation between the methane saturated adsorption capacity and the micropore volume of coals while a negative correlation between methane saturated adsorption capacity and the O{sub total}/C{sub total}. The methane adsorption capacity was determined by the coal surface chemistry when the microporosity parameters of two samples were similar. Coal with a higher amount of oxygen surface groups, and consequently with a less

  8. A comprehensive adsorption study and modeling of antibiotics as a pharmaceutical waste by graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamian, Rahele; Behnejad, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of tetracycline (TCN), doxycycline (DCN) as the most common antibiotics in veterinary and ciprofloxacin (CPN) onto graphene oxide nanosheets (GOS) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The four factors influencing the adsorption of antibiotics (initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact time) were studied. The results showed that initial pH ∼ 6 to 7 and contact time ∼ 100 - 200min are optimum for each drug. The monolayer adsorption capacity was reduced with the increasing temperature from 25°C to 45°C. Non-linear regressions were carried out in order to define the best fit model for every system. To do this, eight error functions were applied to predict the optimum model. Among various models, Hill and Toth isotherm models represented the equilibrium adsorption data of antibiotics while the kinetic data were well fitted by pseudo second-order (PSO) kinetic model (DCN and TCN) and Elovich (CPN) models. The maximum adsorption capacity (q max ) is found to be in the following order: CPN > DCN > TCN, obtained from sips equation at the same temperature. The GOS shows highest adsorption capacity towards CPN up to 173.4mgg -1 . The study showed that GOS can be removed more efficiently from water solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, RK; Annapureddy, HVR; Vijaykumar, M; Schaef, HT; Martin, PF; McGrail, BP; Dang, LX; Krishna, R; Thallapally, PK

    2014-07-09

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g(-1) at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/P-o) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g(-1) at P/P-o of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  10. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Po-Hsiang [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, 900 Wood Road, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Kuo, Chung-Yih [Department of Public Health, College of Health Care and Management, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien-kuo N Road, Taichung 40242, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wan-Ru [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lv, Guocheng [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-30

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns to show AMI intercalation into SAz-2 vs. direct mixing of the same amount of AMI with SAz-2. - Highlights: • Ca-montmorillonite is proven to be an efficient adsorbent or sink for amitriptyline. • The high adsorption capacity is accompanied with intercalation into interlayers. • The adsorption is mainly governed by a cation exchange mechanism. • Horizontal mono- and bi-layer conformations occur at low and high adsorption levels. • The process is an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. - Abstract: The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330 mg/g (1.05 mmol/g) at pH 6–7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2 h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d{sub 0} {sub 0} {sub 1} spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater.

  11. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chen, Wan-Ru; Lv, Guocheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns to show AMI intercalation into SAz-2 vs. direct mixing of the same amount of AMI with SAz-2. - Highlights: • Ca-montmorillonite is proven to be an efficient adsorbent or sink for amitriptyline. • The high adsorption capacity is accompanied with intercalation into interlayers. • The adsorption is mainly governed by a cation exchange mechanism. • Horizontal mono- and bi-layer conformations occur at low and high adsorption levels. • The process is an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. - Abstract: The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330 mg/g (1.05 mmol/g) at pH 6–7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2 h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d 0 0 1 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater

  12. Effects of Biochar-Derived Sewage Sludge on Heavy Metal Adsorption and Immobilization in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Dan; Gao, Fengxiang; Li, Mengke; Luo, Xianping

    2017-06-23

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on adsorption and mobility of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Biochar (BC400) was produced via pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge at 400 °C. Maximum adsorption capacities ( q m ) for Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu were 5.905, 5.724, 5.681, and 5.342 mg·g -1 , respectively, in the mono-metal solution and 2.475, 8.204, 1.01, and 5.415 mg·g -1 , respectively, in the multi-metal solution. The adsorption capacities for Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in the multi-metal solution due to competitive adsorption, whereas the capacity for Cr increased. Surface precipitation is an important mechanism in the sorption of these metals on BC400. The 360-day incubation experiment showed that BC400 application reduced metal mobility in contaminated soils, which was attributed to the substantial decreases in the acid-soluble fractions of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn (72.20%, 70.38%, 50.43%, and 29.78%, respectively). Furthermore, the leaching experiment using simulated acid rain indicated that the addition of BC400 enhanced the acid buffer capacity of contaminated soil, and the concentration of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the leachate was lower than in untreated soil. Overall, this study indicates that sewage sludge biochar application reduces the mobility of heavy metal in co-contaminated soil, and this adsorption experiment is suitable for the evaluation of biochar properties for remediation.

  13. Defect-Mediated Lithium Adsorption and Diffusion on Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Fu, Yong Qing

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high capacities. In this work, first principle calculations based on spin density functional theory were performed to investigate adsorption and diffusion of lithium on monolayer MoS2 with defects, such as single- and few-atom vacancies, antisite, and grain boundary. The values of adsorption energies on the monolayer MoS2 with the defects were increased compared to those on the pristin...

  14. Liquid-phase adsorption of phenols using activated carbons derived from agricultural waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunwar P.; Malik, Amrita; Sinha, Sarita; Ojha, Priyanka

    2008-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of activated carbons prepared from coconut shells (SAC and ATSAC) were studied. The adsorption equilibria and kinetics of phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions on such carbons were then examined at three different temperatures (10, 25 and 40 deg. C). Adsorption of both phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol increased with an increase in temperature. The experimental data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both the isotherm models adequately fit the adsorption data for both the phenols. The carbon developed through the acid treatment of coconut shells (ATSAC) exhibited relatively higher monolayer adsorption capacity for phenol (0.53 mmol g -1 ) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (0.31 mmol g -1 ) as compared to that developed by thermal activation (SAC) with adsorption capacity of 0.36 and 0.20 mmol g -1 , for phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively. The equilibrium sorption and kinetics model parameters and thermodynamic functions were estimated and discussed. The thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes) exhibited the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. The sorption kinetics was studied using the pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics models. The adsorption kinetics data for both the phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol fitted better to the second-order model. An attempt was also made to identify the rate-limiting step involved in the adsorption process. Results of mass transfer analysis suggested the endothermic nature of the reaction and change in the mechanism with time and initial concentration of the adsorbate. The results of the study show that the activated carbons derived from coconut shells can be used as potential adsorbent for phenols in water/wastewater

  15. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg 2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N 2 sorption, 27 Al/ 29 Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2 nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H 2 O and N 2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications.

  16. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chih-Huang; Lin, Yao-Tung; Tzeng, Tai-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an unconventional bio-adsorbent, pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied. It was observed that intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process and that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order equation. Fitting parameters revealed that the rate of adsorption increased with decrease in dye concentration and decrease in ionic strength while the mixing speed did not have a significant effect on adsorption. The adsorption was favorable at higher pH and lower temperature, and the equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 4.68 x 10 -4 to 9.28 x 10 -4 mol/g when pH increases from 3.5 to 9.5. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is a typical physical process, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The results revealed that this agricultural waste has potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

  17. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chih-Huang, E-mail: chweng@isu.edu.tw [Department of Civil and Ecological Engineering, I-Shou University, Da-Hsu Township, Kaohsiung 84008, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yao-Tung; Tzeng, Tai-Wei [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, TaiChung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    The ability of an unconventional bio-adsorbent, pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied. It was observed that intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process and that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order equation. Fitting parameters revealed that the rate of adsorption increased with decrease in dye concentration and decrease in ionic strength while the mixing speed did not have a significant effect on adsorption. The adsorption was favorable at higher pH and lower temperature, and the equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 4.68 x 10{sup -4} to 9.28 x 10{sup -4} mol/g when pH increases from 3.5 to 9.5. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is a typical physical process, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The results revealed that this agricultural waste has potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

  18. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  19. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-05-01

    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g-1) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG from two kinds of mixed solutions: MG/methyl orange (MO) and MG/rhodamine B (RhB) mixtures, indicating its promise in water treatment.

  20. Adsorption-desorption behavior of atrazine on agricultural soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lin; Ge, ChengJun; Feng, Dan; Yu, Huamei; Deng, Hui; Fu, Bomin

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption and desorption are important processes that affect atrazine transport, transformation, and bioavailability in soils. In this study, the adsorption-desorption characteristics of atrazine in three soils (laterite, paddy soil and alluvial soil) were evaluated using the batch equilibrium method. The results showed that the kinetics of atrazine in soils was completed in two steps: a "fast" adsorption and a "slow" adsorption and could be well described by pseudo-second-order model. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium isotherms were nonlinear and were well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir models. It was found that the adsorption data on laterite, and paddy soil were better fitted by the Freundlich model; as for alluvial soil, the Langmuir model described it better. The maximum atrazine sorption capacities ranked as follows: paddy soil>alluvial soil>laterite. Results of thermodynamic calculations indicated that atrazine adsorption on three tested soils was spontaneous and endothermic. The desorption data showed that negative hysteresis occurred. Furthermore, lower solution pH value was conducive to the adsorption of atrazine in soils. The atrazine adsorption in these three tested soils was controlled by physical adsorption, including partition and surface adsorption. At lower equilibrium concentration, the atrazine adsorption process in soils was dominated by surface adsorption; while with the increase of equilibrium concentration, partition was predominant. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Preliminary investigation of phosphorus adsorption onto two types of iron oxide-organic matter complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinlong; Jiang, Tao; Yao, Ying; Lu, Song; Wang, Qilei; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Iron oxide (FeO) coated by natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous. The associations of minerals with organic matter (OM) significantly changes their surface properties and reactivity, and thus affect the environmental fate of pollutants, including nutrients (e.g., phosphorus (P)). In this study, ferrihydrite/goethite-humic acid (FH/GE-HA) complexes were prepared and their adsorption characteristics on P at various pH and ionic strength were investigated. The results indicated that the FeO-OM complexes showed a decreased P adsorption capacity in comparison with bare FeO. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) decreased in the order of FH (22.17 mg/g)>FH-HA (5.43 mg/g)>GE (4.67 mg/g)>GE-HA (3.27 mg/g). After coating with HA, the amorphous FH-HA complex still showed higher P adsorption than the crystalline GE-HA complex. The decreased P adsorption observed might be attributed to changes of the FeO surface charges caused by OM association. The dependence of P adsorption on the specific surface area of adsorbents suggests that the FeO component in the complexes is still the main contributor for the adsorption surfaces. The P adsorptions on FeO-HA complexes decreased with increasing initial pH or decreasing initial ionic strength. A strong dependence of P adsorption on ionic strength and pH may demonstrate that outer-sphere complexes between the OM component on the surface and P possibly coexist with inner-sphere surface complexes between the FeO component and P. Therefore, previous over-emphasis on the contributions of original minerals to P immobilization possibly over-estimates the P loading capacity of soils, especially in humic-rich areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Study of possibility of increasing the catchment's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovicova, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the possibility of increasing the catechumen's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase. This presentation solves possibilities of increasing of the retention capacity of ground waters on the dependence of surface water outflow on upper parts of Podluzianka River (Hron River Basin) and Predmieranka River (Kysuce River basin)

  3. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun; Hongyu, Gong; Yujun, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) is synthesized. • The amino and phosphoryl groups are successfully grafted on SBA-15. • TBP-SBA-15 has high and rapid uranium adsorption capacity in broad pH range. • The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 is spontaneous and belongs to chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N_2 adsorption–desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG"0, ΔH"0 and ΔS"0) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  4. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Hongyu, Gong, E-mail: gong_hongyu@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yujun, Zhang, E-mail: yujunzhangcn@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) is synthesized. • The amino and phosphoryl groups are successfully grafted on SBA-15. • TBP-SBA-15 has high and rapid uranium adsorption capacity in broad pH range. • The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 is spontaneous and belongs to chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0}) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  5. Optimal working pairs for solar adsorption cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouhi, A.; Kousksou, T.; Jamil, A.; El Rhafiki, T.; Mourad, Y.; Zeraouli, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests a detailed comparison of 7 working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption cooling systems. The performance analysis was based on two indicators: adsorption capacity and solar coefficient of performance. Based on a reformed form of the Dubinin–Astakhov equation, a 3D graph was constructed to show the adsorbate concentration in the appropriate adsorbent as a first step to determine the adsorption capacity. A MATLAB program was developed to solve the system equation to predict the solar coefficient of performance for a typical summer day in a Moroccan city Fez. It was found that maximal adsorption capacity is obtained by activated carbon fibre/methanol (0.3406 kg kg −1 ) followed by activated carbon/methanol (0.2565 kg kg −1 ) and activated carbon/ethanol (0.2008 kg kg −1 ). At a condenser temperature of 25 °C, with an adsorbent mass of 20 kg, and an integrated collector-reactor configuration, the couple silica gel/water for air conditioning purpose can reach an SCOP of 0.3843. Activated carbon fibre/methanol is the following more efficient couple and can be used in the different cooling applications with an SCOP ranging from 0.1726 to 0.3287. Furthermore, adequate indicators are evaluated addressing the economic, environmental and safe aspects associated with each working pair. - Highlights: • 7 working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption cooling systems are compared. • A MATLAB program is used to predict the solar coefficient of performance. • Maximal adsorption capacity is obtained by activated carbon fibre/methanol

  6. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto isolated polyamide active layer of NF/RO membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Yang, Hong-Wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2018-06-01

    Adsorption of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) onto the membrane materials has a great impact on their rejection by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. This study aimed to investigate the difference in adsorption of various pharmaceuticals (PhACs) onto different NF/RO membranes and to demonstrate the necessity of isolating the polyamide (PA) active layer from the polysulfone (PS) support layer for adsorption characterization and quantification. Both the isolated PA layers and the PA+PS layers of NF90 and ESPA1 membranes were used to conduct static adsorption tests. Results showed that apparent differences existed between the PA layer and the PA+PS layer in the adsorption capacity of PhACs as well as the time necessary to reach the adsorption equilibrium. PhACs with different physicochemical properties could be adsorbed to different extents by the isolated PA layer, which was mainly attributed to electrostatic attraction/repulsion and hydrophobic interactions. The PA layer of ESPA1 exhibited apparently higher adsorption capacities for the positively charged PhACs and similar adsorption capacities for the neutral PhACs although it had significantly less total interfacial area (per unit membrane surface area) for adsorption compared to the PA layer of NF90. The higher affinity of the PA layer of ESPA1 for the PhACs could be due to its higher capacity of forming hydrogen bonds with PhACs resulted from the modified chemistry with more -OH groups. This study provides a novel approach to determining the TrOC adsorption onto the active layer of membranes for the ease of investigating adsorption mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption Characteristics of Different Adsorbents and Iron(III Salt for Removing As(V from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ćurko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the adsorption performance of three types of adsorbents for removal of As(V from water: Bayoxide® E33 (granular iron(III oxide, Titansorb® (granular titanium oxide and a suspension of precipitated iron(III hydroxide. Results of As(V adsorption stoichiometry of two commercial adsorbents and precipitated iron(III hydroxide in tap and demineralized water were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations, from which adsorption constants and adsorption capacity were calculated. The separation factor RL for the three adsorbents ranged from 0.04 to 0.61, indicating effective adsorption. Precipitated iron(III hydroxide had the greatest, while Titansorb had the lowest capacity to adsorb As(V. Comparison of adsorption from tap or demineralized water showed that Bayoxide and precipitated iron(III hydroxide had higher adsorption capacity in demineralized water, whereas Titansorb showed a slightly higher capacity in tap water. These results provide mechanistic insights into how commonly used adsorbents remove As(V from water.

  8. Arsenic Removal from Water by Adsorption on Iron-Contaminated Cryptocrystalline Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Yang, Lang; Song, Shaoxian; Xia, Ling

    This work aimed to study the feasibility of using iron-contaminated graphite as an adsorbent for As(V) removal from water. The adsorbent was prepared by grinding graphite concentrate with steel ball. The study was performed through the measurements of adsorption capacity, BET surface area and XPS analysis. The experimental results showed that the iron-contaminated graphite exhibited significantly high adsorption capacity of As(V). The higher the iron contaminated on the graphite surface, the higher the adsorption capacity of As(V) on the material obtained. It was suggested that the ion-contaminated graphite was a good adsorbent for As(V) removal.

  9. Meso- and micropore characteristics of coal lithotypes: Implications for CO2 adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    Lithotypes (vitrain, clarain, and fusain) of high volatile bituminous Pennsylvanian coals (Ro of 0.56-0.62%) from Indiana (the Illinois Basin) have been studied with regard to meso- and micropore characteristics using low-pressure nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption techniques, respectively. High-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms were obtained from lithotypes of the Lower Block Coal Member (the Brazil Formation) and the Springfield Coal Member (the Petersburg Formation), and after evacuation of CO2, the lithotypes were re-analyzed for meso- and micropore characteristics to investigate changes related to high-pressure CO2 adsorption. Coal lithotypes have differing Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas and mesopore volumes, with significantly lower values in fusains than in vitrains or clarains. Fusains have very limited pore volume in the pore size width of 4-10 nm, and the volume, increases with an increase in pore size, in contrast to vitrain, for which a 4-10 nm range is the dominant pore'Wlidth. For clarain, both pores of 4-10 nm and pores larger than 20 nm contribute substantially to the mesoporosity. Micropore surface areas are the smallest for fusain (from 72.8 to 98.2 m2/g), largest for vitrain (from 125.0 to,158.4 m2 /g), and intermediate for clarain (from 110.5 to 124.4 m2/g). Similar relationships are noted for micropore volumes, and the lower values of these parameters in fusains are related to smaller volumes of all incremental micropore sizes. In the Springfield and the Lower Block Coal Members, among lithotypes studied, fusain has the lowest adsorption capacity. For the Lower Block, vitrain has significantly higher adsorption capacity than fusain and clarain, whereas for the Springfield, vitrain and clarain have comparable but still significantly higher adsorption capacities than fusain. The Lower Block vitrain and fusain have much higher adsorption capacities than those in the Springfield, whereas the clarains of the two coals are comparable

  10. Adsorbent for p-phenylenediamine adsorption and removal based on graphene oxide functionalized with magnetic cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxue; Liu, Liangliang; Jiang, Xinyu; Yu, Jingang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Xiaohong [Collaborative Innovation Center of Resource-conserving & Environment-friendly Society and Ecological Civilization, Changsha, 410083 (China); Chen, Xiaoqing, E-mail: xqchen@csu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Resource-conserving & Environment-friendly Society and Ecological Civilization, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Magnetic β-cyclodextrin-graphene oxide (MCG) show high adsorption capacity. • The maximum adsorption capacity was 1102.58 mg/g at 45 °C and pH 8. • MCG can be easily and fast extracted from water by magnetic attraction. • Removal rate of MCG could reach 98% after three times of adsorption. • Adsorption capacity of MCG remained at 81% after five cycles. - Abstract: Recently, graphene oxide (GO) based magnetic nanocomposites have been widely used in an adsorption-based process for the removal of organic pollutants from the water system. In this study, magnetic β-cyclodextrin-graphene oxide nanocomposites (MCG) were synthesized according to covalent binding of magnetic β-cyclodextrin nanoparticles onto the GO surface and the as-made nanocomposites were successfully applied as adsorbents for the adsorption and removal of p-phenylenediamines (PPD). The composition and morphology of prepared materials were characterized by Fourier infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Effects of pH, temperature, time and reusability on the adsorption of PPD were investigated, as well as the kinetics and isotherms parameters of the adsorbents were determined. The results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of MCG was 1102.58 mg/g at 45 °C and pH 8. The adsorption capacity remained at 81% after five cycles. Removal rate could reach 98% after three times of adsorption. The adsorption process with PPD was found that fitted pseudo-second-order kinetics equations and the Langmuir adsorption model. The results showed the MCG had a good adsorption ability to remove organic pollutants in wastewater.

  11. Adsorbent for p-phenylenediamine adsorption and removal based on graphene oxide functionalized with magnetic cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxue; Liu, Liangliang; Jiang, Xinyu; Yu, Jingang; Chen, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic β-cyclodextrin-graphene oxide (MCG) show high adsorption capacity. • The maximum adsorption capacity was 1102.58 mg/g at 45 °C and pH 8. • MCG can be easily and fast extracted from water by magnetic attraction. • Removal rate of MCG could reach 98% after three times of adsorption. • Adsorption capacity of MCG remained at 81% after five cycles. - Abstract: Recently, graphene oxide (GO) based magnetic nanocomposites have been widely used in an adsorption-based process for the removal of organic pollutants from the water system. In this study, magnetic β-cyclodextrin-graphene oxide nanocomposites (MCG) were synthesized according to covalent binding of magnetic β-cyclodextrin nanoparticles onto the GO surface and the as-made nanocomposites were successfully applied as adsorbents for the adsorption and removal of p-phenylenediamines (PPD). The composition and morphology of prepared materials were characterized by Fourier infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Effects of pH, temperature, time and reusability on the adsorption of PPD were investigated, as well as the kinetics and isotherms parameters of the adsorbents were determined. The results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of MCG was 1102.58 mg/g at 45 °C and pH 8. The adsorption capacity remained at 81% after five cycles. Removal rate could reach 98% after three times of adsorption. The adsorption process with PPD was found that fitted pseudo-second-order kinetics equations and the Langmuir adsorption model. The results showed the MCG had a good adsorption ability to remove organic pollutants in wastewater

  12. Simulating multi-component liquid phase adsorption systems: ethanol and residual sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.; Tezel, F.H.; Thibault, J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa (Canada)], email: Jules.Thibault@uottawa.ca

    2011-07-01

    A series of multi-component adsorption studies was performed to determine the relative advantages of producing ethanol which is to be blended with gasoline. These studies developed a model to describe the competition for adsorption sites between ethanol and sugar molecules on the surface of the adsorbent. Three competitive adsorption models established by batch systems were examined to evaluate the suitability of the experiment data across different ethanol and sugar concentrations and determine their isotherm parameters. Multi-component packed bed adsorption experiments were then performed. The results show that ethanol capacity was decreased only slightly from that obtained in single component adsorption studies. There is significant evidence to indicate that sugar displacement from adsorption sites occurs because adsorption of ethanol is preferred. So the capacity of sugars will be greatly reduced if there are appreciable ethanol concentrations.

  13. Adsorption of organic stormwater pollutants onto activated carbon from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Li, Loretta Y

    2017-07-15

    Adsorption filters have the potential to retain suspended pollutants physically, as well as attracting and chemically attaching dissolved compounds onto the adsorbent. This study investigated the adsorption of eight hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) frequently detected in stormwater - including four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), two phthalates and two alkylphenols - onto activated carbon produced from domestic sewage sludge. Adsorption was studied using batch tests. Kinetic studies indicated that bulk adsorption of HOCs occurred within 10 min. Sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC) was as efficient as tested commercial carbons for adsorbing HOCs; adsorption capacities ranged from 70 to 2800 μg/g (C initial  = 10-300 μg/L; 15 mg SBAC in 150 mL solution; 24 h contact time) for each HOC. In the batch tests, the adsorption capacity was generally negatively correlated to the compounds' hydrophobicity (log K ow ) and positively associated with decreasing molecule size, suggesting that molecular sieving limited adsorption. However, in repeated adsorption tests, where competition between HOCs was more likely to occur, adsorbed pollutant loads exhibited strong positive correlation with log K ow . Sewage sludge as a carbon source for activated carbon has great potential as a sustainable alternative for sludge waste management practices and production of a high-capacity adsorption material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adsorption of arsenite and selenite using an inorganic ion exchanger based on Fe–Mn hydrous oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Szlachta, Małgorzata; Gerda, Vasyl; Chubar, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption behaviour and mechanism of As(III) and Se(IV) oxyanion uptake using a mixed inorganic adsorbent were studied. The novel adsorbent, based on Fe(III)-Mn(III) hydrous oxides and manganese(II) carbonate, was synthesised using a hydrothermal precipitation approach in the presence of urea. The inorganic ion exchanger exhibited a high selectivity and adsorptive capacity towards As(III) (up to 47.6mg/g) and Se(IV) (up to 29.0mg/g), even at low equilibrium concentration. Although pH effects were typical for anionic species (i.e., the adsorption decreased upon pH increase), Se(IV) was more sensitive to pH changes than As(III). The rates of adsorption of both oxyanions were high. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that the ion exchange adsorption of both anions took place via OH - groups, mainly from Fe(III) but also Mn(III) hydrous oxides. MnCO 3 did not contribute directly to As(III) and Se(IV) removal. A higher adsorptive capacity of the developed material towards As(III) was partly due to partial As(III) oxidation during adsorption. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Granular activated carbon adsorption and microwave regeneration for the treatment of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl in simulated soil-washing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xitao; Yu Gang; Han Wenya

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29) in simulated soil-washing solution by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and microwave (MW) regeneration was investigated in this study. The PCB29 adsorption process was carried out in a continuous flow adsorption column. After adsorption, the PCB29-loaded GAC was dried at 103 deg. C, and regenerated in a quartz reactor by 2450 MHz MW irradiation at 700 W for 5 min. The efficacy of this procedure was analyzed by determining the rates and amounts of PCB29 adsorbed in successive adsorption/MW regeneration cycles. Effects of the regeneration on the textural properties and the PCB29 adsorption capacity of GAC were examined. It was found that after several adsorption/MW regeneration cycles, the adsorption rate of GAC increased, whereas, the adsorption capacity decreased, which could be explained according to the change of textural properties. Most of the PCB29 adsorbed on GAC was degraded within 3 min under MW irradiation, and the analysis of degradation products by GC-MS demonstrated that PCB29 experienced dechlorination during this treatment

  16. CO 2 adsorption in mono-, di- and trivalent cation-exchanged metal-organic frameworks: A molecular simulation study

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yifei

    2012-02-28

    A molecular simulation study is reported for CO 2 adsorption in rho zeolite-like metal-organic framework (rho-ZMOF) exchanged with a series of cations (Na +, K +, Rb +, Cs +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, and Al 3+). The isosteric heat and Henry\\'s constant at infinite dilution increase monotonically with increasing charge-to-diameter ratio of cation (Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ < Al 3+). At low pressures, cations act as preferential adsorption sites for CO 2 and the capacity follows the charge-to-diameter ratio. However, the free volume of framework becomes predominant with increasing pressure and Mg-rho-ZMOF appears to possess the highest saturation capacity. The equilibrium locations of cations are observed to shift slightly upon CO 2 adsorption. Furthermore, the adsorption selectivity of CO 2/H 2 mixture increases as Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ ≈ Al 3+. At ambient conditions, the selectivity is in the range of 800-3000 and significantly higher than in other nanoporous materials. In the presence of 0.1% H 2O, the selectivity decreases drastically because of the competitive adsorption between H 2O and CO 2, and shows a similar value in all of the cation-exchanged rho-ZMOFs. This simulation study provides microscopic insight into the important role of cations in governing gas adsorption and separation, and suggests that the performance of ionic rho-ZMOF can be tailored by cations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Facile hydrothermal preparation of recyclable S-doped graphene sponge for Cu2+ adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lianqin; Yu, Baowei; Xue, Fumin; Xie, Jingru; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Ruihan; Wang, Ruijue; Hu, Zhiyan; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Luo, Jianbin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: S-doped graphene sponge was prepared via hydrothermal treatment, where S-doped graphene sponge had an adsorption capacity of 228 mg/g for Cu 2+ . - Highlights: • S-doped graphene sponge was prepared by hydrothermal treatment for heavy metal adsorption. • S-doped graphene sponge had a huge adsorption capacity for Cu 2+ , which was 40 times higher than that of active carbon. • S-doped graphene sponge could be easily regenerated by washing with acidic thiourea. - Abstract: Graphene sponge (GS) has been widely employed for water purification, but adsorption capacity loss frequently occurs during the formation of spongy structure. In this study, we reported the hydrothermal preparation of S-doped GS for the removal of Cu 2+ with a huge adsorption capacity of 228 mg/g, 40 times higher than that of active carbon. The adsorption isotherm could be well fitted into the Freundlich model with a K F value of 36.309 (L/mg) 1/n . The equilibrium adsorption could be fully achieved in the first 5 min. In the thermodynamics study, the negative ΔG indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and physisorption in nature. The positive ΔH implied that the adsorption was endothermic. The changes of both pH and ionic strength had no apparent influence on the adsorption. S-doped GS could be easily regenerated by washing with acidic thiourea. Moreover, S-doped GS could be used for the adsorption of other heavy metal ions, too. The implication to the applications of S-doped GS in water treatment is discussed

  18. Kinetic and isotherm studies of humic acid adsorption onto iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Esmaeili

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: With increasing HA concentrations, adsorption capacity of IOMNPs was increased and HA removal efficiency was decreased. By adding ionic strength, HA removal was improved and turbidity of treated samples was reduced.

  19. Overcoming double-step CO2 adsorption and minimizing water co-adsorption in bulky diamine-appended variants of Mg2(dobpdc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Phillip J; Martell, Jeffrey D; Siegelman, Rebecca L; Gygi, David; Weston, Simon C; Long, Jeffrey R

    2018-01-07

    Alkyldiamine-functionalized variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) are promising for CO 2 capture applications owing to their unique step-shaped CO 2 adsorption profiles resulting from the cooperative formation of ammonium carbamate chains. Primary , secondary (1°,2°) alkylethylenediamine-appended variants are of particular interest because of their low CO 2 step pressures (≤1 mbar at 40 °C), minimal adsorption/desorption hysteresis, and high thermal stability. Herein, we demonstrate that further increasing the size of the alkyl group on the secondary amine affords enhanced stability against diamine volatilization, but also leads to surprising two-step CO 2 adsorption/desorption profiles. This two-step behavior likely results from steric interactions between ammonium carbamate chains induced by the asymmetrical hexagonal pores of Mg 2 (dobpdc) and leads to decreased CO 2 working capacities and increased water co-adsorption under humid conditions. To minimize these unfavorable steric interactions, we targeted diamine-appended variants of the isoreticularly expanded framework Mg 2 (dotpdc) (dotpdc 4- = 4,4''-dioxido-[1,1':4',1''-terphenyl]-3,3''-dicarboxylate), reported here for the first time, and the previously reported isomeric framework Mg-IRMOF-74-II or Mg 2 (pc-dobpdc) (pc-dobpdc 4- = 3,3'-dioxidobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate, pc = para -carboxylate), which, in contrast to Mg 2 (dobpdc), possesses uniformally hexagonal pores. By minimizing the steric interactions between ammonium carbamate chains, these frameworks enable a single CO 2 adsorption/desorption step in all cases, as well as decreased water co-adsorption and increased stability to diamine loss. Functionalization of Mg 2 (pc-dobpdc) with large diamines such as N -( n -heptyl)ethylenediamine results in optimal adsorption behavior, highlighting the advantage of tuning both the pore shape and the diamine size for the development of

  20. Effects of Biochar-Derived Sewage Sludge on Heavy Metal Adsorption and Immobilization in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Dan; Gao, Fengxiang; Li, Mengke; Luo, Xianping

    2017-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on adsorption and mobility of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Biochar (BC400) was produced via pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge at 400 °C. Maximum adsorption capacities (qm) for Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu were 5.905, 5.724, 5.681, and 5.342 mg·g−1, respectively, in the mono-metal solution and 2.475, 8.204, 1.01, and 5.415 mg·g−1, respectively, in the multi-metal solution. The adsorption capacities for Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in the multi-metal solution due to competitive adsorption, whereas the capacity for Cr increased. Surface precipitation is an important mechanism in the sorption of these metals on BC400. The 360-day incubation experiment showed that BC400 application reduced metal mobility in contaminated soils, which was attributed to the substantial decreases in the acid-soluble fractions of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn (72.20%, 70.38%, 50.43%, and 29.78%, respectively). Furthermore, the leaching experiment using simulated acid rain indicated that the addition of BC400 enhanced the acid buffer capacity of contaminated soil, and the concentration of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the leachate was lower than in untreated soil. Overall, this study indicates that sewage sludge biochar application reduces the mobility of heavy metal in co-contaminated soil, and this adsorption experiment is suitable for the evaluation of biochar properties for remediation. PMID:28644399

  1. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals onto sesame straw biochar in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in mono and multimetal forms onto sesame straw biochar (SSB). Competitive sorption of metals by SSB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities (mgg(-1)) of metals by SSB were in the order of Pb (102)≫Cd (86)≫Cr (65)>Cu (55)≫Zn (34) in the monometal adsorption isotherm and Pb (88)≫Cu (40)≫Cr (21)>Zn (7)⩾Cd (5) in the multimetal adsorption isotherm. Based on data obtained from the distribution coefficients, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models, and three-dimensional simulation, multimetal adsorption behaviors differed from monometal adsorption due to competition. Especially, during multimetal adsorption, Cd was easily exchanged and substituted by other metals. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate the heavy metal adsorption capacity of biochar in natural environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorption of reactive Remazol Red RB dye of aqueous solution using zeolite of the coal ash and evaluation of acute toxicity with Daphnia similis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the capacity of zeolite synthesized from coal ash in the removal of Remazol Red dye aqueous solution was investigated by batch mode operation. The equilibrium was attained after 360 min of contact time. The adsorption rate followed the kinetic model of pseudo-second-order. The equilibrium data obtained fitted to Langmuir adsorption isotherm showing the adsorption capacity of up to 1.20mg g-1. The efficiency of adsorption was between 75 to 91% in the equilibrium time. In order to obtain the best conditions for removal of this dye, the influence of the following parameters was: initial concentration of the dye, pH of the aqueous solution, dose of adsorbent and temperature. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated showing that the adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite is of a spontaneous nature. Experiments by adding NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 were carried out to simulate the real conditions of the effluents from the dyeing bath and to evaluate the influence of these chemical compounds in the phenomenon of adsorption. The equilibrium data of adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite was achieved in a shorter time in the presence of increasing concentrations of salts in solution and an increase in adsorption capacity. The efficiency of the study was evaluated as a treatment for acute toxicity using Daphnia similis microcrustacean. (author)

  3. Insight into the adsorption of tetracycline onto amino and amino-Fe3+ gunctionalized mesoporous silica: Effect of functionalized groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Huijuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to study the influences of functionalized groups onto the adsorption of tetracycline, we prepared a series of amino and amino-Fe 3+ complex mesoporous silica adsorbents with diverse content of amino and Fe 3+ groups (named N,N-SBA15 and Fe-N,N-SBA15). The resulting mesoporous silica adsorbents were fully characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Furthermore, the effects of functionalized groups on the removal of TC were investigated. The results showed that the periodic ordered structure of SBA-15 was maintained after modification of amino/Fe 3+ groups. The functionalized amino groups decreased the adsorption capacity while the coordinated Fe 3+ increased the adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics of TC fitted pseudo-second-order model well and the equilibrium was achieved quickly. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir model well and with the Fe 3+ content increased from 3.93% to 8.26%, the Q max of the adsorbents increased from 102 to 188mmol/kg. The solution pH affected the adsorption of TC onto amino complex adsorbents slightly while influenced the adsorption onto Fe-amine complex adsorbents greatly. The adsorption of TC on SBA15 and N,N-SBA15 may be related to the formation of outer-sphere surface complexes, while the adsorption of TC onto Fe-N,N-SBA15 was mainly attributed to the inner-sphere surface complexes. This study could offer potential materials that have excellent adsorption behavior for environmental remediation and suggested useful information for the preparing other adsorbents in environmental applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Liquid-phase adsorption of phenols using activated carbons derived from agricultural waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kunwar P. [Environmental Chemistry Section, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)], E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com; Malik, Amrita [Environmental Chemistry Section, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Sinha, Sarita [National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Ojha, Priyanka [Environmental Chemistry Section, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2008-02-11

    Physical and chemical properties of activated carbons prepared from coconut shells (SAC and ATSAC) were studied. The adsorption equilibria and kinetics of phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions on such carbons were then examined at three different temperatures (10, 25 and 40 deg. C). Adsorption of both phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol increased with an increase in temperature. The experimental data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both the isotherm models adequately fit the adsorption data for both the phenols. The carbon developed through the acid treatment of coconut shells (ATSAC) exhibited relatively higher monolayer adsorption capacity for phenol (0.53 mmol g{sup -1}) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (0.31 mmol g{sup -1}) as compared to that developed by thermal activation (SAC) with adsorption capacity of 0.36 and 0.20 mmol g{sup -1}, for phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively. The equilibrium sorption and kinetics model parameters and thermodynamic functions were estimated and discussed. The thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes) exhibited the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. The sorption kinetics was studied using the pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics models. The adsorption kinetics data for both the phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol fitted better to the second-order model. An attempt was also made to identify the rate-limiting step involved in the adsorption process. Results of mass transfer analysis suggested the endothermic nature of the reaction and change in the mechanism with time and initial concentration of the adsorbate. The results of the study show that the activated carbons derived from coconut shells can be used as potential adsorbent for phenols in water/wastewater.

  5. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  6. Functionalized Sugarcane Bagasse for U(VI) Adsorption from Acid and Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-15

    The highly efficient removal of uranium from mine tailings effluent, radioactive wastewater and enrichment from seawater is of great significance for the development of nuclear industry. In this work, we prepared an efficient U(VI) adsorbent by EDTA modified sugarcane bagasse (MESB) with a simple process. The prepared adsorbent preserves high adsorptive capacity for UO 2 2+ (pH 3.0) and uranyl complexes, such as UO 2 (OH) + , (UO 2 ) 2 (OH) 2 2+ and (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0) and good repeatability in acidic environment. The maximum adsorption capacity for U(VI) at pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 is 578.0, 925.9 and 1394.1 mg/g and the adsorption capacity loss is only 7% after five cycles. With the pH from 3.0 to 5.0, the inhibitive effects of Na + and K + decreased but increased of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ . MESB also exhibits good adsorption for [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ] 4- at pH 8.3 from 10 mg/L to 3.3 μg/L. Moreover, MESB could effectively extract U(VI) from simulated seawater in the presence of other metals ions. This work provided a general and efficient uranyl enriched material for nuclear industry.

  7. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen on nanostructered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga Piña, Llinersy; Martínez Mesa, Aliezer; Seifert, Gotthard

    2015-01-01

    Were investigated the effect of the structural characteristics of model nanoporous environments on the adsorption of molecular hydrogen. The adsorption properties of the target nanostructures (graphene and ZnO sheets, carbon foams, metal-organic frameworks) are evaluated in a broad range of thermodynamic conditions. The study is carried out within the density functional theory for quantum fluids at finite temperature (QLDFT), which allows to account for the many-body and quantum delocalization effects in a single theoretical framework. The exchange-correlation (excess) functional is derived from the empirical equation of state of the homogeneous system. We focus on the evaluation of hydrogen storage capacities of the substrates and on the emergence of quantum effects triggered by the confinement imposed by the host structure. The approach provides accurate estimates of the hydrogen storage capacities for realistic adsorptive media. The relation between the microscopic structure of the hydrogen fluid and the calculated adsorption properties is also addressed. (full text)

  8. Study on the adsorption of bacteria in ceramsite and their synergetic effect on adsorption of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shan; Ma, Fang; Huang, Xu; Xu, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, heavy metal adsorption by ceramsite with or without Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) immobilization was studied, and the synergetic effect of ceramsite and bacteria was discussed in detail. To investigate the roles of the micro-pore structure of ceramsite and bacteria in removing heavy metals, the amount of bacteria immobilized on the ceramsite was determined and the effect of pH was evaluated. It was found that the immobilization of B. subtilis on the ceramsite was attributed to the electrostatic attraction and covalent bond. The scanning electron microscopy results revealed that, with the presence of ceramsite, there was the conglutination of B. subtilis cells due to the cell outer membrane dissolving. In addition, the B. subtilis immobilized ceramsite showed a different adsorption capacity for different heavy metals, with the adsorption capacity ranking of La(3+) > Cu(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+).

  9. Adsorption of Emerging Ionizable Contaminants on Carbon Nanotubes: Advancements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmao Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The superior adsorption capacity of carbon nanotubes has been well recognized and there is a wealth of information in the literature concerning the adsorption of unionized organic pollutants on carbon nanotubes. Recently, the adsorption of emerging environmental pollutants, most of which are ionizable, has attracted increasing attention due to the heightened concerns about the accumulation of these emerging contaminants in the environment. These recent studies suggest that the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants on carbon nanotubes exhibit different characteristics than unionized ones. For example, a new charge-assisted intermolecular force has been proposed for ionizable compounds because some adsorption phenomenon cannot be easily explained by the conventional force theory. The adsorption of ionizable compounds also displayed much stronger dependence on solution pH and ionic strength than unionized compounds. This article aims to present a brief review on the current understanding of the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants to carbon nanotubes and discuss further research needs required to advance the mechanistic understanding of the interactions between ionizable contaminants and carbon nanotubes.

  10. Adsorption of Emerging Ionizable Contaminants on Carbon Nanotubes: Advancements and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingmao; Agarwal, Sarang

    2016-05-12

    The superior adsorption capacity of carbon nanotubes has been well recognized and there is a wealth of information in the literature concerning the adsorption of unionized organic pollutants on carbon nanotubes. Recently, the adsorption of emerging environmental pollutants, most of which are ionizable, has attracted increasing attention due to the heightened concerns about the accumulation of these emerging contaminants in the environment. These recent studies suggest that the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants on carbon nanotubes exhibit different characteristics than unionized ones. For example, a new charge-assisted intermolecular force has been proposed for ionizable compounds because some adsorption phenomenon cannot be easily explained by the conventional force theory. The adsorption of ionizable compounds also displayed much stronger dependence on solution pH and ionic strength than unionized compounds. This article aims to present a brief review on the current understanding of the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants to carbon nanotubes and discuss further research needs required to advance the mechanistic understanding of the interactions between ionizable contaminants and carbon nanotubes.

  11. Consequence of chitosan treating on the adsorption of humic acid by granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodloo, Sh; Noroozi, B; Haghi, A K; Sorial, G A

    2011-07-15

    In this work, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of humic acid (HA) onto chitosan treated granular activated carbon (MGAC) has been investigated and compared to the granular activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption equilibrium data showed that adsorption behaviour of HA could be described reasonably well by Langmuir adsorption isotherm for GAC and Freundlich adsorption isotherm for MGAC. It was shown that pre-adsorption of chitosan onto the surface of GAC improved the adsorption capacity of HA changing the predominant adsorption mechanism. Monolayer capacities for the adsorption of HA onto GAC and MGAC were calculated 55.8 mg/g and 71.4 mg/g, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion were simultaneously operating during the adsorption process for MGAC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the strontium (Sr(II)) adsorption of an alginate microsphere as a low-cost adsorbent for removal and recovery from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Park, In-Su; Ryu, Taegong; Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Byuong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated alginate microspheres as a low-cost adsorbent for strontium (Sr(II)) removal and recovery from seawater. Alginate microspheres have demonstrated a superior adsorption capacity for Sr(II) ions (≈110 mg/g). A Freundlich isotherm model fits well with the Sr(II) adsorption of an alginate microsphere. The mechanism of Sr(II) adsorption is inferred as an ion exchange reaction with Ca(II) ions. The effects of the solution pH and co-existing ions in seawater are also investigated. Except for a pH of 1-2, Sr(II) adsorption capacity is not affected by pH. However, increasing the seawater concentration of metal cations seriously decreases Sr(II) uptake. In particular, highly concentrated (15,000 mg/L) Na(I) ions significantly interfere with Sr(II) adsorption. Sr(II) desorption was performed using 0.1 M HCl and CaCl2. Both regenerants show an excellent desorption efficiency, but the FTIR spectrum reveals that the chemical structure of the microsphere is destroyed after repeated use of HCl. Conversely, CaCl2 successfully desorbed Sr(II) without damage, and the Sr(II) adsorption capacity does not decrease after three repeated uses. The alginate microsphere was also applied to the adsorption of Sr(II) in a real seawater medium. Because of inhibition by co-existing ions, the Sr(II) adsorption capacity was decreased and the adsorption rate was retarded compared with D.I. water. Although the Sr(II) adsorption capacity was decreased, the alginate microsphere still exhibited 17.8 mg/g of Sr(II) uptake in the seawater medium. Considering its excellent Sr(II) uptake in seawater and its reusability, an alginate microsphere is an appropriate cost-effective adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Sr(II) from seawater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Copper adsorption in tropical oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu adsorption, at concentrations between 0 to 800 mg L-1, was evaluated in surface and subsurface samples of three Brazilian soils: a heavy clayey-textured Rhodic Hapludalf (RH, a heavy clayey-textured Anionic ''Rhodic'' Acrudox (RA and a medium-textured Anionic ''Xanthic'' Acrudox (XA. After adsorption, two consecutive extractions were performed to the samples which received 100 mg L-1 copper. Surface samples adsorbed higher amounts of Cu than the subsurface, and exhibited lower Cu removed after the extractions, reinforcing the influence of the organic matter in the reactions. Cu adsorption was significant in the subsurface horizons of the Oxisols, despite the positive balance of charge, demonstrating the existence of mechanisms for specific adsorption, mainly related to the predominance of iron and aluminum oxides in the mineral fractions. In these samples, Cu was easily removed from the adsorption sites. RH demonstrated a higher capacity for the Cu adsorption in both horizons.

  14. Adsorption of cadmium by biochar produced from pyrolysis of corn stalk in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengfeng; Zhao, Baowei; Diao, Jingru

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate adsorption characteristic of corn stalk (CS) biochar for removal of cadmium ions (Cd 2+ ) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of pH value of solution, adsorbent particle size, adsorbent dosage, and ionic strength of solution on the adsorption of Cd 2+ onto biochar that was pyrolytically produced from CS at 300 °C. The results showed that the initial pH value of solution played an important role in adsorption. The adsorptive amount of Cd 2+ onto the biochar decreased with increasing the adsorbent dosage, adsorbent particle size, and ionic strength, while it increased with increasing the initial pH value of solution and temperature. Cd 2+ was removed efficiently and quickly from aqueous solutions by the biochar with a maximum capacity of 33.94 mg/g. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.986. The adsorption isotherm could be well fitted by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of Cd 2+ onto the biochar was a spontaneous and exothermic process. The results indicate that CS biochar can be considered as an efficient adsorbent.

  15. Magnetic biochar combining adsorption and separation recycle for removal of chromium in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ouyang; Yitong, Han; Xi, Cao; Jiawei, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Biochar has been developed in recent years for the removal of contaminants such as Cr (VI) in water. The enhancement of the adsorption capacity of biochar and its recyclable use are still challenges. In this study, magnetic biochar derived from corncobs and peanut hulls was synthesized under different pyrolysis temperatures after pretreating the biomass with a low concentration of 0.5 M FeCl 3 solution. The morphology, specific surface area, saturation magnetization and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra were characterized for biochar. The magnetic biochar performed well in combining adsorption and separation recycle for the removal of Cr (VI) in water. The Cr (VI) adsorbance of the biochar was increased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, and the magnetic biochar derived from corncobs showed better performance for both magnetization and removal of Cr (VI) than that from peanut hulls. The Langmuir model was used for the isothermal adsorption and the maximum Cr (VI) adsorption capacity of corncob magnetic biochar pyrolyzed at 650 °C reached 61.97 mg/g. An alkaline solution (0.1 M NaOH) favored the desorption of Cr (VI) from the magnetic biochar, and the removal of Cr (VI) still remained around 77.6% after four cycles of adsorption-desorption. The results showed that corncob derived magnetic biochar is a potentially efficient and recoverable adsorbent for remediation of heavy metals in water.

  16. Strong adsorption of chlorotetracycline on magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Niu, Hongyun; Zhang, Xiaole; Meng, Zhaofu; Cai, Yaqi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fe 3 O 4 MNPs selectively adsorb CTC through chelation between CTC and Fe atoms. → Fe 3 O 4 MNPs remain high adsorption ability to CTC in environmental water samples. → Fe 3 O 4 MNPs sorbed with CTC are easily collected from water under a magnetic field. → The collected Fe 3 O 4 MNPs are regenerated by treatment with H 2 O 2 or calcination. - Abstract: In this work, environmentally friendly magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 MNPs) were used to adsorb chlorotetracycline (CTC) from aqueous media. Fe 3 O 4 MNPs exhibit ultrahigh adsorption ability to this widely used antibiotic. The adsorption behavior of CTC on Fe 3 O 4 MNPs fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 10 h. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of CTC on Fe 3 O 4 (476 mg g -1 ) was obtained at pH 6.5. Thermodynamic parameters calculated from the adsorption data at different temperature showed that the adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous. Low concentration of NaCl and foreign divalent cations hardly affected the adsorption. Negative effect of coexisting humic acid (HA) on CTC adsorption was also observed when the concentration of HA was lower than 20 mg L -1 . But high concentration of HA (>20 mg L -1 ) increased the CTC adsorption on Fe 3 O 4 MNPs. The matrix effect of several environmental water samples on CTC adsorption was not evident. Fe 3 O 4 MNPs were regenerated by treatment with H 2 O 2 or calcination at 400 o C in N 2 atmosphere after separation from water solution by an external magnet. This research provided a high efficient and reusable adsorbent to remove CTC selectively from aqueous media.

  17. Effect of the pH in the adsorption and in the immersion enthalpy of monohydroxylated phenols from aqueous solutions on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Martínez, D A; Giraldo, L; Moreno-Piraján, J C

    2009-09-30

    An activated carbon Carbochem--PS230 was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H(2) in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical surface in the adsorption of the monohydroxylated phenols. The solid-solution interaction was determined by analyzing the adsorption isotherms at 298 K at pH 7, 9 and 11 during 48 h. The adsorption capacity of activated carbons increases when the pH solution decreases. The amount adsorbed increases in the reduced carbon at the maximum adsorption pH and decreases in the oxidized carbon. In the sample of granulated activated carbon, CAG, the monohydroxylated phenols adsorption capacity diminishes in the following order catechol >hydroquinone >resorcinol, at the three pH values. The experimental data are evaluated with Freundlich's and Langmuir's models. The immersion enthalpies are determined and increase with the retained amount, ranging between 21.5 and 45.7 J g(-1). In addition, the immersion enthalpies show more interaction with the reduced activated carbon that has lower total acidity contents.

  18. Equilibrium Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow

    OpenAIRE

    Okeola, F. O.; Odebunmi, E. O.; Ameen, O. M.; Amoloye, M. A.; Lawal, A. A.; Abdulmummeen, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on freema (combination of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow) an adsorbent prepared from moringa pod. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined. Effect of such factors as initial concentration of the adsorbate solution, contact time with the adsorbent, pH of the dye solution, and temperature of the dye solution on the adsorption capacity of the absorbent was determined. The result showed that the optimum adsorption was attained at pH of 3, a...

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of silico-manganese nanohybrid for Cu(II) adsorption from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiufeng, E-mail: zhuqiufeng@th.btbu.edu.cn; Wang, Liting; An, Zehuan; Ye, Hong; Feng, Xudong

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A novel silico-manganese nanohybrid adsorbent (SMNA) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • The adsorption capacities of the SMNA for Cu(II) are lower pH dependency. • As-adsorbents are very efficient at low metal concentration and substantial amounts of Cu(II) can be removed from aqueous solution. - Abstract: A novel silico-manganese nanohybrid adsorbent (SMNA) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential measurement. The adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution on the SMNA was investigated with variations in contact time, pH and initial Cu(II) concentration. The results showed that hydrothermal method would generate nanowire/nanorod incomplete crystallite (δ-MnO{sub 2}) adsorbent. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto SMNA increased sharply within 25 min and reached equilibrium gradually. The maximum adsorption capacities of SMNA for Cu(II) were ∼40–88 mg g{sup −1}, which was lower than δ-MnO{sub 2} (92.42 mg g{sup −1}) but had a lower pH dependency. As compared with δ-MnO{sub 2}, higher adsorption capacities of SMNA (7.5–15 wt% of silica doping amount) for Cu(II) could be observed when pH of the aqueous solution was low (<4). The pseudo-second-order model was the best choice to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto SMNA, suggesting that the removal of Cu(II) by the as-prepared adsorbents was dominated by migration of Cu(II). The possibility of Cu(II) recovery was also investigated and it revealed that SMNA was a promising recyclable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions in water and wastewater treatment.

  20. Adsorption of Chloroform by the Rapid Response System Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria and dynamic breakthrough data were measured to determine the adsorption capacity and effect of purge air on the desorption of chloroform from activated carbon simulating the Rapid Response System (RRS) filter...

  1. Hydrogen adsorption on and solubility in graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashenko, S.L.; Wampler, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on adsorption and solubility of hydrogen isotopes in graphite over a wide range of temperatures and pressures are reviewed. Langmuir adsorption isotherms are proposed for the hydrogen-graphite interaction. The entropy and enthalpy of adsorption are estimated, allowing for effects of relaxation of dangling sp 2 bonds. Three kinds of traps are proposed: edge carbon atoms of interstitial loops with an adsorption enthalpy relative to H 2 gas of -4.4 eV/H 2 (unrelaxed, Trap 1), edge carbon atoms at grain surfaces with an adsorption enthalpy of -2.3 eV/H 2 (relaxed, Trap 2), and basal plane adsorption sites with an enthalpy of +2.43 eV/H 2 (Trap 3). The adsorption capacity of different types of graphite depends on the concentration of traps which depends on the crystalline microstructure of the material. The number of potential sites for the 'true solubility' (Trap 3) is assumed to be about one site per carbon atom in all types of graphite, but the endothermic character of this solubility leads to a negligible H inventory compared to the concentration of hydrogen in type 1 and type 2 traps for temperatures and gas pressures used in the experiments. Irradiation with neutrons or carbon atoms increases the concentration of type 1 and type 2 traps from about 20 and 200 appm respectively for unirradiated (POCO AXF-5Q) graphite to about 1500 and 5000 appm, respectively, at damage levels above 1 dpa. (orig.)

  2. Binary boronic acid-functionalized attapulgite with high adsorption capacity for selective capture of nucleosides at acidic pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huihui; Zhu, Shuqiang; Cheng, Ting; Wang, Shuxia; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Boronate affinity materials have been widely used for selective capture of cis-diols such as nucleosides. Adsorbents with features of low binding pH and high adsorption capacity are highly desired. However, most reported materials only possess one of the two features. We have synthesized a 1,3,5-triazine-containing binary boronic acid by reacting cyanuric chloride with 3-amino phenylboronic acid, and the product was then grafted onto attapulgite (a fibrous aluminum-magnesium silicate). The resulting functionalized attapulgite exhibit low binding pH (5.0) and display high adsorption capacity (19.5 ± 1.1 mg⋅g"−"1 for adenosine). The material exhibits high selectivity for cis-diols even in the presence of a 1000-fold excess of interferences. It was applied to the selective extraction of nucleosides from human urine. Typical features of the method include (a) limits of detection in the range from 4 to 17 ng⋅mL"−"1, (b) limits of quantification between 13 and 57 ng⋅mL"−"1, (c) relative standard deviations of ≤9.1 %, and (d) recoveries of nucleosides from spiked human urine between 85.0 and 112.9 %. In our perception, the material and method offer a promising strategy for selective capture of cis-diols in the areas of proteomics, metabolomics and glycomics. (author)

  3. Adsorption Behavior of High Stable Zr-Based MOFs for the Removal of Acid Organic Dye from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Deng Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium based metal organic frameworks (Zr-MOFs have become popular in engineering studies due to their high mechanical stability, thermostability and chemical stability. In our work, by using a theoretical kinetic adsorption isotherm, we can exert MOFs to an acid dye adsorption process, experimentally exploring the adsorption of MOFs, their external behavior and internal mechanism. The results indicate their spontaneous and endothermic nature, and the maximum adsorption capacity of this material for acid orange 7 (AO7 could be up to 358 mg·g−1 at 318 K, estimated by the Langmuir isotherm model. This is ascribed to the presence of an open active metal site that significantly intensified the adsorption, by majorly increasing the interaction strength with the adsorbates. Additionally, the enhanced π delocalization and suitable pore size of UiO-66 gave rise to the highest host–guest interaction, which further improves both the adsorption capacity and separation selectivity at low concentrations. Furthermore, the stability of UiO-66 was actually verified for the first time, through comparing the structure of the samples before and after adsorption mainly by Powder X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  4. Evaluation and modeling of methyl green adsorption from aqueous solutions using loofah fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaonan; Li, Yueyun; Chen, Runhai; Min, Fanlian; Yang, Juanjuan; Dong, Yunhui [Shandong University of Technology, Zibo (China)

    2015-01-15

    Loofah fiber, an economical adsorbent material, was first developed for the methyl green (MG) removal from aqueous solutions. The loofah fibers were characterized by SEM, FTIR, N{sub 2}-BET and the potentiometric titration. The pH, contact time and temperature were examined extensively. The adsorption of MG on loofah fiber increased very quickly in the pH range 3.0 to 7.0, remaining a high level at pH>7.0. The kinetics of adsorption of MG on the loofah fiber was proved to coincide with pseudo-second-order kinetic models (r{sup 2}>0.99) very well. Langmuir isotherm was demonstrated to fit the experimental data better than Freundlich isotherm model. Monolayer adsorption capacity increased with the increase of temperature. Thermodynamic constants were evaluated, and the results indicated that MG adsorption onto loofah fiber was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. The high removal efficiency of MG on loofah fiber suggested that the loofah fiber was suitable material in MG pollution cleanup.

  5. Adsorption of diastase over natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaiq, F.; Chang, K. X.; Ling, J. Y. W.

    2017-06-01

    Adsorption of diastase over natural halloysite nanotubes is studied in order to evaluate the adsorption capacity of diastase. The halloysite surface characteristics were assessed using nitrogen adsorption, x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR). The surface area of the natural halloysite is found to be 51 m2·g-1, with total pore volume of 0.106 cm3·g-1. The natural halloysite has a basal spacing (d001) of 10 Å confirming the structure of the natural halloysite material. TGA results indicated that halloysite loses its interlayer water in the range of 30 to 105 °C and the dehydration in the structural layer above 150 °C. The dehydroxylation of halloysite has occurred at approximately 460 °C. The FTIR result of the thermally treated halloysite sample indicated that the bands observed are assigned to Si-O and Al-O bonds. The effects of solution pH and temperature were studied on the adsorption capacity and percent removal of diastase from the solution. The adsorption kinetic found to fit well with both the Pseudo first-order and Pseudo second-order models, and the values of the kinetic constant were found to be 0.173 min-1 and 0.00018 g·mg-1·min-1 respectively. The Langmuir isotherm model is found to fit well to the adsorption data and a kinetic value is found to be 0.00059 m3·g-1. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 370 mg·g-1, indicating the potential for applications of the natural nanostructured halloysite material as an effective adsorbent for diastase.

  6. Effects of chemical functional groups on elemental mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jing, E-mail: liujing27@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheney, Marcos A. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Wu Fan; Li Meng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A systematic theoretical study using density functional theory is performed to provide molecular-level understanding of the effects of chemical functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces. The zigzag and armchair edges were used in modeling the carbonaceous surfaces to simulate different adsorption sites. The edge atoms on the upper side of the models are unsaturated to simulate active sites. All calculations (optimizations, energies, and frequencies) were made at B3PW91 density functional theory level, using RCEP60VDZ basis set for mercury and 6-31G(d) pople basis set for other atoms. The results indicate that the embedding of halogen atom can increase the activity of its neighboring site which in turn increases the adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous surface for Hg{sup 0}. The adsorption belongs to chemisorptions, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. For the effects of oxygen functional groups, lactone, carbonyl and semiquinone favor Hg{sup 0} adsorption because they increase the neighboring site's activity for mercury adsorption. On the contrary, phenol and carboxyl functional groups show a physisorption of Hg{sup 0}, and reduce Hg capture. This result can explain the seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature concerning the influence of oxygen functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surface.

  7. Surface modification of chitin using ultrasound-assisted and supercritical CO{sub 2} technologies for cobalt adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotto, Guilherme L., E-mail: guilherme_dotto@yahoo.com.br; Cunha, Jeanine M., E-mail: jeaninecunha@gmail.com; Calgaro, Camila O., E-mail: camila.itepjr@gmail.com; Tanabe, Eduardo H., E-mail: edutanabe@yahoo.com.br; Bertuol, Daniel A., E-mail: dbertuol@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitin was modified by ultrasound-assisted (UA) and supercritical (SCO{sub 2}) technologies. • Chitin, UA-chitin and SCO{sub 2}-chitin were used as adsorbents for Co(II). • UA and SCO{sub 2} treatments provided increase of 20 and 3 times in chitin surface area. • The Co(II) adsorption capacity increased until 67.8%, using UA-chitin. - Abstract: Ultrasound-assisted (UA) and supercritical CO{sub 2} technologies (SCO{sub 2}) were used to modify the chitin surface and, improve its adsorption characteristics regarding to cobalt. Chitin, before and after the treatments, was characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms (BET), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unmodified and surface modified chitins were used as adsorbents to remove cobalt from aqueous solutions. The adsorption study was performed by equilibrium isotherms and kinetic curves. The chitin particle characteristics, such as, surface area, pore volume and porosity were improved by the UA and SCO{sub 2} treatments. The crystallinity index decreased after the UA and SCO{sub 2} treatments, and also, intense surface modifications were observed. Langmuir and Freundlich models were adequate to represent the adsorption equilibrium. The maximum adsorption capacities were 50.03, 83.94 and 63.08 mg g{sup −1} for unmodified chitin, UA surface modified chitin and SCO{sub 2} surface modified chitin. The adsorption kinetic curves were well represented by the pseudo-second order model. UA and SCO{sub 2} technologies are alternatives to modify the chitin surface and improve its adsorption characteristics.

  8. Topotactic growth, selective adsorption, and adsorption-driven photocatalysis of protonated layered titanate nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qili; Yang, Xianfeng; Liu, Jia; Nie, Xin; Huang, Yongliang; Wen, Yuping; Khan, Javid; Khan, Wasim U; Wu, Mingmei; An, Taicheng

    2014-10-22

    Layered titanates with selective adsorption ability and adsorption-driven photocatalytic property can be quite attractive due to their potential applications in water purification. In this work, lepidocrocite-like layered protonated titanate (H2Ti2O5·H2O, denoted as HTO) nanosheets were successfully synthesized by an ion-exchange process. It turns out that this layered structure displays an abundant and selective adsorption toward the fluoroquinolone pharmaceutical compared with some large dye molecules due to a size selectivity of the interlayer spacing of HTO and the molecular horizontal size, as well as their electrostatic interaction. The uptake ability of HTO could be readily controlled through adjusting the pH values of adsorbate solution, and the maximum uptake capacity was achieved at the pH value of about 5.5 for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 6.5 for moxifloxacin (MOX). The adsorption amount of smaller nalidixic acid (NAL) showed an increasing tendency as the pH value decreased. Moreover, the two-dimensional layered crystal structure also permits such HTO nanosheets to have a large percentage of (010) faces exposed, which is considerably provided by the interlayer surfaces of these nanosheets. The (010) surface has a similar Ti and O atomic arrangement as to the highly reactive anatase TiO2(001) one. Due to these specific characteristics, these HTO nanosheets show excellent photocatalytic activity in degrading CIP under UV light irradiation as well as possess a superior adsorption ability to remove CIP from aqueous solution selectively and efficiently. The photocatalytic reaction is believed to be mainly conducted on the active anatase (001)-like interlayer (010) surfaces of the layered structures since the as-prepared HTO performs an adsorption-driven molecular recognitive photocatalytic reaction.

  9. Impact of styrenic polymer one-step hyper-cross-linking on volatile organic compound adsorption and desorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Atkinson, John D

    2018-06-05

    A novel one-step hyper-cross-linking method, using 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and 1,6-dichlorohexane (DCH) cross-linkers, expands the micropore volume of commercial styrenic polymers. Performance of virgin and modified polymers was evaluated by measuring hexane, toluene, and methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK) adsorption capacity, adsorption/desorption kinetics, and desorption efficiency. Hyper-cross-linked polymers have up to 128% higher adsorption capacity than virgin polymers at P/P 0  = 0.05 due to micropore volume increases up to 330%. Improvements are most pronounced with the DCE cross-linker. Hyper-cross-linking has minimal impact on hexane adsorption kinetics, but adsorption rates for toluene and MEK decrease by 6-41%. Desorption rates decreased (3-36%) for all materials after hyper-cross-linking, with larger decreases for DCE hyper-cross-linked polymers due to smaller average pore widths. For room temperature desorption, 20-220% more adsorbate remains in hyper-cross-linked polymers after regeneration compared to virgin materials. DCE hyper-cross-linked polymers have 13-92% more residual adsorbate than DCH counterparts. Higher temperatures were required for DCE hyper-cross-linked polymers to completely desorb VOCs compared to the DCH hyper-cross-linked and virgin counterparts. Results show that the one-step hyper-cross-linking method for modifying styrenic polymers improves adsorption capacity because of added micropores, but decreases adsorption/desorption kinetics and desorption efficiency for large VOCs due to a decrease in average pore width. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption of Phosphorus on Sediments of the Balearic Islands (Spain) Related to Their Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, P.; Lluch, X.; Vidal, M.; Morguí, J. A.

    1996-02-01

    The adsorption of phosphorus onto sediment particles has a major role in coastal areas, where continental inputs may increase levels of phosphate in the water mass. This paper reports a study of the adsorption capacity of phosphorus in two coastal areas located in the Balearic Islands: one in Majorca (The Albufera of Alcudia), and the other in Minorca (The Albufera of Es Grau). The range of adsorption capacity was 35-121 μ mol Pg -1in Majorca, and 30-55 μmol Pg -1in Minorca. Considering the slope of the Langmuir equation for low or moderate phosphorus concentrations as a measure of the efficiency of sediments in taking up phosphate, sediments from Minorca were more efficient than those from Majorca (21-36 ml g -1and 14-21 ml g -1, respectively. A horizontal pattern of variation was observed in both areas, with the highest values near the sea and at the points with least marine influence. In Majorca, maximum adsorption capacities ( C max) were positively correlated with concentrations of iron and aluminium, and efficiencies of sorption were related to carbon. In Minorca, C maxand efficiencies were negatively correlated with iron and aluminium, and positively correlated with carbon and calcium.

  11. Adsorptive removal of dibenzothiophene from model fuels over one-pot synthesized PTA@MIL-101(Cr) hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shao-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Liu, Yong; Qin, Feng-Xiang; Ren, Hai-Tao; Wu, Song-Hai

    2013-11-15

    Hybrid nanomaterials comprising phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and MIL-101(Cr) were prepared through one-pot synthesis and post-modification methods and then were used as adsorbents of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from simulated diesel fuels. Samples obtained by different ways (encapsulation and impregnation) were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and series of adsorption experiments. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) illustrated that the direct introduction of PTA into MIL-101(Cr) during synthesis resulted in a 10.7% increase compared with MIL-101(Cr). However, porous hybrid adsorbent PTA/MIL-101(Cr) prepared via post-modification method exhibited lower adsorption capacity than virgin MIL-101(Cr). The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity (Q0) of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) is 136.5mg S/g adsorbent, 4.2 times of MIL-101(Cr). Even in competitive adsorption between aromatic compounds, which possess strong affinity with MOFs, and DBT, PTA@MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101(Cr) remained their effectiveness in removal of DBT in the system. Based on these results, it can be presumed that MIL-101(Cr), modified properly, can be used as a promising adsorbent for eliminating aromatics and S-compounds in commercial fuels simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  13. Adsorption and desorption of cationic malachite green dye on cellulose nanofibril aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Dinh, Darren M; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-light aerogels have been assembled from cellulose nanofibrils into hierarchically macroporous (several hundred μm) honeycomb cellular structure surrounded with mesoporous (8-60nm) thin walls. The high specific surface (193m 2 /g) and surface carboxyl content (1.29mmol/g) of these aerogels were demonstrated to be highly capable of removing cationic malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous media. The rapid MG adsorption was driven by electrostatic interactions and followed a pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic and monolayer Langmuir adsorption isotherm. At a low 1:5mg/mL aerogel/MG ratio, both initial MG adsorption rate (2.3-59.8mgg -1 min -1 ) and equilibrium adsorption capacity (53.0-203.7mgg -1 ) increased with increasing initial MG concentrations from 10 to 200mg/L, reaching a maximum adsorption of 212.7mgg -1 . The excellent dye removal efficiency was demonstrated by complete MG removal through four repetitive adsorptions at a low 1:5mg/mL aerogel/MG ratio and 10mg/L dye concentration as well as 92% MG adsorption in a single batch at one order of magnitude higher10:5mg/mL aerogel/MG ratio and 100mg/L dye concentration. The adsorbed MG in aerogels could be desorbed in aqueous media by increasing ionic strength, demonstrating facile recovery of both dye and aerogel as well as the robust capability of this aerogel for repetitive applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metronidazole removal in powder-activated carbon and concrete-containing graphene adsorption systems: Estimation of kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters and optimization of adsorption by a central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, S V; Kumar, S Mathava; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2017-12-06

    Metronidazole (MNZ) removal by two adsorbents, i.e., concrete-containing graphene (CG) and powder-activated carbon (PAC), was investigated via batch-mode experiments and the outcomes were used to analyze the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of MNZ adsorption. MNZ sorption on CG and PAC has followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the thermodynamic parameters revealed that MNZ adsorption was spontaneous on PAC and non-spontaneous on CG. Subsequently, two-parameter isotherm models, i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Elovich models, were applied to evaluate the MNZ adsorption capacity. The maximum MNZ adsorption capacities ([Formula: see text]) of PAC and CG were found to be between 25.5-32.8 mg/g and 0.41-0.002 mg/g, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage on MNZ adsorption were evaluated by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The CCD experiments have pointed out the complete removal of MNZ at a much lower PAC dosage by increasing the system temperature (i.e., from 20°C to 40°C). On the other hand, a desorption experiment has shown 3.5% and 1.7% MNZ removal from the surface of PAC and CG, respectively, which was insignificant compared to the sorbed MNZ on the surface by adsorption. The overall findings indicate that PAC and CG with higher graphene content could be useful in MNZ removal from aqueous systems.

  15. Adsorption and magnetic removal of neutral red dye from aqueous solution using Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, Mahmood; Guo, Chen; Guan Yueping; Ishfaq, Ahmad; Liu Huizhou

    2010-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 hollow nanospheres were prepared via a simple one-pot template-free hydrothermal method and were fully characterized. These magnetic spheres have been investigated for application as an adsorbant for the removal of dye contaminants from water. Because of the high specific surface area, nano-scale particle size, and hollow porous material, Fe 3 O 4 hollow spheres showed favorable adsorption behavior for Neutral red. Factors affecting adsorption, such as, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were evaluated. Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherms were selected to explicate the interaction of the dye and magnetic adsorbant. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The overall trend followed an increase of the sorption capacity with increasing dye concentration with a maximum of 90% dye removal. The monolayer adsorption capacity of magnetic hollow spheres (0.05 g) for NR in the concentration range studied, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model at 25 deg. C and pH 6, was found to be 105 mg g -1 . Adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption processes are spontaneous and endothermic. The combination of the superior adsorption and the magnetic properties of Fe 3 O 4 nanospheres can be useful as a powerful separation tool to deal with environmental pollution.

  16. Hydrogen adsorption in metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Technical University, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have recently received considerable attention because of their high specific micropore volume and the ability to store gas molecules exceeding the storage capacity of traditional adsorbents. A variety of differences in the MOFs structures makes it difficult to analyze the influence of different factors on hydrogen uptake capabilities in MOFs. We have investigated the influence of the minor structural changes of the MOFs on their hydrogen storage capacity. The influence of the incorporated metal was shown for following isostructural compounds: Cu{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2} (BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and Mo{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}; Zn{sub 2}(BDC){sub 2}DABCO and Co{sub 2}(BDC){sub 2}DABCO (BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). Our research interest is directed also towards the discovery of new MOFs, as well as adjusting the pore dimensions of MOFs, using different building blocks, solvent and solvent mixtures, in order to improve gas uptake and adsorption properties. Magnesium-based MOFs were found with the same network topology, very small pore size and selective adsorption behaviour. They show a guest-induced reversible structure transformation due to the flexibility of the Mg{sub 3}-cluster and the organic linkers. This effect could be used for fitting the pore sizes and for the increase of gas sorption capability in Mg contained MOFs after all. The hydrogen adsorption was also studied in several Al-based IRMOFs.

  17. Adsorptive storage of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Song; Lang, Liu; Licheng, Ling

    2001-01-01

    The Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) storage technology is reviewed. The present status, theoretical limits and operational problems are discussed. Natural gas (NG) has a considerable advantage over conventional fuels both from an environmental point of view and for its natural abundance. However, as well known, it has a two fold disadvantage compared with liquid fuels: it is relatively expensive to transport from the remote areas, and its energy density (heat of combustion/volume) is low. All these will restrict its use. Compressed natural gas (CNG) may be a solution, but high pressures are needed (up to 25 MPa) for use in natural-gas fueled vehicles, and the large cost of the cylinders for storage and the high-pressure facilities necessary limit the practical use of CNG. Alternatively, adsorbed natural gas (ANG) at 3 - 4 MPa offers a very high potential for exploitation in both transport and large-scale applications. At present, research about this technology mainly focuses on: to make adsorbents with high methane adsorption capacity; to make clear the effects of heat of adsorption and the effect of impurities in natural gas on adsorption and desorption capacity. This paper provides an overview of current technology and examines the relations between fundamentals of adsorption and ANG storage. (authors)

  18. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  19. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiaoli; Zhao Youcai

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic

  20. Effect of humic acid preloading on phosphate adsorption onto zirconium-modified zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhe; Zhan, Yanhui

    2017-05-01

    A zirconium-modified zeolite (ZrMZ) was prepared, and then, humic acid (HA) was immobilized on the ZrMZ surface to prepare HA-loaded ZrMZ (HA-ZrMZ). The obtained ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analyzer, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, pH at the point of zero charge, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were comparatively investigated in batch mode. The adsorption mechanism of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ was investigated by ionic strength effect and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance. The mechanism for phosphate adsorption onto ZrMZ was the formation of inner-sphere phosphate complexes at the solid/solution interface. The preloading of HA on ZrMZ reduced the phosphate adsorption capacity, and the more the HA loading amount, the lower the phosphate adsorption capacity. However, the preloading of HA on ZrMZ did not change the phosphate adsorption mechanism; i.e., the formation of inner-sphere phosphate surface complexes was still responsible for the adsorption of phosphate on HA-ZrMZ. The decreased phosphate adsorption capacity for ZrMZ after HA coating could be attributed to the fact that the coating of HA on ZrMZ reduced the amount of binding active sites available for phosphate adsorption, changed the adsorbent surface charges, and reduced the specific surface areas and pore volumes of ZrMZ.

  1. Hydrogen adsorption in new carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, L.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen physi-sorption on porous carbon materials is one among the different technologies which could be used for hydrogen storage. In addition hydrogen spillover on a carbon supports can enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacities obtained by physi-sorption. In this study two different carbon supports were synthesised: carbon gels and carbon microspheres. Carbon microspheres were doped with Ni(NO 3 ) 2 to study the hydrogen spillover on carbon support. The texture of the materials was characterised by CO 2 adsorption at 0 C and their hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at -196 and 10 C with a Micromeritics Tristar 3000, and at room temperature with a high pressure gravimetric analyser. (authors)

  2. Adsorption of Pb(II) ions present in aqueous solution on the oxy hydroxides: boehmite (γ-AIOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and manganite (γ-MnOOH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arreola L, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Boehmite, goethite and manganite were synthesized by different methods and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric study , N 2 physisorption measurements, scanning electron microscopy (Sem), semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS), as well as additional studies were determined the surface active sites concentration and zero point of charge. Furthermore, we studied the Pb(II) ion adsorption capacity present in aqueous solution on these synthesized materials by batch-type experiments at room temperature, as a function of contact time between the phases liquid-solid system (adsorption kinetics), initial concentration of the adsorbate (adsorption isotherms), ph and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium time of adsorption processes in these studied systems was found at 60 minutes for boehmite and 30 minutes for goethite and manganite respectively after contacting the solid-liquid phase systems. The adsorption capacity of the lead ions on these adsorbent materials depended of lead concentration, ph and temperature of the systems. Were evaluated lead adsorption capacities in these materials to different contact times using an initial concentration of 20 mg/L of Pb(II) ions at ph = 4, the results of three systems were adjusted to second pseudo kinetic model order. With respect to the study of the adsorbate concentration effect, boehmite-Pb(II) and goethite-Pb(II) systems were adjusted to Langmuir isotherm model which proposes that the adsorption is carried out in a monolayer, moreover manganite-Pb(II) system was adjusted Temp kin isotherm model, which assumes that the adsorption heat of all the molecules in the layer decreases linearly with coverage due to adsorbent-adsorbate interactions and adsorption is characterized by a uniform distribution of the binding energies. Were studied the ph effect of Pb(II) ions solution on the adsorption capacity of such adsorbents, it was found that as the ph increases lead solution

  3. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  4. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by sawdust of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, D.; Stankovic, V.; Gorgievski, M.; Bogdanovic, G.; Kovacevic, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of heavy metal ions from synthetic solutions was performed using sawdust of beech, linden and poplar trees. The adsorption depends on the process time, pH of the solution, type of ions, initial concentration of metals and the sawdust concentration in suspension. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium for less than 20 min. The adsorption equilibrium follows Langmuir adsorption model. The ion exchange mechanism was confirmed assuming that the alkali-earth metals from the adsorbent are substituted by heavy metal ions and protons. On lowering the initial pH, the adsorption capacity decreased, achieving a zero value at a pH close to unity. The maximum adsorption capacity (7-8 mg g -1 of sawdust) was achieved at a pH between 3.5 and 5 for all the studied kinds of sawdust. The initial concentration of the adsorbate and the concentration of sawdust strongly affect the process. No influence of particles size was evidenced. A degree of adsorption higher than 80% can be achieved for Cu 2+ ions but it is very low for Fe 2+ ions, not exceeding 10%.

  5. Preparation of granular activated carbons from yellow mombin fruit stones for CO2 adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Raildo Alves; Medeiros de Jesus Neto, Raimundo; Correia, Laise Bacelar; Carvalho Andrade, Heloysa Martins

    2015-09-15

    Stones of yellow mombin, a native fruit of the tropical America and West Indies, were used as starting materials to produce activated carbons, subsequently used as adsorbent for CO2 capture. The carbonaceous materials were either chemically activated with HNO3, H3PO4 and KOH or physically activated with CO2. The carbon samples were characterized by SEM, EDX, TG/DTA, Raman spectroscopy, physical adsorption for textural analysis and by acid-base titrations. The CO2 adsorption capacity and adsorption cycles were investigated by TG. The results indicate that the capacity of CO2 adsorption may be maximized on highly basic surfaces of micropores smaller than 1 nm. The KOH activated carbon showed high and stable capacity of CO2 adsorption after 10 cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyperbranched-polyol-tethered poly (amic acid) electrospun nanofiber membrane with ultrahigh adsorption capacity for boron removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Wu, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yufeng; Meng, Jianqiang, E-mail: jianqiang.meng@hotmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber membranes were grafted with hyperbranched polyols. • The membrane had a maximum boron uptake of 5.68 mmol/g. • The membrane could adsorb 0.82 mmol/g boron from a 5 mg/L solution in 15 min. • The membrane obeyed the Langmuir and the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. • The regeneration efficiency remained over 90% after 10 cycled uses. - Abstract: The development of efficient adsorbents with high sorption capacity remains as a challenge for the removal of micropollutants occurred globally in water resources. In this work, poly (amic acid) (PAA) electrospun nanofiber membranes grafted with hyperbranched polyols were synthesized and used for boron removal. The PAA nanofiber was reacted with hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) and further with glycidol to introduce the vicinal hydroxyl groups. The chemical composition and surface characteristics of the obtained PAA-g-PG membranes were evaluated by FESEM, FTIR, XPS and water contact angles (WCA) measurements. The boron adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics were investigated systematically. The results showed that the PAA nanofiber spun from concentration of 15% had uniform morphology and narrow diameter distribution. The PAA-g-PG nanofiber membrane had a maximum boron uptake of 5.68 mmol/g and could adsorb 0.82 mmol/g boron from a 5 mg/L solution in 15 min. Both the high surface area of nanofibers and the hyperbranched structure should contribute to the high boron uptake and high adsorption rate. The nanofiber membrane obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model and the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The regeneration efficiency of the nanofiber membrane remained 93.9% after 10 cycled uses, indicating good regenerability of the membrane.

  7. Fundamental adsorption characteristics of carbonaceous adsorbents for 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in a model gas of an incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2005-08-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents such as activated carbon have been used to reduce the emission of organic pollutants from incineration plants. However, with this method, the amount and type of adsorbent to be used are based only on empirical results, which may lead to overuse of the adsorbents. The fundamental adsorption characteristics of several kinds of activated carbon, activated coke, and carbide wood were examined using 1 ,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene as an adsorbate. The removal performance and various equilibrium adsorption characteristics of these adsorbents were analyzed using laboratory-scale adsorption equipment. The equilibrium adsorption amount increased by a factor of 1.9-3.2 at 150 degrees C compared with that at 190 degrees C. The effect of the moisture content on adsorption capacity was relatively small in comparison with that of the temperature. The micropore volume for pore diameters of 2 nm or less was the most important factor governing the adsorption capacity for all adsorbents. Activated carbon showed superior adsorption ability compared to activated coke and carbide wood, although all adsorbents were sufficient for practical use.

  8. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on graphene oxides and reduced graphene oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubing; Yang, Shubin; Zhao, Guixia; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiangke

    2013-11-01

    Graphene has attracted increasing attention in multidisciplinary studies because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Herein, the adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as naphthalene (NAP), anthracene (ANT), and pyrene (PYR), on reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and graphene oxides (GOs) as a function of pH, humic acid (HA), and temperature were elucidated by means of a batch technique. For comparison, nonpolar and nonporous graphite were also employed in this study. The increasing of pH from 2 to 11 did not influence the adsorption of PAHs on rGOs, whereas the suppressed adsorption of NAP on rGOs was observed both in the presence of HA and under high-temperature conditions. Adsorption isotherms of PAHs on rGOs were in accordance with the Polanyi-Dubinin-Ashtahhov (PDA) model, providing evidence that pore filling and flat surface adsorption were involved. The saturated adsorbed capacities (in mmol g(-1)) of rGOs for PAHs calculated from the PDA model significantly decreased in the order of NAP>PYR>ANT, which was comparable to the results of theoretical calculations. The pore-filling mechanism dominates the adsorption of NAP on rGOs, but the adsorption mechanisms of ANT and PYR on rGOs are flat surface adsorption. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Adsorption of benzene and toluene from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon and its acid and heat treated forms: influence of surface chemistry on adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, N; Setyadhi, L; Wibowo, D; Setiawan, J; Ismadji, S

    2007-07-19

    The influence of surface chemistry and solution pH on the adsorption of benzene and toluene on activated carbon and its acid and heat treated forms were studied. A commercial coal-based activated carbon F-400 was chosen as carbon parent. The carbon samples were obtained by modification of F-400 by means of chemical treatment with HNO3 and thermal treatment under nitrogen flow. The treatment with nitric acid caused the introduction of a significant number of oxygenated acidic surface groups onto the carbon surface, while the heat treatment increases the basicity of carbon. The pore characteristics were not significantly changed after these modifications. The dispersive interactions are the most important factor in this adsorption process. Activated carbon with low oxygenated acidic surface groups (F-400Tox) has the best adsorption capacity.

  10. The effects of changes to estuarine hydrology on system phosphorous retention capacity: The Mondego estuary, Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebo, A. I.; Otero, M.; Coelho, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    with the highest PO4-P adsorption capacity (Q* = 657 mu g P g(-1) wwt), thus the PO4-P availability in the water column was mostly dependent on the mineralization processes, which is in agreement with previous findings; ii) After 1998, the water residence time diminished from moderate (weeks) to short (days......). This change coincided with a diversion of the water to an area with a much lower PO4-P adsorption capacity (Q* = 410 mu g P g(-1) wwt), which represented a decrease in 7.3% of the system adsorption capacity. This means that sediments were not able to adsorb much of the PO4-P and a higher equilibrium...... in the estuary, we framed the hypothesis that the significant increase of DIP could be related to different sorption capacities of the sediments. The results highlighted two scenarios: i) Before 1998 the nutrient-rich freshwater input from the upstream cultivated lands entered the system through the area...

  11. Removal of aqueous Pb(II) by adsorption on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared layered MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haipeng; Gu, Liqin; Zhang, Ling; Zheng, Shourong; Wan, Haiqin; Sun, Jingya [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Dongqiang [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Zhaoyi, E-mail: zhaoyixu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared layered MnO{sub 2} (p-MnO{sub 2}) was prepared from δ-MnO{sub 2} precursor. • p-MnO{sub 2} showed markedly higher Pb(II) adsorption capacity than pristine δ-MnO{sub 2.}. • Pillaring of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into the layer of δ-MnO{sub 2} enhanced the Pb(II) adsorption. - Abstract: In the present study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared layered MnO{sub 2} (p-MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized using δ-MnO{sub 2} as precursor and Pb(II) adsorption on p-MnO{sub 2} and δ-MnO{sub 2} was investigated. To clarify the adsorption mechanism, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also prepared as an additional sorbent. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. Results showed that in comparison with pristine δ-MnO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillaring led to increased BET surface area of 166.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and enlarged basal spacing of 0.85 nm. Accordingly, p-MnO{sub 2} exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of Pb(II) than δ-MnO{sub 2}. The adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) on δ-MnO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillar fitted well to the Freundlich model, while the adsorption isotherm of Pb(II) on p-MnO{sub 2} could be well described using a dual-adsorption model, attributed to Pb(II) adsorption on both δ-MnO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Additionally, Pb(II) adsorption on δ-MnO{sub 2} and p-MnO{sub 2} followed the pseudo second-order kinetics, and a lower adsorption rate was observed on p-MnO{sub 2} than δ-MnO{sub 2}. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity of p-MnO{sub 2} increased with solution pH and co-existing cation concentration, and the presence of dissolved humic acid (10.2 mg L{sup −1}) did not markedly impact Pb(II) adsorption. p-MnO{sub 2} also displayed good adsorption capacities for aqueous Cu(II) and Cd(II). Findings in this study indicate that p-MnO{sub 2} could be used as a highly effective

  12. ADSORPTION OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ONTO NATURAL KAOLIN FROM TATAKAN, SOUTH KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi Sunardi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of gibberellic acid (GA3 onto raw and purified kaolin from Tatakan, South Kalimantan was investigated in this study. Purification process was done by sedimentation to obtain relative pure kaolinite. Raw and purified kaolin samples were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometer (XRD. The adsorption process was carried out in a batch system and the effect of pH, contact time and GA3 concentration were experimentally studied to evaluate the adsorption capacity. The amount of GA3 adsorbed was determined by UV spectrophotometer. The result showed that the raw kaolin from South Kalimantan consist of 53.36% kaolinite, 29.47% halloysite, 4.47% chlorite, 11.32% quartz and 1.38% christobalite and the purified kaolin consist of 73.03% kaolinite, 22.6% halloysite, 0.77% chlorite, 1.37% quartz and 2.23% christobalite Adsorption experimental indicate that the optimum adsorption took place at pH 7 and contact time for 4 h. Adsorption of GA3 was described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model with adsorption capacity of 8.91 mg/g on raw kaolin and 10.38 mg/g on purified kaolin.   Keywords: kaolin, gibberellic acid, adsorption

  13. Efficient adsorption of Hg (II) ions in water by activated carbon modified with melamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hangdao; Meng, Jingling; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Removal of Hg (II) ions from industrial wastewater is important for the water treatment, and adsorption is an efficient treatment process. Activated carbon (AC) was modified with melamine, which introduced nitrogen-containing functional groups onto AC surface. Original AC and melamine modified activated carbon (ACM) were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, determination of the pH of the point of zero charge (pHpzc) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and their performance in the adsorption of Hg(II) ions was investigated. Langmuir model fitted the experimental data of equilibrium isotherms well. ACM showed the higher Hg (II) ions adsorption capacity, increasing more than more than 1.8 times compared to the original one. Moreover, ACM showed a wider pH range for the maximum adsorption than the parent AC.

  14. Adsorption Mechanisms of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid by Corn Straw and Poplar Leaf Biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Yang, Xixiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Ling; Lv, Yizhong

    2017-09-22

    Biochar is an eco-friendly, renewable, and cost-effective material that can be used as an adsorbent for the remediation of contaminated environments. In this paper, two types of biochar were prepared through corn straw and poplar leaf pyrolysis at 300 °C and 700 °C (C300, C700, P300, P700). Brunaer-Emmett-Teller N₂ surface area, scanning electron microscope, elemental analysis, and infrared spectra were used to characterize their structures. These biochars were then used as adsorbents for the adsorption of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA). The microscopic adsorption mechanisms were studied by using infrared spectra, 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and electron spin resonance spectra. The surface area and pore volume of C700 (375.89 m²/g and 0.2302 cm³/g) were the highest among all samples. Elemental analysis results showed that corn straw biochars had a higher aromaticity and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio than the poplar leaf biochars. High temperature caused the increase of carbon content and the decrease of oxygen content, which also gave the biochars a higher adsorption rate. Pseudo-second order kinetic provided a better fit with the experimental data. Adsorption isotherm experiments showed that the adsorption isotherm of C300 fit the linear model. For other biochars, the adsorption isotherms fitted Langmuir model. Biochars with high temperatures exhibited enhanced adsorption capacity compared with ones at low temperatures. The q max values of biochars to DBSA followed the order of P700 > C700 > P300. The adsorption mechanisms were complex, including partition, anion exchange, the formation of H bonds, covalent bonds, and charge transfer. The adsorption by covalent bonding might be the key mechanism determining the adsorption capacity of P700.

  15. Adsorption Mechanisms of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid by Corn Straw and Poplar Leaf Biochars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is an eco-friendly, renewable, and cost-effective material that can be used as an adsorbent for the remediation of contaminated environments. In this paper, two types of biochar were prepared through corn straw and poplar leaf pyrolysis at 300 °C and 700 °C (C300, C700, P300, P700. Brunaer–Emmett–Teller N2 surface area, scanning electron microscope, elemental analysis, and infrared spectra were used to characterize their structures. These biochars were then used as adsorbents for the adsorption of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA. The microscopic adsorption mechanisms were studied by using infrared spectra, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and electron spin resonance spectra. The surface area and pore volume of C700 (375.89 m2/g and 0.2302 cm3/g were the highest among all samples. Elemental analysis results showed that corn straw biochars had a higher aromaticity and carbon to nitrogen (C/N ratio than the poplar leaf biochars. High temperature caused the increase of carbon content and the decrease of oxygen content, which also gave the biochars a higher adsorption rate. Pseudo-second order kinetic provided a better fit with the experimental data. Adsorption isotherm experiments showed that the adsorption isotherm of C300 fit the linear model. For other biochars, the adsorption isotherms fitted Langmuir model. Biochars with high temperatures exhibited enhanced adsorption capacity compared with ones at low temperatures. The qmax values of biochars to DBSA followed the order of P700 > C700 > P300. The adsorption mechanisms were complex, including partition, anion exchange, the formation of H bonds, covalent bonds, and charge transfer. The adsorption by covalent bonding might be the key mechanism determining the adsorption capacity of P700.

  16. Functionalized mesoporous silica materials for molsidomine adsorption: Thermodynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyoshina, Nonna A.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2013-01-01

    A series of unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials was prepared. The unmodified mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol–gel synthesis in the presence of D-glucose as pore-forming agent. The functionalized by phenyl, aminopropyl and mercaptopropyl groups silica materials were prepared via grafting. The fabricated adsorbent materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, N 2 adsorption/desorption and elemental analysis methods. Then their adsorption properties for mesoionic dug molsidomine were investigated at 290–313 K and physiological pH value. Thermodynamic parameters of molsidomine adsorption on the synthesized materials have been calculated. The obtained results showed that the adsorption process of molsidomine on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. The unmodified and mercaptopropyl modified silica materials exhibit significantly higher adsorption capacities and energies for molsidomine than the aminopropyl modified sample. The effects are discussed from the viewpoint of nature of specific interactions responsible for the adsorption. - Graphical abstract: Comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of molsidomine adsorption showed that the adsorption process on mesoporous silica materials is controlled by chemical nature of surface functional groups. Molsidomine adsorption on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. Taking into account ambiguous nature of mesoionic compounds, it was found that molsidomine is rather aromatic than dipolar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials were prepared. • Molsidomine adsorption on the silica materials was studied. • Phenyl modified silica shows the highest adsorption capacity and favorable energy. • Molsidomine exhibits the lowest affinity to aminopropyl modified silica

  17. Glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101: a molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-08-05

    A molecular simulation study is reported on glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101. The F atom of MIL-101 is identified to be the most favorable adsorption site. Among three MIL-101-X (X = H, NH2 or CH3), the parent MIL-101 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity and recovery efficacy. Upon functionalization by -NH2 or -CH3 group, the steric hindrance in MIL-101 increases; consequently, the interactions between glucose and framework become less attractive, thus reducing the capacity and mobility of glucose. The presence of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate, as an impurity reduces the strength of hydrogen-bonding between glucose and MIL-101, and leads to lower capacity and mobility. Upon adding anti-solvent (ethanol or acetone), a similar adverse effect is observed. The simulation study provides useful structural and dynamic properties of glucose in MIL-101, and it suggests that MIL-101 might be a potential candidate for glucose recovery.

  18. Oxygen-induced Decrease in the Equilibrium Adsorptive Capacities of Activated Carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Ovín Ania, María Concepción; Parra Soto, José Bernardo; Pis Martínez, José Juan

    2004-01-01

    Special attention was paid in this work to the role of surface chemistry in the adsorption of phenol and salicylic acid onto activated carbons. To this end, two commercial activated carbons (granular and powdered) were oxidised using ammonium peroxodisulphate [(NH4) 2S2O8] and nitric acid in different concentrations. The structural and chemical properties of the oxidised adsorbents were characterised via nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at –196 ° C and Boehm titrations. Phenol adsorptio...

  19. Adsorptive removal of cesium using bio fuel extraction microalgal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi, E-mail: inoue@elechem.chem.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gurung, Manju [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5 (Canada); Adhikari, Birendra Babu; Alam, Shafiq [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5 (Canada); Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Kurata, Minoru [Research Laboratories, DENSO CORPORATION, Minamiyama 500-1, Komenoki, Nisshin, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Atsumi, Kinya [New Business Promotion Dept., DENSO CORPORATION, Showa-cho 1-1, Kariya, Aichi 448-8661 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A novel biosorbent was prepared from the microalgal waste after biofuel extraction. • Higher selectivity and adsorption efficiency of the adsorbent for Cs{sup +} over Na{sup +} ions from aqueous solutions. • Potential candidate and eco-friendly alternative to the commercial resins such as zeolite. - Abstract: An adsorption gel was prepared from microalgal waste after extracting biodiesel oil by a simple chemical treatment of crosslinking using concentrated sulfuric acid. The adsorbent exhibited notably high selectivity and adsorption capacity towards Cs{sup +} over Na{sup +} from aqueous solutions, within the pH range of slightly acidic to neutral. The adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of the gel for Cs{sup +} calculated from Langmuir model was found to be 1.36 mol kg{sup −1}. Trace concentration of Cs{sup +} ions present in aqueous streams was successfully separated from Na{sup +} ions using a column packed with the adsorbent at pH 6.5. The adsorption capacity of the gel towards Cs{sup +} in column operation was 0.13 mol kg{sup −1}. Although the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions were easily eluted using 1 M hydrochloric acid solution, simple incineration is proposed as an alternative for the treatment of adsorbent loaded with radioactive Cs{sup +} ions due to the combustible characteristics of this adsorbent.

  20. Investigation of mono/competitive adsorption of environmentally relevant ionized weak acids on graphite: impact of molecular properties and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed M A; McPhedran, Kerry N; Moreira, Jesús; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-12-16

    The thermodynamics of adsorption and competitive interactions of five weak acids on a graphite surface was assessed in alkaline solutions. Adsorption of the acids in mono- and multicompound solutions followed their Freundlich isotherms which suggest a diversity of graphite adsorption sites as confirmed by the presence of carboxylic and phenolic groups observed on graphite surfaces. Thermodynamic calculations assigned the formation of the negatively charged assisted hydrogen bond (-CAHB) between ionized solutes and adsorbent surface groups as the possible adsorption mechanism. However, the similar pKa values of current acids resulted in comparable free energies for -CAHB formation (ΔG(-CAHB)) being less than solvation free energies (ΔGSolv). Thus, additional ΔG is supplemented by increased hydrophobicity due to proton exchange of ionized acids with water (ΔΔG Hydrophobicity). Adsorption capacities and competition coefficients indicated that ΔΔG Hydrophobicity values depend on the neutral and ionized acid Kow. Competitive adsorption implies that multilayer adsorption may occur via hydrophobic bonding with the CH3 ends of the self-assembled layer which affects the acid adsorption capacities in mixtures as compared to monocompound solutions. The determination of adsorption mechanisms will assist in understanding of the fate and bioavailability of emerging and classical weak acids released into natural waters.

  1. Kinetic and equilibrium study of adsorption of di-azo dyes on commercial activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyali, E.A.S.A.; Abady, T.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work is concerned with studying the adsorption of a number of di-azo dyes on commercial activated carbon (CAC). The synthesized dyes vary in their structures by the central parts. which are either ortho, meta or para phenvlene diamine. This variation affects the linearity of molecules, their spatial arrangement and electron movement throughout the molecule by resonance. Factors a fleeting adsorption process, such as the efiect of contact time, initial concentration, p1-I of the adsorption medium, adsorbent dose, effect of solvent and temperature were studied. The results indicated that, the adsorption process is fast in the first 10 mm, then gradually decreased with time and approaches maximum within 70-80 min for all the studied dyes. The increase of initial concentration and temperature decreased the adsorption efficiency. The results also shows that, the adsorption is found to be more efficient at low Ph value. The increase of the adsorbent dose increases the adsorption efficiency and decreases its capacity. The variation of solvent (ethanol-water ratio) indicates that the decrease of dielectric constant lowers the adsorption efficiency. The study included application of three adsorption isotherms, Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin on the experimental data of the studied systems. The results indicated that, Freundlich isotherm fits better the adsorption data. Kinetic analysis of the adsorption data was also conducted by employing 4 kinetic models; pseudo first order and pseudo second order, Elovich and intra particle diffusion equations. The results obtained conclude that, the studied systems follow the Pseudo second order model. (author)

  2. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer's classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation

  3. Adsorption of Congo red dye onto antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Harby, Nouf F; Ibrahim, Shaimaa M A; Mohamed, Nadia A

    2017-11-01

    Adsorption capacity of three antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels for Congo red dye removal from its aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time in this work. These hydrogels were prepared by reacting chitosan with various amounts of terephthaloyl diisothiocyanate cross-linker. The effect of the hydrogel structural variations and several dye adsorption processing parameters to achieve the best adsorption capacity were investigated. The hydrogels' structural variations were obtained by varying their terephthaloyl thiourea moieties content. The processing variables included initial concentration of the dye solution, temperature and time of exposure to the dye. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the sorption processes were better fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir equation, respectively. On the basis of the Langmuir analysis Congo red dye gave the maximum sorption capacity of 44.248 mg/g. The results obtained confirmed that the sorption phenomena are most likely to be controlled by chemisorption process. The adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous according to the calculated results of adsorption thermodynamics.

  4. Inhibition delay increases neural network capacity through Stirling transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaret, Alain; King, Alastair

    2018-03-01

    Inhibitory neural networks are found to encode high volumes of information through delayed inhibition. We show that inhibition delay increases storage capacity through a Stirling transform of the minimum capacity which stabilizes locally coherent oscillations. We obtain both the exact and asymptotic formulas for the total number of dynamic attractors. Our results predict a (ln2) -N-fold increase in capacity for an N -neuron network and demonstrate high-density associative memories which host a maximum number of oscillations in analog neural devices.

  5. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol...... was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found...

  6. The adsorption of Cs+ from wastewater using lithium-modified montmorillonite caged in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Meng; Zheng, Xianming; Du, Mingyang; Wang, Yingying; Ding, Aizhong; Dou, Junfeng

    2018-07-01

    The increasing nuclear energy consumption has posed serious environmental concerns (e.g. nuclear leakage), and the removal of radionuclides such as cesium becomes an urgent issue to be solved currently. In this research, a novel non-toxic adsorbent lithium-modified montmorillonite clay encapsulated in calcium alginate microbeads (MCA/Li) was fabricated by using ion-exchange method and then used successfully in the remediation of cesium-contaminated wastewater. Analyses of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of adsorbent MCA/Li, such as internal crystal structure, constituent elements, and functional groups. The effects of concentration ratios (sodium alginate/montmorillonite), solution pH, contacting time and initial Cs + concentration on the adsorption behavior were carefully investigated via batch adsorption experiments. The adsorbent MCA/Li exhibited higher selectivity and removal efficiency towards Cs + with the maximum adsorption capacity of 100.25 mg/g. In the kinetics study, the pseudo-first-order fitted the cesium adsorption data of MCA/Li better than the pseudo-second-order. The adsorption mechanism studies revealed the process followed the Langmuir isotherm model, which suggested that Cs + adsorption onto MCA/Li is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The research findings indicated this novel adsorbent MCA/Li demonstrated great potential in radioactive wastewater treatment due to its convenience in synthesis, high adsorption capacity, and low cost. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption of malachite green onto carbon prepared from borassus bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arivoli, S; Hema, M; Prasath, P Martin Deva

    2009-01-01

    An activated carbon prepared from Borassus bark, a low-cost source, by sulphuric acid activation, was tested for its ability to remove malachite green in aqueous solution. The parameters studied included contact time, initial dye concentration, carbon dose, pH, and temperature. The adsorption followed first order rate equation and the rate was mainly controlled by intra-particle diffusion. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The adsorption capacities (Qm) obtained from the Langmuir isotherm plots were 20.70, 20.25, 19.76, and 19.34 mg/g at 30, 40, 50, and 60 degree C, respectively, at an initial pH of 6.0. The temperature variation study showed that the malachite green adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. (author)

  8. Enhanced fluoride adsorption using Al (III) modified calcium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Yulun; Hu, Chun; Kong, Chuipeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Al modified hydroxyapatite possessed a higher defluoridation capacity of 32.57 mg/g. ► Hydroxyl groups on the surface of Al-HAP was the adsorption sites for F − removal. ► Enhanced F − removal over Al-HAP was attributed to the modification with aluminum. - Abstract: Aluminum-modified hydroxyapatite (Al-HAP) was prepared and characterized using XRD and BET analyses. Al-HAP possessed higher defluoridation capacity (DC) of 32.57 mgF − /g than unmodified hydroxyapatite (HAP) which showed a DC of 16.38 mgF − /g. The effect of Al/Ca atomic ratio in Al-HAP, solution pH and co-existing anions was further studied. The results indicated that the adsorption data could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second-order model. The pH changes during the adsorption process suggested that the -OH on the surface of Al-HAP was the adsorption sites. The more adsorption sites were formed on Al modified HAP, which possessed abundant surface hydroxyl groups, resulting in higher efficiency of F − removal. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated in order to understand the nature of adsorption process. The results revealed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  9. Adsorption characteristics of benzene on biosolid adsorbent and commercial activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Choa, Ching-Guan; Hwu, Ching-Shyung; Lai, Nina

    2006-05-01

    This study selected biosolids from a petrochemical waste-water treatment plant as the raw material. The sludge was immersed in 0.5-5 M of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) solutions and pyrolyzed at different temperatures and times. Results indicated that the 1-M ZnCl2-immersed biosolids pyrolyzed at 500 degrees C for 30 min could be reused and were optimal biosolid adsorbents for benzene adsorption. Pore volume distribution analysis indicated that the mesopore contributed more than the macropore and micropore in the biosolid adsorbent. The benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was 65 and 55% of the G206 (granular-activated carbon) and BPL (coal-based activated carbon; Calgon, Carbon Corp.) activated carbons, respectively. Data from the adsorption and desorption cycles indicated that the benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was insignificantly reduced compared with the first-run capacity of the adsorbent; therefore, the biosolid adsorbent could be reused as a commercial adsorbent, although its production cost is high.

  10. Enhanced adsorption of phenol from water by a novel polar post-crosslinked polymeric adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xiaowei; Fan Yunge; Wu Guolin; Wang Chunhong; Shi Rongfu

    2009-01-01

    A novel post-crosslinked polymeric adsorbent PDM-2 was prepared by Friedel-Crafts reaction of pendant vinyl groups without external crosslinking agent. Both the specific surface area and the pore volume of starting copolymer PDM-1 increased significantly after post-crosslinking. Batch adsorption runs of phenol from aqueous solution onto PDM-1 and PDM-2 were investigated. Commercial macroporous resins XAD-4 and AB-8 were chosen as the comparison. Experimental results showed that isotherms of phenol adsorption onto these four polymeric adsorbents could be represented by Freundlich model reasonably. PDM-2 exhibited higher adsorption capacity of phenol than other three adsorbents, which resulted from synergistic effect of larger specific surface area and polar groups on the network. The adsorption process for phenol was proved to be exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb's free energy (ΔG), change in enthalpy (ΔH) and change in entropy (ΔS) were calculated. Kinetics studies indicated that phenol uptake onto PDM-1 and PDM-2 followed the pseudo-second order model and the intraparticle diffusion process was a rate-controlling step. Column adsorption runs demonstrated that nearly 100% regeneration efficiency for PDM-2 by 3 BV industrial alcohol and the adsorbate phenol can be easily recovered by further distilling. Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles indicated negligible capacity loss of PDM-2 during operation.

  11. Adsorptive desulfurization with CPO-27/MOF-74: an experimental and computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Voorde, Ben; Hezinová, Markéta; Lannoeye, Jeroen; Vandekerkhove, Annelies; Marszalek, Bartosz; Gil, Barbara; Beurroies, Isabelle; Nachtigall, Petr; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-28

    By combining experimental adsorption isotherms, microcalorimetric data, infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations the adsorption behaviour of the CPO-27/MOF-74 series (Ni, Co, Mg, Cu, and Zn) in the desulfurization of fuels is evaluated. The results show a clear influence of the metal ion on the adsorption capacity and affinity for S-heterocyclic compounds, with CPO-27(Ni) being the best performing material both in terms of capacity and affinity. The microcalorimetric data and infrared spectroscopy confirm the high affinity of CPO-27(Ni) for thiophene and similar compounds, while the computational data reveal that the origin of this outstanding adsorption performance is the strong sulfur-metal interaction.

  12. Amination of activated carbon for enhancing phenol adsorption: Effect of nitrogen-containing functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guo; Chen, Honglin; Qin, Hangdao; Feng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    To study the contribution of different nitrogen-containing functional groups to enhancement of phenol adsorption, the aminated activated carbons (AC) were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XPS, Boehm titration, and pH drift method and tested for adsorption behaviors of phenol. Adsorption isotherm fitting revealed that the Langmuir model was preferred for the aminated ACs. The adsorption capacity per unit surface area (q m /SSA BET ) was linearly correlated with the amount of pyridinic and pyrrolic N, which suggested that these two functional groups played a critical role in phenol adsorption. The enhancement of adsorption capacity was attributed to the strengthened π–π dispersion between phenol and basal plane of AC by pyridinic, pyrrolic N. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion was one of the rate-controlling steps in the adsorption process.

  13. Co adsorption in kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Eliel S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption of metal ions in clay minerals has been used as an alternative to water and effluents treatment. Kaolinite is a clay mineral that presents low specific surface area and exchange ion capacity. Nevertheless, structural modifications can be achieved by means of acid or thermal activation. In this paper, it was studied the surface area of kaolinite/bentonite, kaolinite/activated carbon mixtures, thermal activated kaolinite and thermal activated kaolinite/activated carbon mixture. The mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon was tested for pH, contact time, interfering ions and initial concentration effects in the cobalt adsorption. Results showed that the optimized parameters are pH 6 and contact time of 30 min. Chromium acted as a competitive ion, zinc does not appear to have affected adsorption while iron seems to have favored it. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that the adsorption of Co in the mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon is a spontaneous process. (author)

  14. Co adsorption in kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Eliel S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: eliel201019@hotmail.com, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption of metal ions in clay minerals has been used as an alternative to water and effluents treatment. Kaolinite is a clay mineral that presents low specific surface area and exchange ion capacity. Nevertheless, structural modifications can be achieved by means of acid or thermal activation. In this paper, it was studied the surface area of kaolinite/bentonite, kaolinite/activated carbon mixtures, thermal activated kaolinite and thermal activated kaolinite/activated carbon mixture. The mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon was tested for pH, contact time, interfering ions and initial concentration effects in the cobalt adsorption. Results showed that the optimized parameters are pH 6 and contact time of 30 min. Chromium acted as a competitive ion, zinc does not appear to have affected adsorption while iron seems to have favored it. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that the adsorption of Co in the mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon is a spontaneous process. (author)

  15. Adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons in iron polysulfide chalcogels

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-11-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization and possible applications of three new metal-chalcogenide aerogels KFe3Co3S 21, KFe3Y3S22 and KFe 3Eu3S22. Metal acetates react with the alkali metal polychalcogenides in formamide/water mixture to form extended polymeric frameworks that exhibit gelation phenomena. Amorphous aerogels obtained after supercritical CO2 drying have BET surface area from 461 to 573 m 2/g. Electron microscopy images and nitrogen adsorption measurements showed that pore sizes are found in micro (below 2 nm), meso (2-50 nm), and macro (above 50 nm) porous regions. These chalcogels possess optical bandgaps in the range of 1.55-2.70 eV. These aerogels have been studied for the adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons and gases. A much higher adsorption of toluene in comparison with cyclohexane and cyclopentane vapors have been observed. The adsorption capacities of the three volatile hydrocarbons are found in the following order: toluene > cyclohexane > cyclopentane. It has been observed that high selectivity in adsorption is feasible with high-surface-area metal chalcogenides. Similarly, almost an eight to ten times increase in adsorption selectivity towards CO2 over H2/CH4 was observed in the aerogels. Moreover, reversible ion-exchange properties for K+/Cs+ ions have also been demonstrated. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen adsorption in new carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta, L.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen physi-sorption on porous carbon materials is one among the different technologies which could be used for hydrogen storage. In addition hydrogen spillover on a carbon supports can enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacities obtained by physi-sorption. In this study two different carbon supports were synthesised: carbon gels and carbon microspheres. Carbon microspheres were doped with Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to study the hydrogen spillover on carbon support. The texture of the materials was characterised by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 0 C and their hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at -196 and 10 C with a Micromeritics Tristar 3000, and at room temperature with a high pressure gravimetric analyser. (authors)

  17. p-Chlorophenol adsorption on activated carbons with basic surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Machnikowski, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    The adsorption of p-chlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solution on activated carbons (ACs) with basic surface properties has been studied. The ACs were prepared by two methods. The first method was based on the modification of a commercial CWZ AC by high temperature treatment in an atmosphere of ammonia, nitrogen and hydrogen. The second approach comprised the carbonization followed by activation of N-enriched polymers and coal tar pitch using CO 2 and steam as activation agent. The resultant ACs were characterized in terms of porous structure, elemental composition and surface chemistry (pH PZC, acid/base titration, XPS). The adsorption of PCP was carried out from an aqueous solution in static conditions. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm was of L2 type for polymer-based ACs, whereas L3-type isotherm was observed for CWZ ACs series. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity was related to the porous structure and the amount of basic sites. A good correlation was found between the adsorption capacity and the volume of micropores with a width water molecule adsorption on the PCP uptake is discussed.

  18. Correlations and adsorption mechanisms of aromatic compounds on a high heat temperature treated bamboo biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kun; Yang, Jingjing; Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Wenhao; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrobenzenes, phenols, and anilines, on a bamboo biochar produced at 700 °C (Ba700) was investigated with the mechanism discussion by isotherm fitting using the Polanyi-theory based Dubinin–Ashtakhov (DA) model. Correlations of adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) of organic compounds with their molecular sizes and melting points, as well as correlations of adsorption affinity (E) with their solvatochromic parameters (i.e., π* and α m ), on the biochar, were developed and indicating that adsorption is captured by the pore filling mechanism and derived from the hydrophobic effects of organic compounds and the forming of π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions of organic molecules with surface sites of the biochar. The effects of organic molecular sizes and melting points on adsorption capacity are ascribed to the molecular sieving effect and the packing efficiency of the organic molecules in the biochar pores, respectively. These correlations can be used to quantitatively estimate the adsorption of organic compounds on biochars from their commonly physicochemical properties including solvatochromic parameters, melting points and molecular cross-sectional area. The prediction using these correlations is important for assessing the unknown adsorption behaviors of new organic compounds and also helpful to guide the surface modification of biochars and make targeted selection in the environmental applications of biochars as adsorbents. - Highlights: • Adsorption of organic chemicals on biochars are captured by pore filling mechanism. • Adsorption is derived from Van der Waals force, π-π EDA and H-bonding interactions. • Adsorption capacity is negatively correlated with organic molecular sizes/melting points. • Adsorption capacity is restricted by molecular sieving effect and packing efficiency. • Adsorption affinity has a LSER with chemical

  19. Surface functionalization of zirconium dioxide nano-adsorbents with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and promoted adsorption activity for bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Gen; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Xia; Liu, Yufeng; Meng, Hao; Xu, Junli; Han, Yide; Xu, Xinxin; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Surface functionalization of zirconium dioxide (ZrO_2) nano-adsorbents was carried out by using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as the modifier. The addition amount of APTES was varied to determine the optimum modification extent, and the bulk ZrO_2 microparticles were also modified by APTES for comparison. Some means, such as TEM, XRD, FT-IR, XPS and TG-DSC were used to character these ZrO_2 particles. The results showed that the APTES molecules were chemically immobilized on the surface of ZrO_2 nanoparticles via Zr−O−Si bonds, and the nano-ZrO_2 samples showed larger special surface area. In the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), nano-ZrO_2 samples exhibited enhanced adsorption activity, and APTES modified nano-ZrO_2 with proper APTES content presented the best adsorption property. Under the same adsorption conditions, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of BSA on APTES-ZrO_2-2 was almost 2.3 times as that on pristine nano-ZrO_2 and 3.0 times as on bulk ZrO_2 microparticles. The increased adsorption capacity of APTES-ZrO_2 nano-adsorbents can be attributed to the chemical interaction between amino and carboxyl groups at APTES-ZrO_2/BSA interface. The pH-dependent experiments showed that the optimum pH value for the adsorption and desorption was 5.0 and 9.0, respectively, which suggested that the adsorption and release of BSA could be controlled simply by adjusting the solution pH condition. - Highlights: • APTES chemically immobilized on ZrO_2 nanoparticles via Zr−O−Si bond. • Enhanced adsorption capacity of BSA was observed on APTES-ZrO_2. • Chemical adsorption character of BSA on APTES-ZrO_2. • Adsorption/release of BSA on APTES-ZrO_2 accomplished by adjusting pH value.

  20. Application of superparamagnetic microspheres for affinity adsorption and purification of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Guan Yueping; Yang Mingzhu

    2012-01-01

    The superparamagnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres with micron size were synthesized by the modified suspension polymerization method. Adsorption of glutathione by magnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres with IDA-copper was investigated. The effect of solution pH value, affinity adsorption and desorption of glutathione was studied. The results showed that the optimum pH value for glutathione adsorption was found at pH=3.5, the maximum capacity for glutathione of magnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres was estimated at 42.4 mg/g by fitting the experimental data to the Langmuir equation. The adsorption equilibrium of glutathione was obtained in about 10 min and the adsorbed glutathione was desorbed from the magnetic microspheres in about 30 min using NaCl buffer solution. The magnetic microspheres could be repeatedly utilized for the affinity adsorption of glutathione. - Highlights: ► The magnetic microsphere with surface IDA–Cu groups was synthesized. ► The magnetic microspheres were applied for adsorption of GSH. ► The adsorption–desorption of glutathione was investigated. ► The maximum adsorption capacity of GSH was fitted at 42.4 mg/g.

  1. Effect of temperature on equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters of Cd (II) adsorption onto turmeric powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayoom, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Batch adsorption of Cd (II) onto turmeric powder was conducted as a function of temperature. Nonlinear Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevish (D-R) and Temkin equilibrium models were employed. In addition to R 2, five different error functions were used to determine best fit equilibrium isotherm model. It was found that Freundlich isotherm model provided better fit for adsorption data at 298 and 303 K and Langmuir model was suitable for the experimental data obtained at 310 and 313 K. It was found that increase in temperature decreased maximum adsorption capacities, showing that the adsorption of Cd (II) onto turmeric powder is exothermic. Enthalpy values also confirmed the same trend. Entropy values were negative which means that randomness decreased on increasing temperature. Gibbs free energies were non spontaneous at all the temperatures studied. E values were in the range of 2.73-3.23 kJ mol/sup -1/ which indicated that adsorption mechanism is essentially physical. (author)

  2. Carbon dioxide adsorption over zeolite-like metal organic frameworks (ZMOFs) having a sod topology: Structure and ion-exchange effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Kim, J.; Yang, D.A.; Ahn, W.S. [Inha University, Inchon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    Zeolite-like metal organic framework (ZMOF) materials having rho and sod topologies were experimentally investigated as CO{sub 2} adsorbents for the first time. As-prepared ZMOF materials showed reasonably high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities (ca. 51 and 53 mg/g(adsorbent) for rho- and sod-ZMOF, respectively) and high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity (> 20) at 298 K and 1 bar. The latter showed a higher heat of adsorption (27-45 kJ/mol). These ZMOFs exhibited better CO{sub 2} adsorption than ZIF-8, a commonly investigated zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) material having the same sod topology but in a neutral framework. Partially ion-exchanged sod-ZMOFs by alkali-metals resulted in improved CO{sub 2} adsorption performance compared with the as-prepared ZMOF. The highest CO{sub 2} adsorption was obtained with K{sup +}-exchanged sod-ZMOF (61 mg/g(adsorbent)), representing a ca. 15% increase in adsorption capacity. Complete desorption of CO{sub 2} in the K{sup +}-sod-ZMOF was attained at mild conditions (40{sup o}C, He purging), and reversible and sustainable CO{sub 2} adsorption performance was demonstrated in 5 sets of recycling runs.

  3. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general...... acceptance by the patients without loss of efficacy. In addition, paracetamol adsorption studies were carried out in vitro to calculate the maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture. METHODS: In vivo: A randomized crossover study on 15 adult volunteers, using...... paracetamol 50 mg/kg as a simulated overdose. Each study day volunteers were given a standard meal 1 h before paracetamol, then 50 g activated charcoal 1 h later in either of two preparations: standard water slurry or mixed with 400 mL yogurt. Paracetamol serum concentrations were measured using HPLC...

  4. Evaluation of natural organic matter adsorption on Fe-Al binary oxide: Comparison with single metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Jang, Am

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption characteristics of three types of standard natural organic matter (NOM) on iron-aluminum (Fe-Al) binary oxide (FAO) and heated aluminum oxide (HAO) under natural surface water condition were investigated using various adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. FAO was synthesized by Fe oxide and Al oxide, mixed using the sol-gel hydrothermal method, and aluminum sulfate was used to make HAO. The amount of adsorbed NOM was increased to 79.6 mg g -1 for humic acid (HA), 101.1 mg g -1 for sodium alginate (SA) in the FAO, but the maximum adsorption capacity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) (461.3 mg g -1 ) was identified on the HAO. The adsorption of HA, BSA, and SA dramatically increased (>70%) on FAO in 5 min and HA was significantly removed (90%) among the three NOM. Mutual interaction among the adsorbed NOM (BSA) occurred on the HAO surface during adsorption due to formation of monolayer by protein molecules at neutral pH. The pseudo second order clearly represented the adsorption kinetics for both adsorbents. The equilibrium isotherm data of FAO was better exhibited by the Langmuir isotherm model than by the Freundlich isotherm, but HAO was a slightly non-linear Langmuir type. Also, the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of adsorption were determined from the thermodynamic experiments. Adsorption on FAO was spontaneous and an exothermic process. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra were used to elucidate the variation in organic components. The results obtained suggests that the significant changes in the surface property of the adsorbent (large surface area, increased crystalline intensity, and fine particle size) were effectively determined by the Fe-synthesized Al oxide mixed using the sol-gel hydrothermal method. The results also suggest that the changes enhanced the adsorption capacity, whereby three NOM were notably removed on FAO regardless of NOM characteristics (hydrophobic and hydrophilic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  5. CO{sub 2} adsorption in amine-grafted zeolite 13X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Diôgo P. [GPSA, Universidade Federal do Ceará (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Silva, Francisco W.M. da; Moura, Pedro A.S. de; Sousa, Allyson G.S.; Vieira, Rodrigo S. [GPSA, Universidade Federal do Ceará (Brazil); Rodriguez-Castellon, Enrique [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Azevedo, Diana C.S., E-mail: diana@gpsa.ufc.br [GPSA, Universidade Federal do Ceará (Brazil)