Sample records for adsorbed protein concentration

  1. Determination of adsorbed protein concentration in aluminum hydroxide suspensions by near-infrared transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Jacobsen, Susanne;


    Analysis of aluminum hydroxide based vaccines is difficult after antigen adsorption. Adsorbed protein is often assessed by measuring residual unadsorbed protein for quality control. A new method for the direct determination of adsorbed protein concentration in suspension using near-infrared (NIR...... reduce the batch influence, and the NIR predicted results show good agreement with the reference values. The NIR method might be the only direct method for the determination of adsorbed protein concentration in suspension so far. It is a nondestructive method, and it has great advantage for use...

  2. Adsorption of proteins at physiological concentrations on pegylated surfaces and the compatibilizing role of adsorbed albumin with respect to other proteins according to optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). (United States)

    Leclercq, Laurent; Modena, Enrico; Vert, Michel


    In literature, contacts between pegylated compounds and blood proteins are generally discussed in terms of excluded volume-related repulsions although adsorption and compatibility have been reported for some of these proteins occasionally. The major problem to investigate the behavior of blood in contact with pegylated surfaces is the complexity of the medium and especially the presence of albumin in large excess. In a model approach, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) was used to monitor the fate of albumin, fibrinogen, and γ-globulins at physiological concentrations in pH = 7.4 isotonic HEPES buffer after contact with SiTiO2 chips coated with diblock poly(DL-lactic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)s and triblock poly(DL-lactic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(DL-lactic acid) copolymers. Corresponding homopolymers were used as controls. The three protein systems were investigated separately, as a mixture and when added successively according to different orders of addition. OWLS gave access to the mass and the thickness of adhering protein layers that resist washing with HEPES buffer. Protein depositions were detected regardless of the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) segments on surfaces. Adsorption depended on the protein, on the surface and also on the presence of the other proteins. Unexpectedly any surface coated with a layer of adsorbed albumin prevented deposition of other proteins, including albumin itself. This outstanding finding suggests that it was the presence of albumin adsorbed on a surface, pegylated or not, that made that surface compatible with other proteins. As a consequence, dipping a device to be in contact with the blood of a patient in a solution of albumin could be a very simple means to avoid further protein deposition and maybe platelets adhesion after in vivo implantation.

  3. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent (United States)

    Aledresse, Adil

    The development of high capacity adsorbents with uniform porosity denoted 5%MP-HMS (5% Mercaptopropyl-Hexagonal Mesoporous Structure) to extract gold from noncyanide solutions is presented. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported. The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1.9 mmol/g (37% of the adsorbent weight) from gold chloride solutions (potassium tetrachloroaurate) and 2.9 mmol/g (57% of the adsorbent weight) from gold bromide solutions (potassium tetrabromoaurate) at pH = 2, is a noteworthy feature of these materials. This gold loading from [AuC4]- and [AuBr4 ]- solutions corresponds to a relative Au:S molar ratio of 2.5:1 and 3.8:1, respectively. These rates are significantly higher than the usual 1:1 (Au:S) ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material. The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as 99.9% recovery. Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics. The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium (saturation) in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride. The MP-HMS materials adsorption is significantly improved by agitation and the adsorption capacity of Au (III) ions increases with the decrease in pH. The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent (MP-HMS) maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) systems fail. The

  4. Mixed-matrix membrane adsorbers for protein separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, Maria-Elena; Borneman, Zandrie; Wessling, Matthias


    The separation of two similarly sized proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was carried out using a new type of ion-exchange mixed-matrix adsorber membranes. The adsorber membranes were prepared by incorporation of various types of Lewatit ion-exchange resins into an ethyle

  5. Structure of polymer layers adsorbed from concentrated solutions (United States)

    Auvray, Loïc; Auroy, Philippe; Cruz, Margarida


    We study by neutron scattering the interfacial strucuture of poly(dimethylsiloxane) layers irreversibly adsorbed from concentrated solutions or melts. We first measure the thickness h of the layers swollen by a good solvent as a function of the chain polymerisation index N and of the polymer volume fraction in the initial solution Φ. The relation h ≈ N^{0.8}Φ^{0.3}, recently predicted from an analogy between irreversibly adsorbed layers and grafted polymer brushes, describes well our results. We can therefore deduce that there is at least one large loop of about N monomers per adsorbed chain. We also study the shape of the polymer concentration profile in the layers by measuring on two samples the polymer-solid partial structure factor, that is proportional to the Fourier transform of the profile. The model of pseudobrushes predicts a concentration decay varying with the distance of the wall z as z^{-2/5}. This power law profile accounts quantitatively for the angular variation of the polymer-solid cross structure factor but it is difficult to distinguish it without anbiguity from less singular profiles. It implies that the adsorption of PDMS onto silica is sufficiently strong and fast to quench completely the loop distribution in the initial layer. Nous étudions par diffusion de neutrons la structure interfaciale de couches de poly(diméthylsiloxane) irréversiblement adsorbées sur de la silice à partir de solutions semidiluées et de fondus. Nous mesurons d'abord l'épaisseur h des couches gonflées par un bon solvant en fonction du degré de polymérisation des chaînes N et de la fraction volumique dans la solution initiale Φ. La relation h≈ N^{0.8}Φ^{0.3} récemment prédite à partir de l'analogie entre couches irréversiblement adsorbées et brosses de polymères greffés décrit bien nos résultats. Nous en déduisons qu'il existe au moins une grande boucle d'environ N monomères par chaîne adsorbée. Nous étudions aussi la forme du profil de

  6. Heparin interaction with protein-adsorbed surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterton, Lynn C.; Andrade, Joseph D.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan


    Albumin and fibrinogen show no binding affinity to varied molecular weights of heparin at physiological pH. Human plasma fibronectin was shown to bind heparins in both the solution and adsorbed states. Fibronectin was shown to have six active binding sites for heparins which may be sterically blocke

  7. Activity of lactoperoxidase when adsorbed on protein layers. (United States)

    Haberska, Karolina; Svensson, Olof; Shleev, Sergey; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas


    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an enzyme, which is used as an antimicrobial agent in a number of applications, e.g., food technology. In the majority of applications LPO is added to a homogeneous product phase or immobilised on product surface. In the latter case, however, the measurements of LPO activity are seldom reported. In this paper we have assessed LPO enzymatic activity on bare and protein modified gold surfaces by means of electrochemistry. It was found that LPO rapidly adsorbs to bare gold surfaces resulting in an amount of LPO adsorbed of 2.9mg/m(2). A lower amount of adsorbed LPO is obtained if the gold surface is exposed to bovine serum albumin, bovine or human mucin prior to LPO adsorption. The enzymatic activity of the adsorbed enzyme is in general preserved at the experimental conditions and varies only moderately when comparing bare gold and gold surface pretreated with the selected proteins. The measurement of LPO specific activity, however, indicate that it is about 1.5 times higher if LPO is adsorbed on gold surfaces containing a small amount of preadsorbed mucin in comparison to the LPO directly adsorbed on bare gold.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjian; BAIShu; 等


    In this article,a spherical chitosan gel crosslinked by epichlorohydrin was prepared.It was then loaded with copper ions to produce a metal chelate affinity adsorbent for protein.The uptake of bovine serum albumin(BSA)by the affinity adsorbent was investigated.and the adsorption capacity for BSA as high as 40mg/g-wet beads was observed.The adsorption equilibrium data was well correlated by the Langmuir equation.The adsorption was considerably affected by pH.In additio.The amount of BSA adsorbed onto the beads decreased with the increasing of aqueous phase ionic strength,so adsorbed BAS can be desorbed by adjusting pH orionic strength of the solution.

  9. Pattern Recognition of Adsorbing HP Lattice Proteins (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew S.; Shi, Guangjie; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.; Schmid, Friederike


    Protein adsorption is relevant in fields ranging from medicine to industry, and the qualitative behavior exhibited by course-grained models could shed insight for further research in such fields. Our study on the selective adsorption of lattice proteins utilizes the Wang-Landau algorithm to simulate the Hydrophobic-Polar (H-P) model with an efficient set of Monte Carlo moves. Each substrate is modeled as a square pattern of 9 lattice sites which attract either H or P monomers, and are located on an otherwise neutral surface. The fully enumerated set of 102 unique surfaces is simulated with each protein sequence. A collection of 27-monomer sequences is used- each of which is non-degenerate and protein-like. Thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat and free energy are calculated from the density of states, and are used to investigate the adsorption of lattice proteins on patterned substrates. Research supported by NSF.

  10. Activity of lactoperoxidase when adsorbed on protein layers


    Haberska, Karolina; Svensson, Olof; Shleev, Sergey; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas


    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an enzyme, which is used as an antimicrobial agent in a number of applications, e.g., food technology. In the majority of applications LPO is added to a homogeneous product phase or immobilised on product surface. In the latter case, however, the measurements of LPO activity are seldom reported. In this paperwe have assessed LPO enzymatic activity on bare and protein modified gold surfaces by means of electrochemistry. It was found that LPO rapidly adsorbs to bare gol...

  11. Structures of multidomain proteins adsorbed on hydrophobic interaction chromatography surfaces. (United States)

    Gospodarek, Adrian M; Sun, Weitong; O'Connell, John P; Fernandez, Erik J


    In hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), interactions between buried hydrophobic residues and HIC surfaces can cause conformational changes that interfere with separations and cause yield losses. This paper extends our previous investigations of protein unfolding in HIC chromatography by identifying protein structures on HIC surfaces under denaturing conditions and relating them to solution behavior. The thermal unfolding of three model multidomain proteins on three HIC surfaces of differing hydrophobicities was investigated with hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS). The data were analyzed to obtain unfolding rates and Gibbs free energies for unfolding of adsorbed proteins. The melting temperatures of the proteins were lowered, but by different amounts, on the different surfaces. In addition, the structures of the proteins on the chromatographic surfaces were similar to the partially unfolded structures produced in the absence of a surface by temperature as well as by chemical denaturants. Finally, it was found that patterns of residue exposure to solvent on different surfaces at different temperatures can be largely superimposed. These findings suggest that protein unfolding on various HIC surfaces might be quantitatively related to protein unfolding in solution and that details of surface unfolding behavior might be generalized.

  12. Compression/expansion rheology of oil/water interfaces with adsorbed proteins. Comparison with the air/water surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, J.; Lyklema, J.; Lucassen-Reynders, E.H.


    Dynamic interfacial tensions and surface dilational moduli were measured for four proteins at three fluid interfaces, as a function of time and concentration. The proteins-ß-casein, ß-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, and ovalbumin - were adsorbed from aqueous solution against air, n-tetradecane,

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Adsorbate Concentrations by Diffuse Reflectance FT-IR


    Phanichphant, S; Meunier, Frederic; Sirita, S.


    Fully quantitative analyses of DRIFTS data are required when the surface concentrations and the specific rate constants of reaction (or desorption) of adsorbates are needed to validate microkinetic models. The relationship between the surface coverage of adsorbates and various functions derived from the signal collected by DRIFTS is discussed here. The Kubelka-Munk and pseudoabsorbance (noted here as absorbance, for the sake of brevity) transformations were considered, since those are the mos...

  14. Characterization of cross-linked cellulosic ion-exchange adsorbents: 2. Protein sorption and transport. (United States)

    Angelo, James M; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene; Lenhoff, Abraham M


    Adsorption behavior in the HyperCel family of cellulosic ion-exchange materials (Pall Corporation) was characterized using methods to assess, quantitatively and qualitatively, the dynamics of protein uptake as well as static adsorption as a function of ionic strength and protein concentration using several model proteins. The three exchangers studied all presented relatively high adsorptive capacities under low ionic strength conditions, comparable to commercially available resins containing polymer functionalization aimed at increasing that particular characteristic. The strong cation- and anion-exchange moieties showed higher sensitivity to increasing salt concentrations, but protein affinity on the salt-tolerant STAR AX HyperCel exchanger remained strong at ionic strengths normally used in downstream processing to elute material fully during ion-exchange chromatography. Very high uptake rates were observed in both batch kinetics experiments and time-series confocal laser scanning microscopy, suggesting low intraparticle transport resistances relative to external film resistance, even at higher bulk protein concentrations where the opposite is typically observed. Electron microscopy imaging of protein adsorbed phases provided additional insight into particle structure that could not be resolved in previous work on the bare resins.

  15. Protein immobilization in hollow nanostructures and investigation of the adsorbed protein behavior. (United States)

    Qian, Xi; Levenstein, Alex; Gagner, Jennifer E; Dordick, Jonathan S; Siegel, Richard W


    Understanding nanomaterial-biomolecule interactions is critical to develop broad applications in sensors, devices, and therapeutics. During the past decade, in-depth studies have been performed on the effect of nanoscale surface topography on adsorbed protein structure and function. However, a fundamental understanding of nanobio interactions at concave surfaces is limited; the greatest challenge is to create a nanostructure that allows such interactions to occur and to be characterized. We have synthesized hollow nanocages (AuNG) through careful control of morphology and surface chemistry. Lysozyme was used as a model to probe interactions between a protein and these nanostructures. Solid Au nanoparticles with a similar morphology and surface chemistry were also used as a reference. Through a series of quantitative analyses of protein adsorption profiles and enzymatic activity assays of both nanobioconjugates, we discovered that a significant amount of protein could be delivered into the core of AuNG, while maintaining a substantial fraction of native activity.

  16. Changes in solvent exposure reveal the kinetics and equilibria of adsorbed protein unfolding in hydrophobic interaction chromatography. (United States)

    Deitcher, R W; O'Connell, J P; Fernandez, E J


    Hydrogen exchange has been a useful technique for studying the conformational state of proteins, both in bulk solution and at interfaces, for several decades. Here, we propose a physically based model of simultaneous protein adsorption, unfolding and hydrogen exchange in HIC. An accompanying experimental protocol, utilizing mass spectrometry to quantify deuterium labeling, enables the determination of both the equilibrium partitioning between conformational states and pseudo-first order rate constants for folding and unfolding of adsorbed protein. Unlike chromatographic techniques, which rely on the interpretation of bulk phase behavior, this methodology utilizes the measurement of a molecular property (solvent exposure) and provides insight into the nature of the unfolded conformation in the adsorbed phase. Three model proteins of varying conformational stability, alpha-chymotrypsinogen A, beta-lactoglobulin B, and holo alpha-lactalbumin, are studied on Sepharose HIC resins possessing assorted ligand chemistries and densities. alpha-Chymotrypsinogen, conformationally the most stable protein in the set, exhibits no change in solvent exposure at all the conditions studied, even when isocratic pulse-response chromatography suggests nearly irreversible adsorption. Apparent unfolding energies of adsorbed beta-lactoglobulin B and holo alpha-lactalbumin range from -4 to 3 kJ/mol and are dependent on resin properties and salt concentration. Characteristic pseudo-first order rate constants for surface-induced unfolding are 0.2-0.9 min(-1). While poor protein recovery in HIC is often associated with irreversible unfolding, this study documents that non-eluting behavior can occur when surface unfolding is reversible or does not occur at all. Further, this hydrogen exchange technique can be used to assess the conformation of adsorbed protein under conditions where the protein is non-eluting and chromatographic methods are not applicable.

  17. Effect of NaCl concentrations and pH on amount of protein adsorbed by fat particles and its emulsion gel property%NaCl浓度和pH对肉糜中脂肪微粒蛋白吸收量及凝胶特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪张贵; 闫利萍; 彭增起; 周光宏


    The effects of NaCI concentrations(0.2mol/L and 0.6mol/L)and pH(6.0 and 6,5) on amount of protein adsorbed by fat particles,amount of protein per unit surface,emulsion stability,gel hardness and microstructure of meat emulsion were investigated. The results showed that higher concentration (0.6mol/L) NaCl solution could significantly increase the total amount of protein adsorbed,amount of protein per unit surface,emulsion stability,emulsion gel hardness and microstructure of meat emulsion (P〈0.05). At the same concentration (0.2mol/L or 0.6mol/L) NaCI solution,pH (pH6.0 or 6.5) had no significant effect on the above-mentioned indexes (P〉0.05). Therefore,meat proteins and fat were chopped to form a good meat batter in the 0.6 mol/L NaCl(pH 6.0 and 6.5) solution in this experiment.%研究了不同浓度(0.2mol/L和0.6mol/L)NaCl和pH(6.0和6.5)对肉糜中脂肪微粒表面蛋白吸收量、乳化稳定性、凝胶硬度和微观结构的影响。研究结果表明,高浓度(0.6mol/L)NaCl能够显著提高肉糜中脂肪微粒表面蛋白吸收量和单位界面膜蛋白吸收量,有效地改善肉糜乳化稳定性、凝胶硬度和微观结构等指标(P〈0.05)。但在相同浓度(0.2mol/L和0.6mol/L)NaCl条件下,较大pH(6.0和6.5)对脂肪微粒表面蛋白吸收量、单位界面膜蛋白吸收量、乳化稳定性、凝胶硬度和微观结构等指标无作用效果(P〉0.05).因此.本实验认为0.6mol/L NaCl(pH6.0和6.5)的提取条件下能够充分剪切肌肉蛋白和脂肪,肉糜乳化性能好.

  18. Wang-Landau Simulations of Adsorbed and Confined Lattice Proteins (United States)

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P.; Wüst, Thomas


    The hydrophobic-polar (HP) model has emerged as one of the standard approaches for simulating protein folding. In this work, we used this model together with Wang-Landau (WL) sampling and appropriate Monte Carlo trial moves to determine the density of states and thermodynamics for two cases: Protein adsorption and protein confinement, in the vicinity of attractive surfaces. The influence on the adsorption behavior of surface attractive strength in the adsorption case and volumetric spaces in the confinement case will be discussed.

  19. Mixed matrix membrane adsorbers for protein and blood purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Biotechnology and bio-manufacturing markets are continuously growing, generating new sources of many valuable healthcare and life science products including therapeutic proteins and polysaccharides, monoclonals, vaccines, diagnostics, pharmaceutical chemicals and enzymes. These bioproducts have to b

  20. Low concentration CO2 capture using physical adsorbents: Are Metal-Organic Frameworks becoming the new benchmark materials?

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef


    The capture and separation of traces and concentrated CO2 from important commodities such as CH4, H2, O2 and N2, is becoming important in many areas related to energy security and environmental sustainability. While trace CO2 concentration removal applications have been modestly studied for decades, the spike in interest in the capture of concentrated CO2 was motivated by the need for new energy vectors to replace highly concentrated carbon fuels and the necessity to reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. CO2 capture from various gas streams, at different concentrations, using physical adsorbents, such as activated carbon, zeolites, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is attractive. However, the adsorbents must be designed with consideration of many parameters including CO2 affinity, kinetics, energetics, stability, capture mechanism, in addition to cost. Here, we perform a systematic analysis regarding the key technical parameters that are required for the best CO2 capture performance using physical adsorbents. We also experimentally demonstrate a suitable material model of Metal Organic Framework as advanced adsorbents with unprecedented properties for CO2 capture in a wide range of CO2 concentration. These recently developed class of MOF adsorbents represent a breakthrough finding in the removal of traces CO2 using physical adsorption. This platform shows colossal tuning potential for more efficient separation agents.

  1. Influence of gold nanoparticle size on the orientation and activity of adsorbed proteins (United States)

    Kaur, Kanwarjeet; Forrest, James


    We used UV-visible extinction spectroscopy to study the orientation and activity of rabbit immunoglobulin G and Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus adsorbed onto gold nanoparticles of various sizes (10-60nm). There is a shift in the localised surface plasmon resonance peak due to the interaction of proteins with the nanoparticles. The proteins adopt different orientations on smaller spheres as compared to larger spheres. IgG adopts end-on orientation on bigger spheres with the Fc domain directed towards the spheres. It displays no activity towards Protein A. This study shows that the curvature of nanoparticles strongly influences the orientation of adsorbed proteins. This could be useful in the designing of colloidal drug carriers.

  2. Mutual information theory for biomedical applications: Estimation of three protein-adsorbed dialysis membranes (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoka; Takesawa, Azusa; Yamashita, Akihiro C.; Kudo, Masahiro


    Protein-adsorbed dialysis membranes are evaluated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) chemical imaging technique. Protein adsorption causing permeability change is one of big issues in the development of dialysis membranes. Bovine serum albumin adsorption onto three kinds of dialysis membranes has been evaluated with TOF-SIMS. In the present study three kinds of proteins, bovine serum albumin, α-chymotripsinogen A, and cytochrome C adsorbed onto hollow-fiber dialysis membranes, were measured by means of TOF-SIMS and then TOF-SIMS spectra were analyzed using mutual information. Then specific peaks of fragment ions related to α-chymotripsinogen A and bovine serum albumin were found, respectively. In this condition, however, specific peaks to cytochrome C were not able to find compared with other samples. Finally, chemical images of α-chymotripsinogen A and bovine serum albumin, respectively, adsorbed onto the membranes with co-existing proteins were obtained. The results of TOF-SIMS images of the proteins on the membranes show different tendency of adsorption depending on co-existing proteins. Further study is needed to study more detailed protein adsorption onto the membranes with co-existing proteins.

  3. Static and dynamic properties of proteins adsorbed at liquid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, J.


    The aim of the investigation described in this thesis was to increase the level of understanding of the role that proteins play in the preparation and subsequent stabilisation of foams and emulsions. One aspect of this role is facilitation of break-up, due to surface tension lowering. A second aspec

  4. Adsorbed Proteins Influence the Biological Activity and Molecular Targeting of Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Debamitra; Sundaram, S. K.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Riley, Brian J.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Kaysen, George A.; Moudgil, Brij M.; Weber, Thomas J.


    The possible combination of unique physicochemical properties operating at unique sites of action within cells and tissues has led to considerable uncertainty surrounding nanomaterial toxic potential. Here we have investigated the relative importance of proteins adsorbed onto nanomaterial surfaces in guiding uptake and toxicity to determine whether a priori identification of adsorbed proteins will contribute to nanomaterial toxicity assessment. Albumin was identified as the major protein adsorbed onto single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) following incubation with fetal bovine or human serum/plasma, but not when plasma from the Nagase Analbuminemic Rat (NAR) was used, and precoating SWCNTs with a non-ionic surfactant (Pluronic F127) inhibited albumin adsorption. Damaged or structurally altered albumin is rapidly cleared by scavenger receptors. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage-like model, we observed that SWCNTs inhibited the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 ng/ml, 6 hr) and this anti-inflammatory response was inhibited by fucoidan (scavenger receptor antagonist) and by precoating SWCNTs with Pluronic F127. Fucoidan also reduced the uptake of fluorescent SWCNTs (Alexa647) in RAW 264.7 cells. Albumin-coated SWCNTs reduced LPS-mediated Cox-2 induction. SWCNTs did not appear to reduce binding of a fluorescent LPS (Alexa488) to RAW 264.7 cells. The profile of proteins adsorbed onto amorphous silica (50 – 1000 nm) was qualitatively different, relative to SWCNTs, and coating amorphous silica with Pluronic F127 dramatically reduced protein binding and toxicity. Collectively, these observations are consistent with an important role for adsorbed proteins in guiding nanomaterial disposition and toxicity.

  5. Ni2+-PAA Adsorbent for Purifying 6His-OmpTS Recombinant Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Functional Ni2+-polyacrylic acid (Ni2+-PAA) adsorbent has been prepared for metal chelate affinity chromatography. DNA elements coding for adjacent histidines were fused to the Aeromonas hydrophila ompTS gene. Subsequent expression in E. coli resulted in the production of hybrid protein 6His-OmpTS that could be purified by Ni2+-PAA affinity chromatography.

  6. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet-scCO2: Dependence on Adsorbed Water Concentration (United States)

    Loring, J.; Benezeth, P.; Qafoku, O.; Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Bonneville, A.; McGrail, P.; Felmy, A.; Rosso, K.


    Capturing and storing CO2 in basaltic formations is one of the most promising options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These geologic reservoirs have high reactive potential for CO2-mineral trapping due to an abundance of divalent-cation containing silicates, such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4). Recent studies have shown that carbonation of these silicates under wet scCO2 conditions, e. g. encountered near a CO2 injection well, proceeds along a different pathway and is more effective than in CO2-saturated aqueous fluids. The presence of an adsorbed water film on the forsterite surface seems to be key to reactivity towards carbonation. In this study, we employed in situ high pressure IR spectroscopy to investigate the dependence of adsorbed water film thickness on forsterite carbonation chemistry. Post reaction ex situ SEM, TEM, TGA, XRD, and NMR measurements will also be discussed. Several IR titrations were performed of forsterite with water at 50 °C and 90 bar scCO2. Aliquots of water were titrated at 4-hour reaction-time increments. Once a desired total water concentration was reached, data were collected for about another 30 hours. One titration involved 10 additions, which corresponds to 6.8 monolayers of adsorbed water. Clearly, a carbonate was precipitating, and its spectral signature matched magnesite. Another titration involved 8 aliquots, or up to 4.4 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 4.4 monolayers showed an increase and then a plateau. We are currently unsure of the identity of the carbonate that precipitated, but it could be an amorphous anhydrous phase or magnesite crystals with dimensions of only several nanometers. A third titration only involved 3 additions, or up to 1.6 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 1.6 monolayers

  7. Role of structure and glycosylation of adsorbed protein films in biolubrication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak H Veeregowda

    Full Text Available Water forms the basis of lubrication in the human body, but is unable to provide sufficient lubrication without additives. The importance of biolubrication becomes evident upon aging and disease, particularly under conditions that affect secretion or composition of body fluids. Insufficient biolubrication, may impede proper speech, mastication and swallowing, underlie excessive friction and wear of articulating cartilage surfaces in hips and knees, cause vaginal dryness, and result in dry, irritated eyes. Currently, our understanding of biolubrication is insufficient to design effective therapeutics to restore biolubrication. Aim of this study was to establish the role of structure and glycosylation of adsorbed protein films in biolubrication, taking the oral cavity as a model and making use of its dynamics with daily perturbations due to different glandular secretions, speech, drinking and eating, and tooth brushing. Using different surface analytical techniques (a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, colloidal probe atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, we demonstrated that adsorbed salivary conditioning films in vitro are more lubricious when their hydrophilicity and degree of glycosylation increase, meanwhile decreasing their structural softness. High-molecular-weight, glycosylated proteins adsorbing in loops and trains, are described as necessary scaffolds impeding removal of water during loading of articulating surfaces. Comparing in vitro and in vivo water contact angles measured intra-orally, these findings were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Accordingly, lubricating properties of teeth, as perceived in 20 volunteers comprising of equal numbers of male and female subjects, could be related with structural softness and glycosylation of adsorbed protein films on tooth surfaces. Summarizing, biolubrication is due to a combination of structure and glycosylation

  8. Affinity binding of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen. (United States)

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Baillie, Les W J; Zheng, Yishan; Lis, Elzbieta K; Savina, Irina N; Howell, Carol A; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Sandeman, Susan R


    Polymeric cryogels are efficient carriers for the immobilization of biomolecules because of their unique macroporous structure, permeability, mechanical stability and different surface chemical functionalities. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the potential use of macroporous monolithic cryogels for biotoxin removal using anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), the central cell-binding component of the anthrax exotoxins, and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibodies. The affinity ligand (protein A) was chemically coupled to the reactive hydroxyl and epoxy-derivatized monolithic cryogels and the binding efficiencies of protein A, monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel column were determined. Our results show differences in the binding capacity of protein A as well as monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel adsorbents caused by ligand concentrations, physical properties and morphology of surface matrices. The cytotoxicity potential of the cryogels was determined by an in vitro viability assay using V79 lung fibroblast as a model cell and the results reveal that the cryogels are non-cytotoxic. Finally, the adsorptive capacities of PA from phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were evaluated towards a non-glycosylated, plant-derived human monoclonal antibody (PANG) and a glycosylated human monoclonal antibody (Valortim(®)), both of which were covalently attached via protein A immobilization. Optimal binding capacities of 108 and 117 mg/g of antibody to the adsorbent were observed for PANG attached poly(acrylamide-allyl glycidyl ether) [poly(AAm-AGE)] and Valortim(®) attached poly(AAm-AGE) cryogels, respectively, This indicated that glycosylation status of Valortim(®) antibody could significantly increase (8%) its binding capacity relative to the PANG antibody on poly(AAm-AGE)-protien-A column (p PBS through PANG or Valortim bound poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel were significantly (p PBS over 60 min of circulation. The high adsorption capacity towards anthrax toxin PA of the

  9. Development of low-concentration mercury adsorbents from biohydrogen-generation agricultural residues using sulfur impregnation. (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Chengi; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Kuo, Tien-Ho; Chiang, Cheng-Sheng


    Mercury adsorbents were derived from waste biohydrogen-generation barley husk and rice husk via carbonization, steam activation, and sulfur impregnation at 300-650°C. The samples derived from agricultural residues showed a greater Hg(0) adsorption than that of a coal-based activated carbon, confirming the feasibility of resource recovery of these agricultural residuals for low-concentration gaseous Hg adsorption. Sulfur impregnation reduced both the surface area and pore volume of the samples, with lower temperature causing a greater decrease. Elevating the impregnation temperature increased the organic sulfur contents, suggesting that in addition to elemental sulfur, organic sulfur may also act as active sites to improve Hg(0) adsorption. Oxygen and sulfur functional groups accompanying the microporous structures may account for the enhancing Hg(0) adsorption of the raw and sulfur-treated samples, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model can best describe the chemisorption characteristics, implying that Hg(0) adsorption on the samples was in a bimolecular reaction form.

  10. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.;


    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  11. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  12. Adsorbed plasma proteins modulate the effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on neutrophils in blood. (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Barinov, Nikolay A; Kostevich, Valeria A; Smolina, Natalia V; Klinov, Dmitry V; Sokolov, Alexey V


    Proteins adsorbed on a surface may affect the interaction of this surface with cells. Here, we studied the binding of human serum albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) to PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) and evaluated the impact of PEG-SWCNT treated by these proteins on neutrophils in whole blood samples. Measurements of adsorption parameters revealed tight binding of proteins to PEG-SWCNTs. AFM was employed to directly observe protein binding to sidewalls of PEG-SWCNTs. Fluorescein-labeled IgG was used to ascertain the stability of PEG-SWCNT-IgG complexes in plasma. In blood samples, all plasma proteins mitigated damage of neutrophils observed just after blood exposure to PEG-SWCNTs, while only treatment of PEG-SWCNTs with IgG resulted in dose- and time-dependent enhancement of CNT-induced neutrophil activation and in potentiation of oxidative stress. Our study demonstrates the ability of adsorbed plasma proteins to influence neutrophil response caused by PEG-SWCNTs in whole blood.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of proteins adsorbed on hydrophilized polylactide-co-glycolide microfibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasita R


    Full Text Available Rajesh Vasita, Dhirendra S KattiDepartment of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaBackground: Hydrophobic biopolymers such as polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA, 85:15 have been extensively explored as scaffolding materials for tissue engineering applications. More recently, electrospun microfiber-based and nanofiber-based scaffolds of PLGA have received increased attention because they act as physical mimics of the fibrillar extracellular matrix. However, the hydrophobicity of the PLGA microfiber surface can limit its use in biomedical applications. Therefore, in a previous study, we fabricated Pluronic® F-108 (PF-108-blended PLGA microfibrous scaffolds that alleviated the hydrophobicity associated with PLGA by enriching the surface of microfibers with the ethylene oxide units present in PF-108.Methods: In this study, we report the influence of the extent of surface enrichment of PLGA microfibers on their interaction with two model proteins, ie, bovine serum albumin (BSA and lysozyme. BSA and lysozyme were adsorbed onto PLGA microfiber meshes (unmodified and modified and studied for the amount, secondary structure conformation, and bioactivity of released protein.Results: Irrespective of the type of protein, PF-108-blended PLGA microfibers showed significantly greater protein adsorption and release than the unblended PLGA samples. However, in comparison with BSA, lysozyme showed a 7–9-fold increase in release. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies for secondary structure determination demonstrated that irrespective of type of microfiber surface (unblended or blended, adsorbed BSA and lysozyme did not show any significant change in secondary structure (α-helical content as compared with BSA and/or lysozyme in the free powder state. Further, the bioactivity assay of lysozyme released from blended PLGA microfiber meshes demonstrated 80%–85% bioactivity, indicating that

  14. Determinants of protein elution rates from preparative ion-exchange adsorbents. (United States)

    Angelo, James M; Lenhoff, Abraham M


    The rate processes involved in elution in preparative chromatography can affect both peak resolution and hence selectivity as well as practical factors such as facility fit. These processes depend on the physical structure of the adsorbent particles, the amount of bound solute, the solution conditions for operation or some combination of these factors. Ion-exchange adsorbents modified with covalently attached or grafted polymer layers have become widely used in preparative chromatography. Their often easily accessible microstructures offer substantial binding capacities for biomolecules, but elution has sometimes been observed to be undesirably slow. In order to determine which physicochemical phenomena control elution behavior, commercially available cellulosic, dextran-grafted and unmodified agarose materials were characterized here by their elution profiles at various conditions, including different degrees of loading. Elution data were analyzed under the assumption of purely diffusion-limited control, including the role of pore structure properties such as porosity and tortuosity. In general, effective elution rates decreased with the reduction of accessible pore volume, but differences among different proteins indicated the roles of additional factors. Additional measurements and analysis, including the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy to observe elution within single chromatographic particles, indicated the importance of protein association within the particle during elution. The use of protein stabilizing agents was explored in systems presenting atypical elution behavior, and l-arginine and disaccharide excipients were shown to alleviate the effects for one protein, lysozyme, in the presence of sodium chloride. Incorporation of these excipients into eluent buffer gave rise to faster elution and significantly lower pool volumes in elution from polymer-modified adsorbents.

  15. Adsorption isotherm studies of Cu (II) and Co (II) in high concentration aqueous solutions on photocatalytically modified diatomaceous ceramic adsorbents (United States)

    Ajenifuja, E.; Ajao, J. A.; Ajayi, E. O. B.


    Photocatalytically modified ceramic adsorbents were synthesized for the removal of high concentration Cu (II) and Co (II) ions from their aqueous solutions. The raw material, diatomaceous aluminosilicate mineral was modified using silver and anatase titanium oxide nanoparticles. Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on the targeted metal ions and the results were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/l) and the characteristic parameters for each adsorption isotherm were determined. As-received raw materials do not exhibit any sorption capacity for high concentration Cu2+ and Co2+ adsorbates. However, the adsorption isotherms for modified diatomaceous ceramic adsorbents could be fitted well by the Langmuir model for both Cu2+ and Co2+ with correlation coefficient (R) of up to 0.99953. The highest and lowest monolayer coverage (q max) were 121.803 and 31.289 mg/g for Cu2+ and Co2+, respectively. The separation factor (R L) in the experiment was less than one (capacity (K f) and intensity (n) constants obtained from Freundlich model are 38.832 (Cu2+ on ZEO-T) and 5.801 (Co2+ on STOX-Z).

  16. Application of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents for removal of small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg


    Pollution of natural bodies of water (rivers, lakes, ground water, etc) is unfortunately very common, both from natural sources like volcanic activity; and, even more importantly, from human activity, including disposal of industrial and municipal waste, mining, etc. Many toxic substances are harmful for humans and other organisms even in very low concentrations (e.g., less than 1 µg/L of cadmium is harmful, for Hg it is 0.5 µg/L, for phenol - 1 µg/L), and can remain in water for decades or longer. Cleaning large volumes of water even from low concentrations of pollutants is a challenging technological task and is very expensive. We propose to use suspension of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents, for example, nanostructured ferro-carbon particles, produced by plasmachemical technique, for removing small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water. The suspension is introduced into the water. Due to their small sizes and densities similar to water (we measured the density of FC-4 ferro-carbon to be about 1 g/cm3; presumably due to porosity) the particles do not sediment for a long time (hours, days or longer), move due to Brownian motion and adsorb a variety of substances from the water. The particle surface can be modified to provide selectivity of the adsorption. Sorption capacities of ferro-carbon adsorbents is in dozens of percent. Therefore, to collect 1 kg of a pollutant, 2 to 20 kg of the adsorbents is required. Then the particles with the adsorbed contaminant can be collected (e.g., downstream of the river) using a variety of magnetic traps. The traps can consist of ferromagnetic wires and permanent magnets, a variety of simple and inexpensive designs are available. As a model system, the kinetics of adsorption of a highly diluted (0.002 mg/ml) aqueous solution of a low molecular weight compound (toluidine blue) by a small concentration of a ferro-carbon powder (FC-4) was studied by spectrophotometry. Before each measurement, the particles

  17. Shotgun proteomic analytical approach for studying proteins adsorbed onto liposome surface

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura


    The knowledge about the interaction between plasma proteins and nanocarriers employed for in vivo delivery is fundamental to understand their biodistribution. Protein adsorption onto nanoparticle surface (protein corona) is strongly affected by vector surface characteristics. In general, the primary interaction is thought to be electrostatic, thus surface charge of carrier is supposed to play a central role in protein adsorption. Because protein corona composition can be critical in modifying the interactive surface that is recognized by cells, characterizing its formation onto lipid particles may serve as a fundamental predictive model for the in vivo efficiency of a lipidic vector. In the present work, protein coronas adsorbed onto three differently charged cationic liposome formulations were compared by a shotgun proteomic approach based on nano-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. About 130 proteins were identified in each corona, with only small differences between the different cationic liposome formulations. However, this study could be useful for the future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins into body fluids. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Targeted Mutagenesis and Combinatorial Library Screening Enables Control of Protein Orientation on Surfaces and Increased Activity of Adsorbed Proteins. (United States)

    Cruz-Teran, Carlos A; Carlin, Kevin B; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan; Rao, Balaji M


    While nonspecific adsorption is widely used for immobilizing proteins on solid surfaces, the random nature of protein adsorption may reduce the activity of immobilized proteins due to occlusion of the active site. We hypothesized that the orientation a protein assumes on a given surface can be controlled by systematically introducing mutations into a region distant from its active site, thereby retaining activity of the immobilized protein. To test this hypothesis, we generated a combinatorial protein library by randomizing six targeted residues in a binding protein derived from highly stable, nonimmunoglobulin Sso7d scaffold; mutations were targeted in a region that is distant from the binding site. This library was screened to isolate binders that retain binding to its cognate target (chicken immunoglobulin Y, cIgY) as well as exhibit adsorption on unmodified silica at pH 7.4 and high ionic strength conditions. A single mutant, Sso7d-2B5, was selected for further characterization. Sso7d-2B5 retained binding to cIgY with an apparent dissociation constant similar to that of the parent protein; both mutant and parent proteins saturated the surface of silica with similar densities. Strikingly, however, silica beads coated with Sso7d-2B5 could achieve up to 7-fold higher capture of cIgY than beads coated with the parent protein. These results strongly suggest that mutations introduced in Sso7d-2B5 alter its orientation relative to the parent protein, when adsorbed on silica surfaces. Our approach also provides a generalizable strategy for introducing mutations in proteins so as to improve their activity upon immobilization, and has direct relevance to development of protein-based biosensors and biocatalysts.

  19. Properties of competitively adsorbed BSA and fibrinogen from their mixture on mixed and hybrid surfaces (United States)

    Pandey, Lalit M.; Pattanayek, Sudip K.


    We have studied the adsorption of BSA and fibrinogen from their mixture onto surfaces with mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of amine and octyl (ratio 1:1) and hybrid SAM. The properties of adsorbed proteins obtained from individual protein solution differ considerably from the properties of the adsorbed proteins obtained from mixture of proteins at same total concentration. The adsorbed amount of proteins is lesser and the adsorbed protein is more elastic if it is adsorbing from mixture of proteins. It is found that with increasing total protein concentration, adsorbed amount increases and elasticity of the adsorbed proteins decreases. The apparent displacements of BSA with Fb are observed on the graphs of change in frequency with time, which are obtained from quartz crystal microbalance.

  20. Novel infrared spectroscopic techniques for the study of adsorbed proteins on photoactive thin films (United States)

    Angle, Taylor Allan

    Through the development of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, as well as biocompatible nanoporous gold film confining layers and photoactive nanocrystal cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films, a system capable of in situ study of adsorbed protein films on photoactive layers was created. Due to the oxygen intolerance of the enzyme of interest for this work (a [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum), techniques were developed in a manner conducive to anaerobic environments. Solid-state ligand exchange processes were shown to have no detrimental effect on the continued ability of nanocrystal CdTe layers to reduce species via the transfer of photogenerated electrons. Nanoporous gold films were shown to effectively confine poorly bound surface species including nanocrystal CdTe layers and adsorbed protein films. An ATR "stack'' structure, consisting of a silicon wafer coupled to a zinc selenide ATR crystal by a high index optical coupling fluid, was designed and implemented, leading to a tunable optical structure for use with existing ATR setups. This ATR stack was shown to maintain resolution and signal intensity of traditional ATR configurations for both aqueous and solid-state samples. Through the use of coupled silicon wafers, we significantly increased both sample throughput and the number of available chemical processes by replacing the expensive ATR crystals as the default sample substrate. Shown herein to function as initially intended, these novel methods provide the groundwork for more complex experiments, such as an in situ monitoring of the photooxidation of surface-bound hydrogenases.

  1. Protein concentrate production by whey ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid Vicente, A.; Madrid Vicente, R.


    This article describes an installation and process in which whey is ultrafiltered to give whey protein concentrate and deproteinized whey, both of which are then concentrated by evaporation and spray dried. Diagrams show the ultrafiltration plant and the complete processing line, including a line for bagging and pelletizing the dried protein concentrate (400 bags of 25 kg/hour). The Romicon fibre membranes can be cleaned by pumping the ultrafiltered liquid in the reverse direction and by closing the outlet for discharge of the deproteinized whey. The deproteinized whey powder can be used for animal feeding.

  2. Assays for Determination of Protein Concentration. (United States)

    Olson, Bradley J S C


    Biochemical analysis of proteins relies on accurate quantification of protein concentration. Detailed in this appendix are some commonly used methods for protein analysis, e.g., Lowry, Bradford, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), UV spectroscopic, and 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) assays. The primary focus of this report is assay selection, emphasizing sample and buffer compatibility. The fundamentals of generating protein assay standard curves and of data processing are considered, as are high-throughput adaptations of the more commonly used protein assays. Also included is a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable BCA assay of total protein in SDS-PAGE sample buffer that is used for equal loading of SDS-PAGE gels. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Efficacy of mineral and organic adsorbent in alleviating harmful effects of zearalenone on pig blood serum protein status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ksenija


    Full Text Available The influence of zearalenone on blood serum protein status and the feasibility of utilizing a modified clinoptilolite and esterified glucomannan to alleviate its harmful effects was examined in two trials, 31 and 29 days long, conducted on a total of 64 pigs (32 each 60 days old, divided into four groups, each containing 8 pigs. Control groups (K received noncontaminated feed, while experimental groups received feed supplemented with 3.84 mg/kg in the first trial and 5.12 mg/kg of zearalenone in the second trial. Pigs in the first experimental groups (O-I were given feed with toxin only. Modified clinoptilolite in the amount of 0.2% and esterified glucomannan in the amount of 0.1% were introduced in contaminated feed of the second (O-II and the third experimental groups (O-III of both trials. With the use of contaminated feed, a declining trend of the A/G ratio was observed: decrease of albumin content and increase of globulin content on account of the _ globulin fraction. A decrease of the _ globulin fraction was detected at the same time. Total protein concentration was also lower. The application of adsorbents successfully alleviated harmful effects of the F-2 toxin on the affected biochemical parameters in blood serum.

  4. Stress-strain curves of adsorbed protein layers at the air/water interface measured with surface shear rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.; Bos, M.; Stuart, M.C.; Vliet, T. van


    Interfacial shear properties of adsorbed protein layers at the air/water interface were determined using a Couette-type surface shear rheometer. Such experiments are often used to determine a steady-state ratio between stress and rate of strain, which is then denoted as "surface shear viscosity". Ho


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Ionescu


    Full Text Available Chickpea proteins are used as ingredients in comminuted sausage products and many oriental textured foods. Rheological behaviour of chickpea protein concentrate was studied using a controlled stress rheometer. The protein dispersion prepared with phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 presented non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and rheological data well fitted to the Sisko, Carreau and Cross models. The viscoelastic properties of the chickpea protein suspensions were estimated by measuring the storage and loss moduli in oscillatory frequency conditions (0.1-10 Hz at 20°C. Moreover, thermally induced gelation of the chickpea proteins (16, 24 and 36% was studied at pH 7.0 and 4.5 in the temperature range 50 to 100oC and salt concentration ranging from 0 to 1 M. Gelling behaviour was quantified by means of dynamic rheological measurements. Gels formation was preceded by the decrease of storage modulus and loss moduli, coupled with the increase of the phase angle (delta. The beginning of thermal gelation was influenced by protein concentration, pH and salt level. In all studied cases, storage modulus increased rapidly in the temperature range 70-90°C. All rheological parameters measured at 90°C were significantly higher at pH 4.5 compared to pH 7.0.

  6. Multi-scale carbon micro/nanofibers-based adsorbents for protein immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shiv; Singh, Abhinav [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Bais, Vaibhav Sushil Singh; Prakash, Balaji [Department of Biological Science and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Verma, Nishith, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Center for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)


    In the present study, different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), glucose oxidase (GOx) and the laboratory purified YqeH were immobilized in the phenolic resin precursor-based multi-scale web of activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). These biomolecules are characteristically different from each other, having different structure, number of parent amino acid molecules and isoelectric point. CNF was grown on ACF substrate by chemical vapor deposition, using Ni nanoparticles (Nps) as the catalyst. The ultra-sonication of the CNFs was carried out in acidic medium to remove Ni Nps from the tip of the CNFs to provide additional active sites for adsorption. The prepared material was directly used as an adsorbent for proteins, without requiring any additional treatment. Several analytical techniques were used to characterize the prepared materials, including scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET surface area, pore-size distribution, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The adsorption capacities of prepared ACFs/CNFs in this study were determined to be approximately 191, 39 and 70 mg/g for BSA, GOx and YqeH, respectively, revealing that the carbon micro-nanofibers forming synthesized multi-scale web are efficient materials for the immobilization of protein molecules. - Highlights: • Ni metal Np-dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers (ACFs/CNFs) are prepared. • ACFs/CNFs are mesoporous. • Significant adsorption of BSA, GOx and YqeH is observed on ACFs/CNFs. • Multi-scale web of ACFs/CNFs is effective for protein immobilization.

  7. Detection of Aβ-interacting proteins via a novel Aβ-adsorbents that use immobilized regular comb polymer. (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Conggang; Chen, Linli; Ren, Jun; Xie, Jian; Jia, Lingyun


    A detailed study of individual Aβ-interacting proteins has always been a difficult task because Aβ has a wide range of molecular weights and can easily form aggregates. In this study, we established a novel method for isolating Aβ-interacting proteins by utilizing regular comb polymer immobilized on Sepharose CL-4B. To achieve site-directed ligation of Aβ, a cysteine residue was added at the N-terminus of Aβ. Asp and Asp12, which have 2 and 13 carboxyl groups, respectively, were selected as the carriers for the regular comb polymer. Firstly, the N-termini of Asp and Asp12 were immobilized on Sepharose CL-4B. Next, modified Aβ molecules were coupled to the carboxyl groups of Asp and Asp12 using bromoethylamine as a spacer. To obtain homogeneous comb polymer, the efficiency of the reaction was controlled during the synthesis process. Thioflavin T staining indicated that homogeneous Aβ was achieved. The prepared Aβ-adsorbents were used to isolate Aβ-interacting proteins from mice brain extracts. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the Aβ-adsorbents for proteins in mice brain extracts increased with the ages of the animals. SDS-PAGE analysis of the Aβ-interacting proteins showed that many kinds of brain proteins were selectively adsorbed by the Aβ adsorbents, and the levels of some of these proteins varied with the ages of the animals. The results indicated that Aβ-interacting proteins could be successfully obtained through the use of immobilized comb polymer. Similar method could also be used to isolate other amyloid-interacting proteins.

  8. Investigation of Quantitative Relationship between Adsorbed Amount of Solute and Solvent Concentration at Relatively High Solute Concentration by Frontal Analysis in RPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Yan; GENG,Xin-Du; ZEBOLSKY, Don M


    In previous paper a new adsorption isotherm which relates the amount of solute absorbed to the solvent concentration is proposed and simplified, and it only can be used at lower solute concentration. In this article the scope of the new adsorption isotherm is extended and the expressions with three and four parameters are obtained. The equations with multi-parameters are valid when the adsorbed amounts are larger and show nonlinear logarithmic relationships. Tests with a homologue of aromatic alcohols by frontal analysis in reversed phase liquid chromatography demonstrate that the experimental results fit those equations well. In addition, the predicted values by the multiparameters were found to fit the experimental values well also.The parameters have physical meaning only for the two-parameter equation for the aromatic alcohols.

  9. Changes in the surface protein of the fat globules during homogenization and heat treatment of concentrated milk. (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Harjinder


    The changes in milk fat globules and fat globule surface proteins of both low-preheated and high-preheated concentrated milks, which were homogenized at low or high pressure, were examined. The average fat globule size decreased with increasing homogenization pressure. The total surface protein (mg m-2) of concentrated milk increased after homogenization, the extent of the increase being dependent on the temperature and the pressure of homogenization, as well as on the preheat treatment. The concentrates obtained from high-preheated milks had higher surface protein concentration than the concentrates obtained from low-preheated milks after homogenization. Concentrated milks heat treated at 79 degrees C either before or after homogenization had greater amounts of fat globule surface protein than concentrated milks heat treated at 50 or 65 degrees C. This was attributed to the association of whey protein with the native MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and the adsorbed skim milk proteins. Also, at the same homogenization temperature and pressure, the amount of whey protein on the fat globule surface of the concentrated milk that was heated after homogenization was greater than that of the concentrated milk that was heated before homogenization. The amounts of the major native MFGM proteins did not change during homogenization, indicating that the skim milk proteins did not displace the native MFGM proteins but adsorbed on to the newly formed surface.

  10. Zeta potential, contact angles, and AFM imaging of protein conformation adsorbed on hybrid nanocomposite surfaces. (United States)

    Pinho, Ana C; Piedade, Ana P


    The sputtering deposition of gold (Au) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was used to prepare a nanocomposite hybrid thin film suitable for protein adsorption while maintaining the native conformation of the biological material. The monolithic PTFE and the nanocomposite PTFE/Au thin films, with Au content up to 1 at %, were co-deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering using argon as a discharge gas and deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates, the most commonly used steel in biomaterials. The deposited thin films, before and after bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, were thoroughly characterized with special emphasis on the surface properties/characteristics by atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential, and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, in order to assess the relationship between structure and conformational changes. The influence of a pre-adsorbed peptide (RGD) was also evaluated. The nanotopographic and chemical changes induced by the presence of gold in the nanocomposite thin films enable RGD bonding, which is critical for the maintenance of the BSA native conformation after adsorption.

  11. Integrated system for temperature-controlled fast protein liquid chromatography comprising improved copolymer modified beaded agarose adsorbents and a travelling cooling zone reactor arrangement. (United States)

    Müller, Tobias K H; Cao, Ping; Ewert, Stephanie; Wohlgemuth, Jonas; Liu, Haiyang; Willett, Thomas C; Theodosiou, Eirini; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias


    An integrated approach to temperature-controlled chromatography, involving copolymer modified agarose adsorbents and a novel travelling cooling zone reactor (TCZR) arrangement, is described. Sepharose CL6B was transformed into a thermoresponsive cation exchange adsorbent (thermoCEX) in four synthetic steps: (i) epichlorohydrin activation; (ii) amine capping; (iii) 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) immobilization; and 'graft from' polymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-tert-butylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide). FT-IR, (1)H NMR, gravimetry and chemical assays allowed precise determination of the adsorbent's copolymer composition and loading, and identified the initial epoxy activation step as a critical determinant of 'on-support' copolymer loading, and in turn, protein binding performance. In batch binding studies with lactoferrin, thermoCEX's binding affinity and maximum adsorption capacity rose smoothly with temperature increase from 20 to 50 °C. In temperature shifting chromatography experiments employing thermoCEX in thermally jacketed columns, 44-51% of the lactoferrin adsorbed at 42 °C could be desorbed under binding conditions by cooling the column to 22 °C, but the elution peaks exhibited strong tailing. To more fully exploit the potential of thermoresponsive chromatography adsorbents, a new column arrangement, the TCZR, was developed. In TCZR chromatography, a narrow discrete cooling zone (special assembly of copper blocks and Peltier elements) is moved along a bespoke fixed-bed separation columnfilled with stationary phase. In tests with thermoCEX, it was possible to recover 65% of the lactoferrin bound at 35 °C using 8 successive movements of the cooling zone at a velocity of 0.1mm/s; over half of the recovered protein was eluted in the first peak in more concentrated form than in the feed. Intra-particle diffusion of desorbed protein out of the support pores, and the ratio between the velocities of the cooling

  12. Regulation of protein multipoint adsorption on ion-exchange adsorbent and its application to the purification of macromolecules. (United States)

    Huang, Yongdong; Bi, Jingxiu; Zhao, Lan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo


    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) using commercial ionic absorbents is a widely used technique for protein purification. Protein adsorption onto ion-exchange adsorbents often involves a multipoint adsorption. In IEC of multimeric proteins or "soft" proteins, the intense multipoint binding would make the further desorption difficult, even lead to the destruction of protein structure and the loss of its biological activity. In this paper, DEAE Sepharose FF adsorbents with controllable ligand densities from 0.020 to 0.183 mmol/ml were synthesized, and then the effect of ligand density on the static ion-exchange adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto DEAE Sepharose FF was studied by batch adsorption technique. Steric mass-action (SMA) model was employed to analyze the static adsorption behavior. The results showed that the SMA model parameters, equilibrium constant (K(a)), characteristic number of binding sites (υ) and steric factor (σ), increased gradually with ligand density. Thus, it was feasible to regulate BSA multipoint adsorption by modulating the ligand density of ion-exchange adsorbent. Furthermore, IEC of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DEAE Sepharose FF adsorbents with different ligand densities was carried out, and the activity recovery of HBsAg was improved from 42% to 67% when the ligand density was decreased from 0.183 to 0.020 mmol/ml. Taking the activity recovery of HBsAg, the purification factor and the binding capacity into account, DEAE Sepharose FF with a ligand density of 0.041 mmol/ml was most effective for the purification of HBsAg. Such a strategy may also be beneficial for the purification of macromolecules and multimeric proteins.

  13. Analysis of statistical thermodynamic model for binary protein adsorption equilibria on cation exchange adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaopeng; SU Xueli; SUN Yan


    A study of nonlinear competitive adsorption equilibria of proteins is of fundamental importance in understanding the behavior of preparative chromatographic separation.This work describes the nonlinear binary protein adsorption equilibria on ion exchangers by the statistical thermodynamic (ST) model.The single-component and binary protein adsorption isotherms of bovine hemoglobin (Hb) and bovine serum albumin(BSA)on SP Sepharose FF were determined by batch adsorption experiments in 0.05 mol/L sodium acetate buffer at three pH values(4.5,5.0 and 5.5)and three NaCl concentrations(0.05,0.10 and 0.15 mol/L)at pH 5.0.The ST model was found to depict the effects of pH and ionic strength on the single-component equilibria well,with model parameters depending on the pH and ionic strength.Moreover,the ST model gave acceptable fitting to the binary adsorption data with the fltted singlecomponent model parameters,leading to the estimation of the binary ST model parameter.The effects of pH and ionic strength on the model parameters are reasonably interpreted by the electrostatic and thermodynamic theories.Results demonstrate the availability of the ST model for describing nonlinear competitive protein adsorption equilibria in the presence of two proteins.

  14. Whey protein concentrate market enhancement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, L.


    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was studied to see whether or not there was sufficient depth in the marketplace to accommodate increased WPC production in the event more whey was converted into alcohol. It was concluded that the current market for WPC is still immature and ample room exists in the marketplace to produce and dispose of WPC. In addition, WPC literature was reviewed so as to evaluate the current state of the art producing WPC. Considerable evidence suggests that more product formulation work is needed to move WPC into the general marketplace. Concurrent to the market and ltierature study WPC was incorporated into select categories of foods where finished goods were enhanced by having WPC incorporated in their formulations. Formulations were produced to demonstrate the fact that products such as ice cream, breedings and batters for fish sticks, and orange juice can be enhanced by using WPC.

  15. Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons

    CERN Document Server

    Crespi, Andrea; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Politi, Alberto; Neal, Chris R; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; O'Brien, Jeremy L


    Optical interferometry is amongst the most sensitive techniques for precision measurement. By increasing the light intensity a more precise measurement can usually be made. However, in some applications the sample is light sensitive. By using entangled states of light the same precision can be achieved with less exposure of the sample. This concept has been demonstrated in measurements of fixed, known optical components. Here we use two-photon entangled states to measure the concentration of the blood protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) in an aqueous buffer solution. We use an opto-fluidic device that couples a waveguide interferometer with a microfluidic channel. These results point the way to practical applications of quantum metrology to light sensitive samples.

  16. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material. (United States)

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan


    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate. (United States)


    ... derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the whey protein concentrate shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey...

  18. Pluripotency transcription factor Sox2 is strongly adsorbed by heparin but requires a protein transduction domain for cell internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Cem [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Yang, William C. [Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Swartz, James R., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Highlights: ► Both R9Sox2 and Sox2 bind heparin with comparable affinity. ► Both R9Sox2 and Sox2 bind to fibroblasts, but only R9Sox2 is internalized. ► Internalization efficiency of R9Sox2 is 0.3% of the administered protein. ► Heparan sulfate adsorption may be part of a mechanism for managing cell death. -- Abstract: The binding of protein transduction domain (PTD)-conjugated proteins to heparan sulfate is an important step in cellular internalization of macromolecules. Here, we studied the pluripotency transcription factor Sox2, with or without the nonaarginine (R9) PTD. Unexpectedly, we observed that Sox2 is strongly adsorbed by heparin and by the fibroblasts without the R9 PTD. However, only the R9Sox2 fusion protein is internalized by the cells. These results collectively show that binding to heparan sulfate is not sufficient for cellular uptake, thereby supporting a recent hypothesis that other proteins play a role in cell internalization of PTD-conjugated proteins.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qi


    The adsorption of protein on nanoparticles was studied by using dynamic light scattering to measure the hydrodynamic size of both pure protein and nanoparticles adsorbed with different amounts of protein. The thickness of the adsorbed protein layer increases as protein concentration, but decreases as the initial size of nanoparticles. After properly scaling the thickness with the initial diameter, we are able to fit all experimental data with a single master curve. Our experimental results suggest that the adsorbed proteins form a monolayeron the nanoparticle surface and the adsorbed protein molecules are attached to the particle surface at many points through a possible hydrogen-bonding. Our results also indicate that as protein concentration increases, the overall shape of the adsorbed protein molecule continuously changes from a flat layer on the particle surface to a stretched coil extended into water. During the change, the hydrodynamic volume of the adsorbed protein increases linearly with protein concentration.

  20. Determination of Cr and Cd concentration adsorbed by chicken feathers; Determinacion de concentracion de Cr y Cd adsorbido por plumas de pollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A.; Cuapio O, L.A.; Cardenas P, S.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Jauregui, V.; Bonilla P, A. [ITA, Aguascalientes (Mexico)


    In this work the results of the samples analysis of chicken feathers are presented, used as adsorber of the heavy metals Cd and Cr present in water solutions with well-known concentrations of these metals. It was used the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (AAN), using the TRIGA Mark-III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The obtained results they show the advantages of having a versatile installation for the analysis of this type of samples. By means of the analysis of the results, it was determined the feasibility of using chicken feathers like adsorber of these metals present in polluted waters, additionally, it was detected the presence of others polluting elements in the inputs to prepare the reference solutions as well as in the processes, so much of preparation of the feathers like of the metals adsorption. (Author)

  1. The recognition of adsorbed and denatured proteins of different topographies by β2 integrins and effects on leukocyte adhesion and activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brevig, T.; Holst, B.; Ademovic, Z.


    isolated from peripheral blood did not adhere to adsorbed albumin, not even in the presence of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-la chemokines. Adhesion of the macrophage-like cells to albumin in any of the three topographies was inhibited by antibodies against beta(2...

  2. Characterization of the surface of protein-adsorbed dental materials by wetting and streaming potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumura, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Okumura, N.; Kambara, M.; Norde, W.


    In this study we have elucidated the water-wettability and the electrokinetic surface potential of protein-covered dental materials. The proteins used here as typical proteins were human serum albumin and lysozyme from hen*s egg. The wettability (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) and the surface potent

  3. Characterization of the surface of protein-adsorbed dental materials by wetting and streaming potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumura, H; Kawasaki, K; Okumura, N; Kambara, M; Norde, W


    In this study we have elucidated the water-wettability and the electrokinetic surface potential of protein-covered dental materials. The proteins used here as typical proteins were human serum albumin and lysozyme from hen's egg. The wettability (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) and the surface potent

  4. Evaluation of the use of performance reference compounds in an oasis-HLB adsorbent based passive sampler for improving water concentration estimates of polar herbicides in freshwater (United States)

    Mazzella, N.; Lissalde, S.; Moreira, S.; Delmas, F.; Mazellier, P.; Huckins, J.N.


    Passive samplers such as the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) are useful tools for monitoring trace levels of polar organic chemicals in aquatic environments. The use of performance reference compounds (PRC) spiked into the POCIS adsorbent for in situ calibration may improve the semiquantitative nature of water concentration estimates based on this type of sampler. In this work, deuterium labeled atrazine-desisopropyl (DIA-d5) was chosen as PRC because of its relatively high fugacity from Oasis HLB (the POCIS adsorbent used) and our earlier evidence of its isotropic exchange. In situ calibration of POCIS spiked with DIA-d5was performed, and the resulting time-weighted average concentration estimates were compared with similar values from an automatic sampler equipped with Oasis HLB cartridges. Before PRC correction, water concentration estimates based on POCIS data sampling ratesfrom a laboratory calibration exposure were systematically lower than the reference concentrations obtained with the automatic sampler. Use of the DIA-d5 PRC data to correct POCIS sampling rates narrowed differences between corresponding values derived from the two methods. Application of PRCs for in situ calibration seems promising for improving POCIS-derived concentration estimates of polar pesticides. However, careful attention must be paid to the minimization of matrix effects when the quantification is performed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Characterization of alkali-modified soy protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.


    Full Text Available To study the influence of the preparation mode, including mild alkali modification, of soy protein concentrate on soluble protein content and composition, some of its nutritive and functional properties were investigated. Soy protein concentrate prepared by aqueous alcohol leaching was modified in mild alkaline solutions (pH 8.0 at 40, 50 and 60° C for 60 minutes and compared with two principal types of commercial soy protein concentrate. Soluble protein content, composition and properties of soy protein concentrate, as well as their potential use are essentially determined by the preparation mode. Limited mild alkali hydrolysis increased protein solubility by 40-71%, while emulsion stability was increased by 18-56%. Major storage soybean proteins exhibited different stability to alcohol denaturation and mild alkali modification. The most susceptible were acidic -A3 - and -A5- subunits of glycinin.

  6. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg


    Full Text Available Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fractionation techniques, it is possible to produce various whey - protein based products. The most important products based on the whey proteins are whey protein concentrates (WPC and whey protein isolates (WPI. The aim of this paper was to give comprehensive review of nutritional and functional properties of the most common used whey proteins (whey protein concentrate - WPC and whey protein isolate - WPI in the food industry.

  7. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase microextraction adsorbent for the determination of low-level concentrations of butyltin compounds in seawater. (United States)

    Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Shafiee, Abbas; Yunesian, Masud


    Carbon nanotubes are a kind of new carbon-based nanomaterials, which have drawn great attention in many application fields. The potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbent for the preconcentration of environmental pollutants has been investigated in recent years. In the present study, the feasibility of SWCNTs as SPME adsorbent for the determination of monobutyltin, dibutyltin and tributyltin in seawater samples was studied. To achieve this aim, the potential factors affecting the SPME efficiency, including extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time, desorption temperature, and salinity were optimized. The developed method showed good performance according to the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Analytical Methods) criteria. The acquired calibration curves were linear (r > or = 0.992) over the concentration range from analytes, the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was below 5 ng L(-1). Furthermore, in comparison with the commercial carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, the developed SWCNT fiber showed better thermal stability (over 350 degrees C) and longer life span (over 150 times). The application of the proposed method in environmental analyses was shown by analyzing seawater samples from the harbors on the Persian Gulf for butyltin residues. Some of the butyltins were detected in the analyzed samples. Results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of the SWCNTs as SPME adsorbent for the determination of butyltins in seawater samples.

  8. Aggregation of the Adsorbed Proteins-in Solution or on the Surface?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on porous polyethylene (PE) membrane was studied based on adsorption and desorption measurements as well as FTIR analysis. A different mechanism was proposed which showed that a critical concentration existed in the adsorptional process. Below this concentration, the adsorption seems to be conducted in a normal side-on way; above this concentration, the adsorption is in an aggregation way.

  9. Whey protein particles modulate mechanical properties of gels at high protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Berg, van den L.; Linden, van der E.


    We have studied the influence of dense whey protein particles on the mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels at high protein concentrations (16–22% (w/w)). Incorporation of dense whey protein particles in the gel, while keeping the total protein concentration constant, leads to a co

  10. Comparison of the dilational behaviour of adsorbed milk proteins at the air-water and oil-water interfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, A.; Prins, A.


    The interfacial dilational properties of two milk proteins, β-casein and β-lactoglobulin, have been compared at the air-water and paraffin oil-water interfaces. The measurements were performed as a function of bulk protein concentration using a modified Langmuir trough technique at a frequency of 0.

  11. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties (United States)

    Webster, Charles Edwin


    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  12. A magnetic adsorbent-based process for semi-continuous PEGylation of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottow, Kim Ekelund; Maury, Trine Lütken; Hobley, Timothy John


    A semi-continuous magnetic particle-based process for the controlled attachment of PEG (PEGylation) to proteins is described for the first time. Trypsin and 2 kDa mono-activated PEG were used to systematically develop the steps in the process. Proof of concept was shown in a microfluidics system...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    At the air-liquid interface of human saliva a protein layer is absorbed. An apparatus is described with which a flow curve of this layer was measured. In the majority of samples the viscosity of the surface layer changed gradually and could be described by a power-law dependence on the shear rate. T

  14. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  15. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin on CoCrMo surface: effect of temperature and protein concentration. (United States)

    Valero Vidal, C; Olmo Juan, A; Igual Muñoz, A


    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto CoCrMo surface has been studied as a function of concentration of BSA and temperature by electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to investigate the interfacial behaviour of BSA at open circuit potential (OCP). The charge transfer resistance was very sensitive to the amount of adsorbed protein, indicating that the adsorption process was accompanied by the transfer of charge and influenced the mechanism and kinetics of the corrosion reaction. At all the temperatures studied, adsorption of BSA onto the CoCrMo surface was successfully described with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EIS study was also carried out for determine the surface charge density, resulting from protein adsorption, and it was shown to be directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed protein (surface concentration). Thermodynamic data of adsorption was obtained for analyzing the adsorption of BSA onto CoCrMo surface. Gibbs free energy of adsorption, DeltaG(ADS) values, for BSA in the investigated temperature range (-51kJmol(-1)) showed that the molecules have a strong affinity for the CoCrMo surface. Enthalpy (DeltaH(ADS)) and entropy (DeltaS(ADS)) of adsorption suggested that the adsorption process of BSA onto the CoCrMo surface is an endothermic process and the molecule suffers structural changes when adsorbing on the metallic surface.

  16. Effect of adsorbed poly(ethylene glycol) on the gelation evolution of Laponite suspensions: aging time-polymer concentration superposition. (United States)

    Sun, Weixiang; Yang, Yanrui; Wang, Tao; Huang, Haohao; Liu, Xinxing; Tong, Zhen


    The effects of the concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl on the gelation kinetics of aqueous Laponite suspensions were investigated. The PEG concentration c(p) was increased from 0.063 wt.% to 1.0 wt.%, and the NaCl concentration c(s) was increased from 3.0 mM to 5.0 mM. The gelation process was monitored with the small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology. At each NaCl concentration, the time curves of storage and loss moduli G' and G" at different PEG concentrations were shifted horizontally to construct a master curve. Master curves for different NaCl concentrations were shifted further into a main master curve. The results were understood in terms of an increase in steric repulsion with increasing c(p). A model based on the theory of interaction-limited coagulation was proposed to describe the dependence of the shift factor on the PEG concentration, taking into account of the interactions between particles. The quantitative description of the observed results has been achieved with this model.

  17. Effect of Limited Hydrolysis on Traditional Soy Protein Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana B. Pesic


    Full Text Available The influence of limited proteolysis of soy protein concentrate on proteinextractability, the composition of the extractable proteins, their emulsifying properties andsome nutritional properties were investigated. Traditional concentrate (alcohol leachedconcentrate was hydrolyzed using trypsin and pepsin as hydrolytic agents. Significantdifferences in extractable protein composition between traditional concentrate and theirhydrolysates were observed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and by SDSPAGE.All hydrolysates showed better extractability than the original protein concentrate,whereas significantly better emulsifying properties were noticed at modified concentratesobtained by trypsin induced hydrolysis. These improved properties are the result of twosimultaneous processes, dissociation and degradation of insoluble alcohol-induced proteinaggregates. Enzyme induced hydrolysis had no influence on trypsin-inibitor activity, andsignificantly reduced phytic acid content.

  18. Green algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) adsorbs Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) toxin, Cry1Ca insecticidal protein, without an effect on growth. (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Chen, Xiuping; Li, Yunhe; Su, Changqing; Ding, Jiatong; Peng, Yufa


    The effect of purified Cry1Ca insecticidal protein on the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied in a three-generation toxicity test. The C. pyrenoidosa medium with a density of 5.4 × 10(5) cells/mL was subcultured for three generations with added Cry1Ca at 0, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L, and cell numbers were determined daily. To explore the distribution of Cry1Ca in C. pyrenoidosa and the culture medium, Cry1Ca was added at 1000 µg/L to algae with a high density of 4.8 × 10(6) cells/mL, and Cry1Ca content was determined daily in C. pyrenoidosa and the culture medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Our results showed that the growth curves of C. pyrenoidosa exposed to 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L of Cry1Ca almost overlapped with that of the blank control, and there were no statistically significant differences among the four treatments from day 0 to day 7, regardless of generation. Moreover, the Cry1Ca content in the culture medium and in C. pyrenoidosa sharply decreased under exposure of 1000 µg/L Cry1Ca with high initial C. pyrenoidosa cell density. The above results demonstrate that Cry1Ca in water can be rapidly adsorbed and degraded by C. pyrenoidosa, but it has no suppressive or stimulative effect on algae growth.

  19. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  20. Plasma concentrations of four pregnancy proteins in complications of pregnancy. (United States)

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Spellacy, W N; Berne, B H


    Toxemia of pregnancy was associated with an elevation of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A concentration, as compared to the level in normal pregnancy in the last month of gestation. The other pregnancy proteins measured were not altered in toxemia. In twin pregnancies, the PAPP-A, PAPP-C, and human placental lactogen levels were all increased, particularly PAPP-A. On the other hand, pregnancy zone protein was not affected by twinning. Pregnancy with diabetes showed normal levels of these proteins.

  1. Effect of Adsorbed Protein on the Hydraulic Permeability, Membrane and Streaming Potential Values Measured across a Microporous Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    the electrical properties of the membrane (fixed charge concentration and ionic transport numbers) or the membrane/solute interactions (streaming and zeta potentials) can be obtained. The influence of pH and ionic strength on volume flux and streaming potential values is considered. Results show that hydraulic......The effect of the adsorption of a protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the membrane potential, flux reduction and streaming potential measured across a microporous polysulphone membrane with different NaCl solutions and pH values is studied. From electrokinetic phenomena, information about...... permeability decreases strongly when the pH decreases, having its minimum value at the isoelectric point of the protein; the apparent zeta potential values are also dependent on both pH and salt concentration. Differences in the streaming potential coefficient determined for two membranes fouled under...

  2. Barrier, mechanical and optical properties of whey protein concentrate films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Machado Azevedo


    Full Text Available Whey is recognized as a valuable source of high quality protein and, when processed as protein concentrate, may be used in the production of biodegradable films. The objective of the study was to develop films of whey protein concentrate 80% (WPC at concentrations of 6, 8, 10 and 12% and evaluate the influence of this factor in the barrier, mechanical and optical properties of the films. Treatments showed moisture content with a mean value of 22.10% ± 0.76and high solubility values between 56.67 to 62.42%. Thus, there is little or no influence of varying the concentration of WPC in these properties and high hydrophilicity of the films. With increasing concentration of WPC, increases the water vapor permeability of the films (7.42 x 10-13 to 3.49 x 10-12 g.m-1.s-1.Pa-1. The treatment at the concentration of 6% of WPC showed a higher modulus of elasticity (287.90 ± 41.79 MPa. Thegreater rigidity in films with higher concentrations is possibly due to the greater number of bonds between molecules of the polymeric matrix. The films have the same puncture resistance. The increased concentration of WPC promotes resistance to the action of a localized force. In general, films of whey protein concentrate in the tested concentrations exhibited slightly yellowish color and transparency, and can be used in food packaging that requiring intermediate permeability to water vapor, to keep moisture and texture desired.

  3. Protein abundance changes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in different sugar concentrations. (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Niu, Chen; Liu, Bin; Wei, JianPing; Wang, HuXuan; Yuan, YaHong; Yue, TianLi


    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a yeast which can cause spoilage in the concentrated juice industries. It exhibits resistance to high sugar concentrations but genome- and proteome-wide studies on Z. rouxii in response to high sugar concentrations have been poorly investigated. Herein, by using a 2-D electrophoresis based workflow, the proteome of a wild strain of Z. rouxii under different sugar concentrations has been analyzed. Proteins were extracted, quantified, and subjected to 2-DE analysis in the pH range 4-7. Differences in growth (lag phase), protein content (13.97-19.23mg/g cell dry weight) and number of resolved spots (196-296) were found between sugar concentrations. ANOVA test showed that 168 spots were different, and 47 spots, corresponding to 40 unique gene products have been identified. These protein species are involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, protein transport and vesicle organization, cell morphogenesis regulation, transcription and translation, nucleotide metabolism, amino-sugar nucleotide-sugar pathways, oxidoreductases balancing, and ribosome biogenesis. The present study provides important information about how Z. rouxii acts to cope with high sugar concentration at molecular levels, which might enhance our global understanding of Z. rouxii's high sugar-tolerance trait.

  4. Texture profile in processed cheese: influence of the use of milk protein concentrates and whey protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Borges Souza


    Full Text Available The techno-functional properties of proteins related with the molecular characteristics are facilitated by partial unfolding of structures. From these interactions, the medium pH is presented as a major interferer in intensity and type of reaction that takes place. The intensity of denaturation and interaction of different proteins occur in different forms and intensity accordingly to the pH value of the medium in which they are located. This study aimed to verify the influence of interactions between whey protein concentrate/milk protein concentrate on the evolution of the texture profile of processed cheese at different pH values. We have analyzed samples of commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC and milk protein concentrate (MPC using 112.5g/kg processed cheese. The results were interpreted in terms of texture profile. It was also possible to optimize the different proportions of WPC and MPC, and pH value change the parameters of texture for creamy processed cheese and the pH was also an influencing factor in this optimization.

  5. tRNA concentration fine tunes protein solubility. (United States)

    Fedyunin, Ivan; Lehnhardt, Lothar; Böhmer, Nadine; Kaufmann, Paul; Zhang, Gong; Ignatova, Zoya


    Clusters of codons pairing to low-abundance tRNAs synchronize the translation with co-translational folding of single domains in multidomain proteins. Although proven with some examples, the impact of the ribosomal speed on the folding and solubility on a global, cell-wide level remains elusive. Here we show that upregulation of three low-abundance tRNAs in Escherichia coli increased the aggregation propensity of several cellular proteins as a result of an accelerated elongation rate. Intriguingly, alterations in the concentration of the natural tRNA pool compromised the solubility of various chaperones consequently rendering the solubility of some chaperone-dependent proteins.

  6. APols-aided protein precipitation: a rapid method for concentrating proteins for proteomic analysis. (United States)

    Ning, Zhibin; Hawley, Brett; Seebun, Deeptee; Figeys, Daniel


    Amphipols (APols) are a newly designed and milder class of detergent. They have been used primarily in protein structure analysis for membrane protein trapping and stabilization. We have recently demonstrated that APols can be used as an alternative detergent for proteome extraction and digestion, to achieve a "One-stop" single-tube workflow for proteomics. In this workflow, APols are removed by precipitation after protein digestion without depleting the digested peptides. Here, we took further advantage of this precipitation characteristic of APols to concentrate proteins from diluted samples. In contrast with tryptic peptides, a decrease in pH leads to the unbiased co-precipitation of APols with proteins, including globular hydrophilic proteins. We demonstrated that this precipitation is a combined effect of acid precipitation and the APols' protein interactions. Also, we have been able to demonstrate that APols-aided protein precipitation works well on diluted samples, such as secretome sample, and provides a rapid method for protein concentration.

  7. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini


    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  8. Phenylketonuria: brain phenylalanine concentrations relate inversely to cerebral protein synthesis. (United States)

    de Groot, Martijn J; Sijens, Paul E; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Paans, Anne M; van Spronsen, Francjan J


    In phenylketonuria, elevated plasma phenylalanine concentrations may disturb blood-to-brain large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport and cerebral protein synthesis (CPS). We investigated the associations between these processes, using data obtained by positron emission tomography with l-[1-(11)C]-tyrosine ((11)C-Tyr) as a tracer. Blood-to-brain transport of non-Phe LNAAs was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr transport from arterial plasma to brain tissue (K1), while CPS was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr incorporation into cerebral protein (k3). Brain phenylalanine concentrations were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three volumes of interest (VOIs): supraventricular brain tissue (VOI 1), ventricular brain tissue (VOI 2), and fluid-containing ventricular voxels (VOI 3). The associations between k3 and each predictor variable were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The rate constant k3 was inversely associated with brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOIs 2 and 3 (adjusted R(2)=0.826, F=19.936, P=0.021). Since brain phenylalanine concentrations in these VOIs highly correlated with each other, the specific associations of each predictor with k3 could not be determined. The associations between k3 and plasma phenylalanine concentration, K1, and brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOI 1 were nonsignificant. In conclusion, our study shows an inverse association between k3 and increased brain phenylalanine concentrations.

  9. Phenylketonuria : brain phenylalanine concentrations relate inversely to cerebral protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martijn J.; Sijens, Paul E.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Paans, Anne M.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.


    In phenylketonuria, elevated plasma phenylalanine concentrations may disturb blood-to-brain large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport and cerebral protein synthesis (CPS). We investigated the associations between these processes, using data obtained by positron emission tomography with L-[1-C-11]-ty

  10. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity (United States)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  11. Starter protein concentration and weaning of buffalo calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile


    Full Text Available The authors described the harmonic growth in terms of biological efficiency of growth (BEG, live weight, body weight gain and morphological measuraments of 16 buffalo female calves (age in days: 49.0 ±1.3 divided in two groups of feeding. The T group recieved a concentrate with 28.5 % of crude protein on the dry matter basis, while the C group recieved a concentrate with 21.0 % of crude protein on dry matter basis; moreover the concentrate of the T group presented an high quantity of non proteic nitrogen (NPN (33% of crude protein. Blood samples for haematological parameters were collected. No differences in terms of growth, BEG, live weight, body weight gain and morphological measuraments were found. Only the nitrogen blood values in the T group resulted significatively higher then C group (8.53 mmol/L vs. 4.66 mmol/L, respectively. This study confirms the importance of protein source for the formulation of the starter concentrate.

  12. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration. (United States)

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo


    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  13. Constructing a proton titration curve from ion-step measurements, applied to a membrane with adsorbed protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Bosch, Coen; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet


    A new measuring method is described for obtaining a proton titration curve. The curve is obtained from a microporous composite membrane, consisting of polystyrene beads in an agarose matrix, with lysozyme molecules adsorbed to the bead surface. The membrane is incorporated into a sensor system by de

  14. Leaf protein concentrate as food supplement from arid zone plants. (United States)

    Rathore, Mala


    In arid and semi-arid areas where prevalence of droughts and famines is a recurring feature, forest cover can in general make valuable contributions to food security and provide income to the rural poor. Protein and calorie malnutrition is widespread in these areas leading to high child mortality rate. Plant species can play an important role in overcoming this by being used as a source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC), a highly nutritious food. LPC should be considered seriously as it can serve as an additional protein source in the case of non-ruminants and man, especially in drought prone areas. The use of LPC in developing countries as an alternative protein source to fishmeal in broiler diet holds tremendous promise as it can substantially lower high cost of fishmeal and eventually the acute shortage of animal protein supply. Potential tropical plants for LPC production have been evaluated and selected for further research by United States Department of Agriculture. The present study was aimed to determine the potential of arid zone plants for preparation of LPC. Extraction characteristics of the several plant species have been studied and the quality of LPC prepared from them was investigated. Different fractions, chloroplastic and cytoplasmic proteins, were analyzed for their crude protein contents. Analysis of LPC shows considerable differences in their protein contents, which was found to range from 13.7 to 88.9%. Based on this, Achyranthes aspera and Tephrosia purpurea were found to be the best suited plants for LPC preparation.

  15. Effects of adsorbents in dairy cow diet on milk quality and cheese-making properties


    Pirlo, G.; C. Tornielli; Abeni, F.; M. P. Cattaneo; L. Migliorati


    The use of adsorbents (clinoptilolite+sepiolite) in the diet of cows was evaluated in two trials. A total of 52 Italian Friesian cows were assigned to one of two dietary treatments, control and adsorbent (CON vs. ADS). Individual and bulk milk samples were collected. On individual data, no significant difference was found between treatments in milk yield, milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations, milk protein yield, pH, and titratable acidity, both in summer and spring. In spring only, t...

  16. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate. (United States)

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P


    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80.

  17. Concentration Dependent Ion-Protein Interaction Patterns Underlying Protein Oligomerization Behaviours (United States)

    Batoulis, Helena; Schmidt, Thomas H.; Weber, Pascal; Schloetel, Jan-Gero; Kandt, Christian; Lang, Thorsten


    Salts and proteins comprise two of the basic molecular components of biological materials. Kosmotropic/chaotropic co-solvation and matching ion water affinities explain basic ionic effects on protein aggregation observed in simple solutions. However, it is unclear how these theories apply to proteins in complex biological environments and what the underlying ionic binding patterns are. Using the positive ion Ca2+ and the negatively charged membrane protein SNAP25, we studied ion effects on protein oligomerization in solution, in native membranes and in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that concentration-dependent ion-induced protein oligomerization is a fundamental chemico-physical principle applying not only to soluble but also to membrane-anchored proteins in their native environment. Oligomerization is driven by the interaction of Ca2+ ions with the carboxylate groups of aspartate and glutamate. From low up to middle concentrations, salt bridges between Ca2+ ions and two or more protein residues lead to increasingly larger oligomers, while at high concentrations oligomers disperse due to overcharging effects. The insights provide a conceptual framework at the interface of physics, chemistry and biology to explain binding of ions to charged protein surfaces on an atomistic scale, as occurring during protein solubilisation, aggregation and oligomerization both in simple solutions and membrane systems.

  18. Functional Characteristics of Milk Protein Concentrates and Their Modification. (United States)

    Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lv, Jia-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Wen


    A major deterrent to the usage of milk protein concentrate (MPC), a high-protein milk product with increasing demand as a food and sports drink ingredient, has been its poor functional characteristics when compared with other milk protein products such as whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinates. This review discusses the recent research on functional properties of MPC, focusing on factors that may contribute to the poor functional characteristics before, during, and after production. Current research, methods employed, and new understanding on the causes of poor solubility of MPC at mild temperatures (about 20°C) has been presented, including loss of solubility during storage as these areas have received unprecedented attention over the past decade, and also affects other useful functional properties of MPC, such as emulsifying properties, gelation, and foaming. Processing methods, which include heat treatment, high-pressure application, microwave heating, ultrasound application, and enzyme and salts modification, have been used or have potential to modify or improve the functional properties of MPCs. Future research on the effects of these processing methods on the functional properties, including effects of enzyme hydrolysis on bitterness and bioactivity, has also been discussed.

  19. Rheological properties of whey proteins concentrate before and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg


    Full Text Available Hydrocolloids are long-chain polymers, used in food production at small quantities (from 0,05 to 5 % to achieve appropriate rheological properties, prevent syneresis, increase the viscosity and stability of foodstuffs and for crystallization process control. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of tribomechanical micronization of powdered whey protein concentrate on the rheological properties of whey proteins model systems as well as the influence of severalcarboxymethylcellulose hydrocolloids addition in such systems.Measurements were done using rotational viscosimeter, Brookfield DV-III at temperature 20 oC. The rheological parameters were determined by powerlaw model. The results of investigation have shown that all investigated systems are non-Newtonian. Depending on the pretreatment of whey proteins and the mass fractions of hydrocolloids they exhibited pseudoplastic or dilatant properties.Particle size analysis was performed using Fritsch – laser particle sizer “analysette 22”. The operation of tribomechanical micronization caused the decreasing of particle size and incrasing specific area of whey proteins. Tribomechanical treatment of whey proteins had significant influence on the rheological parameters and the type of flowing.

  20. Optimising functional properties during preparation of cowpea protein concentrate. (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René; Mbome, Israël Lape


    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modelisation and optimisation of protein extraction parameters in order to obtain a protein concentrate with high functional properties. A central composite rotatable design of experiments was used to investigate the effects of two factors, namely pH and NaCl concentration, on six responses: water solubility index (WSI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil holding capacity (OHC), emulsifying activity (EA), emulsifying stability (ES) and foam ability (FA). The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation showed that the second-order polynomial model was appropriate to fit experimental data. The optimum condition was: pH 8.43 and NaCl concentration 0.25M, and under this condition WSI was ⩾17.20%, WAC⩾383.62%, OHC⩾1.75g/g, EA⩾0.15, ES⩾19.76min and FA⩾66.30%. The suitability of the model employed was confirmed by the agreement between the experimental and predicted values for functional properties.

  1. Assessment of nutritional quality of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adeyemi


    Full Text Available This study was embarked upon to convert water hyacinth, an environmental nuisance, to a natural resource for economic development. Water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC was extracted in edible form and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was done. Analysis of proximate composition and amino acid profile of the WHLPC was also done. The level of heavy metals (mg/kg in WHLPC was found to be Cd (0.02 ± 0.001, Cr (0.13 ± 0.001, Pd (0.003 ± 0.001 and Hg (0.02 ± 0.001 while concentrations of Pb, Pt, Sn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were found to be 0.001 ± 0.00. Level of all heavy metals was found to be within safe limit. Proximate analysis revealed that protein in WHLPC accounted for 50% of its nutrients, carbohydrate accounted for 33% of its nutrients while fat, ash and fibre made up the remaining nutrients. Amino acid analysis showed that WHLPC contained 17 out of 20 common amino acids, particularly, Phe (3.67%, Leu (5.01%. Level of total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was 16.6 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg respectively. Evidence from this study suggests that WHLPC is a good source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC; it is nutritious and acutely non toxic.

  2. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats. (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn


    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.

  3. Altering adsorbed proteins or cellular gene expression in bone-metastatic cancer cells affects PTHrP and Gli2 without altering cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Page


    Full Text Available The contents of this data in brief are related to the article titled “Matrix Rigidity Regulates the Transition of Tumor Cells to a Bone-Destructive Phenotype through Integrin β3 and TGF-β Receptor Type II”. In this DIB we will present our supplemental data investigating Integrin expression, attachment of cells to various adhesion molecules, and changes in gene expression in multiple cancer cell lines. Since the interactions of Integrins with adsorbed matrix proteins are thought to affect the ability of cancer cells to interact with their underlying substrates, we examined the expression of Integrin β1, β3, and β5 in response to matrix rigidity. We found that only Iβ3 increased with increasing substrate modulus. While it was shown that fibronectin greatly affects the expression of tumor-produced factors associated with bone destruction (parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHrP, and Gli2, poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen were also analyzed as potential matrix proteins. Each of the proteins was independently adsorbed on both rigid and compliant polyurethane films which were subsequently used to culture cancer cells. Poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen all had negligible effects on PTHrP or Gli2 expression, but fibronectin was shown to have a dose dependent effect. Finally, altering the expression of Iβ3 demonstrated that it is required for tumor cells to respond to the rigidity of the matrix, but does not affect other cell growth or viability. Together these data support the data presented in our manuscript to show that the rigidity of bone drives Integrinβ3/TGF-β crosstalk, leading to increased expression of Gli2 and PTHrP.

  4. Use of selective adsorbents for adsorption and concentration of radioactive isotopes difficult measurement; Empleo de materials adsorbentes selectivos para la adsorcion y contration de isotopos radiactivos de dificil medida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, L.; Medina, F.


    The work are focused on obtaining a selective adsorbent material to separate from the effluent of nuclear energy plants the radioactive isotopes with high average lifetimes that are in very low concentrations in order to treat them separately from the rest of waste. For this target we have worked with different materials, focusing on the utilization of the adsorptive capacity of layered double hydroxides, which can be reconstructed after being burned hosting anions in the interlayers space. (Author)

  5. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  6. Internal quality of eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleoni Ana Cláudia Carraro


    Full Text Available The functional properties of foods can be preserved when they are coated with edible films, since both the loss of moisture and the transport of O2 and CO2 are reduced. The objectives of this work were: to compare weight loss, Haugh units, and albumen pH between fresh eggs and eggs coated with whey protein concentrate (WPC, under six storage periods (3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days, at 25°C. During the entire storage period, regardless of whether the eggs were coated or not, the Haugh unit values and the weight loss decreased, and differences between values from the first to the last period were lower for coated eggs. Albumen pH increased. The Haugh unit values for coated eggs were similar to those found in literature references when the same storage period was considered.

  7. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins. (United States)

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Dean, L O; Drake, M A


    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey, but international concerns exist. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (HP) or BP bleaching on the flavor of 34% WPC (WPC34) and to evaluate residual BA in commercial and experimental WPC bleached with and without BP. Cheddar whey was manufactured in duplicate. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was subjected to hot bleaching with either HP at 500 mg/kg, BP at 50 or 100 mg/kg, or no bleach. Whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC34. Color [L*(lightness), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue)] measurements and norbixin extractions were conducted to compare bleaching efficacy. Descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analyses were used to evaluate bleaching effects on flavor. Benzoic acid was extracted from experimental and commercial WPC34 and 80% WPC (WPC80) and quantified by HPLC. The b* value and norbixin concentration of BP-bleached WPC34 were lower than HP-bleached and control WPC34. Hydrogen peroxide-bleached WPC34 displayed higher cardboard flavor and had higher volatile lipid oxidation products than BP-bleached or control WPC34. Benzoyl peroxide-bleached WPC34 had higher BA concentrations than unbleached and HP-bleached WPC34 and BA concentrations were also higher in BP-bleached WPC80 compared with unbleached and HP-bleached WPC80, with smaller differences than those observed in WPC34. Benzoic acid extraction from permeate showed that WPC80 permeate contained more BA than did WPC34 permeate. Benzoyl peroxide is more effective in color removal of whey and results in fewer flavor side effects compared with HP and residual BA is

  8. Tribomechanical micronization and activation of whey protein concentrate and zeolite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Herceg; V Lelas; M Brnčić; B Tripalo; D Ježek


    Tribomechanics is a part of physics that is concerned with the study of phenomena that appear during milling under dynamic conditions. Tribomechanical micronization and activation (TMA) of whey protein concentrates (WPC) and zeolites (type clinoptilolite) were carried out. Samples of powdered WPC and zeolite were treated with the laboratory TMA equipment. The treatment was carried out at two various rotor speeds: 16,000 and 22,000 r.p.m. at ambient temperature. Analyses of the particle size and distribution as well as the specific area and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on the powdered WPC and zeolite, before and after the TMA treatment. Suspensions of the WPC and zeolite were treated with ultrasound, just before determining the particle size distribution, at 50 kHz. The results showed that tribomechanical treatment causes significant decrease in particle size, change in particle size distribution and increase in specific area of WPC and zeolite. These changes of the treated materials depend on the type of the material, the level of inserting particles, the planned angle of the impact, internal rubbing and the planned number of impacts. The effects found became stronger as the rotor speed of the TMA equipment increased (16,000 to 22,000 rpm). Ultrasonic treatment of suspension of tribomechanically treated WPC resulted infurther breakdown of partly damaged protein globules as proved with the statistic analyses. No further changes in their granulometric composition were caused by ultrasonic treatment of a suspension of tribomechanically treated zeolite.

  9. Specific Interactions of Neutral Side Chains of an Adsorbed Protein with the Surface of α-Quartz and Silica Gel. (United States)

    Odinokov, Alexey V; Bagaturyants, Alexander A


    Many key features of the protein adsorption on the silica surfaces still remain unraveled. One of the open questions is the interaction of nonpolar side chains with siloxane cavities. Here, we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for the detailed investigation of the binding of several hydrophobic and amphiphilic protein side chains with silica surface. These interactions were found to be a possible driving force for protein adsorption. The free energy gain was larger for the disordered surface of amorphous silica gel as compared to α-quartz, but the impact depended on the type of amino acid. The dependence was analyzed from the structural point of view. For every amino acid an enthalpy-entropy compensation behavior was observed. These results confirm a hypothesis of an essential role of hydrophobic interactions in protein unfolding and irreversible adsorption on the silica surface.

  10. Protein denaturation and functional properties of Lenient Steam Injection heat treated whey protein concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan Ahrens; Kaufmann, Niels; Wiking, Lars


    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was heat treated by use of the novel heat treatment method of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) to elucidate new functional properties in relation to heat-induced gelation of heat treated WPC. Denaturation was measured by both DSC and FPLC, and the results of the two...... methods were highly correlated. Temperatures of up to 90 °C were applicable using LSI, whereas only 68 °C could be reached by plate heat exchange before coagulation/fouling. Denaturation of whey proteins increased with increasing heat treatment temperature up to a degree of 30–35% denaturation at 90 °C...

  11. Drying and hydration of proteins at high concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.


    Proteins are the building blocks of life and serve a wide range of essential functions in organisms. Many metabolic reactions in organisms are catalysed by enzymes, DNA is replicated by proteins and in cells proteins often facilitate active transport of e.g. glucose or ions. Proteins also serve an e

  12. Composition, Structure and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrates and Isolates Produced from Walnut (Juglans regia L.)


    Xiaoying Mao; Yufei Hua


    In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC) and protein isolate (WPI) produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF) were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC) and walnut protein isolate (WPI) were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H0 of WPC was signif...

  13. Influence of surface chemistry on the structural organization of monomolecular protein layers adsorbed to functionalized aqueous interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lösche, M.; Piepenstock, M.; Diederich, A.;


    The molecular organization of streptavidin (SA) bound to aqueous surface monolayers of biotin-functionalized lipids and binary lipid mixtures has been investigated with neutron reflectivity and electron and fluorescence microscopy. The substitution of deuterons (2H) for protons (1H), both...... dependence of the structural properties of such self-assembled SA monolayers on the surface chemistry was observed: the lateral protein density depends on the length of the spacer connecting the biotin moiety and its hydrophobic anchor. The hydration of the lipid head groups in the protein-bound state...

  14. Methods to obtain protein concentrates from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) and evaluation of their functionality. (United States)

    Galvez-Rongel, A; Ezquerra-Brauer, J M; Ocano-Higuera, V M; Ramirez-Wong, B; Torres-Arreola, W; Rouzaud-Sandez, O; Marquez-Rios, E


    Jumbo squid is an important fishery resource in Mexico, and its muscle is lean and white and it has a very low price in the market. It is abundant, but with little or nothing added value, therefore is necessary to search alternatives of processing. Due to muscle characteristics, the aim of this study was to obtain protein concentrates using different methods. They were obtained by means of acidic (acid protein concentrates) and alkaline (alkaline protein concentrates) dissolution. Moreover, a protein concentrate was obtained by direct isoelectric precipitation and by the traditional method (neutral protein concentrates). The yield with better results was alkaline protein concentrates (63.58 ± 1.8%). The gel hardness was significantly different (p < 0.05), especially for the alkaline protein concentrates. The acid protein concentrates, isoelectric precipitation and alkaline protein concentrates were better with regard to the neutral protein concentrates, concerning the emulsifying and foaming properties. The protein concentrates by means of alkaline dissolution gave a better gelling property, but all the processes had the potential to obtain protein with emulsifying and foaming properties.

  15. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate


    Zoran Herceg; Anet Režek


    Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fract...

  16. Composition, structure and functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from walnut (Juglans regia L.). (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei


    In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC) and protein isolate (WPI) produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF) were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC) and walnut protein isolate (WPI) were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H(0) of WPC was significantly higher (p functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC). Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients.

  17. Fabricating electrospun cellulose nanofibre adsorbents for ion-exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Dods, Stewart R; Hardick, Oliver; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G


    Protein separation is an integral step in biopharmaceutical manufacture with diffusion-limited packed bed chromatography remaining the default choice for industry. Rapid bind-elute separation using convective mass transfer media offers advantages in productivity by operating at high flowrates. Electrospun nanofibre adsorbents are a non-woven fibre matrix of high surface area and porosity previously investigated as a bioseparation medium. The effects of compression and bed layers, and subsequent heat treatment after electrospinning cellulose acetate nanofibres were investigated using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) or carboxylate (COO) functionalisations. Transbed pressures were measured and compared by compression load, COO adsorbents were 30%, 70% and 90% higher than DEAE for compressions 1, 5 and 10MPa, respectively, which was attributed to the swelling effect of hydrophilic COO groups. Dynamic binding capacities (DBCs) at 10% breakthrough were measured between 2000 and 12,000CV/h (2s and 0.3s residence times) under normal binding conditions, and DBCs increased with reactant concentration from 4 to 12mgBSA/mL for DEAE and from 10 to 21mglysozyme/mL for COO adsorbents. Comparing capacities of compression loads applied after electrospinning showed that the lowest load tested, 1MPa, yielded the highest DBCs for DEAE and COO adsorbents at 20mgBSA/mL and 27mglysozyme/mL, respectively. At 1MPa, DBCs were the highest for the lowest flowrate tested but stabilised for flowrates above 2000CV/h. For compression loads of 5MPa and 10MPa, adsorbents recorded lower DBCs than 1MPa as a result of nanofibre packing and reduced surface area. Increasing the number of bed layers from 4 to 12 showed decreasing DBCs for both adsorbents. Tensile strengths were recorded to indicate the mechanical robustness of the adsorbent and be related to packing the nanofibre adsorbents in large scale configurations such as pleated cartridges. Compared with an uncompressed adsorbent, compressions of 1, 5

  18. Study of the proteins in the defatted flour and protein concentrate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog

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    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães


    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is an abundant legume in the Brazilian Savanna. Its nuts can be exploited sustainably using its protein and lipid fractions. This study aimed to analyze the proteins of the nuts present in the defatted flour and protein concentrate in terms of their functional properties, the profile of their fractions, and the in vitro digestibility. The flour was defatted with hexane and extracted at the pH of higher protein solubility to obtain the protein concentrate. The electrophoretic profile of the protein fractions was evaluated in SDS-PAGE gel. The functional properties of the proteins indicate the possibility of their use in various foods, like soybeans providing water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, and foamability. Globulins, followed by the albumins, are the major fractions of the flour and protein concentrate, respectively. Digestibility was greater for the concentrate than for the defatted flour.

  19. Functional properties of acetylated and succinylated cowpea protein concentrate and effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on solubility. (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René; Mbome, Israël Lape


    The present study was undertaken to improve functional properties of cowpea protein concentrate by acylation and partial hydrolysis with pepsin. The acylated concentrate showed significant improvement in protein solubility and water solubility index, at neutral pH. In addition, acylation increased fat absorption capacity compared with the untreated concentrate, and the maximum was obtained at 0.75 g succinic anhydride/g concentrate. Acetylation at concentrations of 0.25-0.50 g/g led to the higher emulsifying activity, and a markedly improvement in emulsifying stability was observed at 1.0 g anhydride/g concentrate. Foaming activity increased following acylation, particularly at 0.25 and 1.00 g/g succinic anhydride/g concentrate, while foam stability decreased. At pH 3.5, protein solubility of the acylated concentrates was low ( < 8%). Partial hydrolysis of cowpea protein concentrate with pepsin increased protein solubility at the isoelectric and neutral pH.

  20. Delineation of concentration ranges and longitudinal changes of human plasma protein variants.

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    Olgica Trenchevska

    Full Text Available Human protein diversity arises as a result of alternative splicing, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and posttranslational modifications. Because of these processes, each protein can exists as multiple variants in vivo. Tailored strategies are needed to study these protein variants and understand their role in health and disease. In this work we utilized quantitative mass spectrometric immunoassays to determine the protein variants concentration of beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, retinol binding protein, and transthyretin, in a population of 500 healthy individuals. Additionally, we determined the longitudinal concentration changes for the protein variants from four individuals over a 6 month period. Along with the native forms of the four proteins, 13 posttranslationally modified variants and 7 SNP-derived variants were detected and their concentration determined. Correlations of the variants concentration with geographical origin, gender, and age of the individuals were also examined. This work represents an important step toward building a catalog of protein variants concentrations and examining their longitudinal changes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Sultana


    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin and highly significant decrease in Albumin after 15 and 30 days of dosing of Aloe vera in comparison to control animals group. It is concluded that the long-term use of Aloe vera may cause hypoglobinemia and hypoalbuminemia at 30 days of dosing and it could be due to the liver diseases, evidence of hepatotoxicity induced Aloe vera also reported in previous studies.

  2. Developing low cost feed grade soybean protein concentrates for aquaculture (United States)

    One emerging area in the global soy industry, particularly the U.S. soybean industry, has been developing soy-based feeds as an alternative protein source to meet the growing needs of aquaculture in China and elsewhere. Traditionally, fishmeal is a key protein ingredient in fish diets, but its sup...

  3. Dry fractionation for sustainable production of functional legume protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.


    Plant proteins gain increasing interest as part of a sustainable diet. Because plant materials not only contain protein, they are generally isolated via an energy intensive wet fractionation. This review discusses dry fractionation as an alternative and more sustainable route for producing functiona

  4. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cows. (United States)

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L


    Milk protein concentration has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance in dairy cows. These beneficial associations are most likely due to factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance possibly being mediated, in part, by energy balance during early lactation. However, it is likely that factors other than energy balance are also involved in these relationships. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using subsets of data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression and survival analysis with milk protein concentration during the cow's breeding period fitted as a time-varying covariate. The beneficial associations between milk protein concentration and each of the 4 selected indices for measuring reproductive performance were evident when milk protein concentration was derived for each 30-d period from calving up to 300d in milk. For the first 150d of lactation the adjusted odds ratios were highest from 31 to 60d and only slightly lower for all periods up to 150d of lactation. Estimated associations for 31 to 60d were stronger than for 0 to 30d. In addition, milk protein concentration during a cow's breeding period was positively associated with the subsequent daily hazard of conception, even after adjusting for milk protein concentration in the cow's first or second month of lactation. Milk protein concentrations from 0 to 30d of lactation were less closely correlated with concentrations measured at subsequent 30-d intervals; correlations were closer between other periods in lactation. These results indicate that the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance is partly due to factors other than the extent of negative energy balance in early

  5. Effects of Source and Concentrations of Nitrogen and Carbohydrate on Ruminal Microbial Protein Synthesis



    The objective of this review was to discuss microbial protein synthesis and the effects of sources and concentrations of nitrogen and carbohydrate on microbial protein synthesis. Even though ammonia-N is a satisfactory source of nitrogen for the growth of the majority of rumen microbes, substitution of intact protein for urea usually stimulates ruminal microbial protein synthesis. While protein sources high in degradable intake protein (DIP), such as soybean meal, appear to have properties ...

  6. High-Resolution Mapping of Protein Concentration Reveals Principles of Proteome Architecture and Adaptation

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    Emmanuel D. Levy


    Full Text Available A single yeast cell contains a hundred million protein molecules. How these proteins are organized to orchestrate living processes is a central question in biology. To probe this organization in vivo, we measured the local concentration of proteins based on the strength of their nonspecific interactions with a neutral reporter protein. We first used a cytosolic reporter and measured local concentrations for ∼2,000 proteins in S. cerevisiae, with accuracy comparable to that of mass spectrometry. Localizing the reporter to membranes specifically increased the local concentration measured for membrane proteins. Comparing the concentrations measured by both reporters revealed that encounter frequencies between proteins are primarily dictated by their abundances. However, to change these encounter frequencies and restructure the proteome, as in adaptation, we find that changes in localization have more impact than changes in abundance. These results highlight how protein abundance and localization contribute to proteome organization and reorganization.

  7. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances by Daphnia magna in water with different types and concentrations of protein. (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Rabearisoa, Andry H; Jiang, Xiaoman; Dai, Zhineng


    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are sometimes regarded as proteinophilic compounds, however, there is no research report about the effect of environmental protein on the bioaccumulation of PFASs in waters. In the present study we investigated influences of protein on the bioaccumulation of six kinds of PFASs by Daphnia magna in water; it included perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid. Two types of protein including bovine albumin from animal and soy peptone from plant were compared and the effects of protein concentration were investigated. Both types of protein at high concentrations (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) suppressed the bioaccumulation of PFASs. When protein concentration increased from 0 to 20 mg L(-1), the decreasing ratios of the PFAS body burden (35.3-52.9%) in Daphnia magna induced by bovine albumin were significantly higher than those (22.0-36.6%) by soy peptone. The dialysis bag experiment results showed that the binding of PFASs to protein followed the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting it is not a linear partitioning process but an adsorption-like process. The partition coefficients of PFASs between bovine albumin and water were higher compared to soy peptone; this resulted in higher reducing rates of freely dissolved concentrations of PFASs with increasing bovine albumin concentration, leading to a stronger suppression of PFAS bioaccumulation. However, the presence of both types of protein with a low concentration (1 mg L(-1)) enhanced the bioaccumulation of PFASs. Furthermore, the water-based bioaccumulation factor based on the freely dissolved concentrations of PFASs even increased with and the depuration rate constants of PFASs from Daphnia magna decreased with protein concentration, suggesting that protein would not only reduce the bioavailable concentrations and uptake rates of PFASs but also lower the elimination rates of PFASs in

  8. Urea concentration in collared peccary milk as an indicator of protein nutritional status. (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E; Varner, L W


    Milk urea nitrogen (UN) concentration was examined as a possible index to protein-energy intake in female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). Captive adults were bred and assigned to one of four experimental diets through gestation and lactation. Females fed a high protein diet produced milk with UN concentrations exceeding those of low-protein-fed females. A low energy intake tended to elevate UN concentrations in milk.

  9. On the quantitative Amido Black B staining of protein spots in agar gel at low local protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.T.


    Protein spots in agar gel of identical protein content but different in surface area are found to bind different amounts of dye upon staining with Amido Black B. The lower the protein concentration within the agar gel, the more the Amido Black B content of the spot falls short of the value expected

  10. Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins. (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh


    The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed.

  11. The effect of feed solids concentration and inlet temperature on the flavor of spray dried whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne


    Previous research has demonstrated that unit operations in whey protein manufacture promote off-flavor production in whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed solids concentration in liquid retentate and spray drier inlet temperature on the flavor of dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 ppm hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain WPC80 retentate (25% solids, wt/wt). The liquid retentate was then diluted with deionized water to the following solids concentrations: 25%, 18%, and 10%. Each of the treatments was then spray dried at the following temperatures: 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C. The experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the WPC80 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Particle size and surface free fat were also analyzed. Both main effects (solids concentration and inlet temperature) and interactions were investigated. WPC80 spray dried at 10% feed solids concentration had increased surface free fat, increased intensities of overall aroma, cabbage and cardboard flavors and increased concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, decanal, (E)2-decenal, DMTS, DMDS, and 2,4-decadienal (P < 0.05) compared to WPC80 spray dried at 25% feed solids. Product spray dried at lower inlet temperature also had increased surface free fat and increased intensity of cardboard flavor and increased concentrations of pentanal, (Z)4-heptenal, nonanal, decanal, 2,4-nonadienal, 2,4-decadienal, and 2- and 3-methyl butanal (P < 0.05) compared to product spray dried at higher inlet temperature. Particle size was higher for powders from increased feed solids concentration and increased inlet temperature (P < 0.05). An increase in feed solids concentration in the liquid retentate and inlet temperature within the parameters evaluated decreased off-flavor intensity in the resulting WPC80.

  12. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine. (United States)

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska


    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  13. Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends



    The chemical, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends intended for biofilm processing were studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrates were prepared and mixed at different proportions (100: 0%; 90 : 10%; 80 : 20%; 70 : 30%; 60;40% and 50: 50%). Addition of varying levels of soy protein concentrates to cassava starch led to increases in moisture (from 7.10 to 9.17%), protein ( from 0.32 to 79.03%), ash (from 0.45 to 2.67%) and fat (from 0...

  14. Effects of enzymatic dephosphorylation on infant in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. (United States)

    Liu, Dasong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yun; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Peng


    This study investigated the effects of dephosphorylation extent on infant in vitro gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. Dephosphorylation was affected by phosphatase type and incubation pH. A series of milk protein concentrate with 0-69% dephosphorylation were obtained by incubation with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase at pH 6.5 for 0-420 min. Both β- and αs1-caseins in the modified milk protein concentrate showed multiply dephosphorylated isoforms with different numbers of phosphate groups depending on the extent of dephosphorylation. With increased dephosphorylation of milk protein concentrate, the gastric clotting extent decreased and the gastrointestinal digestibility increased under infant in vitro conditions. These results suggested the potential of developing a dephosphorylated milk protein concentrate, with improved gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility, to simulate the multiply phosphorylated patterns of human casein and hence to further the humanization of infant formula on a molecular level.

  15. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity (United States)

    The chemistry of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions was monitored to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. WPC34 (34.9 g protein/100 g) and WPC80 (76.8 g protein/100 g) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and...

  16. Quantitation of low concentrations of polysorbates in high protein concentration formulations by solid phase extraction and cobalt-thiocyanate derivatization. (United States)

    Kim, Justin; Qiu, Jinshu


    A spectrophotometric method was developed to quantify low polysorbate (PS) levels in biopharmaceutical formulations containing high protein concentrations. In the method, Oasis HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was used to extract PS from high protein concentration formulations. After loading a sample, the cartridge was washed with 4M guanidine HCl and 10% (v/v) methanol, and the retained PS was eluted by acetonitrile. Following the evaporation of acetonitrile, aqueous cobalt-thiocyanate reagent was added to react with the polyoxyethylene oxide chain of polysorbates to form a blue colored PS-cobaltothiocyante complex. This colored complex was then extracted into methylene chloride and measured spectrophotometrically at 620 nm. The method performance was evaluated on three products containing 30-40 mg L(-1) PS-20 and PS-80 in ≤70 g L(-1) protein formulations. The method was specific (no matrix interference identified in three types of protein formulations), sensitive (quantitation limit of 10 mg L(-1) PS) and robust with good precision (relative standard deviation ≤6.4%) and accuracy (spike recoveries from 95% to 101%). The linear range of the method for both PS-20 and PS-80 was 10 to 80 mg L(-1) PS. By diluting samples with 6M guanidine HCl and/or using different methylene chloride volumes to extract the colored complexes of standards and samples, the method could accurately and precisely quantify 40 mg L(-1) PS in up to 300 g L(-1) protein formulations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei; LIU Tao; Hou Guanghui; YUAN Zhi


    A series of modified poly (methyl methacrylate, PMMA) resins were prepared and compared their adsorption abilities to endotoxin. The results showed that adsorbents, which were grafted with tertiary amine and long spacing arms, had the best adsorption capacities and good blood compatibility, It is hopeful to be used as adsorbent in hemoperfusion for clinical clearance of endotoxin. The influence of original concentration of endotoxin on adsorption and the adsorption mechanism were also investigated.

  18. Composition, Structure and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrates and Isolates Produced from Walnut (Juglans regia L.

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    Xiaoying Mao


    Full Text Available In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC and protein isolate (WPI produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC and walnut protein isolate (WPI were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H0 of WPC was significantly higher ( p < 0.05 than those of DFWF and WPI, whilst WPI had a higher H0 compared to DFWF. The secondary structure of WPI was similar to WPC. WPI showed big flaky plate like structures; whereas WPC appeared as a small flaky and more compact structure. The most functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC. Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients.

  19. Review of methods for determination of total protein and peptide concentration in biological samples. (United States)

    Sapan, Christine V; Lundblad, Roger L


    Clinical proteomics can be defined as the use of proteomic technologies to identify and measure biomarkers in fluids and tissues. The current work is intended to review various methods used for the determination of the total concentration of protein or peptide in fluids and tissues and the application of such methods to clinical proteomics. Specifically, this article considers the approaches to the measurement of total protein concentration, not the measurement of the concentration of a specific protein or group of proteins in a larger mixture of proteins. The necessity of understanding various concepts such as fit-for-use, quality-by-design, and other regulatory elements is discussed, as is the significance of using suitable standards for the protein quality of various samples.

  20. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup. (United States)

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang


    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process.

  1. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

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    Bruno Fagundes


    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  2. Concentration-Induced Association in a Protein System Caused by a Highly Directional Patch Attraction. (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Lund, Mikael; Bergenholtz, Johan; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin


    Self-association of the protein lactoferrin is studied in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Effective static structure factors have been shown to exhibit either a monotonic or a nonmonotonic dependence on protein concentration in the small wavevector limit, depending on salt concentration. The behavior correlates with a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration, such that a maximum appears in the structure factor at a low protein concentration when the second virial coefficient is negative and close to a minimum. The results are interpreted in terms of an integral equation theory with explicit dimers, formulated by Wertheim, which provides a consistent framework able to explain the behavior in terms of a monomer-dimer equilibrium that appears because of a highly directional patch attraction. Short attraction ranges preclude trimer formation, which explains why the protein system behaves as if it were subject to a concentration-dependent isotropic protein-protein attraction. Superimposing an isotropic interaction, comprising screened Coulomb repulsion and van der Waals attraction, on the patch attraction allows for a semiquantitative modeling of the complete transition pathway from monomers in the dilute limit to monomer-dimer systems at somewhat higher protein concentrations.

  3. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of proteins. IV. Protein adsorption capacity and transport in preparative mode. (United States)

    To, Brian C S; Lenhoff, Abraham M


    The adsorption isotherms of four model proteins (lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, ovalbumin, and BSA) on eight commercial phenyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography media were measured. The isotherms were softer than those usually seen in ion-exchange chromatography of proteins, and the static capacities of the media were lower, ranging from 30 to 110 mg/mL, depending on the ammonium sulfate concentration and the protein and adsorbent types. The protein-accessible surface area appears to be the main factor determining the binding capacity, and little correlation was seen with the protein affinities of the adsorbents. Breakthrough experiments showed that the dynamic capacities of the adsorbents at 10% breakthrough were 20-80% of the static capacities, depending on adsorbent type. Protein diffusivities in the adsorbents were estimated from batch uptake experiments using the pore diffusion and homogeneous diffusion models. Protein transport was affected by the adsorbent pore structures. Apparent diffusivities were higher at lower salt concentrations and column loadings, suggesting that adsorbed proteins may retard intraparticle protein transport. The diffusivities estimated from the batch uptake experiments were used to predict column breakthrough behavior. Analytical solutions developed for ion-exchange systems were able to provide accurate predictions for lysozyme breakthrough but not for ovalbumin. Impurities in the ovalbumin solutions used for the breakthrough experiments may have affected the ovalbumin uptake and led to the discrepancies between the predictions and the experimental results.

  4. Effect of membrane protein concentration on binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine in human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkai, A.I.; Kowalik, S.; Baron, M.


    Binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine to platelet membranes has been implicated as a marker for depression. Comparing /sup 3/H-IMI binding between depressed patients and normal subjects we observed an increase in the dissociation constant Kd with increasing membrane protein. This phenomenon was studied more rigorously in five normal subjects. Platelet membranes were prepared and adjusted to four concentrations of protein ranging from 100 to 800 micrograms/ml. The /sup 3/H-IMI binding parameters of maximum binding sites number (Bmax) and Kd were obtained by Scatchard analysis at each membrane concentration. A positive linear relationship was found between K/sub d/ values and the concentration of membrane protein in the assay, but no change was observed in Bmax. The variability in Kd values reported in the literature may be accounted for in part by the different concentrations of membrane protein used in various studies.

  5. Comparison of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle as measured by the Bradford and Lowry assays. (United States)

    Seevaratnam, Rajini; Patel, Barkha P; Hamadeh, Mazen J


    The Lowry and Bradford assays are the most commonly used methods of total protein quantification, yet vary in several aspects. To date, no comparisons have been made in skeletal muscle. We compared total protein concentrations of mouse red and white gastrocnemius, reagent stability, protein stability and range of linearity using both assays. The Lowry averaged protein concentrations 15% higher than the Bradford with a moderate correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.01). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable bias (15.8 +/- 29.7%). Both Lowry reagents and its protein-reagent interactions were less stable over time than the Bradford. The linear range of concentration was smaller for the Lowry (0.05-0.50 mg/ml) than the Bradford (0-2.0 mg/ml). We conclude that the Bradford and Lowry measures of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle are not interchangeable. The Bradford and Lowry assays have various strengths and weaknesses in terms of substance interference and protein size. However, the Bradford provides greater reagent stability, protein-reagent stability and range of linearity, and requires less time to analyse compared to the Lowry assay.

  6. Effects of Ionic Strength on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Diluted and Concentrated Whey Protein Isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.


    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1–30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With inc

  7. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santander


    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  8. Whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake but not homocysteine plasma concentration in rats. (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Comparotto, Hugo; Jordao, Alceu Afonso


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.

  9. Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends. (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Ariahu, Charles Chukwuma; Abu, Joseph Oneh


    The chemical, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends intended for biofilm processing were studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrates were prepared and mixed at different proportions (100: 0%; 90 : 10%; 80 : 20%; 70 : 30%; 60;40% and 50: 50%). Addition of varying levels of soy protein concentrates to cassava starch led to increases in moisture (from 7.10 to 9.17%), protein ( from 0.32 to 79.03%), ash (from 0.45 to 2.67%) and fat (from 0.17 to 0.98%) contents while crude fiber, carbohydrate and amylose contents decreased from ( 1.19 to 0.38%, 90.77 to 57.01% and 29.45 to 23.04%) respectively . Water absorption capacity and swelling power of cassava starch were improved as a result of soy protein concentrate addition while syneresis and solubility value of composite blends were lower than 100% cassava starch. In general, cassava-soy protein concentrate blends formed firmer gels than cassava starch alone. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in peak viscosity (from 160.12 to 268.32RVU), final viscosity (from 140.41 to 211.08RVU) and pasting temperature (from 71.00 to 72.32 °C ) of cassava starch due to addition of soy protein concentrate. These results suggest that the addition of soy protein concentrate to cassava starch affected the studied functional properties of cassava starch as evidenced by changes such as reduced syneresis, and solubility that are desirable when considering this biopolymer as an edible biofilm.

  10. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G.; Heilmann, Romy M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, JöRg M.; Burgener, Iwan A.


    Results—Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum a1-proteinase inhibitor concentra

  11. Influence of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats. (United States)

    Zhang, X; Beynen, A C


    The effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. The isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, Ca, Mg and P in the protein preparations. Cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g N/kg diet. Extra protein was added to the diet at the expense of the glucose component. In a second experiment soya-bean protein, casein, cod meal, whiting meal or plaice meal was added to the diet at a level of 24 g N/kg. When compared with casein, cod meal and soya-bean protein decreased plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. A further cholesterol-lowering effect was achieved by increasing the proportion of either soya-bean protein or cod meal in the diet. Substitution of casein for glucose did not influence plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Plaice meal in the diet produced lower group mean plasma cholesterol concentrations than did whiting meal. In rats fed on the diet containing plaice meal, liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than those in their counterparts fed on either cod meal or whiting meal. The present study demonstrates that different fish proteins in the diet have different effects on cholesterol metabolism and that the cholesterol-influencing properties of cod meal can be enhanced by the incorporation of higher proportions of this protein in the diet.

  12. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk. (United States)

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B


    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC.

  13. Determination of CKMB Activity and Protein Concentration and Their Application in the Diagnosis of AMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The activity and protein concentration of CKMB in 19 patients with AMI, 17 non-AMI patients and 26 normal persons. It was found that both peak times in patients with AMI and nonAMI patients were similar but the peak values were different. At peak values, the F value of CKMB (5. 3) was much lower than that of CKMB protein concentration (50. 1). We are led to conclude that the measurement of CKMB protein level can identify AMI much earlier than that of CKMB activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  15. Concentrated dispersions of equilibrium protein nanoclusters that reversibly dissociate into active monomers (United States)

    Truskett, Thomas M.; Johnston, Keith; Maynard, Jennifer; Borwankar, Ameya; Miller, Maria; Wilson, Brian; Dinin, Aileen; Khan, Tarik; Kaczorowski, Kevin


    Stabilizing concentrated protein solutions is of wide interest in drug delivery. However, a major challenge is how to reliably formulate concentrated, low viscosity (i.e., syringeable) solutions of biologically active proteins. Unfortunately, proteins typically undergo irreversible aggregation at intermediate concentrations of 100-200 mg/ml. In this talk, I describe how they can effectively avoid these intermediate concentrations by reversibly assembling into nanoclusters. Nanocluster assembly is achieved by balancing short-ranged, cosolute-induced attractions with weak, longer-ranger electrostatic repulsions near the isoelectric point. Theory predicts that native proteins are stabilized by a self-crowding mechanism within the concentrated environment of the nanoclusters, while weak cluster-cluster interactions can result in colloidally-stable dispersions with moderate viscosities. I present experimental results where this strategy is used to create concentrated antibody dispersions (up to 260 mg/ml) comprising nanoclusters of proteins [monoclonal antibody 1B7, polyclonal sheep Immunoglobin G and bovine serum albumin], which upon dilution in vitro or administration in vivo, are conformationally stable and retain activity.


    Northrop, J H


    1. It is pointed out that the apparent exceptions to the law of mass action found in enzyme reactions may be found in catalytic reactions in strictly homogeneous solutions. 2. These deviations in the rate of reaction from the law of mass action may be explained by the hypothesis that the active mass of the reacting substances is not directly proportional to the total concentration of substance taken. 3. In support of this suggestion it is shown that for any given concentration of pepsin the relative rate of digestion of concentrated and of dilute protein solutions is always the same. If the rate of digestion depended on the saturation of the surface of the enzyme by substrate the relative rate of digestion of concentrated protein solutions should increase more rapidly with the concentration of enzyme than that of dilute solutions. This was found not to be true, even when the enzyme could not be considered saturated in the dilute protein solutions. 4. The rate of digestion and the conductivity of egg albumin solutions of different concentration were found to be approximately proportional at the same pH. This agrees with the hypothesis first expressed by Pauli that the ionized protein is largely or entirely the form which is attacked by the enzyme. 5. The rate of digestion is diminished by a very large increase in the viscosity of the protein solution. This effect is probably a mechanical one due to the retardation of the diffusion of the enzyme.

  17. Arrest scenarios in concentrated protein solutions - from hard sphere glasses to arrested spinodal decomposition (United States)

    Stradner, Anna; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Casal, Lucia; Foffi, Giuseppe; Thurston, George; Farago, Bela; Schurtenberger, Peter


    The occurrence of an arrest transition in concentrated colloid suspensions and its dependence on the interaction potential is a hot topic in soft matter. Such arrest transitions can also occur in concentrated protein solutions, as they exist e.g. in biological cells or are increasingly used in pharmaceutical formulations. Here we demonstrate the applicability of concepts from colloid science to understand the dynamics of concentrated protein solutions. In this presentation we report a combination of 3D light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and neutron spin echo measurements to study the structural properties as well as the collective and self diffusion of proteins in highly concentrated solutions on the relevant length and time scales. We demonstrate that various arrest scenarios indeed exist for different globular proteins. The proteins chosen are different bovine lens crystallins. We report examples of hard and attractive glass transitions and arrested spinodal decomposition directly linked to the effective pair potentials determined in static scattering experiments for the different proteins. We discuss these different arrest scenarios in view of possible applications of dense protein solutions as well as in view of their possible relevance for living systems.

  18. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies. (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S


    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality.

  19. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris (United States)

    Sun, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Niu, L. P.; Jiang, R.; Song, Y.; Feng, H.; feng, K.; Qi, C.


    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  20. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage. (United States)

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K; Kumar, Jitendra


    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredients range used for this formulation comprised of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 4-8 g, Cane sugar 10-20 g and Guar gum (stabilizer) 0.75-1.25 g in 100 g of concentrated tomato juice. The most preferred reconstituted beverage was obtained from the formulation developed with WPC 4.98 g, sugar 15.71 g and Guar gum 0.93 g added to 100 g tomato juice concentrate.

  1. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis

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    Paulus Aran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE. Results Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS, which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. Conclusion The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein

  2. Variations in the concentration of total human milk proteins in the first month of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Marija


    Full Text Available Introduction. Human milk proteins are maximally adapted to physiological needs of a neonate. Thus, depending on the speed of the neonatal growth and development, the content of milk proteins changes, both in quantity and quality. Objective. The study was conducted in order to determine variations of total protein concentrations in milk in the first and third lactation week in lactating mothers of term and preterm neonates. Also, we analyzed the influence of the mode of delivery, neonatal Apgar score and parity on the concentration of human milk proteins in both lactation phases. Method. The study aims were evaluated on the sample of 48 women, of whom 33 were mothers of term neonates and 15 of neonates born between the 34th to 37th gestational weeks. Total protein level of the lactation milk from the middle phase was determined using the standard laboratory method (Lowry et al., 1951, and the obtained differences were analyzed by t-test. Results. Total protein concentration in term colostrum was 17.60-45.17 g/l (X=24.71±5.19, while in preterm colostrum it was 28.39-73.30 g/l (X=39.17±11.08. The total protein level of mature milk in women who had term delivery was 11.90-22.11 g/l (X=16.39±2.96, while in women who had preterm delivery it was 14.50-44.19 g/l (X=23.25±8.96. The obtained results indicated that total protein concentration in women who had preterm delivery was significantly higher than that of women who had term delivery, both in the colostral and mature phase of lactation. (p<0.01. Also, the difference in the protein concentration was statistically highly significant (p<0.01 in the colostral and mature phase of lactation, both in women who had term and preterm delivery. Variations in the total protein level of human milk were not significant, depending on the prematurity stage, the mode and severity of delivery and parity, both in the first and third week of lactation. Conclusion. Our results show that total protein concentration

  3. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg


    Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... was higher in the VEG diet than in the FM diet (93 versus 92%; t-test, Pb0.05), supporting that protease inhibitors from plant protein ingredients were not the cause of the delay. The apparent digestibility coefficient of carbohydrates (calculated as nitrogen-free extract (NFE)) was much lower in the VEG...... with plant based protein ingredients...

  4. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  5. Minimum inhibitory concentration of irradiated silk protein powder for bacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuntivisoottikul, Kunya; Bunnak, Jintana [King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Chaokhun Taharn Ladkrabang, Faculty of Industrial Education, Dept. of Agricultural Educaiton, Bangkok (Thailand); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    The objective of this research was to study a minimum concentration level of irradiated silk protein powder, which inhibited bacterial activity. The concentration of 100 kGy irradiated silk protein powder (ISP) solution was ranged from 5 to 15% in distilled water. The activities of three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli B/r, Bacillus subtilis M3-1 and Staphylococcus aureus K, were tested by using minimum inhibition concentration method (MIC). The results indicated that the minimum concentration level that inhibited growth of E. coli B/r and S. aureus K was 5% ISP and all concentration levels studied could not inhibit the Bacilus subtilis M3-1 activity. (author)

  6. Studies on The Adsorption Capacity for Bilirubin of The Adsorbent Chitosan-β-Cyclodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The adsorbent crosslinked chitosan-β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was prepared by the reaction of glutaraldehyde with chitosan and β-cyclodextrin. This type of adsorbent has high adsorption capacity for unconjugated bilirubin. The adsorption capacity was related to the β-CD content of the adsorbent; phosphate buffer concentration; temperature; pH value; ionic strength and the adsorbent beads. The results indicated that the chitosan-β-CD was a good adsorbent for unconjugated bilirubin with high capacity.

  7. Shape, shell, and vacuole formation during the drying of a single concentrated whey protein droplet. (United States)

    Sadek, Céline; Tabuteau, Hervé; Schuck, Pierre; Fallourd, Yannick; Pradeau, Nicolas; Le Floch-Fouéré, Cécile; Jeantet, Romain


    The drying of milk concentrate droplets usually leads to specific particle morphology influencing their properties and their functionality. Understanding how the final shape of the particle is formed therefore represents a key issue for industrial applications. In this study, a new approach to the investigation of droplet-particle conversion is proposed. A single droplet of concentrated globular proteins extracted from milk was deposited onto a hydrophobic substrate and placed in a dry environment. Complementary methods (high-speed camera, confocal microscopy, and microbalance) were used to record the drying behavior of the concentrated protein droplets. Our results showed that whatever the initial concentration, particle formation included three dynamic stages clearly defined by the loss of mass and the evolution of the internal and external shapes of the droplet. A new and reproducible particle shape was related in this study. It was observed after drying a smooth, hemispherical cap-shaped particle, including a uniform protein shell and the nucleation of an internal vacuole. The particle morphology was strongly influenced by the drying environment, the contact angle, and the initial protein concentration, all of which governed the duration of the droplet shrinkage, the degree of buckling, and the shell thickness. These results are discussed in terms of specific protein behaviors in forming a predictable and a characteristic particle shape. The way the shell is formed may be the starting point in shaping particle distortion and thus represents a potential means of tuning the particle morphology.

  8. Effects of protein and phosphate buffer concentrations on thermal denaturation of lysozyme analyzed by isoconversional method. (United States)

    Cao, X M; Tian, Y; Wang, Z Y; Liu, Y W; Wang, C X


    Thermal denaturation of lysozymes was studied as a function of protein concentration, phosphate buffer concentration, and scan rate using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which was then analyzed by the isoconversional method. The results showed that lysozyme thermal denaturation was only slightly affected by the protein concentration and scan rate. When the protein concentration and scan rate increased, the denaturation temperature (Tm) also increased accordingly. On the contrary, the Tm decreased with the increase of phosphate buffer concentration. The denaturation process of lysozymes was accelatated and the thermal stability was reduced with the increase of phosphate concentration. One part of degeneration process was not reversible where the aggregation occurred. The other part was reversible. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was computed by the isoconversional method. It decreased with the increase of the conversion ratio (α). The observed denaturation process could not be described by a simple reaction mechanism. It was not a process involving 2 standard reversible states, but a multi-step process. The new opportunities for investigating the kinetics process of protein denaturation can be supplied by this novel isoconversional method.

  9. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

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    Mariana Soares


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  10. Functional properties and sensory testing of whey protein concentrate sweetened with rebaudioside A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gimenez MILANI


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To develop a natural dietary product with functional benefits for diabetic patients. Whey protein concentrate was obtained through the separation membrane processes and sweetened with rebaudioside A. This product was submitted to sensory testing in humans and used to evaluate possible functional properties in male Wistar rats models with diabetesMellitus induced by streptozotocin. Methods: Two concentrates were produced. Only the second showed protein content of 74.3 and 17.3% of lactose was used as supplementation in induced diabetic rats. This concentrate was obtained from the concentration by reverse osmosis system (180 k Daltons, followed by nanofiltration in a 500 k Daltons membrane and spray drying at 5.0% solution of the first concentrate developed. The concentrate was sweetened with rebaudioside A (rebaudioside A 26 mg/100 g concentrate. All procedures were performed at the Center for Studies in Natural Products, at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Three experimental groups were established (n=6: two groups of diabetic animals, one control group and one supplemented group; and a control group of normal mice (non-diabetic. The supplemented group received concentrates sweetened with rebaudioside A in a dose of 100 mg/kg bw/day by an esophageal tube for 35 days. Fasting, the fed state and body weight were assessed weekly for all groups. At the end of the supplementation period, the following were analyzed: plasma parameters of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and fructosamine; the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, water and food intake. Organs and tissues were removed and weighed to assess mass and anatomical changes. Results: The product presented 74% of proteins and 17% of lactose and showed satisfactory sensory testing by the addition of 26 mg of rebaudioside A/100 g concentrate. Supplementation of the product reduced hyperglycemia, plasma fructosamine levels

  11. Heterotrimeric G protein participated in modulation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in pollen cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Zhonglin; MA Ligeng; WANG Xuechen; SUN Daye


    Cytoplasmic free calcium concentration([Ca2+]c) in pollen cells of Lilium daviddi is measured with confocal laser scanning microscopy to investigate the effect of heterotrimeric G protein (G protein) on [Ca2+]c and the possible signal transduction pathway of G protein triggering cellular calcium signal. After application, cholera toxin (CTX), an agonist of G protein, triggers a transient increase of [Ca2+]c in pollen cells, and evokes a spatial-temporal characteristic calcium dynamics; while pertussis toxin (PTX), a G protein antagonist, leads to the decrease of [Ca2+]c. Both L-type Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil and inhibitor of IP3 receptor heparin inhibit CTX-induced [Ca2+]c increase. The results show that G protein may play a role in the modulation of [Ca2+]c through enhancing the extracellular Ca2+ influx and releasing of Ca2+ from intracellular stores.

  12. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A


    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  13. Brown pigment formation in heated sugar-protein mixed suspensions containing unmodified and peptically modified whey protein concentrates. (United States)

    Rongsirikul, Narumol; Hongsprabhas, Parichat


    Commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC) was modified by heating the acidified protein suspensions (pH 2.0) at 80 °C for 30 min and treating with pepsin at 37 °C for 60 min. Prior to spray-drying, such modification did not change the molecular weights (MWs) of whey proteins determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After spray-drying the modified whey protein concentrate with trehalose excipient (MWPC-TH), it was found that the α-lactalbumin (α-La) was the major protein that was further hydrolyzed the most. The reconstituted MWPC-TH contained β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the major protein and small molecular weight (MW) peptides of less than 6.5 kDa. The reconstituted MWPC-TH had higher NH2 group, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lower exposed aromatic ring and thiol (SH) contents than did the commercial WPC. Kinetic studies revealed that the addition of MWPC-TH in fructose-glycine solution was able to reduce brown pigment formation in the mixtures heated at 80 to 95 °C by increasing the activation energy (Ea) of brown pigment formation due to the retardation of fluoresced advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation. The addition of MWPC to reducing sugar-glycine/commercial WPC was also able to lower brown pigment formation in the sterilized (121 °C, 15 min) mixed suspensions containing 0.1 M reducing sugar and 0.5-1.0 % glycine and/or commercial (P hydrolyzed α-La and retained β-Lg for the production of antibrowning whey protein concentrate.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yishi; QIU Zhiyong; HONG Yaoliang


    Six different N-alkyl substituted acrylamide nonionic hydrogels were prepared and their swelling characteristics were measured. Poly N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPA) and poly N-n-propylacrylamide (PNNPA) temperature sensitive hydrogels were chosen as the nonionic temperature sensitive hydrogels for concentration of very dilute aqueous protein solution. The separation properties of PNIPA and PNNPA hydrogels with different network dimensions were studied and the modification of the hydrogels was surveyed in order to decrease their surface adsorption of protein molecules. The experimental results of the concentration of BSA (Bovin serum albumin) dilute aqueous solution by hydroxylpropyl methacrylate (HPMA) copolymerized PNIPA hydrogel were given. The value and the limitation of concentration of dilute aqueous protein solution by this method was evaluated.

  15. The characteristics of the FCHA for adsorbing BSA in different solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Rui-hong; FANG Yu; DING Ning; NIU Jing-lu; YANG Hai-ling


    @@ INTRODUCTION It has been done the researches on interaction of proteins with biomaterials. Hydroxyapatite[HA] has excellent characteristics for adsorbing and desorbing biopolymers without denaturation because of high bioaffinity and biocompatibility. Therebyit has been applied as an adsorbent.

  16. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves


    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Armando U.O. SABAA-SRUR; Moura, Luciana S M


    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  17. Effect of extraction method on functional properties of flaxseed protein concentrates. (United States)

    Tirgar, Mina; Silcock, Patrick; Carne, Alan; Birch, E John


    Physicochemical (zeta potential (ζ), conductivity, surface hydrophobicity (H0), protein solubility (PS)) and emulsifying (emulsion capacity (EC), droplet size, polydispersity (PDI), emulsifying activity (EAI), and stability (ESI) indexes) properties of alkali-(A-FPC), enzymatic-(E-FPC), and enzymatic-solvent-(ES-FPC) extracted protein concentrates from flaxseed meal (FM) were investigated and compared to commercial pea protein concentrate (PPC). The yield, composition, and properties of the protein concentrates were significantly influenced by the methods of extraction. All emulsions were similar in polydispersity with mono-modal droplet distribution and size of ⩽0.43μm that carried a net negative charge at neutral conditions (pH 7.0). A-FPC showed significantly higher H0 (66.14) than that of ES-FPC (52.63), and E-FPC (43.27) and was comparable to PPC (68.47). The highest solubility was found for E-FPC followed by A-FPC at neutral pH. A-FPC displayed significantly (p<0.05) the highest EC (87.91%), EAI (87.18m(2)/g) and ESI (12.51min) compared to the other protein concentrates.

  18. Relaxation rate for an ultrafast folding protein is independent of chemical denaturant concentration. (United States)

    Cellmer, Troy; Henry, Eric R; Kubelka, Jan; Hofrichter, James; Eaton, William A


    The connection between free-energy surfaces and chevron plots has been investigated in a laser temperature jump kinetic study of a small ultrafast folding protein, the 35-residue subdomain from the villin headpiece. Unlike all other proteins that have been studied so far, no measurable dependence of the unfolding/refolding relaxation rate on denaturant concentration was observed over a wide range of guanidinium chloride concentration. Analysis with a simple Ising-like theoretical model shows that this denaturant-invariant relaxation rate can be explained by a large movement of the major free energy barrier, together with a denaturant- and reaction coordinate-dependent diffusion coefficient.

  19. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) protein concentrates: functional and rheological properties. (United States)

    Tatar, F; Tunç, M T; Kahyaoglu, T


    Turkish Tombul hazelnut consumed as natural or processed forms were evaluated to obtain protein concentrate. Defatted hazelnut flour protein (DHFP) and defatted hazelnut cake protein (DHCP) were produced from defatted hazelnut flour (DHF) and defatted hazelnut cake (DHC), respectively. The functional properties (protein solubility, emulsifying properties, foaming capacity, and colour), and dynamic rheological characteristics of protein concentrates were measured. The protein contents of samples varied in the range of 35-48 % (w/w, db) and 91-92 % (w/w, db) for DHF/DHC and DHFP/DHCP samples, respectively. The significant difference for water/fat absorption capacity, emulsion stability between DHF and DHC were determined. On the other hand, the solubility and emulsion activity of DHF and DHC were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Emulsion stability of DHFP (%46) was higher than that of DHCP (%35) but other functional properties were found similar. According to these results, the DHCP could be used as DHFP in food product formulations. The DHFP and DHCP samples showed different apparent viscosity at the same temperature and concentration, the elastic modulus (G' value) of DHPC was also found higher than that of DHFP samples.

  20. Predictive response surface model for heat-induced rheological changes and aggregation of whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro A; Emond, Charles; Gomaa, Ahmed; Remondetto, Gabriel E; Subirade, Muriel


    Whey proteins are now far more than a by-product of cheese processing. In the last 2 decades, food manufacturers have developed them as ingredients, with the dairy industry remaining as a major user. For many applications, whey proteins are modified (denatured) to alter their structure and functional properties. The objective of this research was to study the influence of 85 to 100 °C, with protein concentration of 8% to 12%, and treatment times of 5 to 30 min, while measuring rheological properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity) and aggregation (intermolecular beta-sheet formation) in dispersions of whey protein concentrate (WPC). A Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology modeled the heat denaturation of liquid sweet WPC at 3 variables and 3 levels. The model revealed a very significant fit for viscoelastic properties, and a lesser fit for protein aggregation, at temperatures not previously studied. An exponential increase of rheological parameters was governed by protein concentration and temperature, while a modest linear relationship of aggregation was governed by temperature. Models such as these can serve as valuable guides to the ingredient and dairy industries to develop target products, as whey is a major ingredient in many functional foods.

  1. Comparing serum responses to acute feedings of an extensively hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate versus a native whey protein concentrate in rats: a metabolomics approach. (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Lockwood, Christopher M; Pappan, Kirk; Childs, Thomas E; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Booth, Frank W


    We examined how gavage feeding extensively hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) versus a native whey protein concentrate (WPC) transiently affected serum biochemical profiles in rodents. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were 8 h fasted and subsequently fed isonitrogenous amounts of WPH or WPC, or remained unfed (control). Animals were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post-gavage for serum extraction, and serum was analyzed using untargeted global metabolic profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS platforms. We detected 333 serum metabolites amongst the experimental and control groups. Both WPH and WPC generally increased amino acids (1.2-2.8-fold), branched-chain amino acids (1.2-1.7-fold), and serum di- and oligo-peptides (1.1-2.7-fold) over the 60 min time course compared with control (q protein sources led to a dramatic increase in free fatty acids compared with control (up to 6-fold increases, q protein sources.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved functional properties. (United States)

    Lim, S-Y; Swanson, B G; Clark, S


    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has many applications in the food industry. Previous research demonstrated that treatment of whey proteins with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can enhance solubility and foaming properties of whey proteins. The objective of this study was to use HHP to improve functional properties of fresh WPC, compared with functional properties of reconstituted commercial whey protein concentrate 35 (WPC 35) powder. Fluid whey was ultrafiltered to concentrate proteins and reconstituted to equivalent total solids (8.23%) as reconstituted commercial WPC 35 powder. Solutions of WPC were treated with 300 and 400 MPa (0- and 15-min holding time) and 600 MPa (0-min holding time) pressure. After HHP, the solubility of the WPC was determined at both pH 4.6 and 7.0 using UDY and BioRad protein assay methods. Overrun and foam stability were determined after protein dispersions were whipped for 15 min. The protein solubility was greater at pH 7.0 than at pH 4.6, but there were no significant differences at different HHP treatment conditions. The maintenance of protein solubility after HHP indicates that HHP-treated WPC might be appropriate for applications to food systems. Untreated WPC exhibited the smallest overrun percentage, whereas the largest percentage for overrun and foam stability was obtained for WPC treated at 300 MPa for 15 min. Additionally, HHP-WPC treated at 300 MPa for 15 min acquired larger overrun than commercial WPC 35. The HHP treatment of 300 MPa for 0 min did not improve foam stability of WPC. However, WPC treated at 300 or 400 MPa for 15 min and 600 MPa for 0 min exhibited significantly greater foam stability than commercial WPC 35. The HHP treatment was beneficial to enhance overrun and foam stability of WPC, showing promise for ice cream and whipping cream applications.

  3. Effect of protein concentrations on the properties of fish myofibrillar protein based film compared with PVC film. (United States)

    Kaewprachu, Pimonpan; Osako, Kazufumi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat


    The effect of protein concentrations on the properties of fish myofibrillar protein film (FMP) were investigated and compared with commercial wrap film (polyvinyl chloride; PVC). FMP (2 %, w/v) showed the highest mechanical properties [tensile strength: 4.38 MPa and elongation at break: 133.05 %], and water vapor permeability [2.81 × 10(-10) g m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1)]. FMP contained high molecular weight cross-links, resulting in complex film network, as indicated by lower film solubility (19-22 %) and protein solubility (0.6-1.3 %). FMP showed excellent barrier properties to UV light at the wavelength of 200-280 nm. FMP had the thickness [0.007-0.032 mm], color attributes and transparency similar to PVC film [thickness: 0.010 mm]. Therefore, protein concentration majority influenced the properties of develop FMP. The protein content of 1 % (w/v) had potential to be developed the biodegradable film with comparable properties to the commercial wrap film.

  4. DNA binding during expanded bed adsorption and factors affecting adsorbent aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Mathiasen, N.; Hobley, Timothy John


    tolerance of anion exchangers when binding DNA. However, more importantly. with the adsorbents examined here. attempts to reduce bed aggregation by feedstock conditioning with added salt may increase DNA binding leading to a reduction in expanded bed adsorption performance compromising protein capture...... ligand densities to be examined. Very high dynamic binding capacities at 10% breakthrough were found in the absence of added salt. However, the highest binding capacities (similar to 10 and similar to 19mg DNA ml(-1) gel) were found in buffers containing added salt at concentrations of either 0.25 or 0......) even though the dynamic binding capacity was reduced as DNA concentration was increased. The extent of bed contraction during DNA loading was found to be a function of added salt concentration and ligand density of the adsorbent. The results imply that ligand density significantly affects the salt...

  5. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability. (United States)

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K


    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (Piron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (Piron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source.

  6. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration. (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M


    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  7. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  8. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.; Houweling, M.; Schonewille, J. T.; Tielens, A. G. M.; Jorritsma, R.


    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period. Thirt

  9. Changes in volatile compounds in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity (United States)

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been recommended for use in emergency aid programs, but it is often stored overseas without temperature and relative humidity (RH) control, which may cause it to be rejected because of yellowing, off-flavors, or clumping. Therefore, the volatile compounds present ...

  10. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration. (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V


    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  11. Investigation of whey protein concentration by ultrafiltration elements designed for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukučka Miroslav Đ.


    Full Text Available Suitability of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (UFM commercial designed for water treatment have been investigated for separation of protein (PR from sweet whey. Ultrafiltration (UF of whey originated from dairy has been realized by self-made pilot plant which has been in service about one year. Influence of two whey temperatures (9 oC and 30 oC on efficiency of protein concentration has been examined. Application of investigated UF elements has given whey protein concentrate (WPC with 5 to 6 times excess amount of protein content in regard to starting one. In the same time the prevalent content of lactose has been removed to permeate. Better results have been occurred during the cold whey filtration. Besides the fact that molecular weight cut-off (MWCO of investigated membranes were 50-100 kDa, results showed very successful concentrating of whey proteins of dominantly lower molar weights than 50-100 kDa. Investigated membranes are beneficial for design and construction of UF plants for exploitation in small dairies.

  12. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese. (United States)

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A


    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield.

  13. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.


    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  14. A multiple path photonic lab on a chip for parallel protein concentration measurements. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Ackermann, Tobias N; Gavira, José A; Llobera, Andreu


    We propose a PDMS-based photonic system for the accurate measurement of protein concentration with minute amounts of the sample. As opposed to the state of the art approach, in the multiple path photonic lab on a chip (MPHIL), analyte concentration or molar absorptivity is obtained with a single injection step, by performing simultaneous parallel optical measurements varying the optical path length. Also, as opposed to the standard calibration protocol, the MPHIL approach does not require a series of measurements at different concentrations. MPHIL has three main advantages: firstly the possibility of dynamically selecting the path length, always working in the absorbance vs. concentration linear range for each target analyte. Secondly, a dramatic reduction of the total volume of the sample required to obtain statistically reliable results. Thirdly, since only one injection is required, the measurement time is minimized, reducing both contamination and signal drifts. These characteristics are clearly advantageous when compared to commercial micro-spectrophotometers. The MPHIL concept was validated by testing three commercial proteins, lysozyme (HEWL), glucose isomerase (d-xylose-ketol-isomerase, GI) and Aspergillus sp. lipase L (BLL), as well as two proteins expressed and purified for this study, B. cereus formamidase (FASE) and dihydropyrimidinase from S. meliloti CECT41 (DHP). The use of MPHIL is also proposed for any spectrophotometric measurement in the UV-VIS range, as well as for its integration as a concentration measurement platform in more advanced photonic lab on a chip systems.

  15. Effects of ionic strength on the enzymatic hydrolysis of diluted and concentrated whey protein isolate. (United States)

    Butré, Claire I; Wierenga, Peter A; Gruppen, Harry


    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1-30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With increasing concentration, both the hydrolysis rate and the final DH decreased, from 0.14 to 0.015 s(-1) and from 24 to 15%, respectively. The presence of 0.5 M NaCl decreased the rate of hydrolysis for low concentrations (to 0.018 s(-1) for 1% WPI), resulting in similar rates of hydrolysis for all substrate concentrations. The conductivity increase (by increasing the protein concentration, or by addition of NaCl) has significant effects on the hydrolysis kinetics, but the reason for this is not yet well understood. The results show the importance of conductivity as a factor that influences the kinetics of the hydrolysis, as well as the composition of the hydrolysates.

  16. Assessment of dairy cow energy status using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela


    Full Text Available One of the ways to make an assessment of the energy status of cows in lactation is to consider the results obtained from the evaluation of the concentrations of organic milk components. The advantages of this method are that the taking of milk samples is not stressful for the cow and that it is also possible to use the results of milk examinations carried out by dairy plants within regular control. A bulk milk sample from all individual cows can be used, or an individual milk sample. In farms that have herds of unequal genetic potential, it is preferable to assess the energy status by analyzing the results for individual samples, because each animals is assessed individually in that way. Furthermore, the use of individual milk samples is recommended at newly-established farms in order to facilitate the establishment of reference values for the herd. The energy status of cows is assessed using the milk samples by analyzing fat, protein and urea concentrations and their mutual ratios. Fat and protein concentrations in cow milk vary depending on the breed, the diet, age, stage of lactation, and the season of the year. A fat content lower than the physiological values can be expected in cases of unfavourable diet of the cows during the period around calving or rumen acidosis, and it can be expected to be higher during ketotic conditions. A higher protein content in milk can be expected during a high-protein, and a lower one during a low-protein diet of the cows. The physiological concentration of urea in milk depends on nutritive factors, the season, age, stage of lactation, and body mass. Specifically, older cows, cows in advanced lactation, and cows in the summer period tend to have higher values for urea concentration in milk. Among nutritive factors, the most important is the ratio between energy and proteins in the cow feed ration. In cases when protein content in milk is optimal or above the recommended values but the energy supply is lower

  17. A fully genetically encoded protein architecture for optical control of peptide ligand concentration (United States)

    Schmidt, Daniel; Tillberg, Paul W.; Chen, Fei; Boyden, Edward S.


    Ion channels are among the most important proteins in biology, regulating the activity of excitable cells and changing in diseases. Ideally it would be possible to actuate endogenous ion channels, in a temporally precise and reversible manner, and without requiring chemical cofactors. Here we present a modular protein architecture for fully genetically encoded, light-modulated control of ligands that modulate ion channels of a targeted cell. Our reagent, which we call a lumitoxin, combines a photoswitch and an ion channel-blocking peptide toxin. Illumination causes the photoswitch to unfold, lowering the toxin's local concentration near the cell surface, and enabling the ion channel to function. We explore lumitoxin modularity by showing operation with peptide toxins that target different voltage-dependent K+ channels. The lumitoxin architecture may represent a new kind of modular protein-engineering strategy for designing light-activated proteins, and thus may enable development of novel tools for modulating cellular physiology.

  18. Impact of Dietary Protein Concentration and Quality on Immune Function of Cats (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Kohn, Barbara; Doherr, Marcus G.; Zentek, Jürgen


    Protein levels and quality in cat food can vary significantly and might affect immune function in various ways. In the present study, 3 diets with a low protein quality (LQ) and 3 diets with a high protein quality (HQ) were offered to 10 healthy adult cats for 6 weeks each, using a randomized cross-over design. The LQ and HQ diets differed in the collagen content and had low (36.7% and 36.2%), medium (45.0% and 43.3%) and high (56.1% and 54.9%) protein levels. At the end of each feeding period, blood was collected for phenotyping of leukocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine measurements, phagocytosis assay and differential blood count. The results demonstrated no group differences for numbers of CD4+CD8-, CD4+CD8+, CD4-CD8+, MHCII+, CD21+, SWC3+ and CD14+ cells in the blood of the cats. Proliferative activity of lymphocytes when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A and Phytohemagglutinin, M form did not differ depending on the dietary protein concentration and quality. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the supernatant of the proliferation assay were also not affected by the dietary treatment. Blood monocyte phagocytic activity was higher (P = 0.048) and cell numbers of eosinophilic granulocytes in the blood were lower (P = 0.047) when cats were fed the low protein diets. In conclusion, only a few differences in feline immune cell populations and activity depending on dietary protein supply could be detected. However, the observed increase of eosinophilic granulocytes by a higher protein intake indicates an activation of immunological mechanisms and requires further investigation. PMID:28072882

  19. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.


    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  20. The effects of high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration of Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Yuan; YAO Meng-hao; LI Yuan; WEN Yu-jin; ZHANG Xiang; CHEN De-hua


    Higher bol worm survival rates were detected after high temperature presented during square period in Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high temperature level on the Bt efifcacy of two different types of Bt cotton cultivars at squaring stage. During the 2011 to 2013 cotton growth seasons, high temperature treatments ranged from 34 to 44°C in climate chambers, and ifeld experiments under high temperature weather with various temperature levels were conducted to investigate the effects of the high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration and nitrogen metabolism. The climate chamber experiments showed that the square insecticidal protein contents reduced after 24 h elevated temperature treatments for both cultivars, whereas signiifcant declines of the square insecticidal protein contents were detected at temperature >38°C, and only slightly numerical reductions were observed when temperature below 38°C. Similar high temperature responses were also observed at the two ifeld experimental sites in 2013. Correspondingly, high temperature below 38°C seems have little effect on the square amino acid concentrations, soluble protein contents, glutam-ic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities as wel as protease and peptidase activities; however, when the temperature was above 38°C, reduced soluble protein contents, enhanced amino acid con-centrations, decreased GPT and GOT activities, bolstered protease and peptidase activities in square were detected. In general, the higher the temperature is (>38°C), the larger the changes for the above compound contents and key enzymes activities of the square protein cycle. The ifndings indicated that the unstable insect resistance of the square was related to high temperature level during square stage.

  1. Bio-regeneration of π-complexation desulfurization adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wangliang; XING; Jianmin; XIONG; Xiaochao; SHAN; Guob


    The coupling of adsorption desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new approach to produce clean fuels. Sulfur compounds are firstly adsorbed on adsorbents, and then the adsorbents are regenerated by microbial conversion. π-Complexation adsorbent, Cu(Ⅰ)-Y, was obtained by ion exchanging Y-type zeolite with Cu2+ and then by auto-reduction in helium at 450℃ for 3 h. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) was used as a model compound. The effects of cell concentration, volume of oil phase, the ratio of aqueous phase to adsorbent on DBT desorption by a bacterium were studied. The amounts of DBT desorbed and 2-HBP produced can be apparently increased with addition of n-octane. BDS activity can be improved by increasing cell concentration and the ratio of water-to-adsorbent. 89% of DBT desorbed from the adsorbents can be converted to 2-HBP within 6 h and almost 100% within 24 h, when the volume ratio of oil-to-water was 1/5 mL/mL, the cell concentration was 60 g·L-1, and the ratio of adsorbent-to-oil was 0.03 g·mL-1. The amount of 2-HBP produced was strongly dependent on the volume ratio of oil-to- water, cell concentration and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbent is 95% that of the fresh one after being desorbed with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8, washed with n-octane, dried at 100℃ for 24 h and auto-reduced in He.

  2. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis


    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  3. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  4. Mobility of adsorbed Cry1Aa insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on montmorillonite measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) (United States)

    Helassa, Nordine; Daudin, Gabrielle; Noinville, Sylvie; Janot, Jean-Marc; Déjardin, Philippe; Staunton, Siobhán; Quiquampoix, Hervé


    The insecticidal toxins produced by genetically modified Bt crops are introduced into soil through root exudates and tissue decomposition and adsorb readily on soil components, especially on clays. This immobilisation and the consequent concentration of the toxins in "hot spots" could increase the exposure of soil organisms. Whereas the effects on non-target organisms are well documented, few studies consider the migration of the toxin in soil. In this study, the residual mobility of Bt Cry1Aa insecticidal toxin adsorbed on montmorillonite was assessed using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This technique, which is usually used to study dynamics of cytoplasmic and membrane molecules in live cells, was applied for the first time to a protein adsorbed on a finely divided swelling clay mineral, montmorillonite. No mobility of adsorbed toxin was observed at any pH and at different degrees of surface saturation.

  5. Growth rate hypothesis and efficiency of protein synthesis under different sulphate concentrations in two green algae. (United States)

    Giordano, Mario; Palmucci, Matteo; Raven, John A


    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) predicts a positive correlation between growth rate and RNA content because growth depends upon the protein synthesis machinery. The application of this hypothesis to photoautotrophic organisms has been questioned. We tested the GRH on one prasinophycean, Tetraselmis suecica, and one chlorophycean, Dunaliella salina, grown at three sulphate concentrations. Sulphate was chosen because its concentration in the oceans increased through geological time and apparently had a role in the evolutionary trajectories of phytoplankton. Cell protein content and P quota were positively related to the RNA content (r = 0.62 and r = 0.74, respectively). The correlation of the RNA content with growth rates (r = 0.95) indicates that the GRH was valid for these species when growth rates were below 0.82 d(-1) .

  6. Effect of protein and glycerol concentration on the mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties of canola protein isolate-based edible films. (United States)

    Chang, Chang; Nickerson, Michael T


    Biodegradable edible films prepared using proteins are both economically and environmentally important to the food packaging industry relative to traditional petroleum-derived synthetic materials. In the present study, the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of casted canola protein isolate edible films were investigated as a function of protein (5.0% and 7.5%) and glycerol (30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) content. Specifically, tensile strength and elongation, elastic modulus, puncture strength and deformation, opacity, and water vapor permeability were measured. Results indicated that tensile strength, puncture strength, and elastic modulus decreased, while tensile elongation and puncture deformation values increased as glycerol concentration increased for both 5.0% and 7.5% canola protein isolate films. Furthermore, tensile strength, puncture strength, and elastic modulus values were found to increase at higher protein concentrations within the canola protein isolate films, whereas puncture deformation values decreased. Tensile elongation was found to be similar for both canola protein isolate protein levels. Canola protein isolate films became more transparent with increasing of glycerol concentration and decreasing of canola protein isolate concentration. Water vapor permeability value was also found to increase with increasing glycerol and protein contents. Overall, results indicated that canola protein isolate films were less brittle, more malleable and transparent, and had greater water vapor permeability at higher glycerol levels. However, as protein level increased, canola protein isolate films were more brittle, less malleable and more opaque, and also had increased water vapor permeability.

  7. Preparation of Soybean Protein Concentrate with Mixed Solvents of Hexane-Aqueous Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWeinong; LiuDachuan


    Preparation of soybean protein concentrate with the mixed solvents of hexane-aqueous alcohol was studied in this paper.The optimum technology parameters were obtained by orthogonal tests.The results of experiments showed that the qualities of the product were good not only on taste of the product were good not only on tasted and color,but also on high solubility-NSI value was 48.80%.

  8. Effect of whey protein concentrate on texture of fat-free desserts: sensory and instrumental measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Teixeira Ribeiro Vidigal


    Full Text Available It is important to understand how changes in the product formulation can modify its characteristics. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC on the texture of fat-free dairy desserts. The correlation between instrumental and sensory measurements was also investigated. Four formulations were prepared with different WPC concentrations (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 wt. (% and were evaluated using the texture profile analysis (TPA and rheology. Thickness was evaluated by nine trained panelists. Formulations containing WPC showed higher firmness, elasticity, chewiness, and gumminess and clearly differed from the control as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA. Flow behavior was characterized as time-dependent and pseudoplastic. Formulation with 4.5% WPC at 10 °C showed the highest thixotropic behavior. Experimental data were fitted to Herschel-Bulkley model. The addition of WPC contributed to the texture of the fat-free dairy dessert. The yield stress, apparent viscosity, and perceived thickness in the dairy desserts increased with WPC concentration. The presence of WPC promotes the formation of a stronger gel structure as a result of protein-protein interactions. The correlation between instrumental parameters and thickness provided practical results for food industries.

  9. Medium-density particleboards from modified rice husks and soybean protein concentrate-based adhesives. (United States)

    Ciannamea, Emiliano M; Stefani, Pablo M; Ruseckaite, Roxana A


    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using rice husk (RH) as wood substitute in the production of environmentally sound medium-density particleboards using adhesives from soybean protein concentrate (SPC). Chemical modification of rice husk with sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide (bleaching) were undertaken to evaluate the effect of such treatments on the composition and topology of rice husk and the performance of produced panels. Both treatments were efficient in partially eliminating hemicelluloses, lignin and silica from RH, as evidenced by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy observations suggested that alkaline treatment resulted in a more damaged RH substrate than bleaching. The dependence of mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond) and the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) on chemical treatments performed on both, rice husk and SPC was studied. Bleached-rice husk particleboards bonded with alkaline-treated soybean protein concentrate displayed the best set of final properties. Particleboards with this formulation met the minimum requirements of internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture recommended by the US Standard ANSI/A208.1 specifications for M1, MS and M2-grade medium-density particleboards, but failed to achieve the thickness swelling value recommended for general use panels. This limitation of soybean protein concentrate-bonded rice husk particleboards was counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde-free which makes them a suitable alternative for indoor applications.

  10. Elongation of mouse prion protein amyloid-like fibrils: effect of temperature and denaturant concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katazyna Milto

    Full Text Available Prion protein is known to have the ability to adopt a pathogenic conformation, which seems to be the basis for protein-only infectivity. The infectivity is based on self-replication of this pathogenic prion structure. One of possible mechanisms for such replication is the elongation of amyloid-like fibrils. We measured elongation kinetics and thermodynamics of mouse prion amyloid-like fibrils at different guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl concentrations. Our data show that both increases in temperature and GuHCl concentration help unfold monomeric protein and thus accelerate elongation. Once the monomers are unfolded, further increases in temperature raise the rate of elongation, whereas the addition of GuHCl decreases it. We demonstrated a possible way to determine different activation energies of amyloid-like fibril elongation by using folded and unfolded protein molecules. This approach separates thermodynamic data for fibril-assisted monomer unfolding and for refolding and formation of amyloid-like structure.

  11. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity. (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Thomas-Gahring, Audrey; Van Hekken, Diane L; Iandola, Susan K; Singh, Mukti; Qi, Phoebe X; Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Onwulata, Charles I; Tomasula, Peggy M


    In a case study, we monitored the physical properties of 2 batches of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. Whey protein concentrates with 34.9 g of protein/100g (WPC34) and 76.8 g of protein/100g (WPC80) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and relative humidity. The samples became yellower with storage; those stored at 35 °C were removed from the study by 12 mo because of their unsatisfactory appearance. Decreases in lysine and increases in water activity, volatile compound formation, and powder caking values were observed in many specimens. Levels of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeast, and mold were <3.85 log10 cfu/g in all samples. Relative humidity was not a factor in most samples. When stored in sealed bags, these samples of WPC34 and WPC80 had a shelf life of 9 mo at 35 °C but at least 18 mo at lower temperatures, which should extend the market for these products.

  12. Physicochemical Property and Oxidative Stability of Whey Protein Concentrate Multiple Nanoemulsion Containing Fish Oil. (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Won-Jae


    The objectives of this research were to produce whey protein concentrate (WPC) multiple nanoemulsion (MNE) and to study how whey protein concentration level and antioxidant type affected the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of MNE were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer, respectively. The oxidative stability of fish oil in MNEs was assessed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value, and volatile compounds. The spherical forms of emulsions with size ranging from 190 to 210 nm were observed indicating the successful production of MNE. Compared with free fish oil, fish oil in MNE exhibited lower PV, p-anisidine value, and formation of maker of oxidation of fish oil indicating the oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE was enhanced. PV, p-anisidine value, and makers of oxidation of fish oil were decreased with increased WPC concentration level. The combined use of Vitamin C and E in MNE resulted in a reduction in PV and p-anisidine value, and development of maker of oxidation. In conclusion, WPC concentration level and antioxidant type are key factors affecting the droplet size of MNE and oxidative stability of fish oil.

  13. Identifying constituents of whey protein concentrates that reduce the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey. (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Lucey, J A


    Whey protein concentrate constituents were tested for their ability to reduce naturally occurring pink color defect and pink cooked color induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in ground turkey. β-lactoglobulin (1.8%), α-lactalbumin (0.8%), bovine serum albumin (0.15-0.3%), lactose (1.0-3.0%), potassium chloride (500-1500ppm), and ferrous iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) had no effects on cooked pink color. Lactoferrin (30-5000ppm) increased or decreased pink color depending on its concentration in samples without added sodium nitrite or nicotinamide. Annatto (0.1-1.0ppm) reduced pink color whereas the higher concentration of magnesium chloride (22-88ppm) and ferric iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) increased pink color in samples with added nicotinamide. Calcium chloride (160-480ppm) was the only tested constituent that consistently reduced pink cooked color in samples with and without added nitrite and nicotinamide. Due to the variability of whey protein concentrates and the number of constituents that do not reduce pink cooked color, the addition of calcium alone or dried milk minerals containing calcium, phosphate, and citrate, represents a better means to regularly prevent the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

  14. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  15. Effect of annatto addition and bleaching treatments on ultrafiltration flux during production of 80% whey protein concentrate and 80% serum protein concentrate. (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M


    The goals of this study were to determine if adding annatto color to milk or applying a bleaching process to whey or microfiltration (MF) permeate influenced ultrafiltration (UF) flux, diafiltration (DF) flux, or membrane fouling during production of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) or 80% serum protein concentrate (SPC80). Separated Cheddar cheese whey (18 vats using 900 kg of whole milk each) and MF permeate of skim milk (18 processing runs using 800 kg of skim milk each) were produced to make WPC80 and SPC80, respectively. The 6 treatments, replicated 3 times each, that constituted the 18 processing runs within either whey or MF permeate UF were as follows: (1) no annatto; (2) no annatto+benzoyl peroxide (BPO); (3) no annatto+hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); (4) annatto; (5) annatto+BPO; and (6) annatto+H2O2. Approximately 700 kg of whey or 530 kg of MF permeate from each treatment were heated to 50°C and processed in 2 stages (UF and DF) with the UF system in batch recirculation mode using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound UF membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 Da. Addition of annatto color had no effect on UF or DF flux. The processes of bleaching whey or MF permeate with or without added color improved flux during processing. Bleaching with H2O2 usually produced higher flux than bleaching with BPO. Bleaching with BPO increased WPC80 flux to a greater extent than it did SPC80 flux. Though no differences in mean flux were observed for a common bleaching treatment between the WPC80 and SPC80 production processes during the UF stage, mean flux during WPC80 DF was higher than mean flux during SPC80 DF for each bleaching treatment. Water flux values before and after processing were used to calculate a fouling coefficient that demonstrated differences in fouling which were consistent with flux differences among treatments. In both processes, bleaching with H2O2 led to the largest reduction in fouling. No effect of annatto on fouling was observed. The

  16. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin


    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  17. Adsorption of Fluoride Ion by Inorganic Cerium Based Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Zhongzhi(焦中志); Chen Zhonglin; Yang Min; Zhang Yu; Li Guibai


    Excess of fluoride in drinking water is harmful to human health, the concentration of F- ions must be maintained in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L. An inorganic cerium based adsorbent (CTA) is developed on the basis of research of adsorption of fluoride on cerium oxide hydrate. Some adsorption of fluoride by CTA adsorbent experiments were carried out, and results showed that CTA adsorbent has a quick adsorption speed and a large adsorption capacity. Adsorption follows Freundlich isotherm, and low pH value helps fluoride removal. Some physical-chemical characteristics of CTA adsorbent were experimented, fluoride removal mechanism was explored, and results showed that hydroxyl group of CTA adsorbent played an important role in the fluoride removal.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with differential effects on plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein activities and concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; De Vries, R; Scheek, L; Borggreve, SE; Van Gent, T; Dallinga-Thie, GM; Ito, M; Nagano, M; Sluiter, WJ; Hattori, H; Van Tol, A


    Background: Human plasma contains two lipid transfer proteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which are crucial in reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Plasma CETP and PLTP activity levels and concentrations in 16 type 2 diabetic patients and 1

  19. The effects of GH and hormone replacement therapy on serum concentrations of mannan-binding lectin, surfactant protein D and vitamin D binding protein in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Lauridsen, Anna Lis


    function. In the present study we examined whether GH or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in Turner syndrome (TS) influence the serum concentrations of MBL and two other proteins partaking in the innate immune defence, surfactant protein D (SP-D) and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). DESIGN: Study 1...

  20. Detection of surface-adsorbed (lipo)proteins by means of a two-step enzyme-immunoassay: a study on the Vroman effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, A.; Beugeling, T.; Aken, van W.G.; Bantjes, A.


    In view of reports on the involvement of high-molecular-weight (HMW) kininogen and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the Vroman effect, we studied the adsorption of fibrinogen, HMW kininogen, HDL and several other proteins from pooled human plasma and congenitally HMW kininogen-deficient plasma onto

  1. One step physically adsorbed coating of silica capillary with excellent stability for the separation of basic proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis. (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hua-Shan


    The coating of capillary inner surface is considered to be an effective approach to suppress the adsorption of proteins on capillary inner surface in CE. However, most of coating materials reported are water-soluble, which may dissolve in BGE during the procedure of electrophoresis. In this study, a novel strategy for selection of physically coating materials has been illustrated to get coating layer with excellent stability using materials having poor solubility in commonly used solvents. Taking natural chitin as example (not hydrolyzed water soluble chitosan), a simple one step coating method using chitin solution in hexafluoroisopropanol was adopted within only 21 min with good coating reproducibility (RSDs of EOF for within-batch coated capillaries of 1.55% and between-batch coated capillaries of 2.31%), and a separation of four basic proteins on a chitin coated capillary was performed to evaluate the coating efficacy. Using chitin coating, the adsorption of proteins on capillary inner surface was successfully suppressed with reversed and stable EOF, and four basic proteins including lysozyme, cytochrome c, ribonuclease A and α-chymotrypsinogen A were baseline separated within 16 min with satisfied separation efficiency using 20 mM pH 2.0 H3PO4-Na2HPO4 as back ground electrolyte and 20 kV as separation voltage. What is more important, the chitin coating layer could be stable for more than two months during this study, which demonstrates that chitin is an ideal material for preparing semi-permanent coating on bare fused silica capillary inner wall and has hopeful potential in routine separation of proteins with CE.

  2. Plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein concentrations in critically ill children with the sepsis syndrome. (United States)

    Wong, H R; Doughty, L A; Wedel, N; White, M; Nelson, B J; Havrilla, N; Carcillo, J A


    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a neutrophil azurophilic granule component that is bactericidal towards Gram-negative bacteria and inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses. We conducted a prospective study to measure plasma BPI concentrations in 36 critically ill children with and without the sepsis syndrome. Plasma BPI concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 452 ng/ml. Patients with the sepsis syndrome had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than critically ill controls (5.1 vs. 1.8 ng/ml, P = 0.006). Patients with organ system failure had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than those with no organ system failure (4.5 vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.001). Plasma BPI concentrations were positively associated with pediatric risk of mortality score (P = 0.03, rs = 0.4). These data provide the first clinical insights regarding the role of endogenous BPI production in critically ill children and suggest that BPI may play an important role in host defenses.

  3. Predicting protein concentrations with ELISA microarray assays, monotonic splines and Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Don S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; White, Amanda M.; Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.


    Background: A microarray of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or ELISA microarray, predicts simultaneously the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Making sound biological inferences as well as improving the ELISA microarray process require require both concentration predictions and creditable estimates of their errors. Methods: We present a statistical method based on monotonic spline statistical models, penalized constrained least squares fitting (PCLS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MC) to predict concentrations and estimate prediction errors in ELISA microarray. PCLS restrains the flexible spline to a fit of assay intensity that is a monotone function of protein concentration. With MC, both modeling and measurement errors are combined to estimate prediction error. The spline/PCLS/MC method is compared to a common method using simulated and real ELISA microarray data sets. Results: In contrast to the rigid logistic model, the flexible spline model gave credible fits in almost all test cases including troublesome cases with left and/or right censoring, or other asymmetries. For the real data sets, 61% of the spline predictions were more accurate than their comparable logistic predictions; especially the spline predictions at the extremes of the prediction curve. The relative errors of 50% of comparable spline and logistic predictions differed by less than 20%. Monte Carlo simulation rendered acceptable asymmetric prediction intervals for both spline and logistic models while propagation of error produced symmetric intervals that diverged unrealistically as the standard curves approached horizontal asymptotes. Conclusions: The spline/PCLS/MC method is a flexible, robust alternative to a logistic/NLS/propagation-of-error method to reliably predict protein concentrations and estimate their errors. The spline method simplifies model selection and fitting

  4. Retinol binding protein 4 concentrations relate to enhanced atherosclerosis in obese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H Dessein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP enhances metabolic risk and atherogenesis. Whether RBP4 contributes to cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is unknown. METHODS: We assessed RBP4 concentrations and those of endothelial activation molecules including E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by ELISA, and the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT and carotid artery plaque by ultrasound in 217 (112 black and 105 white patients with RA. Relationships were identified in potential confounder and mediator adjusted mixed regression models. RESULTS: RBP4 concentrations were associated with systolic and mean blood pressure, and those of glucose and E-selectin (partial R = -0.207 (p = 0.003, -0.195 (p = 0.006, -0.155 (p = 0.03 and -0.191 (p = 0.007, respectively in all patients; these RBP4-cardiovascular risk relations were mostly reproduced in patients with but not without adverse traditional or non-traditional cardiovascular risk profiles. RBP4 concentrations were not associated with atherosclerosis in all patients, but related independently to cIMT (partial R = 0.297, p = 0.03 and plaque (OR (95%CI = 2.95 (1.31-6.68, p = 0.008 in those with generalized obesity, as well as with plaque in those with abdominal obesity (OR (95%CI  = 1.95 (1.12-3.42, p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: In the present study, RBP4 concentrations were inversely associated with metabolic risk and endothelial activation in RA. This requires further investigation. RBP4 concentrations were related to enhanced atherosclerosis in patients with generalized or/and abdominal obesity.

  5. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K


    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  6. Production and functional evaluation of a protein concentrate from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) by acid dissolution and isoelectric precipitation. (United States)

    Cortés-Ruiz, Juan A; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Elena Lugo-Sánchez, M; Gisela Carvallo-Ruiz, M; García-Sánchez, Guillermina


    A protein concentrate from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) was produced under acidic conditions and its functional-technological capability evaluated in terms of its gel-forming ability, water holding capacity and colour attributes. Technological functionality of the concentrate was compared with that of squid muscle and a neutral concentrate. Protein-protein aggregates insoluble at high ionic strength (I=0.5M), were detected in the acidic concentrate as result of processing with no preclusion of its gel-forming ability during the sol-to-gel thermal transition. Even though washing under acidic condition promoted autolysis of the myosin heavy chain, the acidic concentrate displayed an outstanding ability to gel giving samples with a gel strength of 455 and 1160gcm at 75% and 90% compression respectively, and an AA folding test grade indicative of high gel strength, elasticity, and cohesiveness. The process proved to be a good alternative for obtaining a functional protein concentrate from giant squid muscle.

  7. Nonlinear concentration gradients regulated by the width of channels for observation of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of transporter proteins. (United States)

    Abe, Yuta; Kamiya, Koki; Osaki, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Hirotaka; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji


    This paper describes a simple microfluidic device that can generate nonlinear concentration gradients. We changed the "width" of channels that can drastically shorten the total microfluidic channel length and simplify the microfluidic network design rather than the "length" of channels. The logarithmic concentration gradients generated by the device were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. Using this device, we evaluated a probable IC50 value of the ABC transporter proteins by the competitive transport assays at five different logarithmic concentrations. This probable IC50 value was in good agreement with an IC50 value (0.92 μM) obtained at the diluted concentrations of seven points.

  8. Charge Recombination in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Low Adsorbed Concentration of Dye%染料敏化太阳能电池中低染料吸附浓度下的界面电荷复合效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐笑; 汪禹汛


    在保持染料吸附量不变的条件下,通过增加TiO2薄膜厚度来降低染料在TiO2薄膜表面的吸附浓度.研究了染料吸附浓度与染料敏化太阳能电池(DSC)中界面电荷复合效应的关系.研究发现,在低染料吸附浓度下,DSCs中界面电荷复合效应明显降低,并由此使得DSC在薄膜厚度增加时,仍能保持0.72~0.80的高填充因子;在TiO2光电极有效面积由0.25 cm2增大到1 cm2时,总光电转换效率(η)损失由34.7%减少到19.6%.%Photovoltaic conversion performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are significantly influenced by the interface charge recombination in DSCs. Lots of factors affecting the charge recombination, such as surface states of TiC>2 and components of electrolytes, have been studied and dyes have been always ignored for the charge recombination in DSCs. Although the charge recombination occurring between the injection electrons and triiodide in electrolyte is calculated to take priority kinetically to the one between the injection electrons and oxidized dye molecules, dyes are not independent from the electrolyte related electron recombination. Instead by dye molecules themselves, the chance of injection electrons recaptured by triiodide in electrolyte could rise due to the increase of the adsorbed concentration of dye, which leads to the local concentration of triiodide increasing. In this paper, an effect of low charge recombination in DSCs with low adsorbed concentration of dye is observed. The adsorbed concentration of dye is defined as the adsorbed amount of dye in unit specific surface area of TiO2 films and adjusted by adsorbing similar amount of dye on the surface of TiO2 films with different film thickness. The influence of the adsorbed concentration of dye on the charge recombination in DSC is investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. It turns out that with the adsorbed concentration of dye decreasing, the electron lift time

  9. Clorazepate dipotassium and diazepam in renal insufficiency: serum concentrations and protein binding of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam. (United States)

    Ochs, H R; Rauh, H W; Greenblatt, D J; Kaschell, H J


    5 patients with chronic renal failure on maintenance hemodialysis and 5 healthy matched controls received single 20-mg intravenous doses of clorazepate dipotassium. Clearance of pharmacologically active unbound desmethyldiazepam was reduced in renal failure patients as opposed to controls, and free fraction in serum was greater. Since desmethyldiazepam distribution was reduced in renal patients, elimination half-life was actually shorter than in controls (36 vs. 57 h). In 10 dialysis patients receiving chronic diazepam treatment (5-15 mg/day), steady-state concentrations of diazepam (56 ng/ml) and desmethyldiazepam (77 ng/ml) were significantly lower than in age- and weight-matched controls receiving similar doses (189 and 216 ng/ml, respectively). However after correction for the higher free fractions of both compounds in renal patients as opposed to controls, steady-state concentrations of unbound drug were found to be similar between groups. Interpretation of kinetic variables and steady-state serum concentrations of extensively protein-bound drugs requires consideration of alterations in protein binding that may occur in disease states.

  10. Selective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubo DENG; Danmeng SHUAI; Qiang YU; Jun HUANG; Gang YU


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), as a potential persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in water environments, and has become a great concern in recent years. PFOS is very stable and difficult to decompose using conventional techniques. Sorption may be an attractive method to remove it from water. In this study, the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents were prepared through the polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine under different preparation conditions in order to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water. The MIP adsorbents using perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the template had good imprinting effects and could selectively remove PFOS from aqueous solution. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics,isotherms, and effect of pH, salt, and competitive anions were investigated. Experimental results showed that the sorption of PFOS On the MIP adsorbents was very fast, pH-dependent, and highly selective. The achieved fast sorption equilibrium within 1 h was attributed to the surface sorption on the fine adsorbents. The sorption isotherms showed that the sorption selectivity of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents decreased at high PFOS concentrations, which may be due to the double-layer sorption and the formation of PFOS micelles on the sorbent surface. The sorption of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents was mainly dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the protonated vinylpyridine on the adsorbent surface and the anionic PFOS. The prepared MIP adsorbents can potentially be applied in water and wastewater treatment for selective removal of PFOS.

  11. Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilausen, Karin Johanne; Meinertz, H.


    Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark......Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark...

  12. Effect of liquid retentate storage on flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate and isolate. (United States)

    Whitson, M; Miracle, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of holding time of liquid retentate on flavor of spray-dried whey proteins: Cheddar whey protein isolate (WPI) and Mozzarella 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Liquid WPC80 and WPI retentate were manufactured and stored at 3°C. After 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h, the product was spray-dried (2kg) and the remaining retentate held until the next time point. The design was replicated twice for each product. Powders were stored at 21°C and evaluated every 4 mo throughout 12 mo of storage. Flavor profiles of rehydrated proteins were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile components were analyzed with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in both spray-dried products with increased retentate storage time and cabbage flavors increased in WPI. Concurrent with sensory results, lipid oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, octanal) and sulfur degradation products (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide) increased in spray-dried products with increased liquid retentate storage time, whereas diacetyl decreased. Shelf stability was decreased in spray-dried products from longer retentate storage times. For maximum quality and shelf life, liquid retentate should be held for less than 12h before spray drying.

  13. Development, chemical and sensory characterization of semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Regina Antunes


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop, to perform the chemical characterization and verify the acceptability of a semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate (WPC 35 %, and compare it to traditional yogurt, without adding any protein source. For this, two formulations were prepared: 1- traditional semi skim and 2: semi skim added with WPC 35 %, with subsequent evaluation of physicochemical characteristics of acidity, pH and viscosity, as well as the compositional analysis of the levels of humidity, full solids, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrates for both formulations. The sensory analysis was performed with 80 untrained tasters, which was based on parameters of appearance, taste, flavor and consistency. The appearance and consistency parameters showed a significant difference between received grades, and the yogurt added with WPC 35 % the most preferred these aspects, as well as the formulation with the highest widespread acceptance among testers. The results indicate that the use of WPC 35 % in foods is a promising alternative, considering the overall acceptance obtained, the protein content beneficial to the consumers health, the improvement of technological properties provided to food coupled to the extent which it is produced, low cost and reducing the damage caused to the environment. 

  14. [Study on LDL adsorbent modified by lauric acid]. (United States)

    Cong, Haixia; Du, Longbing; Fang, Bo; You, Chao


    A hydrophobic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) adsorbent was synthesized with lauric acid and chitosan. The condition for adsorption was obtained by investigating the influence of adsorbent amount and adsorption time. The results of adsorption in vitro showed that the average adsorption rates for total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP) were 47.7%, 84.7%, 18.1% and 5.9% respectively. The adsorbent possesses good selectivity in removing LDL-C.

  15. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A


    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  16. The influence of whey protein concentrate on growth and survival of probiotic bacteria in whey


    Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić; Bojan Matijević; Irena Jeličić


    This research examines the influence of whey protein concentrate addition (WPC) on growth and activity of probiotic species Lactobacilus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in sweet reconstituted whey and their survival during 28 days of fermented whey cold storage (4 °C). The fermentation of whey at 37º C with and without 1.5 and 3% of WPC addition has been observed. Fermentation of whey with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 to which 3% WPC was added, was about an...

  17. Superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for bioproduct recovery from crude process liquors by high-gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L; Hobley, Timothy John;


    Different routes were screened for the preparation of superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for the capture of proteins using high-gradient magnetic fishing. Starting from a polyglutaraldehyde-coated base particle, the most successful of these involved attachment of sulphite to oligomers...... from sweet bovine whey. Subsequently, a high-gradient magnetic fishing process was constructed for the fractionation of whey, in which lactoperoxidase was purified 36-fold and concentrated 4.7-fold...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA


    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  19. Instrumental and Sensory Texture Attributes of High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded Milk Protein Concentrate. (United States)

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P


    Previous instrumental study of high-protein nutrition (HPN) bars formulated with extruded milk protein concentrate (MPC) indicated slower hardening compared to bars formulated with unmodified MPC. However, hardness, and its change during storage, insufficiently characterizes HPN bar texture. In this study, MPC80 was extruded at 2 different conditions and model HPN bars were prepared. A trained sensory panel and instrumental techniques were used to measure HPN bar firmness, crumbliness, fracturability, hardness, cohesiveness, and other attributes to characterize texture change during storage. Extrusion modification, storage temperature, and storage time significantly affected the instrumental and sensory panel measured texture attributes. The HPN bars became firmer and less cohesive during storage. When evaluated at the same storage conditions, the texture attributes of the HPN bars formulated with the different extrudates did not differ significantly from each other. However, textural differences were noted most of the time between the control and the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80. An adapted HPN bar crumbliness measurement technique produced results that were correlated with sensory panel measured crumbliness (r = 0.85) and cohesiveness (r = -0.84). Overall, the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were significantly softer, less crumbly, and more cohesive than the control during storage.

  20. Characterization and adsorption behavior of a novel triolein-embedded activated carbon composite adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RU Jia; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui; WANG Aimin; DAI Ruihua


    A novel triolein-embedded activated carbon composite adsorbent was developed. Experiments were carried out in areas such as the preparation method, the characterization of physicochemical properties, and the adsorption behavior of the composite adsorbent in removing dieldrin from aqueous solution. Results suggested that the novel composite adsorbent was composed of the supporting activated carbon and the surrounding triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane. The adsorbent was stable in water, for no triolein leakage was detected after soaking the adsorbent for five weeks. The adsorbent had good adsorption capability to dieldrin, which was indicated by a residual dieldrin concentration of 0.204 μg·L-1. The removal efficiency of the composite adsorbent was higher than the traditional activated carbon adsorbent.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Impurely Irrigated Soil Adsorbent from Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective]We aimed to study the preparation methods of impurely irrigated soil adsorbent from beaches,as well as its ability to absorb phenol.[Method]Using hydrochloric acid as activator,we compared the influences of various soil adsorbents on the adsorption of phenol through the desired orthogonal tests where the usage of saw dust,concentration of hydrochloric acid,liquid-solid ratio and carbonization temperature varied.Afterwards,we characterized this soil adsorbent.[Result]The optimal conditions for pre...

  2. Substrate-adsorbate coupling in CO-adsorbed copper

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, S P; Lewis, Steven P.; Rappe, Andrew M.


    The vibrational properties of carbon monoxide adsorbed to the copper (100) surface are explored within density functional theory. Atoms of the substrate and adsorbate are treated on an equal footing in order to examine the effect of substrate--adsorbate coupling. This coupling is found to have a significant effect on the vibrational modes, particularly the in-plane frustrated translation, which mixes strongly with substrate phonons and broadens into a resonance. The predicted lifetime due to this harmonic decay mechanism is in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment.

  3. Adsorbed Water Illustration (United States)


    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander detected small and variable amounts of water in the Martian soil. In this schematic illustration, water molecules are represented in red and white; soil minerals are represented in green and blue. The water, neither liquid, vapor, nor solid, adheres in very thin films of molecules to the surfaces of soil minerals. The left half illustrates an interpretation of less water being adsorbed onto the soil-particle surface during a period when the tilt, or obliquity, of Mars' rotation axis is small, as it is in the present. The right half illustrates a thicker film of water during a time when the obliquity is greater, as it is during cycles on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years. As the humidity of the atmosphere increases, more water accumulates on mineral surfaces. Thicker films behave increasingly like liquid water. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Isoflavonas em isolados e concentrados protéicos de soja Isoflavones in soy protein isolate and soy protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Y. Lui


    Full Text Available Isolados e concentrados protéicos de soja são ingredientes largamente utilizados na indústria de panificação, confeitaria, bebidas e embutidos. As isoflavonas presentes na soja podem sofrer alterações em quantidade e perfil de distribuição dependendo das condições de processamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o balanço de massa de isoflavonas e proteína em processamento de isolados e de concentrados protéicos de soja (tratamento com ácido e com álcool. A maior parte das isoflavonas presentes na matéria-prima (farinha desengordurada de soja é perdida nos sobrenadantes de processo (90% para extração com etanol 60%, 52% para processamento de isolado protéico e 47% para extração com ácido. O teor de isoflavonas nos produtos obtidos foi de 686µg/g base seca (b.s. para isolado protéico, 871µ g/g b.s. para concentrado protéico obtido por tratamento ácido e apenas 153µg/g b.s. para concentrado protéico obtido por tratamento com álcool. Não foi observada alteração no perfil de distribuição das isoflavonas nesse último processo, enquanto que nos dois primeiros notou-se diminuição da quantidade das formas malonil glicosídeos e aumento da quantidade das formas beta-glicosiladas e gliconas.Soy protein isolate (SPI and soy protein concentrate (SPC are largely used in bakery, confectionary, meat and beverage products. Isoflavones present in soybeans products can undergo changes in quantity and profile depending on the processing conditions. The objective of this work was to conduct mass balance studies of isoflavones and protein during the processing of SPI and SPC (acid and alcohol leach. The majority of isoflavones present in the raw material is lost in the supernatants (90% for SPC treated with alcohol, 52% for SPI and 47% for SPC treated with acid. Total concentration of isoflavones was 652µg/g for SPI, 838µg/g for SPC (acid leach, and only 147µg/g for SPC (alcohol leach. There were no changes in the

  5. The influence of whey protein concentrate on growth and survival of probiotic bacteria in whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik


    Full Text Available This research examines the influence of whey protein concentrate addition (WPC on growth and activity of probiotic species Lactobacilus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in sweet reconstituted whey and their survival during 28 days of fermented whey cold storage (4 °C. The fermentation of whey at 37º C with and without 1.5 and 3% of WPC addition has been observed. Fermentation of whey with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 to which 3% WPC was added, was about an hour shorter (∼ 14 hours compared to the fermentation of whey without WPC addition (∼ 15 hours. The viable cells count of Lactobacilus acidophilus La-5 was better in whey with 3% of WPC addition (Δlog CFU/mL = 2.1 compared to whey without WPC addition (Δlog CFU/mL = 1.7 . Addition of whey protein concentrate did not influence significantly on growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in whey, and also it did not influence the survival of both probiotic species during 28 days of cool storage (at 4 °C. Whey enriched with WPC had slightly higher titratable acidity during fermentation and storage compared to whey without WPC addition.

  6. Effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Pekin ducks during aflatoxicosis. (United States)

    Chen, X; Murdoch, R; Zhang, Q; Shafer, D J; Applegate, T J


    A 14-d study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary crude protein concentration on performance, serum biochemistry, and nutrient digestive functions in Pekin ducklings during aflatoxicosis. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2×2 factorial with 2 crude protein (CP) (20 and 24% on an analyzed basis) with or without 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (0.21 mg/kg analyzed). The AFB1 reduced BW gain, feed intake, and breast muscle weight by 33 to 43% (Pnutrient digestibility. No statistical interaction of AFB1 by CP was observed for any measures. Results from the current study suggest that AFB1 at low concentration can significantly impair performance of Pekin ducklings primarily through inhibited feed intake, as well as influence nutrient digestion processes (jejunum morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and apparent energy digestibility). Higher dietary CP can improve growth performance of ducklings regardless of AF exposure, but did not interact with dietary AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, or nutrient digestion in Pekin ducklings from hatch to 14 d.

  7. Increased fasting plasma acylation-stimulating protein concentrations in nephrotic syndrome. (United States)

    Ozata, Metin; Oktenli, Cagatay; Gulec, Mustafa; Ozgurtas, Taner; Bulucu, Fatih; Caglar, Kayser; Bingol, Necati; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Ozdemir, I Caglayan


    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipocyte-derived protein that has recently been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride (TG) storage. ASP also appears to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. In addition to its role as a hormonal regulator of body weight and energy expenditure, leptin is now implicated as a regulatory molecule in lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the alterations in fasting plasma ASP and leptin concentrations in the nephrotic syndrome. As hyperlipidemia is one of the most striking manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome, we have investigated fasting plasma ASP and leptin levels and their relation to lipid levels in this syndrome. Twenty-five patients with untreated nephrotic syndrome and 25 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Fasting plasma lipoproteins, TG, total cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apoB, urinary protein, plasma albumin, third component of complement (C3), ASP, and leptin levels were measured in both groups. Total cholesterol, TG, low and very low density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), apoB, and urinary protein levels were increased in the patient group, whereas plasma albumin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoAI levels were decreased compared with those in the control group (P Fasting ASP concentrations showed no correlation with body mass index, proteinuria, plasma albumin, leptin, or any lipid parameter in either group, but C3 levels (in patient group: r(s) = 0.92; P < 0.001; in control group: r(s) = 0.68; P < 0.001). Our findings showed that plasma ASP levels were significantly elevated, whereas leptin levels were normal in the nephrotic syndrome. Increased ASP levels in the setting of dyslipidemia in the nephrotic syndrome raise the possibility of an ASP receptor defect in adipocytes, which also suggests the existence of so-called ASP resistance. Moreover


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cumulative gas production was described by the Gompertz equation Y=A*exp(-exp(-d*(t-tm. Seven treatments, one of them unfertilized and others fertilized with 100 to 250 kg N ha–1, were compared. Grain yield and concentration of crude protein (CP in grain increased linearly with nitrogen fertilization. Grain yield increased for 25 kg dry matter (DM ha–1 and CP concentration for 0.13 g kg–1 DM per each additional kg of N. Concentration of CP in grain, which varied from 83 to 115 g kg–1 DM, was closely related to the dynamics of gas production. The maximal gas production rate (MPR was negatively related to CP concentration in the grain (R2 = 0.53; p < 0.10 and the time of MPR (tm was positively related to the amount of added N (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.05 and concentration of CP in the grain (R2 = 0.88; p < 0.01. It is likely that intensive N fertilization of maize limits ruminal digestion of maize starch. Due to the shift of starch digestion from the rumen to lower gastrointestinal tract better utilization of energy can be expected in maize grain of extensively fertilized maize than in the grain of maize, in which supply of N is sub-optimal.

  9. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Duan


    Full Text Available Cow's milk whey consists of many protein components and some of them are antigens to human and known to modulate immune responses. Enzymatic hydrolysis is a useful method to modify proteins with allergenicity. The objective of this study was to identify whether the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates (WPC. In this study, WPC were hydrolyzed by trypsin and twenty-four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and fed with WPC formula and WPC hydrolysates formula, while the control mice received milk-free diet. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between the body weights among all groups. WPC-fed mice produced an elevated spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and also produced higher levels of WPC-specific IgE in intestinal tract and serum in comparison to WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and control group. Significant up-regulation of plasma histamine levels were also observed and showed the same trend with IgE. The secretions of IL-4 and IL-5 were significantly enhanced by WPC. WPC significantly suppressed the secretion of IFN-γ while hydrolysates of WPC significantly increased the secretion of IFN-γ compared to control group. These results suggest that hydrolysis may play a role to reduce the allergenicity of WPC.

  10. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates. (United States)

    Duan, Cuicui; Yang, Lijie; Li, Aili; Zhao, Rui; Huo, Guicheng


    Cow's milk whey consists of many protein components and some of them are antigens to human and known to modulate immune responses. Enzymatic hydrolysis is a useful method to modify proteins with allergenicity. The objective of this study was to identify whether the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates (WPC). In this study, WPC were hydrolyzed by trypsin and twenty-four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and fed with WPC formula and WPC hydrolysates formula, while the control mice received milk-free diet. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between the body weights among all groups. WPC-fed mice produced an elevated spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and also produced higher levels of WPC-specific IgE in intestinal tract and serum in comparison to WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and control group. Significant up-regulation of plasma histamine levels were also observed and showed the same trend with IgE. The secretions of IL-4 and IL-5 were significantly enhanced by WPC. WPC significantly suppressed the secretion of IFN-γ while hydrolysates of WPC significantly increased the secretion of IFN-γ compared to control group. These results suggest that hydrolysis may play a role to reduce the allergenicity of WPC.

  11. Studies on the functional properties of protein concentrate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty - an edible seaweed. (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Ganesan, K; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Subba Rao, P V


    Protein concentrate (PC) of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cultivated on the West coast of India), was extracted and its functional properties were evaluated. The K. alvarezii PC contained 62.3 ± 1.62% proteins. At pH 12, the nitrogen solubility of this PC was 58.72 ± 1.68% in the presence of 0.5M NaCl. The emulsifying and foaming properties of this PC varied with time and pH. However, it formed remarkably stable emulsions with Jatropha oil after 720 min (i.e. E720=53.67 ± 1.59). On the other hand, maximum foaming ability (53.33 ± 2.31%) of the PC was recorded at pH 4.0. This PC had high oil (1.29 ± 0.20 ml oil/g PC) and water absorption capacity (2.22 0.04 ml H2O/g PC). DSC analysis revealed thermal transitions at about 109.25°C at neutral pH. The results obtained in this investigation suggest the suitability of K. alvarezii PC as an inexpensive source of protein; thus this PC could be incorporated into several value-added food products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov


    Full Text Available Development and implementation of high-tech and energy-efficient methods of feed production is important and ap¬propriate due to the fact that enterprises are not able to provide the market of feed consumers with high quality products at affordable prices. To solve this problem, an alternative technology for the production of protein green concentrate (PGC from the cormophyte mass of high protein plants was developed. The most energy-intensive process of obtaining PGC is spray drying. At the same time the problems of energy saving, and the product quality are solved by modeling. The drying model developed in this study is based on the falling edge of evaporation, which is used in many studies of drops drying. The problem of obtaining the basic equations of heat and mass transfer during the periods of constant and decreasing drying rate was to be solved. It is also supposed that the drying takes place during the periods of constant and decreasing drying rate. Basic equations of heat and mass transfer for both periods of drying were obtained. Changing of thermophysical characteristics were determined by statistical methods in the range of PGC humidity of 10 ... 75% and a temperature of 20 ... 100%. The model is solved by finite difference method with an accuracy of modeling results of 12%. Method of finite differences is a numerical method for solving differential equations based on the replacement of derivative differences schemes and is the grid method. Identification of model parameters to experimental data obtained in the experimental spray dryer was carried out. The solution allows the mathematical model to determine the change in moisture content (DS concentration and drop radial temperature in the spray drying of the PGC concentrate that is necessary both to select the geometrical sizes of the dryer and the drying process parameters controlling.

  13. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica


    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  14. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto


    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  15. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

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    Erema Ransome Daka


    Full Text Available Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined in plasma, muscle, liver, gills and kidney. The levels of total protein in plasma and muscle were significantly lower (p<0.05 in all test concentrations in comparison with the control; but no concentration-dependent in depletions were observed. On the other hand, protein concentrations in liver, kidney and gills decreased with increased concentration of diazinon. In addition to significant differences in ALT and AST in liver, kidney, gills and muscle when compared with the control, concentration dependent activities in ALT was observed to in the liver and gills. It is concluded that protein concentration as well as ALT activities in gills and liver of Clarias gariepinus are more useful biomarkers of sub-lethal effects of diazinon than total protein, ALT and A ST activities in plasma.

  16. Serum gold concentrations during treatment with auranofin. (United States)

    Van Riel, P L; Gribnau, F W; Van de Putte, L B; Arts, C W; Van Aernsbergen, A


    Serum gold concentrations were measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients during chronic treatment with the orally adsorbable gold compound auranofin. In agreement with data in the literature, the highest serum gold concentration was reached after 16 weeks of treatment with 6 mg auranofin daily. A striking finding in this study was that thereafter the serum gold concentrations did not appear to plateau but declined gradually. Statistically this resulted in a significantly lower concentration after one year as compared with week 16 (p less than 0.05, paired t-test). It is suggested that a shift from protein bound gold to cell-bound gold might be the explanation.

  17. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

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    Gayol, M. F.


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  18. Analysis of Low Frequency Protein Truncating Stop-Codon Variants and Fasting Concentration of Growth Hormone.

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    Erik Hallengren

    Full Text Available The genetic background of Growth Hormone (GH secretion is not well understood. Mutations giving rise to a stop codon have a high likelihood of affecting protein function.To analyze likely functional stop codon mutations that are associated with fasting plasma concentration of Growth Hormone.We analyzed stop codon mutations in 5451 individuals in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study by genotyping the Illumina Exome Chip. To enrich for stop codon mutations with likely functional effects on protein function, we focused on those disrupting >80% of the predicted amino acid sequence, which were carried by ≥ 10 individuals. Such mutations were related to GH concentration, measured with a high sensitivity assay (hs-GH and, if nominally significant, to GH related phenotypes, using linear regression analysis.Two stop codon mutations were associated with the fasting concentration of hs-GH. rs121909305 (NP_005370.1:p.R93* [Minor Allele Frequency (MAF = 0.8%] in the Myosin 1A gene (MYO1A was associated with a 0.36 (95%CI, 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.02 increment of the standardized value of the natural logarithm of hs-GH per 1 minor allele and rs35699176 (NP_067040.1:p.Q100* in the Zink Finger protein 77 gene (ZNF77 (MAF = 4.8% was associated with a 0.12 (95%CI, 0.02 to 0.22; p = 0.02 increase of hs-GH. The mutated high hs-GH associated allele of MYO1A was related to lower BMI (β-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.05, waist (β-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.04, body fat percentage (β-coefficient, -0.23; p = 0.03 and with higher HDL (β-coefficient, 0.23; p = 0.04. The ZNF77 stop codon was associated with height (β-coefficient, 0.11; p = 0.02 but not with cardiometabolic risk factors.We here suggest that a stop codon of MYO1A, disrupting 91% of the predicted amino acid sequence, is associated with higher hs-GH and GH-related traits suggesting that MYO1A is involved in GH metabolism and possibly body fat distribution. However, our results are preliminary and need replication in

  19. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

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    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  20. Relevance of dietary protein concentration and quality as risk factors for the formation of calcium oxalate stones in cats. (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Burmeier, Hannes; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen


    The role of dietary protein for the development of feline calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths has not been conclusively clarified. The present study evaluated the effects of a varying dietary protein concentration and quality on critical indices for the formation of CaOx uroliths. Three diets with a high protein quality (10-11 % greaves meal/diet) and a varying crude protein (CP) concentration (35, 44 and 57 % in DM) were compared. Additionally, the 57 % CP diet was compared with a fourth diet that had a similar CP concentration (55 % in DM), but a lower protein quality (34 % greaves meal/diet). The Ca and oxalate (Ox) concentrations were similar in all diets. A group of eight cats received the same diet at the same time. Each feeding period was divided into a 21 d adaptation period and a 7 d sampling period to collect urine. There were increases in urinary volume, urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with CaOx with increasing dietary protein concentrations. Urinary pH ranged between 6·34 and 6·66 among all groups, with no unidirectional effect of dietary protein. Lower renal Ca excretion was observed when feeding the diet with the lower protein quality, however, the underlying mechanism needs further evaluation. In conclusion, although the observed higher urinary volume is beneficial, the increase in urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary RSS CaOx associated with a high-protein diet may be critical for the development of CaOx uroliths in cats.



    Ritesh Mishra; P K Omre; Khan chand; Sanjay Kumar; Ankur Singh Bist


    This study evaluated the efficacy of coating composed of Carboxymethyl Cellulose and Whey Protein Concentrate on the storage characteristics and storage quality conditions of coated jaggery for 15 weeks. The edible coating was based on five different levels of Carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%and 2.5%) and Whey protein concentrate (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%).The results indicate that the storage of jaggery were modified and improved by coating. The statistical data revealed that differ...

  2. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.


    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  3. Effects of adsorbents in dairy cow diet on milk quality and cheese-making properties

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    G. Pirlo


    Full Text Available The use of adsorbents (clinoptilolite+sepiolite in the diet of cows was evaluated in two trials. A total of 52 Italian Friesian cows were assigned to one of two dietary treatments, control and adsorbent (CON vs. ADS. Individual and bulk milk samples were collected. On individual data, no significant difference was found between treatments in milk yield, milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations, milk protein yield, pH, and titratable acidity, both in summer and spring. In spring only, there was a trend (P = 0.07 for a higher milk fat yield and a lower somatic cell number in ADS than in CON group. In summer only, milk clotting time was higher in ADS than in CON group (P < 0.05. On bulk milk, no significant differences in components and technological features were found between the CON and ADS groups. The bulk milk contents in total and soluble Ca were 1100 vs. 1108 mg/kg and 378 vs. 369 mg/kg for CON and ADS respectively, proving to be unaffected by treatment and suggesting a lack of interference by ADS on milk Ca availability for cheese-making process.We concluded that, for a period of 12 weeks, the addition of 1% on DM of the diet for lactating cows of non-nutritional adsorbents does not negatively affect milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-making features.

  4. Scale-up of the process to obtain functional ingredients based in plasma protein concentrates from porcine blood. (United States)

    Parés, Dolors; Toldrà, Mònica; Saguer, Elena; Carretero, Carmen


    The feasibility of a scaled-up process to obtain two protein concentrates from porcine blood plasma, i.e. serum and albumin, for use as functional food ingredients was assessed. The process consisted of fractionating plasma proteins by salting out, concentrating and purifying fractions by means of membrane technology, and subsequently dehydrating through spray-drying. The fractionation process allowed a good isolation of the desired proteins, which were then concentrated and desalted in a tangential flow filtration (TFF) process combining ultra and diafiltration. Purification, pre-concentration and dehydration were successfully achieved. The functional properties of dehydrated serum and albumin were determined. As compared to the same hemoderivatives obtained by a lab-scale production system, serum maintained the gelling properties; albumin exhibited similar foaming properties; and both serum and albumin concentrates showed slightly improved emulsifying properties.

  5. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.


    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  6. Disordered nano-wrinkle substrates for inducing crystallization over a wide range of concentration of protein and precipitant

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Anindita Sengupta


    There are large number of proteins, the existence of which are known but not their crystal structure, because of difficulty in finding the exact condition for their crystallization. Heterogeneous nucleation on disordered porous substrates with small yet large distribution of pores is considered a panacea for this problem, but a universal nucleant, suitable for crystallizing large variety of proteins does not really exist. To this end, we report here a nano-wrinkled substrate which displays remarkable ability and control over protein crystallization. Experiments with different proteins show that on these substrates, crystals nucleate even at very low protein concentration in buffer. Small number of very large crystals appear for precipitant concentrations varied over orders of magnitude ~0.003-0.3M; for some proteins, crystals appear even without addition of any precipitant, not seen with any other heterogeneous substrates. In essence, these substrates significantly diminish the influence of the above two para...

  7. A Common Polymorphism in the SFTPD Gene Influences Assembly, Function, and Concentration of Surfactant Protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Garred, Peter; Jensenius, Henriette;


    on epithelial surfaces and in serum. Genotyping for three single-nucleotide variations altering amino acids in the mature protein in codon 11 (Met(11)Thr), 160 (Ala(160)Thr), and 270 (Ser(270)Thr) of the SP-D gene was performed and related to the SP-D levels in serum. Individuals with the Thr/Thr(11)-encoding...... the second peak exclusively contains monomers. SP-D from both peaks bound to mannan-coated ELISA plates. SP-D from the high m.w. peak bound preferentially to intact influenza A virus and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the monomeric species preferentially bound to isolated LPS. Our data...... strongly suggest that polymorphic variation in the N-terminal domain of the SP-D molecule influences oligomerization, function, and the concentration of the molecule in serum....

  8. A common polymorphism in the SFTPD gene influences assembly, function, and concentration of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Garred, Peter; Jensenius, Henriette;


    on epithelial surfaces and in serum. Genotyping for three single-nucleotide variations altering amino acids in the mature protein in codon 11 (Met(11)Thr), 160 (Ala(160)Thr), and 270 (Ser(270)Thr) of the SP-D gene was performed and related to the SP-D levels in serum. Individuals with the Thr/Thr(11)-encoding...... the second peak exclusively contains monomers. SP-D from both peaks bound to mannan-coated ELISA plates. SP-D from the high m.w. peak bound preferentially to intact influenza A virus and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the monomeric species preferentially bound to isolated LPS. Our data...... strongly suggest that polymorphic variation in the N-terminal domain of the SP-D molecule influences oligomerization, function, and the concentration of the molecule in serum....

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Whey Protein Concentrate Activated with Lycopene. (United States)

    Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Assis, Odílio Benedito Garrido; Alvarenga, Gabriela Lara


    The production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated with lycopene as a functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential uses in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0% and 2% in w/w) and lycopene (0%, 6%, and 12% in w/w) was used. Color, light transmission, film transparency, moisture, density, solubility, water vapor permeability, and antioxidant activity of the resulting materials were evaluated. Results indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. Inclusion of 2% w/w of MMT in the polymeric matrix significantly improved barrier property against water vapor. Lycopene, besides its good red coloring ability, provided to the films antioxidant activity and UV-vis light protection. These findings open a new perspective for the use of materials for bioactive packaging applications.

  10. Determination of ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) serum protein concentrations by refractometry and the biuret method



    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of hand-held refractometer in determining serum protein concentrations in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) as compared with the standard biuret method. The results indicated that serum protein values may be accurately determined in ring-necked pheasants with a hand-held refractometer. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2008.

  11. Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 Concentrations Are Independently Associated with Heart Failure.

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    Chi-Lun Huang

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2, which is mainly expressed from adipose tissue, is demonstrated to be involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Because several adipocytokines are known to be associated with heart failure (HF, here we investigated the association of ANGPTL2 and HF in Taiwanese subjects.A total of 170 symptomatic HF patients and 130 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from clinic. The echocardiography was analyzed in each patient, and stress myocardial perfusion study was performed for clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. Detailed demographic information, medications, and biochemical data were recorded. Circulating adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP and ANGPTL2, were analyzed. Compared with the control group subjects, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were significantly higher in HF group patients. In correlation analyses, ANGPTL2 level was positively correlated to creatinine, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hsCRP, TNF-α, NT-proBNP and A-FABP levels, and negatively correlated with HDL-C and left ventricular ejection fraction. In multiple regression analysis, A-FABP, hsCRP, and HDL-C levels remained as independent predictors for ANGPTL2 level. To determine the association between serum ANGPTL2 concentrations and HF, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with subjects divided into tertiles by ANGPTL2 levels. For the subjects with ANGPTL2 levels in the highest tertile, their risk of HF was about 2.97 fold (95% CI = 1.24-7.08, P = 0.01 higher than those in the lowest tertile.Our results demonstrate a higher circulating ANGPTL2 level in patients with HF, and the upregulating ANGPTL2 levels might be associated with metabolic derangements and inflammation.

  12. Effects of incorporation of whey protein concentrate on physicochemical, texture, and microbial evaluation of developed cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Hamid Wani


    Full Text Available Whey Protein concentrate (WPC was incorporated into cookies at different levels (0, 2, 4, and 6%. Cookies were analyzed for physicochemical, color, textural, microbial, and sensory attributes. Physicochemical analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookies shows maximum protein content (13.22%, moisture content (11.33%, fat content (23.08%, and ash content (2.02% as compared to control. However, control sample shows significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 value for crude fiber and carbohydrate content. Maximum thickness (9.63 mm, diameter (44.06 mm, and weight (9.10 g were found for control and these decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with increase in WPC supplementation level in cookies. Cookie supplemented with 4% WPC showed maximum overall acceptability (4.76. Texture analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookie shows maximum cutting force (55.3 N. Lightness (L* value of cookies decreased from 67.32 to 57.94. Where as a* and b* value increased from 0.37 to 3.57 and 25.35 to 27.54, respectively. The total plate count of cookie samples was under acceptable limits.

  13. Effect of chickpea aqueous extracts, organic extracts, and protein concentrates on cell proliferation. (United States)

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; del Mar Yust, María; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Millán, Francisco


    Pulses should be part of a healthy diet, and it is also becoming clear that they have health-promoting effects. Nevertheless, most studies on the bioactive or health-promoting properties of pulses have been carried out using soybeans. We have studied cell growth-regulating properties, which may be responsible for anti-cancer properties, in chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds are a staple in the traditional diet of many Mediterranean, Asian, and South and Central American countries. In addition, chickpea seeds have industrial applications since they can be used for the preparation of protein concentrates and isolates. The cell lines Caco-2 (epithelial intestinal) and J774 (macrophages) have been exposed to chickpea seed extracts and protein preparations in order to screen the different chickpea fractions for effects on cell growth. Both cell growth-promoting and cell growth-inhibiting effects were found. Most interestingly, a fraction soluble in ethanol and acetone specifically and almost completely inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells exhibiting a cancerous phenotype. It is concluded that chickpea seeds are a source of bioactive components and deserve further study for their possible anti-cancer effect.

  14. Whey protein concentrate doped electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fibers for antibiotic release improvement. (United States)

    Ahmed, Said Mahmoud; Ahmed, Hanaa; Tian, Chang; Tu, Qin; Guo, Yadan; Wang, Jinyi


    Design and fabrication of scaffolds using appropriate biomaterials are a key step for the creation of functionally engineered tissues and their clinical applications. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible material with negligible cytotoxicity, is widely used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds by electrospinning for the applications of pharmaceutical products and wound dressings. However, the use of PCL as such in tissue engineering is limited due to its poor bioregulatory activity, high hydrophobicity, lack of functional groups and neutral charge. With the attempt to found nanofiber scaffolds with antibacterial activity for skin tissue engineering, in this study, whey protein concentrate (WPC) was used to modify the PCL nanofibers by doping it in the PCL electrospun solution. By adding proteins into PCL nanofibers, the degradability of the fibers may be increased, and this further allows an antibiotic incorporated in the fibers to be efficiently released. The morphology, wettability and degradation of the as-prepared PCL/WPC nanofibers were carefully characterized. The results showed that the PCL/WPC nanofibers possessed good morphology and wettability, as well as high degradation ability to compare with the pristine PCL fibers. Afterwords, tetracycline hydrochloride as a model antibiotic drug was doped in the PCL/WPC nanofibers. In vitro drug release assays demonstrated that PCL/WPC nanofibers had higher antibiotic release capability than the PCL nanofibers. Also, antibacterial activity evaluation against various bacteria showed that the drug-doped PCL/WPC fibers possessed more efficient antibacterial activity than the PCL nanofibers.

  15. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves. (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M


    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics.

  16. C-reactive protein concentration and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Lowe, Gordon;


    Associations of C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with risk of major diseases can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. We assessed the associations of CRP concentration with risk of vascular and non-vascular outcomes under different circumstances....

  17. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations. (United States)

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna


    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  18. The effect of microfiltration on color, flavor, and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A


    The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP

  19. Partial calcium depletion during membrane filtration affects gelation of reconstituted milk protein concentrates. (United States)

    Eshpari, H; Jimenez-Flores, R; Tong, P S; Corredig, M


    Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced coagulation behavior, as such coagulation is affected by both the supramolecular structure of the caseins and calcium equilibrium. Milk protein concentrates were prepared by preacidification with GDL to pH 6 using ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF) followed by spray-drying. Reconstituted UF and DF samples (3.2% protein) treated with GDL showed significantly increased amounts of soluble calcium and nonsedimentable caseins compared with their respective controls, as measured by ion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE electrophoresis, respectively. The primary phase of chymosin-induced gelation was not significantly different between treatments as measured by the amount of caseino-macropeptide released. The rheological properties of the reconstituted MPC powders were determined immediately after addition of chymosin, both before and after dialysis against skim milk, to ensure similar serum composition for all samples. Reconstituted samples before dialysis showed no gelation (defined as tan δ=1), and after re-equilibration only control UF and DF samples showed gelation. The gelation properties of reconstituted MPC powders were negatively affected by the presence of soluble casein, and positively affected by the amount of both soluble and insoluble

  20. Effect of bleaching whey on sensory and functional properties of 80% whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Jervis, S; Campbell, R; Wojciechowski, K L; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M


    Whey is a highly functional food that has found widespread use in a variety of food and beverage applications. A large amount of the whey proteins produced in the United States is derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Color from annatto is undesirable in whey and must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare 2 commercially approved bleaching agents, benzoyl peroxide (BP) and hydrogen peroxide (HP), and their effects on the flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Colored and uncolored liquid wheys were bleached with BP or HP, and then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried; WPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored Cheddar whey were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. The WPC80 were then assessed by sensory, instrumental, functionality, color, and proximate analysis techniques. The HP-bleached WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (specifically hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and 1-octen-3-one) and had higher fatty and cardboard flavors compared with the other unbleached and BP-bleached WPC80. The WPC80 bleached with BP had lower norbixin concentrations compared with WPC80 bleached with HP. The WPC powders differed in Hunter color values (L, a, b), with bleached powders being more white, less red, and less yellow than unbleached powders. Bleaching with BP under the conditions used in this study resulted in larger reductions in yellowness of the powders made from whey with annatto color than did bleaching with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that whey bleached with HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10 min of heating at 90°C at pH 4.6 and pH 7 than the no-bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Overall, HP bleaching caused more lipid oxidation products and subsequent off-flavors compared with BP bleaching. However, heat stability of WPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control or BP

  1. Determination of the influence of substrate concentration on enzyme selectivity using whey protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis protease. (United States)

    Butré, Claire I; Sforza, Stefano; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter A


    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each cleavage site in the protein. It was determined from the identification and quantification of the peptides present in the hydrolysates. Solutions of 0.1-10% (w/v) whey protein isolate (WPI) were hydrolyzed by Bacillus licheniformis protease at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. The cleavage sites were divided into five groups, from very high (>10%) to very low selectivity (protein concentrations. This finding shows that both the rate of hydrolysis and the enzyme selectivity were influenced by the substrate concentration.

  2. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats. (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro


    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  3. PENGARUH KOMPOSOSI LAPISAN PADA PERMUKAAN GLOBULA MINYAK EMULSI SEBELUM PENGERINGAN SEMPROT TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MIKROKAMSUL TRIGLISERIDA KAYA ASAM LEMAK W-3 [The Effect of the Composition of Adsorbed Layer at Globule Interface of -3 Fatty Acids Enriched Triglyceride Prior to Spray Drying on its Microcapsule Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Adnan2


    Full Text Available Emulsification is the critical factor in microencapsulation by spray drying method. Sodium caseinate is a protein with good emulsifying properties. The properties could be improved by phospholipids addition in the emulsification. Phospholipids addition which stabilized oil globule might change the composition of adsorbed layer.This research was conducted to analyze the changes in composition at oil globule interface by analyzing emulsion systems of triglyceride enriched by -3 fatty acids at 5% (w/v stabilized by sodium caseinate (10% w/v and addition of phospholipids at 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; and 2,5% (w/v. The changes in composition of adsorbed layer could be determined from the changes in phospholipids and adsorbed protein concentrations at oil globule interface. Analyses were done to measure the possibility of casein-phospholipids complex, phospholipids and protein adsorption concentration at interface, and adsorbed protein.The increase of phospholipids concentration in the emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate changed the composition of adsorbed layer at interface. There was phospholipids increase and adsorbed protein decrease at oil globule interface. These changes were caused by casein-phospholipids complex which that decreased surface activity and displacement protein by phospholipids that was adsorbed at oil globule interface.Changes of composition of casein-phospholipids at oil globule prior to microcapsulation process caused changes in the properties of microcapsule produced. The increasing phospholipids and decreasing casein concentrations at oil globule interface decreased the quality of the microcapsule, including decreasing in microencapsulation efficiency, in oxidative stability, and decreasing in EPA+DHA content.

  4. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houde, Damian; Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; Bou-Assaf, George M;


    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause......-MS experiments have limited utility for the direct analysis of solutions with high concentrations of protein. Here, we present a dialysis-based HDX-MS (di-HDX-MS) method as an alternative HDX-MS labeling format, which takes advantage of passive dialysis rather than the classic dilution workflow. We applied...... this approach to a highly concentrated antibody solution without dilution or significant sample manipulation, prior to analysis. Such a method could pave the way for a deeper understanding of the unusual behavior of proteins at high concentrations, which is highly relevant for development of biopharmaceuticals...

  5. Stability of buffer-free freeze-dried formulations: A feasibility study of a monoclonal antibody at high protein concentrations. (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Pevestorf, Benjamin; Bahrenburg, Sven


    We studied the stability of freeze-dried therapeutic protein formulations over a range of initial concentrations (from 40 to 160 mg/mL) and employed a variety of formulation strategies (including buffer-free freeze dried formulations, or BF-FDF). Highly concentrated, buffer-free liquid formulations of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to be a viable alternative to conventionally buffered preparations. We considered whether it is feasible to use the buffer-free strategy in freeze-dried formulations, as an answer to some of the known drawbacks of conventional buffers. We therefore conducted an accelerated stability study (24 weeks at 40 °C) to assess the feasibility of stabilizing freeze-dried formulations without "classical" buffer components. Factors monitored included pH stability, protein integrity, and protein aggregation. Because the protein solutions are inherently self-buffering, and the system's buffer capacity scales with protein concentration, we included highly concentrated buffer-free freeze-dried formulations in the study. The tested formulations ranged from "fully formulated" (containing both conventional buffer and disaccharide stabilizers) to "buffer-free" (including formulations with only disaccharide lyoprotectant stabilizers) to "excipient-free" (with neither added buffers nor stabilizers). We evaluated the impacts of varying concentrations, buffering schemes, pHs, and lyoprotectant additives. At the end of 24 weeks, no change in pH was observed in any of the buffer-free formulations. Unbuffered formulations were found to have shorter reconstitution times and lower opalescence than buffered formulations. Protein stability was assessed by visual inspection, sub-visible particle analysis, protein monomer content, charge variants analysis, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All of these measures found the stability of buffer-free formulations that included a disaccharide stabilizer comparable to buffer

  6. Insight into the Interaction of Graphene Oxide with Serum Proteins and the Impact of the Degree of Reduction and Concentration. (United States)

    Wei, Xue-Qin; Hao, Li-Ying; Shao, Xiao-Ru; Zhang, Quan; Jia, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Lin, Yun-Feng; Peng, Qiang


    As novel applied nanomaterials, both graphene oxide (GO) and its reduced form (rGO) have attracted global attention, because of their excellent properties. However, the lack of comprehensive understanding of their interactions with biomacromolecules highly limits their biomedical applications. This work aims to initiate a systematic study on the property changes of GO/rGO upon interaction with serum proteins and on how their degree of reduction and exposure concentration affect this interaction, as well as to analyze the possible biomedical impacts of the interaction. We found that the adsorption of proteins on GO/rGO occurred spontaneously and rapidly, leading to significant changes in size, zeta potential, and morphology. Compared to rGO, GO showed a higher ability in quenching intrinsic fluorescence of serum proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. The protein adsorption efficiency and the types of associated proteins varied, depending on the degree of reduction and concentration of graphene. Our findings indicate the importance of evaluating the potential protein adsorption before making use of GO/rGO in drug delivery, because the changed physicochemical properties after protein adsorption will have significant impacts on safety and effectiveness of these delivery systems. On the other hand, this interaction can also be used for the separation, purification, or delivery of certain proteins.

  7. Description of adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent using Polanyi potential theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Chao; LI AiMin; HU DaBo; LIU FuQiang; ZHANG QuanXing


    In this research, static adsorption of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene, acenaphthene, and fluorene, from aqueous solutions onto hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent within the temperature range of 288-308 K is investigated. Several isotherm equations are correlated with the equilibrium data, and the experimental data is found to fit the Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model best within the entire range of concentrations, providing evidence that pore-filling is the dominating sorption mechanism for PAHs. The study shows that the molecular size of adsorbates has distinct in-fluence on adsorption capacity of hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent for the PAHs; the larger the adsorbate molecular size, the lower the adsorption equilibrium capacity. Based on the Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model, the molecular size of adsorbates was introduced to adjust the adsorbate molar volume. Plots of qv vs. (σε/Vs) are collapsed to a single correlation curve for different adsorbates on hypercrosslinked polymeric resin.

  8. Protein purification using magnetic adsorbent particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzreb, M; Siemann-Herzberg, M.; Hobley, Timothy John


    of a magnetic field. By using magnetic separation in this way, the several stages of sample pretreatment (especially centrifugation, filtration and membrane separation) that are normally necessary to condition an extract before its application on packed bed chromatography columns, may be eliminated. Magnetic...

  9. Concentration changes during venous occlusion of proteins with affinity for extracellular matrix in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus A sign of vascular damage in patients with diabetic nephropathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.; Gram, J.; Kluft, C.; Jespersen, J.


    Objective: To investigate protein concentration changes during venous occlusion of proteins with reported affinity for extracellular matrix (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, antithrombin III, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor) in comparison with proteins with no reported affinity (albumin

  10. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Van Le, Tan Nhuut;


    with that of DSCs fabricated with two well-established co-adsorbents i.e., chenodeoxycholic acid (CDA) and octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA). The findings showed that under optimized co-adsorbent concentration (1 mM NTA, 0.03 mM CDA, 0.015 mM OPA), the efficiency of the corresponding solar cells increased to the same......With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (


    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Nien, Jyh Kae; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Fareed, Jawed; Edwin, Sam; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Than, Nandor G.; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Gomez, Ricardo; Papp, Zoltan; Hassan, Sonia S.


    Objective Preterm parturition has been associated with decidual vascular disorders and excessive thrombin generation. The objective of this study was to examine maternal plasma concentrations of protein Z in normal pregnancies, as well as in those presenting with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) and intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include patients with preterm labor and intact membranes and those with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Protein Z plasma concentrations were measured in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=71); 2) patients at term with (n=67) and without labor (n=88); 3) patients with spontaneous PTL before 34 weeks who were classified into: a) PTL with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI; n=35), b) PTL without IAI (n=54), and c) patients with PTL who delivered at term (n=49); and 4) patients with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding in the second and third trimester who were divided into: a) subsequent spontaneous PTL and delivery, and b) term delivery. Maternal plasma protein Z concentration was measured by a specific and sensitive immunoassay. Moreover, the amniotic fluid concentration of protein Z was determined in a subset of patients with preterm labor (n=30). Results 1) There was no correlation between maternal plasma protein Z concentration and gestational age in normal pregnant women. 2) The mean maternal plasma concentration of protein Z was significantly lower in women during spontaneous labor at term than in those not in labor [mean: 2.15 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.01-2.29) vs. mean: 2.45 ± 0.52 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.34-2.56), respectively; p=0.001]; 3) Women with PTL without IAI who delivered preterm had a significantly lower mean protein Z concentration than normal pregnant women [mean: 2.12 μg/mL (95% CI: 1.98-2.26) vs. mean: 2.39 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.28-2.5); p=0.008); 4) Of interest, PTL with IAI was not associated with lower plasma concentrations of protein

  12. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne


    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  13. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni


    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  14. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  15. Day/night changes in serum S100B protein concentrations in acute paranoid schizophrenia. (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Cejas-Mendez, Maria Del Rosario


    There are day/night and seasonal changes in biological markers such as melatonin and cortisol. Controversial changes in serum S100B protein levels have been described in schizophrenia. We aim studying whether serum S100B levels present day/night variations in schizophrenia patients and whether S100B levels are related to psychopathology. Sixty-five paranoid schizophrenic inpatients participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at admission and discharge. Blood was drawn at 12:00 (midday) and 00:00 (midnight) hours at admission and discharge. Sixty-five healthy subjects matched by age, gender and season acted as control group. At admission and discharge patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations at midday and midnight than healthy subjects. At admission, patients showed a day/night variation of S100B levels, with higher S100B levels at 12:00 than at 00:00h (143.7±26.3pg/ml vs. 96.9±16.6pg/ml). This day/night difference was not present in the control group. Midday and midnight S100B at admission decreased when compared to S100B at discharge (midday, 143.7±26.3 vs. 83.0±12, midnight 96.9±16.6 vs. 68.6±14.5). There was a positive correlation between the PANSS positive subscale and S100B concentrations at admission. This correlation was not present at discharge.

  16. Low salt concentrations activate AMP-activated protein kinase in mouse macula densa cells. (United States)

    Cook, Natasha; Fraser, Scott A; Katerelos, Marina; Katsis, Frosa; Gleich, Kurt; Mount, Peter F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Levidiotis, Vicki; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A


    The energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2 in the kidney and phosphorylates it on a regulatory site in vitro. To identify a potential role for AMPK in salt sensing at the macula densa, we have used the murine macula densa cell line MMDD1. In this cell line, AMPK was rapidly activated by isosmolar low-salt conditions. In contrast to the known salt-sensing pathway in the macula densa, AMPK activation occurred in the presence of either low sodium or low chloride and was unaffected by inhibition of NKCC2 with bumetanide. Assays using recombinant AMPK demonstrated activation of an upstream kinase by isosmolar low salt. The specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase inhibitor STO-609 failed to suppress AMPK activation, suggesting that it was not part of the signal pathway. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of the specific substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser(79), as well as increased NKCC2 phosphorylation at Ser(126). AMPK activation due to low salt concentrations was inhibited by an adenovirus construct encoding a kinase dead mutant of AMPK, leading to reduced ACC Ser(79) and NKCC2 Ser(126) phosphorylation. This work demonstrates that AMPK activation in macula densa-like cells occurs via isosmolar changes in sodium or chloride concentration, leading to phosphorylation of ACC and NKCC2. Phosphorylation of these substrates in vivo is predicted to increase intracellular chloride and so reduce the effect of salt restriction on tubuloglomerular feedback and renin secretion.

  17. Concentration and Separation of Active Proteins from Potato Industry Waste Based on Low-Temperature Evaporation and Ethanol Precipitation (United States)

    Ahokas, Mikko; Järvinen, Juho; Toivanen, Juho; Tanskanen, Juha P.


    Purpose. Potato fruit juice, a residue of starch industry, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable raw-materials of food, cosmetic, and pharma industries. The recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice is limited by the lack of industrially feasible concentration and separation technologies. The present research thus aimed at development of such process for the separation of active protease inhibitors from potato fruit juice. Methods. Low temperature mechanical vapor recompression evaporation was applied for concentration of potato fruit juice followed by ethanol precipitation for recovery of active proteins. The effects of precipitation temperature and precipitative agents were investigated employing response surface modeling methodology. Results. Concentration of potato fruit juice by evaporation was successful without loss of trypsin inhibition activity. Precipitation using 6.5 M ethanol at low temperature (0–+4°C) was found suitable for the recovery of active protease inhibitors from the concentrate. Piloting at starch industry yielded 50% of total proteins, with a high quantity of active protease inhibitors and a minor inclusion of other proteins. Conclusion. Concentration by low-temperature evaporation, followed by ethanol precipitation of protease inhibitors at optimized temperature, is an attractive option for valorization of potato fruit juice. PMID:28299232

  18. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Houde, Damian; Nazari, Zeinab E.; Bou-Assaf, George M.; Weiskopf, Andrew S.; Rand, Kasper D.


    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause for these phenomena can be due to short range electrostatic and/or hydrophobic protein-protein interactions. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for investigating protein conformation, dynamics, and interactions. However, "traditional" continuous dilution labeling HDX-MS experiments have limited utility for the direct analysis of solutions with high concentrations of protein. Here, we present a dialysis-based HDX-MS (di-HDX-MS) method as an alternative HDX-MS labeling format, which takes advantage of passive dialysis rather than the classic dilution workflow. We applied this approach to a highly concentrated antibody solution without dilution or significant sample manipulation, prior to analysis. Such a method could pave the way for a deeper understanding of the unusual behavior of proteins at high concentrations, which is highly relevant for development of biopharmaceuticals in industry.

  19. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari


    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  20. Source of dietary protein influences kinetics of plasma gut regulatory peptide concentration in response to feeding in preruminant calves. (United States)

    le Huërou-Luron, I; Gestin, M; Le Dréan, G; Romé, V; Bernard, C; Chayvialle, J A; Guilloteau, P


    The kinetics of the peripheral plasma concentrations of eight gut regulatory peptides were examined in response to feeding in preruminant calves. Two experiments were carried out in animals fed milk substitutes either based on milk protein (control diet) or in which casein had been replaced by hydrolyzed fish (fish diet in experiment 1) or whey (whey diet in experiment 2) protein concentrate. In contrast to the control diet, the latter two did not coagulate within the abomasum. No variation was observed in plasma concentrations of gut regulatory peptides during 1-1.4 hr before the morning meal regardless of the nature of the dietary protein. With the control diet, the meal was followed by an increase in cholecystokinin, gastrin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide and a fall in secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and motilin, whereas no significant change was observed for somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide. The replacement of casein by protein substitutes did not greatly modify the pattern of plasma responses to feeding, but the prefeeding and postfeeding levels were highly affected. We conclude that the most important characteristic influencing plasma gut peptide concentrations is the ability of dietary protein to clot in the abomasum, consequently determining the pattern of gastric emptying, and that variations appear depending on the origin of protein substitutes in relation to the duodenal content and mainly to the digesta pH.

  1. Preparation of thiophilic paramagnetic adsorbent for separation of antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The micron-sized mierospheres with superparamagnetic property were synthesized with vinyl acetate and divinylbenzene by microsuspension polymerization. After the complete alcoholysis, these hydroxyl-functionalized microspheres were activated by divinylfone and modified with mercaptoethanol to prepare the thiophilic magnetic adsorbent, which was used to specifically isolate immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum. This thiophilic magnetic adsorbent performed an evident salt-dependent adsorption behavior for IgG. Due to their salt-promoted adsorption towards IgG under high salt concentration, the absorbed antibodies could be extracted in low salt concentration with high purity.

  2. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  3. Nitrate concentration-shift cultivation to enhance protein content of heterotrophic microalga Chlorella vulgaris: Over-compensation strategy. (United States)

    Xie, Tonghui; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Yu; Li, Xingrui; Zhang, Yongkui


    Protein production from microalgae requires both high cell density during cultivation and high protein content in cells. Heterotrophic microalgae can achieve high cell density, and yet are confronted with the problem of low protein content. Based on over-compensation strategy, a new concentration-shift method was proposed to cultivate heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris, aiming to increase protein content. With a prior starvation period, microalgae utilized more nitrate and accumulated more proteins compared to one-stage cultivation. Considering the convenience of operation, nitrate-added culture was adopted for producing heterotrophic microalgae, rather than sterile centrifugal culture. Operating parameters including nitrate concentration in N-deficient medium, N-starved time and nitrate concentration in N-rich medium were optimized, which were 0.18gl(-1), 38h and 2.45gl(-1), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, protein content in heterotrophic Chlorella reached 44.3%. Furthermore, the heterotrophic microalga was suggested to be a potential single-cell protein source according to the amino acid composition.

  4. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition. (United States)

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai


    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.

  5. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold


    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  6. Intentional formation of a protein corona on nanoparticles: Serum concentration affects protein corona mass, surface charge, and nanoparticle-cell interaction. (United States)

    Gräfe, Christine; Weidner, Andreas; Lühe, Moritz V D; Bergemann, Christian; Schacher, Felix H; Clement, Joachim H; Dutz, Silvio


    The protein corona, which immediately is formed after contact of nanoparticles and biological systems, plays a crucial role for the biological fate of nanoparticles. In the here presented study we describe a strategy to control the amount of corona proteins which bind on particle surface and the impact of such a protein corona on particle-cell interactions. For corona formation, polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were incubated in a medium consisting of fetal calf serum (FCS) and cell culture medium. To modulate the amount of proteins bind to particles, the composition of the incubation medium was varied with regard to the FCS content. The protein corona mass was estimated and the size distribution of the participating proteins was determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additionally, the zeta potential of incubated particles was measured. Human blood-brain barrier-representing cell line HBMEC was used for in vitro incubation experiments. To investigate the consequences of the FCS dependent protein corona formation on the interaction of MNP and cells flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy were used. Zeta potential as well as SDS-PAGE clearly reveal an increase in the amount of corona proteins on MNP with increasing amount of FCS in incubation medium. For MNP incubated with lower FCS concentrations especially medium-sized proteins of molecular weights between 30kDa and 100kDa could be found within the protein corona, whereas for MNP incubated within higher FCS concentrations the fraction of corona proteins of 30kDa and less increased. The presence of the protein corona reduces the interaction of PEI-coated MNP with HBMEC cells within a 30min-incubation.

  7. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake. (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W


    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel.

  8. Hydrophobicity, thermal and micro-structural properties of whey protein concentrate-pullulan-beeswax films. (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Khanzadi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Dehnad, Danial; Chegini, Faramarz Khodaian; Maghsoudlou, Yayha


    In this research, effects of beeswax (BW) on functional properties of whey protein concentrates (WPC):pullulan (PUL) films were investigated. For this purpose, 0, 10, 20 and 30w/w(glycerol)% BW rates and 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30w/w% WPC:PUL ratios were applied. Films containing 70% WPC:30% PUL (WPC70) and 30% BW (BW30) justified the highest contact angle (92.4°) among all films; SEM micrographs indicated that BW could come toward the surface of films during drying stage and resulted in a higher hydrophobic behavior of bilayer films compared with blend films. WPC70 supplied the lowest T(g) values (36-48 °C) among different proportions of WPC-PUL; the highest melting points were just assured in the absence of BW regardless of combination ratio for WPI:PUL. BW30 films deserved lower roughness rates than BW20 (and even BW10) films, indicating more advantageous microstructure and higher hydrogen connections in BW30 films and justifying similar melting points attained for BW30 films to BW20 or 10 ones. Overall, application of WPC70 and BW30 was recommended to obtain optimum combination of final properties for WPC-PUL-BW bilayer films as SEM exhibited flexible and elastic structures of such films.

  9. Elevated Concentration of Interferon-Inducible Protein of 10 kD (IP-10) Is Associated With Coronary Atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Niki, Toshiyuki; Soeki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Koji; Taketani, Yoshio; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka


    Several studies have shown that various chemokines are more highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques than in normal vessel walls. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and noteworthy chemokines, including interferon-inducible protein of 10 kD (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1); regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES); and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an established marker of atherosclerotic disease. We studied 28 patients who underwent coronary angiography because of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD was defined as stenosis of more than 50% of the vessel diameter on coronary angiograms. Blood samples were obtained both from the aorta and the coronary sinus (CS) just before coronary angiography. Relative to CAD (-) patients, those who were CAD (+) tended to have higher plasma concentrations of IP-10 in the aorta, as well as significantly higher transcoronary concentration gradients of circulating IP-10. There were no significant differences between the two groups in aortic plasma concentrations or transcoronary concentration gradients of MCP-1, RANTES, and hsCRP. Furthermore, both the aortic plasma concentrations and transcoronary concentration gradients of IP-10 correlated with the Gensini score (r = 0.58 and r = 0.63, respectively, P < 0.01), while the plasma MCP-1, RANTES, and serum hsCRP concentrations did not. This study suggests that IP-10 is a good surrogate marker of coronary atherosclerosis.

  10. Serum concentrations and peripheral secretion of the beta chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α in alcoholic liver disease


    Fisher, N; Neil, D.; Williams, A.; Adams, D.


    BACKGROUND—Alcoholic liver disease is associated with increased hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α).
AIMS—To determine whether concentrations of chemokines in the peripheral circulation reflect disease activity, and whether chemokine secretion is restricted to the liver or is part of a systemic inflammatory response in alcoholic liver disease.
PATIENTS—Fifty one patients with alcoholic liver disease and 12 healthy co...

  11. Effects of silage protein degradability and fermentation acids on metabolizable protein concentration: a meta-analysis of dairy cow production experiments. (United States)

    Rinne, M; Nousiainen, J; Huhtanen, P


    A meta-analysis was conducted using data from dairy cow production studies to evaluate silage metabolizable protein (MP) concentrations. The data consisted of 397 treatment means in 130 comparisons, in which the effects of silage factors (e.g., date of harvest, wilting, silage additives) were investigated. Within a comparison, a fixed amount of the same concentrate was fed. A prerequisite of data to be included in the analysis was that silage dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ammonia N, lactic acid (LA), and total acid (TA) concentrations and digestibility were determined. A smaller data set (n = 248) comprised studies in which silage water-soluble N concentration was also analyzed. The supply of MP was estimated as amino acids absorbed from the small intestine using a model with constant values for ruminal effective protein degradability (EPD) and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein. Microbial protein was calculated on the basis of digestible carbohydrates and rumen degradable protein (RDP). Alternative models were used to estimate microbial protein formation, assuming the energy values of RDP and TA to be equivalent to 1.00, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0 times that of digestible carbohydrates. Because EPD values are seldom determined in production trials, they were derived using empirical models that estimate them from other feed components. The goodness of fit of models was compared on the basis of root mean squared error (RMSE) of milk protein yield (MPY) predicted from MP supply (adjusted for random study effect) and Akaike's information criterion. Metabolizable protein supply calculated from basal assumptions predicted MPY precisely within a study (RMSE = 16.2 g/d). Variable contribution of RDP to the energy supply for microbial synthesis influenced the precision of MPY prediction very little, but RMSE for MPY increased markedly when the energy supply of rumen microbes was corrected for TA concentration. Using predicted rather than constant EPD

  12. Elution by Le Chatelier's principle for maximum recyclability of adsorbents: applied to polyacrylamidoxime adsorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater. (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Vukovic, Sinisa; Dai, Sheng


    Amidoxime-based polymer adsorbents have attracted interest within the last decade due to their high adsorption capacities for uranium and other rare earth metals from seawater. The ocean contains an approximated 4-5 billion tons of uranium and even though amidoxime-based adsorbents have demonstrated the highest uranium adsorption capacities to date, they are still economically impractical because of their limited recyclability. Typically, the adsorbed metals are eluted with a dilute acid solution that not only damages the amidoxime groups (metal adsorption sites), but is also not strong enough to remove the strongly bound vanadium, which decreases the adsorption capacity with each cycle. We resolved this challenge by incorporating Le Chatelier's principle to recycle adsorbents indefinitely. We used a solution with a high concentration of amidoxime-like chelating agents, such as hydroxylamine, to desorb nearly a 100% of adsorbed metals, including vanadium, without damaging the metal adsorption sites and preserving the high adsorption capacity. The method takes advantage of knowing the binding mode between the amidoxime ligand and the metal and mimics it with chelating agents that then in a Le Chatelier's manner removes metals by shifting to a new chemical equilibrium. For this reason the method is applicable to any ligand-metal adsorbent and it will make an impact on other extraction technologies.

  13. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin W McBride

    Full Text Available The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  14. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters. (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Rodgers, Victor G J


    The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  15. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion. (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R


    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  16. Evaluation of the use of serum C-reactive protein concentration to predict outcome in puppies infected with canine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClure, Vanessa; van Schoor, Mirinda; Thompson, Peter N.;


    Objective-To evaluate associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with duration of hospitalization and with outcome in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis. Design-Prospective observational study. Animals-79 client-owned puppies with naturally acquired canine parvovirus.......7%, respectively (considered moderately accurate). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Although serum CRP concentration was associated with outcome in puppies with canine parvovirus enteritis, it did not prove to be a good predictor of outcome when used alone....

  17. May salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lemke

    Full Text Available Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp. contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host. Leech therapy is used to treat many different ailments in humans, although only a small fraction of salivary proteins are characterized yet. Moreover, we do not know whether complete transfer of salivary proteins stored in the unicellular salivary glands in a leech to the host during feeding may generate concentrations that are sufficiently high to affect physiological processes in the host. Our 3D reconstruction of a portion of internal leech tissue from histological sections revealed that one leech contains approx. 37,000 salivary gland cells. Using tissue slices from pig liver and mouse skeletal muscle for reference, we obtained data for protein densities in leech salivary gland cells. As individual salivary cells are voluminous (67,000 µm(3 and the stored proteins are densely packed (approx. 500 µg/mm(3, we extrapolated that a single leech may contain up to 1.2 mg of salivary proteins. Analyzing protein extracts of unfed or fed leeches by 2D electrophoresis, we calculated the relative molar amounts of individual salivary proteins in the mass range of 17-60 kDa which may be released from a single leech during feeding. Distribution of these salivary proteins in the host (assumed plasma volume of 5 l may result in concentrations of individual compounds between 3 and 236 pmol/l. Such concentrations seem sufficiently high to exert biochemical interactions with target molecules in the host.

  18. Hippocampal kindling alters the concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein and other marker proteins in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Bolwig, T G;


    The effect of hippocampal kindling on neuronal and glial marker proteins was studied in the rat by immunochemical methods. In hippocampus, pyriform cortex and amygdala there was an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicating reactive gliosis, and an increase in the glycolytic...... enzyme NSE, suggesting increased anaerobic metabolism. Neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) decreased in pyriform cortex and amygdala of kindled rats, indicating neuronal degeneration....

  19. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages. (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong


    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (Ppigs had generally higher (Ppigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (Ppigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (Ppig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (Ppigs, but repressed (Ppigs. The higher protein-NRC diet increased ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR in Landrace pigs. These findings indicated that the dynamic consequences of AA profile and protein deposition in muscle tissues are the concerted effort of distinctive genotype, nutrient status, age, and

  20. Vitamin D-binding protein and free vitamin D concentrations in acromegaly. (United States)

    Altinova, Alev Eroglu; Ozkan, Cigdem; Akturk, Mujde; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Yalcin, Muhittin; Cakir, Nuri; Toruner, Fusun Balos


    Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is suggested to be important in the determination of vitamin D deficiency, since vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) may affect total 25(OH)D levels. There are no data about free 25(OH)D concentrations in acromegaly. We aimed to investigate serum VDBP and total and free 25(OH)D levels in patients with acromegaly in comparison with control subjects. We recruited 54 patients with acromegaly and 32 control subjects who were similar according to age, gender, and body mass index. Serum VDBP levels were found to be increased in patients with acromegaly compared to control subjects [90.35 (72.45-111.10) vs. 69.52 (63.89-80.13) mg/l, p = 0.001]. There was statistically no significant difference in serum total 25(OH)D levels between the patients with acromegaly and control subjects [18.63 (13.35-27.73) vs. 22.51 (19.20-28.96) ng/ml, p = 0.05]. Free 25(OH)D levels were significantly decreased in patients with acromegaly compared to control subjects [14.55 (10.45-21.45) vs. 17.75 (15.30-23.75) pg/ml, p = 0.03]. Free 25(OH)D levels correlated positively with total 25(OH)D (p = 0.0001) and HDL cholesterol (p = 0.04) and negatively with fasting blood glucose (p = 0.04). Our findings indicate that VDBP is increased and free 25(OH)D is decreased in acromegaly, while there is no significant alteration in total 25(OH)D.

  1. Low-fat mozzarella as influenced by microbial exopolysaccharides, preacidification, and whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Zisu, B; Shah, N P


    Low-fat Mozzarella cheeses containing 6% fat were made by preacidification of milk, preacidification combined with exopolysaccharide- (EPS-) producing starter, used independently or as a coculture with non-EPS starter, and preacidification combined with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and EPS. The impact of these treatments on moisture retention, changes in texture profile analysis, cheese melt, stretch, and on pizza bake performance were investigated over 45 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Preacidified cheeses without EPS (control) had the lowest moisture content (53.75%). These cheeses were hardest and exhibited greatest springiness and chewiness. The meltability and stretchability of these cheeses increased most during the first 28 d of storage. The moisture content in cheeses increased to 55.08, 54.79, and 55.82% with EPS starter (containing 41.18 mg/g of EPS), coculturing (containing 28.61 mg/g of EPS), and WPC (containing 44.23 mg/g of EPS), respectively. Exopolysaccharide reduced hardness, springiness, and chewiness of low-fat cheeses made with preacidified milk in general and such cheeses exhibited an increase in cohesiveness and meltability. Although stretch distance was similar in all cheeses, those containing EPS were softer than the control. Cocultured cheeses exhibited the greatest meltability. Cheeses containing WPC were softest in general; however, hardness remained unchanged over 45 d. Cheeses made with WPC had the least increase in meltability over time. Incorporation of WPC did not reduce surface scorching or increase shred fusion of cheese shreds during pizza baking; however, there was an improvement in these properties between d 7 and 45. Coating of the cheese shreds with oil was necessary for adequate browning, melt, and flow characteristics in all cheese types.

  2. The application of protein concentrates from locally available legumes in the development of weaning foods. (United States)

    Fashakin, J B; Awoyefa, M B; Fürst, P


    The effect of mixing different sources of vegetable proteins from legumes in the preparation of infant weaning foods was investigated. Melon, cowpea and soya as sole protein sources or as a mixture were fed to 60 albino rats. A milk powder-based commercial product (Cerelac) was used as control diet. The mixture of the vegetable protein diet compared favorably with the control diet in terms of growth rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) and also ensured optimum nitrogen content in liver, kidney and muscle tissues. In contrast the use of individual protein sources failed to support satisfactory growth and were inferior to those in animals fed with the control or mixed diets. It was thus concluded that in the developing countries an application of such a mixture of vegetable proteins may be suitable in the preparation of weaning foods.

  3. Microfiltration: Effect of retentate protein concentration on limiting flux and serum protein removal with 4-mm-channel ceramic microfiltration membranes. (United States)

    Hurt, E E; Adams, M C; Barbano, D M


    The objective of our study was to determine if the limiting flux and serum protein (SP) removal were different at 8, 9, or 10% true protein (TP) in the microfiltration (MF) retentate recirculation loop using 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes with 4-mm-channel diameters operated at 50 °C using a diluted milk protein concentrate with 85% protein on a total solids basis (MPC85) as the MF feed. The limiting flux for the MF of diluted MPC85 was determined at 3 TP concentrations in the recirculation loop (8, 9, and 10%). The experiment was replicated 3 times for a total of 9 runs. On the morning of each run, MPC85 was diluted with reverse osmosis water to an MF feed TP concentration of 5.4%. In all runs, the starting flux was 55 kg/m(2) per hour, the flux was increased in steps until the limiting flux was reached. The minimum flux increase was 10 kg/m(2) per hour. The limiting flux decreased as TP concentration in the recirculation loop increased. The limiting flux was 154 ± 0.3, 133 ± 0.7, and 117 ± 3.3 kg/m(2) per hour at recirculation loop TP concentrations of 8.2 ± 0.07, 9.2 ± 0.04, and 10.2 ± 0.09%, respectively. No effect of recirculation loop TP concentration on the SP removal factor was detected. However, the SP removal factor decreased from 0.80 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.02 as flux was increased from the starting flux of 55 kg/m(2) per hour to the limiting flux, with a similar decrease seen at all recirculation loop TP concentrations.

  4. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina. (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R


    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively.

  5. Cell age dependent concentration of Escherichia coli divisome proteins analyzed with ImageJ and ObjectJ. (United States)

    Vischer, Norbert O E; Verheul, Jolanda; Postma, Marten; van den Berg van Saparoea, Bart; Galli, Elisa; Natale, Paolo; Gerdes, Kenn; Luirink, Joen; Vollmer, Waldemar; Vicente, Miguel; den Blaauwen, Tanneke


    The rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli multiplies by elongation followed by binary fission. Longitudinal growth of the cell envelope and synthesis of the new poles are organized by two protein complexes called elongasome and divisome, respectively. We have analyzed the spatio-temporal localization patterns of many of these morphogenetic proteins by immunolabeling the wild type strain MC4100 grown to steady state in minimal glucose medium at 28°C. This allowed the direct comparison of morphogenetic protein localization patterns as a function of cell age as imaged by phase contrast and fluorescence wide field microscopy. Under steady state conditions the age distribution of the cells is constant and is directly correlated to cell length. To quantify cell size and protein localization parameters in 1000s of labeled cells, we developed 'Coli-Inspector,' which is a project running under ImageJ with the plugin 'ObjectJ.' ObjectJ organizes image-analysis tasks using an integrated approach with the flexibility to produce different output formats from existing markers such as intensity data and geometrical parameters. ObjectJ supports the combination of automatic and interactive methods giving the user complete control over the method of image analysis and data collection, with visual inspection tools for quick elimination of artifacts. Coli-inspector was used to sort the cells according to division cycle cell age and to analyze the spatio-temporal localization pattern of each protein. A unique dataset has been created on the concentration and position of the proteins during the cell cycle. We show for the first time that a subset of morphogenetic proteins have a constant cellular concentration during the cell division cycle whereas another set exhibits a cell division cycle dependent concentration variation. Using the number of proteins present at midcell, the stoichiometry of the divisome is discussed.

  6. Atomic detail brownian dynamics simulations of concentrated protein solutions with a mean field treatment of hydrodynamic interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mereghetti, Paolo; Wade, Rebecca C.


    High macromolecular concentrations are a distinguishing feature of living organisms. Understanding how the high concentration of solutes affects the dynamic properties of biological macromolecules is fundamental for the comprehension of biological processes in living systems. In this paper, we describe the implementation of mean field models of translational and rotational hydrodynamic interactions into an atomically detailed many-protein brownian dynamics simulation method. Concentrated solutions (30-40% volume fraction) of myoglobin, hemoglobin A, and sickle cell hemoglobin S were simulated, and static structure factors, oligomer formation, and translational and rotational self-diffusion coefficients were computed. Good agreement of computed properties with available experimental data was obtained. The results show the importance of both solvent mediated interactions and weak protein-protein interactions for accurately describing the dynamics and the association properties of concentrated protein solutions. Specifically, they show a qualitative difference in the translational and rotational dynamics of the systems studied. Although the translational diffusion coefficient is controlled by macromolecular shape and hydrodynamic interactions, the rotational diffusion coefficient is affected by macromolecular shape, direct intermolecular interactions, and both translational and rotational hydrodynamic interactions.

  7. The effect of heparin on pregnancy associated plasma protein-A concentration in healthy, non-pregnant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Camilla H B; Vestergaard, Kirstine R.; Schou, Morten;


    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the differences in pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) concentrations in heparin naive and heparin treated healthy men and non-pregnant women, to find a possible difference in different age groups, and to determine the response...

  8. C-reactive protein concentration is associated with prognosis in patients suffering from peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, M.C. van de; Klaver, Y.L.B.; Lemmens, V.E.; Leenders, B.J.; Nienhuijs, S.W.; Hingh, I.H.J.T. de


    PURPOSE: Only a limited number of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin benefit from palliative chemotherapy. Identification of prognostic factors may aid in patient selection. The plasma concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly recognized as prognostic f

  9. Introducing enzyme selectivity as a quantitative parameter to describe the effects of substrate concentration on protein hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.


    To understand the differences in peptide composition that result from variations in the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins (e.g. substrate concentration) the mechanism of hydrolysis needs to be understood in detail. Therefore, methods and tools were developed to characterize and quantify

  10. Determination of the Influence of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Selectivity Using Whey Protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Sforza, S.; Gruppen, H.; Wierenga, P.A.


    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each c

  11. Influence of caffeine used at various temperature ranges on the concentrations of glucose and total serum protein as well as body weight gain in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrowska-Pinkosz Monika


    Full Text Available Caffeine (120 mg/kg was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.

  12. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn;


    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  13. The Concentration and Yield of Hordein and some Lysine-Rich Proteins as Influenced by the lys gene of Hiproly Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasaraswathi, R.; Køie, B; Doll, Hans


    the corresponding normal gene. The lys lines had 16% lower grain yield and 13% lower single seed weight than the corresponding normal lines. The concentration of hordein in the protein and the yield of this storage protein were strongly reduced in the lys lines. On the contrary, the concentration of protein Z, β...

  14. Investigations into Alternative Desorption Agents for Amidoxime-Based Polymeric Uranium Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wai, Chien [LCW Supercritical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Pan, Horng-Bin [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)


    Amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents that can extract uranium (U) from seawater are being developed to provide a sustainable supply of fuel for nuclear reactors. A critical step in the development of the technology is to develop elution procedures to selectively remove U from the adsorbents and to do so in a manner that allows the adsorbent material to be reused. This study investigates use of high concentrations of bicarbonate along with targeted chelating agents as an alternative means to the mild acid elution procedures currently in use for selectively eluting uranium from amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents.

  15. QTL identification of grain protein concentration and its genetic correlation with starch concentration and grain weight using two populations in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuling Li; Yanzhao Wang; Mengguan Wei; Xuehui Li; Jiafeng Fu


    Protein is one of the three main storage chemical components in maize grains, and is negatively correlated with starch concentration (SC). Our objective was to analyse the influence of genetic backgrounds on QTL detection for protein concentration (PC) and to reveal the molecular genetic associations between PC and both SC and grain weight (GWP). Two hundred and eighty-four (Pop1) and 265 (Pop2) F2:3 families were developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred GY220 and two normal maize inbreds 8984 and 8622 respectively, and were genotyped with 185 and 173 pairs of SSR markers. PC, SC and GWP were evaluated under two environments. Composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiple interval mapping (MIM) methods were used to detect single-trait QTL for PC, and multiple-trait QTL for PC with both SC and GWP. No common QTL were shared between the two populations for their four and one PC QTL. Common QTL with opposite signs of effects for PC and SC/GWP were detected on three marker intervals at bins 6.07–6.08, 8.03 and 8.03–8.04. Multiple-traits QTL mapping showed that tightly-linked QTL, pleiotropic QTL and QTL having effects with opposite directions for PC and SC/GWP were all observed in Pop1, while all QTL reflected opposite effects in Pop2.

  16. In Vitro Neurotoxicity of PBDE-99: Immediate and Concentration-Dependent Effects on Protein Expression in Cerebral Cortex Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Scholz, Birger; Kultima, Kim;


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used flame retardants in various consumer products. Pre- and postnatal exposure to congeners of PBDEs disrupts normal brain development in rodents. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to analyze concentration......-dependent differences in protein expression in cultured cortical cells isolated from rat fetuses (GD 21) after 24 h exposure to PBDE-99 (3, 10, or 30 muM). Changes on a post-translational level were studied using a 1 h exposure to 30 muM PBDE-99. The effects of 24 h exposure to 3 and 30 muM PBDE-99 on mRNA levels were...... effects of low-concentration PBDE-99 exposure are fundamentally different than effects of high-concentration exposure. Low-dose PBDE-99 exposure induced marked effects on cytoskeletal proteins, which was not correlated to cytotoxicity or major morphological effects, suggesting that other more regulatory...

  17. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This novel molecular adsorber coating would alleviate the size, weight, and complexity issues of traditional molecular adsorber puck.  A flexible tape version...

  18. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes. (United States)

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar


    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein.

  19. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography (United States)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.


    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  20. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure. (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Dell, C J; Feyereisen, G W; Kaye, J; Beegle, D


    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH(3)) and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from fresh dairy cow manure incubated in a controlled environment (experiment 1) and from manure-amended soil (experiment 2). Manure was prepared from feces and urine collected from lactating Holstein cows fed diets with 16.7% (DM basis; HCP) or 14.8% CP (LCP). High-CP manure had higher N content and proportion of NH(3)- and urea-N in total manure N than LCP manure (DM basis: 4.4 vs. 2.8% and 51.4 vs. 30.5%, respectively). In experiment 1, NH(3) emitting potential (EP) was greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (9.20 vs. 4.88 mg/m(2) per min, respectively). The 122-h cumulative NH(3) emission tended to be decreased 47% (P=0.09) using LCP compared with HCP manure. The EP and cumulative emissions of GHG were not different between HCP and LCP manure. In experiment 2, urine and feces from cows fed LCP or HCP diets were mixed and immediately applied to lysimeters (61×61×61 cm; Hagerstown silt loam; fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) at 277 kg of N/ha application rate. The average NH(3) EP (1.53 vs. 1.03 mg/m(2) per min, respectively) and the area under the EP curve were greater for lysimeters amended with HCP than with LCP manure. The largest difference in the NH(3) EP occurred approximately 24 h after manure application (approximately 3.5 times greater for HCP than LCP manure). The 100-h cumulative NH(3) emission was 98% greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (7,415 vs. 3,745 mg/m(2), respectively). The EP of methane was increased and that of carbon dioxide tended to be increased by LCP compared with HCP manure. The cumulative methane emission was not different between treatments, whereas the cumulative carbon dioxide emission was increased with manure from the LCP diet. Nitrous oxide emissions were low in this experiment and did not differ between treatments. In the

  1. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Van Le, Tan Nhuut;


    With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (<10 mM) increased the N719 rutheni...

  2. Electrochemical Studies of Paraquat Adsorbed onto Crystalline Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abderrahim EL MHAMMEDI


    Full Text Available The carbon paste electrode (CPE has been used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of paraquat (PQ adsorbed onto synthesized hydroxyapatite phosphocalcique (HAP in K2SO4 (0.1M. The cyclic voltammetry results obtained corrobate with square wave voltammetry. The influence of variables such as the concentration of paraquat adsorbed onto apatite (PQ/HAP, and the potential scan rate was tested.X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP, AES were used for characterization of the apatite.

  3. Leaf Protein and Mineral Concentrations across the "Miracle Tree" Genus Moringa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Olson

    Full Text Available The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation.

  4. Leaf Protein and Mineral Concentrations across the “Miracle Tree” Genus Moringa (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P.; Fahey, Jed W.; Grusak, Michael A.; Odee, David; Nouman, Wasif


    The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation. PMID:27459315

  5. Leaf Protein and Mineral Concentrations across the "Miracle Tree" Genus Moringa. (United States)

    Olson, Mark E; Sankaran, Renuka P; Fahey, Jed W; Grusak, Michael A; Odee, David; Nouman, Wasif


    The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation.

  6. Analysis of the thermal energy requirements for the extraction of leaf protein concentrate from some green plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangka, Julius K. [Dschang Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Dschang (Cameroon)


    Extraction of protein from the leaves of green plants is very important because of the high cost of conventional forms of protein such as meat, milk and fish. In order to design machinery for this extraction, and also to embark on leaf protein concentrate extraction, it is necessary to measure and analyse the energy requirements to carry out each process involved in the extraction, using different plant species. Experiments were carried out to determine the amount of crude protein, and the thermal energy required to extract leaf protein concentrate, from juices obtained from the leaves of some plant species. Leaves from the following plants were selected: cassava (Manihot esculanta), Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata) and thorny tree (Hura crepetans). The leaves from the plant species were macerated in a laboratory pulper. Juice was obtained from the samples using perforated cylinders and a hydraulic press. The specific heat capacity of the juices was determined using the cooling curve method. The values of the heat capacities were used to calculate the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of each juice from its normal temperature of about 25 deg C to a total protein coagulation temperature of about 80 deg C. The crude protein content of the extract was determined using the Kjeldal method. Results indicate that the green coagulum extracted from all the juices all have a protein content of at least 37%. The thermal energy required to coagulate protein from the juices ranges from 1.59 kJ kg{sup -1} for Hura crepetans to 2.7 kJ kg{sup -1} for Vernonia amygdalina. The energy requirement to obtain crude protein (CP) ranges from 8 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Bura crepetans to 182 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Vernonia amygdalina. Both results are statistically significant at the 0.01 confidence interval. It is concluded that the choice of plant species can significantly lower the thermal energy

  7. Removal of adsorbent particles od copper ions by Jet flotation; Remocion de particulas adsorbentes de iones cobre por flotacion Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santander, M.; Tapia, P.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.


    The present study shows the results obtained on the removal of copper ions from synthetic effluents by using the adsorbent particles flotation technique (APF) in a Jet flotation cell (Jameson type). In a typical experimental run, a mineral with high quartz content was used as adsorbent particles in the adsorption and flotation experiments, to determine optimal pH conditions, adsorbent particles concentration; flotation reagents dosage and air/effluent flow ratio for applying in the Jet cell to maximize the efficiency of copper ions adsorptions and the removal of particles adsorbents containing the absorbed copper ions. The results indicate the at pH>7 and at adsorbent particles concentration of 2 kg.m{sup -}3, 99% of copper ions is adsorbed and, when the air/effluent flow ratio applied in the Jet cell is 0,2, 98% of absorbent particles containing the adsorbed copper ions is removed. (Author) 39 refs.

  8. Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Adesina Adegoke


    Full Text Available Color is a visible pollutant and the presence of even minute amounts of coloring substance makes it undesirable due to its appearance. The removal of color from dye-bearing effluents is a major problem due to the difficulty in treating such wastewaters by conventional treatment methods. The most commonly used methods for color removal are biological oxidation and chemical precipitation. However, these processes are effective and economic only in the case where the solute concentrations are relatively high. Most industries use dyes and pigments to color their products. The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to its adverse effect on various forms of life. The discharge of dyes in the environment is a matter of concern for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. It is evident from a literature survey of about 283 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for dye removal and the optimal equilibrium time of various dyes with different charcoal adsorbents from agricultural residues is between 4 and 5 h. Maximum adsorptions of acidic dyes were obtained from the solutions with pH 8–10. The challenges and future prospects are discussed to provide a better framework for a safer and cleaner environment.

  9. Determinants of serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP in the adult population: the role of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Gonzalez-Quintela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Assessment of serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-binding protein (LBP has been suggested as a useful biomarker to indicate activation of innate immune responses to microbial products. We investigated LBP concentrations and associations with demographics, lifestyle factors, and common metabolic abnormalities in adults. We also examined if LBP concentrations were associated with common polymorphisms in genes coding for LBP (rs2232618, CD14 (rs2569190, and TLR4 (rs4986790, the molecules responsible for the innate immune response to LPS, or serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14 and proinflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Serum LBP was measured with a commercial immunoassay in a random sample of the adult population (n = 420, 45% males, age 18-92 years from a single municipality. RESULTS: Serum LBP concentrations increased with age (P<0.001 and were higher in individuals who were overweight or obese than in normal-weight individuals (P<0.001. Similarly, LBP concentrations were higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome than in individuals without it (P<0.001. Among metabolic syndrome components, LBP concentrations were independently associated with abdominal obesity (P = 0.002 and low concentrations of HDL-cholesterol (P<0.001. Serum LBP concentrations tended to be independently associated with smoking (P = 0.05, but not with alcohol consumption. Likewise, there was not significant association between LBP concentrations and gene polymorphisms. Concentrations of LBP significantly correlated with serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8, sCD14, and with liver enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Serum LBP concentrations increased with age. Overweight, obesity, and having metabolic syndrome (particularly, low HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher LBP concentrations. These findings are consistent with microbial exposure playing a role in these inflammatory, metabolic abnormalities.

  10. An assessment of the influence of B group vitamins on the C-reactive protein concentration and chosen indicators of protein metabolism in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy


    Full Text Available   Introduction. The objective of this project was to examine on an animal model the influence of the diet composition and its supplementation with B group vitamins on the concentration of chosen protein indicators, including C-reactive protein (CRP as an inflammation marker. Material and methods. The research was done on 36 male, around 5-months-old Wistar rats. The animals were divided into 3 dietary groups: group I has received the basic food mix, which included, among others, whole grain wheat and maize; group II and III received a modified food mix, in which a part of whole corn wheat from the basic feed was replaced with wheat flour, and 50% of whole corn maize was replaced with saccharose. The animals from groups I and II were given clean, settled water from the water supply system, and group III was given water solution of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP. Results. It has been established that both the change of diet, as well as it supplementation with B group vitamins are conductive to a reduced consumption of feed, and as a result, a reduced consumption of proteins by the animals from these groups. In the muscles and livers of the animals fed modified unsupplemented feed a smaller amount of protein was found in comparison to the animals fed the basic feed. In the blood serum of the animals from this group a significant concentration of albumins and a significant rise in the concentration of creatinine was found in relation to the concentration observed in the animals fed the basic feed and the ones fed the modified supplemented feed. The concentration of CRP in the group of animals fed the modified unsupplemented feed was significantly higher than in the other two groups of animals. In the blood serum of the animals who received the supplement the concentrations of glucose, staple protein and its fractions: albumins, α2-globulins, β-globulins and γ-globulins, were significantly higher than in the group fed the basic feed. The

  11. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Phan, Thu Anh Pham; Le, Tan Nhut Van; Le, Duyen My; Le, Duy Dang; Tran, Vy Anh; Huynh, Tuan Van; Lund, Torben


    With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (optimized co-adsorbent concentration (1 mM NTA, 0.03 mM CDA, 0.015 mM OPA), the efficiency of the corresponding solar cells increased to the same extent. Specifically, the use of NTA at optimum concentration improved the efficiency of the resulting DSC from 3.14 to 5.02%.

  12. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kabasakal Cetin


    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6 as the control group (C, or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7 as the experimental group (WG through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development.

  13. Effects of Long-Term Storage Time and Original Sampling Month on Biobank Plasma Protein Concentrations. (United States)

    Enroth, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Grankvist, Kjell; Gyllensten, Ulf


    The quality of clinical biobank samples is crucial to their value for life sciences research. A number of factors related to the collection and storage of samples may affect the biomolecular composition. We have studied the effect of long-time freezer storage, chronological age at sampling, season and month of the year and on the abundance levels of 108 proteins in 380 plasma samples collected from 106 Swedish women. Storage time affected 18 proteins and explained 4.8-34.9% of the observed variance. Chronological age at sample collection after adjustment for storage-time affected 70 proteins and explained 1.1-33.5% of the variance. Seasonal variation had an effect on 15 proteins and month (number of sun hours) affected 36 proteins and explained up to 4.5% of the variance after adjustment for storage-time and age. The results show that freezer storage time and collection date (month and season) exerted similar effect sizes as age on the protein abundance levels. This implies that information on the sample handling history, in particular storage time, should be regarded as equally prominent covariates as age or gender and need to be included in epidemiological studies involving protein levels.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIZuoqing; XUMancai; 等


    The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,6-dinitrophenol on non-polar and polar adsorbents was studied.The results showed that the equilibrium adsorption did not comply with the Langmuir equation and was not mono-layer adsorption .It is of interest to notice that the effect of pH on the adsorption of 2,4-or 2,6-dinitrophenol onto ADS-7 and ADS-21 was very small,The result is explained by hydrogen bonding interaction between 2,4-or 2,6-dinitrophenol and the adsorbent ADS-21.The large adsorption capacity of dinitrophenol onto ADS-21,which was about 500mg/g at an equilibrium concentration of 400mg/L,and the small dinitrophenol leakage in the effluent from ADS-21 column presented a good prospect for treatment of wastewater containing dinitrophenol with adsorbent ADS-21.

  15. Interaction of plasma proteins with commercial protein repellent polyvinyl chloride (PVC): a word of caution. (United States)

    De Somer, F; Van Landschoot, A; Van Nooten, G; Delanghe, J


    Protein adsorption onto polymers remains a problem. In recent years, several protein-repellent PVC tubings have been developed. Although several studies report the interaction between plasma coagulation proteins and PVC, few address the interaction with other plasma proteins. Two commercial brands of untreated medical grade PVC tubing, phosphorylcholine-coated PVC tubing, triblock-copolymer (polycaprolactone-polydimethylsiloxane-polycaprolactone)-treated PVC tubing and poly-2-methoxyethylacrylate (PMEA)-coated tubing were exposed for 60 minutes to human plasma. A broad spectrum of plasma proteins was found on all tubing. The adsorbed albumin to total protein ratio is lower than the similar ratio in plasma while alpha1 and alpha2 globulins are over-represented in the protein spectrum. On PMEA tubing, not only alpha globulins, but also beta and gamma globulins, are found in high concentrations in the adsorbed protein. PMEA tubing and uncoated PVC tubing of brand B had a higher amount of protein adsorbed compared against all other tubing (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in protein adsorption between the triblock-copolymer-treated tubing, the phosphorylcholine-coated tubing and the uncoated PVC tubing of brand A. The average thickness of the protein layer was 23 nm. Plasma protein adsorption still exists on uncoated and protein-repellent tubing and can initiate a systemic inflammatory reaction.

  16. Purification of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) using magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in combination with high-gradient magnetic separation. (United States)

    Müller, Christine; Heidenreich, Elena; Franzreb, Matthias; Frankenfeld, Katrin


    Current purification of the glycoprotein equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) from horse serum includes consecutive precipitation steps beginning with metaphosphoric acid pH fractionation, two ethanol precipitation steps, and dialysis followed by a numerous of fixed-bed chromatography steps up to the specific activity required. A promising procedure for a more economic purification procedure represents a simplified precipitation process requiring only onethird of the solvent, followed by the usage of magnetic ion exchange adsorbents employed together with a newly designed 'rotor-stator' type High Gradient Magnetic Fishing (HGMF) system for large-scale application, currently up to 100 g of magnetic adsorbents. Initially, the separation process design was optimized for binding and elution conditions for the target protein in mL scale. Subsequently, the magnetic filter for particle separation was characterized. Based on these results, a purification process for eCG was designed consisting of (i) pretreatment of the horse serum; (ii) binding of the target protein to magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in a batch reactor; (iii) recovery of loaded functionalized adsorbents from the pretreated solution using HGMF; (iv) washing of loaded adsorbents to remove unbound proteins; (v) elution of the target protein. Finally, the complete HGMF process was automated and conducted with either multiple single-cycles or multicycle operation of four sequential cycles, using batches of pretreated serum of up to 20 L. eCG purification with yields of approximately 53% from single HGMF cycles and up to 80% from multicycle experiments were reached, with purification and concentration factors of around 2,500 and 6.7, respectively.

  17. A robust method of determination of high concentrations of peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levashov, Pavel A; Sutherland, Duncan S; Besenbacher, Flemming


    In this paper, we pioneer application of a unique method of protein determination by coloring peptide bonds for analysis of a variety of biomolecules with different grades of purity (e.g., oligopeptides, membrane, and glycol proteins). We demonstrated that the calibration curve for all studied...... molecules is universal and linear within 0.1 to 1.2mg protein content range. The assay thus can be used to analyze peptides without preliminary dilutions and calibration in up to 1g/ml solutions of peptides, which is crucial for many biotechnological processes, such as development of coatings, scaffolds...

  18. A Novel Model for Protein Immobilization on Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Di-qiang; LIU Bai-ling; LI He; HU Jie


    The immobilization of proteins, especially receptor proteins commonly used in high through-put screening of drugs (HTS), have received great attention in recent years. There are many successful isothermal models for describing the adsorption of protein onto solid surface, such as Langmuir model, Bi-Langmuir model, Fowler model, Freundlich model, Freundlich-Langmuir model and Tekmin model etc. In all these models, Langmuir model was the most favorable one model accepted by many researchers, but the experimental results showed that it was not entirely fit to all adsorption behaviors. So new models were required for describing protein adsorption onto microspheres in different conditions.In our research, a novel isothermal model, including Langmuir and other adsorbing behaviors was presented basing on the holding degree of surface active sites and the interaction styles of protein immobilization. In Langmuir model, the adsorbing amount of protein was described as [PS] =Km[P]/1 + K[P], where [PS] was the concentration of adsorbed protein, [P] was the concentration of freeprotein at equilibrium state, and Km and K was constant. According to the interactions of protein and ligands, there were three patterns in the interactions of protein and ligands. On the similar assumption that the interaction of protein and microspheres were three styles, and based on the definition of the holding degree of surface active sites (Y), three adsorption behaviors could be described as Y K[ P ]φ/ K[P]φ+1 or ln K + φ ln[P] =ln(Y/1-Y) in which [P] was the concentration of free protein at equilibrium state, and φ and K was constant. Different scale of φ presented different adsorption behaviors, especially when φ was 1, the adsorption behavior was Langmuir adsorbing model. Figure I indicated the different adsorbing results in different adsorption behaviors (φ>1, φ<1,and φ=1).

  19. Orthokinetic flocculation of caseinate-stabilized emulsions : influence of calcium concentration, shear rate and protein content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Dalgleish, D.G.


    Calcium-induced flocculation of caseinate-stabilized soybean oil-in- water emulsions in conditions of Couette flow was studied. A concentrated emulsion (20% oil, 0.5-2.0% sodium caseinate in 20 mM imidazole, pH 7) was diluted 20 times in buffer containing concentrations of CaCl2 between 9 and 17 mM

  20. External cavity-quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy for secondary structure analysis of proteins at low concentrations (United States)

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Alcaráz, Mirta R.; Araman, Can; Goicoechea, Héctor; Lendl, Bernhard


    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy are analytical techniques employed for the analysis of protein secondary structure. The use of CD spectroscopy is limited to low protein concentrations (5 mg ml-1). Here we introduce a quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based IR transmission setup for analysis of protein and polypeptide secondary structure at concentrations as low as 0.25 mg ml-1 in deuterated buffer solution. We present dynamic QCL-IR spectra of the temperature-induced α-helix to β-sheet transition of poly-L-lysine. The concentration dependence of the α-β transition temperature between 0.25 and 10 mg ml-1 was investigated by QCL-IR, FTIR and CD spectroscopy. By using QCL-IR spectroscopy it is possible to perform IR spectroscopic analysis in the same concentration range as CD spectroscopy, thus enabling a combined analysis of biomolecules secondary structure by CD and IR spectroscopy.

  1. The spider hemolymph clot proteome reveals high concentrations of hemocyanin and von Willebrand factor-like proteins. (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Bechsgaard, Jesper S; Scavenius, Carsten; Wang, Tobias; Bilde, Trine; Enghild, Jan J


    Arthropods include chelicerates, crustaceans, and insects that all have open circulation systems and thus require different properties of their coagulation system than vertebrates. Although the clotting reaction in the chelicerate horseshoe crab (Family: Limulidae) has been described in details, the overall protein composition of the resulting clot has not been analyzed for any of the chelicerates. The largest class among the chelicerates is the arachnids, which includes spiders, ticks, mites, and scorpions. Here, we use a mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the spider hemolymph clot proteome from the Brazilian whiteknee tarantula, Acanthoscurria geniculata. We focused on the insoluble part of the clot and demonstrated high concentrations of proteins homologous to the hemostasis-related and multimerization-prone von Willebrand factor. These proteins, which include hemolectins and vitellogenin homologous, were previously identified as essential components of the hemolymph clot in crustaceans and insects. Their presence in the spider hemolymph clot suggests that the origin of these proteins' function in coagulation predates the split between chelicerates and mandibulata. The clot proteome reveals that the major proteinaceous component is the oxygen-transporting and phenoloxidase-displaying abundant hemolymph protein hemocyanin, suggesting that this protein also plays a role in clot biology. Furthermore, quantification of the peptidome after coagulation revealed the simultaneous activation of both the innate immune system and the coagulation system. In general, many of the identified clot-proteins are related to the innate immune system, and our results support the previously suggested crosstalk between immunity and coagulation in arthropods.

  2. Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees. (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; Pettis, Jeffery S; Edwards, Joan; Hancock, Jillian E; Tomecek, Martha B; Clark, Andrew; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Loladze, Irakli; Polley, H Wayne


    At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and winter survival. Using floral collections obtained from the Smithsonian Natural History Museum, we quantified Ca-induced temporal changes in pollen protein concentration of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), the most wide spread Solidago taxon, from hundreds of samples collected throughout the USA and southern Canada over the period 1842-2014 (i.e. a Ca from approx. 280 to 398 ppm). In addition, we conducted a 2 year in situtrial of S. Canadensis populations grown along a continuous Ca gradient from approximately 280 to 500 ppm. The historical data indicated a strong significant correlation between recent increases in Ca and reductions in pollen protein concentration (r(2)= 0.81). Experimental data confirmed this decrease in pollen protein concentration, and indicated that it would be ongoing as Ca continues to rise in the near term, i.e. to 500 ppm (r(2)= 0.88). While additional data are needed to quantify the subsequent effects of reduced protein concentration for Canada goldenrod on bee health and population stability, these results are the first to indicate that increasing Ca can reduce protein content of a floral pollen source widely used by North American bees.

  3. Association Between Preovulatory Concentrations of Estradiol and Expression of Uterine Milk Protein Precursor, Inhibin Beta A, Period 1, Proenkephalin, and Receptors for Oxytocin, Progesterone, and Estradiol (United States)

    Eliminating the preovulatory surge of estradiol decreased uterine weight, uterine protein, RNA to DNA ratio, rate of protein synthesis, and embryo survival following embryo transfer in sheep. Furthermore, cows that did not exhibit standing estrus (decreased preovulatory concentrations of estradiol) ...

  4. Increased Concentration of Polyvalent Phospholipids in the Adsorption Domain of a Charged Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Haleva, E; Diamant, H; Haleva, Emir; Ben-Tal, Nir; Diamant, Haim


    We studied the adsorption of a charged protein onto an oppositely charged membrane, composed of mobile phospholipids of differing valence, using a statistical-thermodynamical approach. A two-block model was employed, one block corresponding to the protein-affected region on the membrane, referred to as the adsorption domain, and the other to the unaffected remainder of the membrane. We calculated the protein-induced lipid rearrangement in the adsorption domain as arising from the interplay between the electrostatic interactions in the system and the mixing entropy of the lipids. Equating the electrochemical potentials of the lipids in the two blocks yields an expression for the relations among the various lipid fractions in the adsorption domain, indicating a sensitive (exponential) dependence on lipid valence. This expression is a result of the two-block picture but does not depend on further details of the protein-membrane interaction. We subsequently calculated the lipid fractions themselves using the Pois...

  5. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphism, but not concentrations, is associated with radiographic hand osteoarthritis (United States)

    Objective. Factors associated with mineralization and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) are incompletely understood. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a mineralization inhibitor, have been associated clinically with conditions of abnormal calcification. We therefore evalua...

  6. Physical and sensory characteristics of pellets elaborated with different levels of corn grits and whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Whey has proteins of high biological value, which has been used as an ingredient in the elaboration of yogurt, milk beverages and as protein concentrates. Food extrusion stands out as one of the most efficient cooking techniques, allowing a number of product types, from soluble flour to convenience products, such as snacks, which have high acceptability by the consumers. Products processed by extrusion, such as those expanded by frying (pellets, have high carbohydrate content, and its enrichment with protein can favor its nutritional aspect. This study aimed to use the whey protein concentrate (WPC in combination with corn grits in the preparation of pellets. Absolute density, density of expanded pellets, color, crispness index, and pellet sensory acceptance were determined. For the absolute density, contents from 5% to 17% produced denser non-expanded pellets. The higher the WPC content and the temperature of the extruder, the higher the density of the expanded pellets. The crispness index was not altered by the protein content and by the extruder temperature. In the sensory analysis, the preferred samples were the ones with lower WPC levels (5%. We concluded that higher WPC values in the pellets formulation increased their density, but did not alter color and texture, as well as small WPC levels did not affect the acceptance of snacks.

  7. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population. (United States)

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli


    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis.

  8. Serum concentration and increased temperature alter Mayaro virus RNA and protein synthesis in Aedes albopictus (mosquito)-infected cells. (United States)

    Motta, M C; Fournier, M V; Carvalho, M G


    We have previously shown the inhibition of Mayaro virus multiplication in Aedes albopictus-infected cells maintained at a supraoptimal temperature for growth (37 degrees C) and a stimulation of virus production in response to high serum concentrations in the incubation medium. In the present study, we addressed the question of how the effect of continuous heat stress and high serum concentration soon after infection interfere with virus macromolecule synthesis. Cells maintained at 28 degrees C in the presence of 2% serum synthesized a viral genomic RNA of 12 kb and a subgenomic RNA of 5.2 kb 6 h postinfection. Analysis of the protein profile showed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein of 34 kDa (P34). However, if infected cells were maintained at 37 degrees C, a smear starting immediately below the 5.2-kb RNA was noticed and the viral P34 was not detected by SDS-PAGE. Addition of 10% serum to the growth medium of infected cells maintained at 37 degrees C results in a viral RNA profile and protein synthesis similar to those observed in cultures kept at 28 degrees C, i.e., the smear was not observed and the P34 protein was detected. The results suggest that the inhibition of virus multiplication by temperature may be related to the inhibition of viral nonstructural protein synthesis early during infection. The presence of high serum levels in the incubation medium protects macromolecule synthesis against heat stress.

  9. Dietary Fat Content Effects on Concentrations of Liver and Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Proteins


    Murakami, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yasuo; Ohta, Kazutoshi; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi


    Two fatty acid binding proteins, liver and intestinal, have been identified in the rat intestine. Both are thought to be closely related to the absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the intestinal epithelium. However, the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the roles of these two fatty acid binding proteins in the intestinal absorption of fatty acids. Rats were fed diets varying in fat content for two or four weeks. Live...

  10. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Kawano


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM, one repetition maximum (1RM muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal. Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength.

  11. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus


    Erema Ransome Daka; I.R. Inyang; E.N. Ogamba


    Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm) were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L) in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined...

  12. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred


    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  13. Selective cesium removal from radioactive liquid waste by crown ether immobilized new class conjugate adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awual, Md. Rabiul, E-mail: [Actinide Coordination Chemistry Group, Quantum Beam Science Centre (QuBS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yaita, Tsuyoshi [Actinide Coordination Chemistry Group, Quantum Beam Science Centre (QuBS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Taguchi, Tomitsugu [Nano-Structure Synthesis Research Group, Quantum Beam Science Centre (QuBS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Shiwaku, Hideaki; Suzuki, Shinichi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro [Actinide Coordination Chemistry Group, Quantum Beam Science Centre (QuBS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • DB24C8 crown ether was functionalized for preparation of conjugate adsorbent. • Radioactive {sup 137}Cs can be selectively removed by the conjugate adsorbent. • Adsorbent can effectively capture Cs even in the presence of a high amount Na and K. • Adsorbent is reversible and able to be reused without significant deterioration. - Abstract: Conjugate materials can provide chemical functionality, enabling an assembly of the ligand complexation ability to metal ions that are important for applications, such as separation and removal devices. In this study, we developed ligand immobilized conjugate adsorbent for selective cesium (Cs) removal from wastewater. The adsorbent was synthesized by direct immobilization of dibenzo-24-crown-8 ether onto inorganic mesoporous silica. The effective parameters such as solution pH, contact time, initial Cs concentration and ionic strength of Na and K ion concentrations were evaluated and optimized systematically. This adsorbent was exhibited the high surface area-to-volume ratios and uniformly shaped pores in case cavities, and its active sites kept open functionality to taking up Cs. The obtained results revealed that adsorbent had higher selectivity toward Cs even in the presence of a high concentration of Na and K and this is probably due to the Cs–π interaction of the benzene ring. The proposed adsorbent was successfully applied for radioactive Cs removal to be used as the potential candidate in Fukushima nuclear wastewater treatment. The adsorbed Cs was eluted with suitable eluent and simultaneously regenerated into the initial form for the next removal operation after rinsing with water. The adsorbent retained functionality despite several cycles during sorption-elution-regeneration operations.

  14. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet- or higher/NRC (National Research Council-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05 gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05 muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05 than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K, and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05. There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05 the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  15. Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women. (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Mumford, Sunni L; Rovner, Alisha J; Zhang, Cuilin; Chen, Liwei; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F


    In premenopausal women, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of negative reproductive outcomes. Whole grain consumption has been associated with lower CRP concentrations in older women; however, less is known about this relationship in younger women. We investigated whether whole grain intake was associated with serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations in young women. BioCycle was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University of Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, which followed 259 healthy women aged 18-44 y for Whole grain intake was estimated by 24-h recalls whole grain food. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >or= 1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers. Women who consumed >or= 1 serving/d of whole grain had a lower probability of having moderate (P = 0.008) or elevated (P = 0.001) hs-CRP according to the AHA criteria compared with nonconsumers. Given that elevated concentrations of hs-CRP have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes and pregnancy complications, interventions targeting whole grain consumption may have the potential to improve health status among young women.

  16. Potential of single and double-combined adsorbents in removing chromium from an industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi S.F.


    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is much attention in using low-cost methods for removing heavy metals’ pollution from wastewaters. In this research, the ability of different adsorbents including zeolite, peat, activated carbon, cationic resin and anionic resin (in single and double-combined forms in decreasing Cr(III and Cr(VI concentration to below the legal limits from an industrial wastewater was investigated. The results showed that for single-adsorbent treatments, all adsorbents were more effective in reducing Cr(VI concentration than Cr(III. The highest removal efficiency (Er=100% was obtained by anionic resin. Presence of anionic resin in each double-adsorbent caused an improvement of chromium removal. Among the double-adsorbents treatments, combination of peat and activated carbon was the most proper treatment in removing chromium.

  17. 不同吸附剂对百草枯中毒大鼠血浆浓度的影响%Protection effect of adsorbent on paraquat plasma concentrations in rats with paraquat intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永成; 姜银松; 王占青


    Objective To evaluate the effects of smecta and activated charcoal on lung injury,paraquat(PQ) plasma concentrations and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rats with paraquat intoxication,and investigate its mechanism.Methods Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into group A,group B,group C and group D.Group B,C,D were treated intragastrically with PQ at60 mg/kg,group C was given smecta and group D was given activated charcoal,only saline was treated intragastrically in group A and group B.Live rats in each group were sacrificed at 6 hours,24 hours,48 hours and 72 hours,for the HE staining of lung,the paraquat plasma concentrations and TGF-β1 in plasma of rats were determined.Results Lung pathological injuries of rats in group B such as large area congestion,severe edema,the larger number of leukocyte infiltration were remarkable.Compared with group B,pathological injury of group C alleviated significantly.The levels of paraquat plasma concentrations and TGF-β1 increased at 6 hours after paraquat intoxication in group B,group C and group D,and peaked at 72 hours later,with significant difference from group A (P all < 0.05);Compared with group B,delayed,lower increasing extent,obviously reducing tendency in group C and D,there was significant difference (P <0.01).Conclusions Smecta and activated charcoal can reduce lung injury by decreasing paraquat plasma concentrations and the expression of TGF-β1,and the protection effect of smecta is better.%目的 对比研究思密达、活性炭灌胃对百草枯中毒大鼠血浆浓度、转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)以及肺病理变化的影响.方法 78只SD大鼠随机分为氯化钠注射液对照组、百草枯染毒对照组、思密达干预组,活性炭干预组.染毒对照组、思密达组、活性炭组均于中毒后6、24、48、72 h分批处死存活的大鼠,光镜下观察肺病理改变,并测定血浆百草枯浓度、TGF-β1含量.结果 柒毒对照组大鼠肺组织出现明

  18. Atomic force microscopy evidence for conformational changes of fibronectin adsorbed on unmodified and sulfonated polystyrene surfaces. (United States)

    Kowalczyńska, Hanna M; Kołos, Robert; Nowak-Wyrzykowska, Małgorzata; Dobkowski, Jacek; Elbaum, Danek; Szczepankiewicz, Andrzej; Kamiński, Jarosław


    The effect of polystyrene surface polarity on the conformation of adsorbed fibronectin (FN) has been studied with atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that bare sulfonated and nonsulfonated polystyrene surfaces featured similar topographies. After the FN adsorption, direct comparison of both types of substrata revealed drastically different topographies, roughness values, and also cell-adhesive properties. This was interpreted in terms of FN conformational changes induced by the surface polarity. At high-solute FN concentrations the multilayer FN adsorption took place resulting, for the sulfonated substratum, in an increase of surface roughness, whereas for the nonsulfonated one the roughness was approximately stable. Conversely, the FN conformation characteristic for the first saturative layer tended to be conserved in the consecutive layers, as evidenced by height histograms. The height of individual FN molecules indicated, consonantly with the derived thickness of the adsorbed protein layer (the latter value being 1.4 nm and 0.6 nm, respectively, for an unmodified and sulfonated polystyrene surface), that molecules are flattened on polar surfaces and more compact on nonsulfonated ones. It was also demonstrated that the FN adsorption and conformation on polymeric substrata, and hence the resultant cell-adhesive properties, depended on the chemistry of the original surface rather than on its topography. Our results also demonstrated the ability of surface polarity to influence the protein conformation and its associated biological activity.

  19. Evaluation of commercial chromatographic adsorbents for the direct capture of polyclonal rabbit antibodies from clarified antiserum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Thomas, O.R.T.


    We have carried out a rigorous evaluation of eight commercially available packed bed chromatography adsorbents for direct capture and purification of immumoglobulins from clarified rabbit antiserum. Three of these materials featured rProtein A (rProtein A Sepharose Fast Flow, Mabselect, Prosep rP...... evaluated on the basis of dynamic binding capacity, recovery, and purity) were obtained, which allowed clear recommendations concerning the choice of adsorbents best suited for antibody capture from rabbit antisera, to be made....

  20. Predicting the Activity Coefficients of Free-Solvent for Concentrated Globular Protein Solutions Using Independently Determined Physical Parameters


    McBride, Devin W; Rodgers, Victor G. J.


    The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent...

  1. Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, phenolics, and odor offensiveness in manure from growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration. (United States)

    Otto, E R; Yokoyama, M; Hengemuehle, S; von Bermuth, R D; van Kempen, T; Trottier, N L


    The objective of this study was to investigate whether reducing dietary CP concentration decreases fecal VFA, manure ammonia (NH3) emission and odor, and urinary phenolic metabolites. Six barrows were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a Latin square design. Treatments consisted of four corn-soybean meal based diets containing 15, 12, 9, and 6% CP, a casein-based diet containing 15% CP, and a protein-free diet (0% protein). Crystalline AA were included in the 12, 9, and 6% CP diets. The casein-based and protein-free diets were used to determine basal endogenous contribution of VFA, phenolics, NH3, and manure odor. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages to allow total collection of feces and urine. Feces and urine were collected and pooled within pig and period. Feces and urine were analyzed for VFA and phenolic metabolite concentrations, respectively. Feces and urine were then mixed, stored, and fermented at room temperature for 30 d. For NH3 determination, headspace air was sampled from manure slurries at 24, 48, and 72 h after fermentation. Slurry samples were placed into vials, capped, and randomized before odor panel evaluation. Odor offensiveness was classified on severity: 1 = non-offensive; 2 = mildly offensive; 3 = moderately offensive; 4 = strongly offensive; and 5 = extremely offensive. Reducing dietary CP increased (P ranking of 2.58 (i.e., mild-moderately offensive). Compared with the 15% CP diet, manure from the 9 and 6% CP diets was found to be more offensive (P rankings of 2.92 and 3.10, respectively. Odor qualitative rank for the 12% CP, protein-free diet, and casein-based diet did not differ from that of the 15% CP diet. These results indicate that reduction in dietary CP concentrations decreases manure NH3 emission, but it does not diminish manure odor offensiveness and fecal VFA concentrations.

  2. Calcium regulates motility and protein phosphorylation by changing cAMP and ATP concentrations in boar sperm in vitro. (United States)

    Li, Xinhong; Wang, Lirui; Li, Yuhua; Zhao, Na; Zhen, Linqing; Fu, Jieli; Yang, Qiangzhen


    Considering the importance of calcium (Ca(2+)) in regulating sperm capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction, little is known about the molecular mechanism of action of this ion in this process. In the present study, assessment of the molecular mechanism from the perspective of energy metabolism occurred. Sperm motility variables were determined using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and the phosphorylation of PKA substrates, tyrosine residues and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were analyzed by Western blot. Moreover, intracellular sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphatedehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were assessed in boar sperm treated with Ca(2+). Results of the present study indicated that, under greater extracellular Ca(2+)concentrations (≥3.0mM), sperm motility and protein phosphorylation were inhibited. Interestingly, these changes were correlated with that of GAPDH activity, AMPK phosphorylation, cAMP and ATP concentrations. The negative effects of Ca(2+) on these intracellular processes were attenuated by addition of the calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor W7 and the inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), KN-93. In the presence of greater extracellular Ca(2+), however, the phosphorylation pathway was suppressed by H-89. Taken together, these results suggested that Ca(2+) had a dual role in regulating boar sperm motility and protein phosphorylation due to the changes of cAMP and ATP concentrations, in response to cAMP-mediated signal transduction and the Ca(2+) signaling cascade. The present study provided some novel insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of Ca(2+) on boar sperm as well as the involvement of energy metabolism in this mechanism.

  3. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population


    Hui Gao; Jie Meng; Mengjing Xu; Shun Zhang; Bishwajit Ghose; Jun Liu; Ping Yao; Hong Yan; Di Wang; Liegang Liu


    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population. Methods and Results Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, ...

  4. Maternal protein and folic acid intake during gestation does not program leptin transcription or serum concentration in rat progeny. (United States)

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa


    Maternal nutrition during gestation influences the development of the fetus, thereby determining its phenotype, including nutrient metabolism, appetite, and feeding behavior. The control of appetite is a very complex process and can be modulated by orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators such as leptin, which is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin transcription and secretion are regulated by numerous factors, nutrition being one of them. The present study was designed to test whether maternal nutrition can permanently affect leptin gene transcription and leptin serum concentration in rat progeny. Moreover, we analyzed whether leptin expression and secretion in response to high-fat postweaning feeding depends on the maternal diet during gestation. Pregnant rats were fed either a normal protein, normal folic acid diet (the AIN-93 diet); a protein-restricted, normal folic acid diet; a protein-restricted, folic acid-supplemented diet; or a normal protein, folic acid-supplemented diet. After weaning, the progeny was fed either the AIN-93 diet or a high-fat diet. Neither maternal nutrition nor the postweaning diet significantly affected Lep transcription. High-fat feeding after weaning was associated with higher serum leptin concentration, but the reaction of an organism to the fat content of the diet was not determined by maternal nutrition during gestation. There was no correlation between Lep mRNA level and serum leptin concentration. Global DNA methylation in adipose tissue was about 30% higher in rats fed postnatally the high-fat diet (P folic acid content in the maternal diet had no significant programming effect on Lep transcription and serum leptin concentration in the rats.

  5. High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved body and texture of lowfat ice cream. (United States)

    Lim, S-Y; Swanson, B G; Ross, C F; Clark, S


    Previous research demonstrated that application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), particularly at 300 MPa for 15 min, can enhance foaming properties of whey protein concentrate (WPC). The purpose of this research was to determine the practical impact of HHP-treated WPC on the body and texture of lowfat ice cream. Washington State University (WSU)-WPC was produced by ultrafiltration of fresh separated whey received from the WSU creamery. Commercial whey protein concentrate 35 (WPC 35) powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU-WPC (8.23%). Three batches of lowfat ice cream mix were produced to contain WSU-WPC without HHP, WSU-WPC with HHP (300 MPa for 15 min), and WPC 35 without HHP. All lowfat ice cream mixes contained 10% WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Overrun and foam stability of ice cream mixes were determined after whipping for 15 min. Ice creams were produced using standard ice cream ingredients and processing. The hardness of ice creams was determined with a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 52 volunteers. The ice cream mix containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited the greatest overrun and foam stability, confirming the effect of HHP on foaming properties of whey proteins in a complex system. Ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited significantly greater hardness than ice cream produced with untreated WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Panelists were able to distinguish between ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC and ice cream containing untreated WPC 35. Improvements of overrun and foam stability were observed when HHP-treated whey protein was used at a concentration as low as 10% (wt/wt) in ice cream mix. The impact of HHP on the functional properties of whey proteins was more pronounced than the impact on sensory properties.

  6. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina. (United States)

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R


    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  7. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 decreases the concentrations of antiepileptic drugs in cortical extracellular fluid in amygdale kindling rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hui CHEN; Cui-cui WANG; Xia XIAO; Li WEI; Guoxiong XU


    Aim:To investigate whether multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) was responsible for drug resistence in refractory epilepsy in amygdale kindling rats.Methods:Rat amygdale kindling was used as a model of refractory epilepsy.The expression of MRP1 mRNA and protein in the brains was examined using RT-PCR and Western blot.MRP1-positive cells in the cortex and hippocampus were studied with immunohistochemical staining.The rats were intraperitoneally injected with phenytoin (50 mg/kg) or carbamazepine (20 mg/kg),and their concentrations in the cortical extracellular fluid were measured using microdialysis and HPLC.Probenecid,a MRP1 inhibitor (40 mmol/L,50 μL) was administered through an inflow tube into the cortex 30 min before injection of the antiepileptic drugs.Results:The expression of MRP1 mRNA and protein was significantly up-regulated in the cortex and hippocampus in amygdale kindling rats compared with the control group.Furthermore,the number of MRP1-positive cells in the cortex and hippocampus was also significantly increased in amygdale kindling rats.Microdialysis studies showed that the concentrations of phenytoin and carbamazepine in the cortical extracellular fluid were significantly decreased in amygdale kindling rats.Pre-administration of probenecid could restore the concentrations back to their control levels.Conclusion:Up-regulation of MRP1 is responsible for the resistance of brain cells to antiepileptic drugs in the amygdale kindling rats.

  8. A specific protein-enriched enteral formula decreases cortisolemia and improves plasma albumin and amino acid concentrations in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez de la Cruz Antonio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Old age is associated with an involuntary and progressive but physiological loss of muscle mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exclusive consumption for 6 months of a protein-enriched enteral diet with a relatively high content of branched-chain amino acids on albuminemia, cortisolemia, plasma amino acids, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers in elderly patients. Methods Thirty-two patients from the Clinical Nutrition Outpatient Unit at our hospital exclusively consumed a protein-enriched enteral diet for 6 months. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months on anthropometric and biochemical parameters and on plasma concentrations of amino acids, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, urea, creatinine, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers. Results The percentage of patients with albumin concentration below normal cut-off values decreased from 18% to 0% by the end of the study. At 6 months, concentrations of total plasma (p = 0.008 and essential amino acids (p = 0.011, especially branched-chain amino acids (p = 0.031, were higher versus baseline values, whereas 3-methylhistidine (p = 0.001, cortisol (p = 0.001 and adrenocorticotropic hormone (p = 0.004 levels were lower. Conclusions Regular intake of specific protein-enriched enteral formula increases plasma essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, and decreases cortisol and 3-methylhistidine, while plasma urea and creatinine remain unchanged.

  9. Steady-state concentrations of mRNA encoding two inhibitors of protein kinase C in ovine luteal tissue. (United States)

    Juengel, J L; Melner, M H; Clapper, J A; Turzillo, A M; Moss, G E; Nett, T M; Niswender, G D


    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) decreases secretion of progesterone from the corpus luteum in domestic ruminants. However, it is less effective during the early part of the oestrous cycle (Louis et al., 1973) and at the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy (Silvia and Niswender, 1984; Lacroix and Kann, 1986). Decreased luteal responsiveness may be due to failure of PGF2 alpha to activate fully its normal second messenger system, protein kinase C (PKC). Alternatively, increased resistance of the corpus luteum to PGF2 alpha might be attributable to greater concentrations of recently identified biological inhibitors of PKC. These possibilities were addressed by measuring steady-state concentrations of mRNA encoding PGF2 alpha receptor and two inhibitors of PKC, protein kinase C inhibitor-1 (PKCI-1) and kinase C inhibitor protein-1 (KCIP-1, brain 14-3-3 protein), in corpora lutea collected from ewes on days 4, 10 and 15 of the oestrous cycle (n = 5 per day) and day 15 of pregnancy (n = 7). There were no differences in mean concentrations of mRNA encoding PGF2 alpha receptor among the groups. However, concentrations of mRNA encoding both inhibitors of PKC were higher (P day 4 of the oestrous cycle compared with the other groups. Treatment of ewes with a luteolytic dose of PGF2 alpha, which activates PKC, did not change concentrations of mRNA encoding either PKCI-1 or KCIP-I up to 24 h later. Luteal expression of mRNA encoding the PKC inhibitors and PGF2 alpha receptor was also examined in ewes treated with oestradiol in vivo for 16 h in the midluteal phase. High concentrations of oestradiol in serum (20 and 70 pg ml-1) did not influence quantities of any of the mRNAs examined. Therefore, an increase in PKC inhibitors may be involved in resistance of the corpus luteum to PGF2 alpha during the early part of the oestrous cycle but does not appear to mediate the increased resistance of the corpus luteum to PGF2 alpha during maternal recognition of pregnancy

  10. Characterization of Whey Protein Oil-In-Water Emulsions with Different Oil Concentrations Stabilized by Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Hebishy


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH: 100 or 200 MPa at 25 °C, in comparison to colloid mill (CM: 5000 rpm at 20 °C and conventional homogenization (CH: 15 MPa at 60 °C, on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions with different oil concentrations (10, 30 or 50 g/100 g emulsified by whey protein isolate (4 g/100 g was investigated. Emulsions were characterized for their microstructure, rheological properties, surface protein concentration (SPC, stability to creaming and oxidative stability under light (2000 lux/m2. UHPH produced emulsions containing lipid droplets in the sub-micron range (100–200 nm and with low protein concentrations on droplet surfaces. Droplet size (d3.2, µm was increased in CH and UHPH emulsions by increasing the oil concentration. CM emulsions exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour at all oil concentrations studied; however, the rheological behaviour of CH and UHPH emulsions varied from Newtonian flow (n ≈ 1 to shear-thinning (n ˂ 1 and thixotropic behaviour in emulsions containing 50% oil. This was confirmed by the non-significant differences in the d4.3 (µm value between the top and bottom of emulsions in tubes left at room temperature for nine days and also by a low migration velocity measured with a Turbiscan LAB instrument. UHPH emulsions showed significantly lower oxidation rates during 10 days storage in comparison to CM and CH emulsions as confirmed by hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. UHPH emulsions treated at 100 MPa were less oxidized than those treated at 200 MPa. The results from this study suggest that UHPH treatment generates emulsions that have a higher stability to creaming and lipid oxidation compared to colloid mill and conventional treatments.

  11. Young overweight and obese women with lower circulating osteocalcin concentrations exhibit higher insulin resistance and concentrations of C-reactive protein. (United States)

    Lucey, Alice J; Paschos, Georgios K; Thorsdottir, Inga; Martínéz, J Alfredo; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máireád


    The role of the skeleton in the regulation of energy metabolism in humans is not clear. This study investigates the hypothesis that biomarkers of bone turnover are associated with indices of glucose homeostasis and systemic inflammation in young adults. A cross-sectional study investigating the relationships between biomarkers of bone turnover (serum total and uncarboxylated osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen) and glucose metabolism (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], insulin, insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance]), systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin-6), adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), and body composition was conducted in 268 young, nondiabetic overweight and obese adults aged 20 to 40 years (116 men, 152 women; body mass index, 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2)). Data on diet, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone were also collected. In women, there was a stepwise increase in lean body mass (P insulin resistance (β = -0.508; P = .001; 95% CI, -10.93 to -3.17) in women with total osteocalcin concentrations below the group median. Men in the lowest tertile of uncarboxylated osteocalcin had twice the concentration of hsCRP than did other men (P = .05). In this sample, women with less lean body mass had lower circulating total osteocalcin concentrations and exhibited higher FPG, insulin resistance, and hsCRP compared with their similarly sized counterparts, suggesting that associations between osteocalcin and systemic inflammation, glucose homeostasis, and insulin resistance may be influenced by differences in sex and body composition.

  12. Adsorbed polyelectrolyte coatings decrease Fe(0) nanoparticle reactivity with TCE in water: conceptual model and mechanisms. (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Liu, Yueqiang; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V


    The surfaces of reactive nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles used for in situ groundwater remediation are modified with polymers or polyelectrolytes to enhance colloidal stability and mobility in the subsurface. However, surface modification decreases NZVI reactivity. Here, the TCE dechlorination rate and reaction products are measured as a function of adsorbed polyelectrolyte mass for three commercially available polyelectrolytes used for NZVI surface modification including poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and polyaspartate (PAP). The adsorbed mass, extended layer thickness, and TCE-polyelectrolyte partition coefficient are measured and used to explain the effect of adsorbed polyelectrolyte on NZVI reactivity. For all modifiers, the dechlorination rate constant decreased nonlinearly with increasing surface excess, with a maximum of a 24-fold decrease in reactivity. The TCE dechlorination pathways were not affected. Consistent with Scheutjens-Fleer theory for homopolymer adsorption, the nonlinear relationship between the dechlorination rate and the surface excess of adsorbed polyelectrolyte suggests that adsorbed polyelectrolyte decreases reactivity primarily by blocking reactive surface sites at low surface excess where they adsorb relatively flat onto the NZVI surface, and by a combination of site blocking and decreasing the aqueous TCE concentration at the NZVI surface due to partitioning of TCE to adsorbed polyelectrolytes. This explanation is also consistent with the effect of adsorbed polyelectrolyte on acetylene formation. This conceptual model should apply to other medium and high molecular weight polymeric surface modifiers on nanoparticles, and potentially to adsorbed natural organic matter.

  13. Serum Amyloid A Protein Concentration in Blood is Influenced by Genetic Differences in the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley D; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E


    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel genotyping assay was developed to screen for the alleles. The results show that the SAA1A (-97delG) allele is associated with decreased SAA protein concentrations in the serum of captive cheetahs (n = 58), suggesting genetic differences at this locus may be affecting AA amyloidosis prevalence. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele between individuals confirmed AA amyloidosis positive versus AA amyloidosis negative at the time of necropsy (n = 48). Thus, even though there is evidence that having more copies of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele results in a potentially protective decrease in serum concentrations of SAA protein in captive cheetahs, genotype is not associated with this disease within the North American population. These results suggest that other factors are playing a more significant role in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis among captive cheetahs.

  14. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon (United States)

    Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.


    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629

  15. Screening Carbohydrate Libraries for Protein Interactions Using the Direct ESI-MS Assay. Applications to Libraries of Unknown Concentration (United States)

    Kitova, Elena N.; El-Hawiet, Amr; Klassen, John S.


    A semiquantitative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding assay suitable for analyzing mixtures of oligosaccharides, at unknown concentrations, for interactions with target proteins is described. The assay relies on the differences in the ratio of the relative abundances of the ligand-bound and free protein ions measured by ESI-MS at two or more initial protein concentrations to distinguish low affinity (≤103 M-1) ligands from moderate and high affinity (>105 M-1) ligands present in the library and to rank their affinities. Control experiments were performed on solutions of a single chain antibody and a mixture of synthetic oligosaccharides, with known affinities, in the absence and presence of a 40-component carbohydrate library to demonstrate the implementation and reliability of the assay. The application of the assay for screening natural libraries of carbohydrates against proteins is also demonstrated using mixtures of human milk oligosaccharides, isolated from breast milk, and fragments of a bacterial toxin and human galectin 3.

  16. Kinetics of lipase recovery from the aqueous phase of biodiesel production by macroporous resin adsorption and reuse of the adsorbed lipase for biodiesel preparation. (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Fan, Ming; Zeng, Jing; Du, Wei; Liu, Canming; Liu, Dehua


    A commercial macroporous resin (D3520) was screened for lipase recovery by adsorption from the aqueous phase of biodiesel production. The influences of several factors on the adsorption kinetics were investigated. It was found that the kinetic behavior of lipase adsorption by macroporous resin could be well described by pseudo-first-order model. Temperature had no significant effects on lipase adsorption, while resin-to-protein ratio (R) significantly affected both rate constant (k1) and equilibrium adsorption capacity (Qe). No lipase was adsorbed when mixing (shaking) was not performed; however, protein recovery reached 98% after the adsorption was conducted at 200rpm for 5h in a shaker. The presence of methanol and glycerol showed significant negative influence on lipase adsorption kinetics. Particularly, increasing glycerol concentration could dramatically decrease k1 but not impact Qe. Biodiesel was found to dramatically decrease Qe even present at a concentration as low as 0.02%, while k1 was found to increase with biodiesel concentration. The adsorbed lipase showed a relatively stable catalytic activity in tert-butanol system, but poor stability in solvent-free system when used for biodiesel preparation. Oil and biodiesel were also found to adsorb onto resin during transesterification in solvent-free system. Therefore, the resin had to be washed by anhydrous methanol before re-used for lipase recovery.

  17. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on performance and carcass composition. (United States)

    Segers, J R; Faulkner, D B; Retallick, K M; Shike, D W


    Angus×Simmental crossbred heifers (n=150) and steers (n=100) were used to evaluate 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) a corn-based growing diet (CRN); 2) a high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; 3) a high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend; 4) a low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; and 5) a low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend in a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Low-protein and low-fat diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isofat to CRN (16.0% CP and 3.0% fat), and high-protein and high-fat diets were formulated to have 20.0% CP and 5.0% fat, respectively. Calves were weaned at 85±1.2 d, blocked by weight, and allotted to pens (10 calves/pen) within sex (10 pens of steers and 15 pens of heifers). The objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of protein or fat or their interaction in coproducts used in growing diets fed to early-weaned calves affects feedlot performance or carcass composition. Starting on d 0, calves (141±1.2 d of age) were fed experimental diets for 112 d and then fed a common feedlot diet for an additional 112 d. Body weight, hip height, and ultrasound data were collected at the end of each 112-d feeding phase. Carcass data included HCW, LM area (LMA), 12th-rib back fat (BF), marbling score (MS), KPH, and USDA quality grade. There was no fat×protein interaction (P≥0.27); therefore, only main effects are discussed. No effects (P≥0.47) of CRN, protein, or fat were detected for BW at d 112 or 224. Increased dietary protein resulted in greater (P=0.04) ADG at d 112 compared to calves fed low protein. Feeding cattle CRN decreased (P=0.04) DMI and increased (Pcalf diets but that increased dietary fat and low dietary protein increased MS.

  18. Folate concentration dependent transport activity of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (ABCC1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijberg, J.H.; Jansen, G.; Assaraf, Y.G.; Kathmann, I.; Pieters, R.; Laan, AC; Veerman, A.J.P.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Peters, G.J.


    The Multidrug Resistance Protein MRP1 (ABCC1) can confer resistance to a variety of therapeutic drugs. In addition, MRP1/ABCC1 mediates cellular export of natural folates, such as folic acid and l-leucovorin. In this study we determined whether cellular folate status affected the functional activity

  19. Diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects substoichiometric concentrations of small molecules in protein samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, João P.; Palczewska, Małgorzata; André, Sabine; Cañada, F. Javier; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Mellström, Britt; Naranjo, José R.; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Groves, Patrick


    Small molecules are difficult to detect in protein solutions, whether they originate from elution during affinity chromatography (e.g., imidazole, lactose), buffer exchange (Tris), stabilizers (e.g., β-mercaptoethanol, glycerol), or excess labeling reagents (fluorescent reagents). Mass spectrometry

  20. Detection of protein concentrations using a pH-step titration method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruise, J.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Bergveld, P.


    A stimulus-response method based on the application of a pH step is proposed for the detection of protein immobilized in a membrane on top of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). The ISFET response to a step-wise change in pH, applied at the interface between the membrane and the surrou

  1. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates (United States)

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  2. Dose response of whey protein isolate in addition to a typical mixed meal on blood amino acids and hormonal concentrations. (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; McCargar, Linda; Jelen, Paul; Bell, Gordon J


    The purpose was to investigate the effects of a controlled typical 1-day diet supplemented with two different doses of whey protein isolate on blood amino acid profiles and hormonal concentrations following the final meal. Nine males (age: 29.6 ± 6.3 yrs) completed four conditions in random order: a control (C) condition of a typical mixed diet containing ~10% protein (0.8 g·kg1), 65% carbohydrate, and 25% fat; a placebo (P) condition calorically matched with carbohydrate to the whey protein conditions; a low-dose condition of 0.8 grams of whey protein isolate per kilogram body mass per day (g·kg1·d1; W1) in addition to the typical mixed diet; or a high-dose condition of 1.6 g·kg1·d1 (W2) of supplemental whey protein in addition to the typical mixed diet. Following the final meal, significant (p whey protein supplementation while no changes were observed in the control and placebo conditions. There was no significant group difference for glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone. In conclusion, supplementing a typical daily food intake consisting of 0.8 g of protein·kg1·d1 with a whey protein isolate (an additional 0.8 or 1.6 g·kg1·d1) significantly elevated total amino acids, EAA, BCAA, and leucine but had no effect on glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone following the final meal. Future acute and chronic supplementation research examining the physiological and health outcomes associated with elevated amino acid profiles is warranted.

  3. Effect of prolonged exposure to sublethal concentrations of DDT and DDE on protein expression in human pancreatic beta cells. (United States)

    Pavlikova, Nela; Smetana, Pavel; Halada, Petr; Kovar, Jan


    Pollution of the environment represents one of less explored potential reasons for the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. One of the most prevalent organochlorine pollutants remains the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. Despite some epidemiologic correlations between levels of DDT and DDE in human organism and the prevalence of diabetes, there is almost no information about the exact targets of these compounds inside pancreatic beta cells. To detect functional areas of pancreatic beta cells that could be affected by exposure to DDT and DDE, we analyzed changes in protein expression in the NES2Y human pancreatic beta cell line exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM) of DDT and DDE for 1 month. Protein separation and identification was achieved using high-resolution 2D-electrophoresis, computer analysis and mass spectrometry. With these techniques, four proteins were found downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDT: three cytoskeletal proteins (cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 18 and actin) and one protein involved in glycolysis (alpha-enolase). Two proteins were downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDE: cytokeratin 18 and heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (HNRH1). These changes correlate with previously described effects of other stress conditions (e.g. exposure to palmitate, hyperglycemia, imidazoline derivative, and cytokines) on protein expression in pancreatic beta cells. We conclude that cytoskeletal proteins and their processing, glucose metabolism, and mRNA processing may represent targets affected by exposure to conditions hostile to pancreatic beta cells, including exposure to DDT and DDE.

  4. Surface adsorption alters the susceptibility of whey proteins to pepsin-digestion. (United States)

    Nik, Amir Malaki; Wright, Amanda J; Corredig, Milena


    An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric phase of the human gastrointestinal tract coupled with SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy was employed to study the hydrolysis profiles of whey proteins in solution and adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The objective of this work was to understand the differences in hydrolysis behaviour of whey protein isolates once adsorbed at the interface, and comparisons were carried out with pure beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin fractions. In solution, while beta-lactoglobulin appeared to be resistant to enzymatic treatment, alpha-lactalbumin was fully degraded. Adsorption of both proteins at the oil-water interface affected their conformational structure and susceptibility to peptic hydrolysis. Adsorbed beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed into small polypeptides and in contrast, the resistance of alpha-lactalbumin to pepsin increased upon adsorption at the interface. In addition, changes in the particle size distribution of the droplets during pepsin hydrolysis mainly depended on the original protein concentration. The results suggested that exchanges occur at the interface between adsorbed and non-adsorbed protein, that is to say that either some protein desorb from the interface and does not fully recover its structure in solution, or that hydrolysis of the protein at the interface induces further adsorption and hydrolysis of the protein in solution. These mechanisms have important implications in the digestibility of the proteins.

  5. Early Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A Concentrations are Associated with Third Trimester Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A


    -A concentrations are related to the subsequent risk of GDM and gestational hypertension. Patients, Design and Setting: We measured serum PAPP-A concentrations around week 15 of pregnancy and related these to indices derived from week 28 oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and blood pressures across pregnancy...... in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study cohort. Results: Increased PAPP-A concentrations were associated with reduced GDM risk (odds ratio 0.623 (0.453, 0.856), P=3.5 x 10-3, n=777) and reduced mean arterial blood pressures (β=-0.202- -0.177, P=1.7-6.9 x 10-3, n=347-355). They were also negatively associated with week...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-sheng Yao; Wen-xia Gao; Jing Sun; Ya-hua You


    The method of preparing uniform dextran microspheres with a narrow diameter distribution was introduced and the adsorbability of these microspheres was evaluated. The microspheres were prepared in W/O microemulsion using 0.5% dextran solution as the aqueous phase and n-hexane as the oil phase. Characteristics of the prepared dextran microspheres were examined with laser light blocking technique, optical microscope and ultraviolet spectrometer. The results show that the prepared dextran microspheres have uniform morphology and narrow diameter distribution, nearly 92% of them having a diameter of 56.6 μm. In vitro evaluation of adsorbability, wet dextran microspheres have good adsorption of 98.32 mg/g of model drug methylene blue in 20.86 mg/L methylene blue solution at 25℃. The adsorption of dried dextran microspheres under the same condition is 132.15 mg/g, which is even higher. And the adsorbability of dextran microspheres has significant relationship with the concentration of methylene blue and temperature. The adsorbability is better at lower temperature and higher concentration of methylene blue.

  7. Production of an exopolysaccharide-containing whey protein concentrate by fermentation of whey. (United States)

    Briczinski, E P; Roberts, R F


    Using whey as a fermentation medium presents the opportunity to create value-added products. Conditions were developed to partially hydrolyze whey proteins and then ferment partially hydrolyzed whey with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR (RR; an EPS-producing bacterium). In preliminary experiments, pasteurized Cheddar cheese whey was treated with Flavourzyme to partially hydrolyze the protein (2 to 13% hydrolyzed). Fermentation (2 L, 38 degrees C, pH 5.0) with RR resulted in EPS levels ranging from 95 to 110 mg of EPS per liter of hydrolyzed whey. There were no significant differences in the amount of EPS produced during fermentations of whey hydrolyzed to varying degrees. Since a high level of hydrolysis was not necessary for increased EPS production, a low level of hydrolysis (2 to 4%) was selected for future work. In scale up experiments, whey was separated and pasteurized, then treated with Flavourzyme to hydrolyze 2 to 4% of the protein. Following protease inactivation, 60 L of partially hydrolyzed whey was fermented at 38 degrees C and pH 5.0. After fermentation, the broth was pasteurized, and bacterial cells were removed using a Sharples continuous centrifuge. The whey was then ultrafiltered and diafiltered to remove lactose and salts, freeze-dried, and milled to a powder. Unfermented hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed whey controls were processed in the same manner. The EPS-WPC ingredients contained approximately 72% protein and 6% EPS, but they exhibited low protein solubility (65%, pH 7.0; 58%, pH 3.0).

  8. Optimization of the virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine-conjugated magnetic beads and its application to the detection of human hepatitis A, B and C viruses. (United States)

    Uchida, Eriko; Kogi, Mieko; Oshizawa, Tadashi; Furuta, Birei; Satoh, Koei; Iwata, Akiko; Murata, Mitsuhiro; Hikata, Mikio; Yamaguchi, Teruhide


    To enhance the sensitivity of virus detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), a novel virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-conjugated magnetic beads was developed in our previous study. However, several viruses could not be concentrated by this method. In this paper, the conditions of virus concentration were optimized to concentrate a wide range of viruses more efficiently. The PEI beads adsorbed viruses more efficiently than other cationic polymers, and the optimum virus concentration was obtained under weak acidic conditions. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several serum proteins, such as complement type 3, complement type 4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM), were co-adsorbed by the PEI beads, suggesting that the beads may adsorb viruses not only by direct adsorption, but also via immune complex formation. This hypothesis was confirmed by the result that poliovirus, which PEI beads could not adsorb directly, could be concentrated by the beads via immune complex formation. On the other hand, hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses were adsorbed directly by PEI beads almost completely. Like poliovirus, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was concentrated efficiently by the addition of anti-HBV IgM. In conclusion, virus concentration using PEI beads is a useful method to concentrate a wide range of viruses and can be used to enhance the sensitivity of detection of HAV, HBV and HCV.

  9. Dynamics of heat shock protein 70 concentrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte lysates during pregnancy in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. (United States)

    Yániz, J L; López-Gatius, F; Almería, S; Carretero, T; García-Ispierto, I; Serrano, B; Smith, R F; Dobson, H; Santolaria, P


    The aim of this study was to characterize the dynamics of the concentrations of heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (Bos taurus) during pregnancy. The detection of pregnancy was carried out and blood samples collected on Days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 of gestation from 46 cows (11 primiparous and 35 pluriparous, 34 seropositive and 12 seronegative to Neospora caninum). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Serologic analysis of Neospora infection and determinations of HSP70 concentrations in lymphocyte lysates were carried out using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Climate variables were monitored using on-farm data loggers. Heat shock protein 70 concentrations increased in lymphocytes as gestation progressed, particularly in primiparous cows, with no effect from Neospora infection, climate variables, milk production, semen-providing bull, or outcome of gestation (singletons or twins). Our results show that HSP70 concentrations increased in lymphocytes as gestation progressed and were not affected by stressful factors, such as milk production, heat stress, chronic infection (neosporosis), or twin pregnancies.

  10. Sex Differences in Long Chain Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Burnett, David A.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.


    Female sex and estrogen administration are associated with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; the basis for this has not been fully elucidated. Inasmuch as hepatic lipoprotein production is also influenced by FFA availability and triglyceride biosynthesis, we investigated sex differences in FFA utilization in rat hepatocyte suspensions and in the components of the triglyceride biosynthetic pathway. Isolated adult rat hepatocyte suspensions were incubated with albumin-bound [14C]oleate for up to 15 min. At physiological and low oleate concentrations, cells from females incorporated significantly more 14C into glycerolipids, especially triglycerides, and into oxidation products than did male cells, per milligram cell protein. At 0.44 mM oleate, incorporation into triglycerides in female cells was approximately twice that in male cells. Comparable sex differences were observed in cells from fasted animals and when [14C]-glycerol incorporation was measured. At higher oleate concentrations, i.e., fatty acid:albumin mole ratios in excess of 2:1, these sex differences were no longer demonstrable, suggesting that maximal rates of fatty acid esterification and oxidation were similar in female and male cells. In female and male hepatic microsomes, specific activities of long chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and diglyceride acyltransferase were similar, but glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity was slightly greater in females at certain substrate concentrations. Microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into total glycerolipids was not significantly greater in females. In further contrast to intact cells, microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into triglycerides, although significantly greater in female microsomes, accounted for only a small fraction of the fatty acid esterified. The binding affinity and stoichiometry of partially purified female hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) were similar to

  11. Obese Hypertensive Men Have Plasma Concentrations of C-Reactive Protein Similar to That of Obese Normotensive Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan


    plasma CRP concentrations are also closely associated with obesity. It is uncertain whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension or is only a marker of other pathogenic processes closely related to obesity. METHODS: We studied 103 obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2......BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic feature of obesity, the most important lifestyle risk factor for hypertension. Elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of hypertension, but elevated...... participants were medication-free. We measured plasma CRP concentrations with a high-sensitivity assay and determined body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. RESULTS: There were no differences in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, or total fat mass percentage) between OHT...

  12. Crude protein levels in diets containing pelleted concentrate for lactating goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus dos Santos


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of crude protein (100, 130, 160 and 190 g kg-1 of dry matter of diets composed of 200 g kg-1 of Tifton 85 grass hay and 800 g kg-1 of pelleted concentrate on intake, nutrient digestibility, production and composition of milk in lactating goats. Eight female Saanen goats with 42.7 ± 1.43 kg and 57.7 ± 7.37 days of lactation and milk production of 2 ± 0.22 kg at the beginning of the experiment were housed in individual 1.32 × 3.10 m stalls and distributed into two 4 × 4-balanced Latin squares. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ether extract and total digestible nutrients showed a quadratic effect, with maximum intake of 2.030; 2.000; 305; 769; 55 and 1.574 g day-1 at the levels of 140.7; 140.8; 189.2; 140.9; 144.9 e 142.7 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrient level varied linearly, with increases estimated at 0.54; 0.50, 2.02, 0.49, 0.80 and 0.63 g/100g for each percentage unit of protein added to the diet, respectively. Milk production was affected, with increase of 0.54 g for each 1% crude protein added to the diet. Milk lactose level decreased linearly, unlike the fat level, which increased linearly. Protein level showed a quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 36.7 g per kg of milk at the level of 160.5 g per kg of DM. It is recommended to use crude protein between 135 g and 150 g per kg of dry matter of diets consisting of 800 g of pelleted concentrate (composed of soybean meal replacing the alfalfa hay as protein source per kg of DM for lactating goats producing 2 kg of milk per day.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenBingren; HeGuangping; 等


    The adsorption of low concentration of free acid by regenerable chitin is followed by electric conductance determination.The effect of acid concentratioin,content of functioinal amino groups,and ionic strength on adsorption was discussed.Experimental results indicate that the active centre of regenerable chitin is the free amino groups on ist surface ,and that the rate of adsorption of free acid was found to be affected by two factors:the interaction between the adsorbent and the adsorbate in solution and that between the adsorbate molecules or ions in solution.

  14. Interrogating protonated/deuterated fibronectin fragment layers adsorbed to titania by neutron reflectivity and their concomitant control over cell adhesion (United States)

    McIntosh, Lisa; Whitelaw, Christine; Rekas, Agata; Holt, Stephen A.; van der Walle, Christopher F.


    The fibronectin fragment, 9th–10th-type III domains (FIII9–10), mediates cell attachment and spreading and is commonly investigated as a bioadhesive interface for implant materials such as titania (TiO2). How the extent of the cell attachment–spreading response is related to the nature of the adsorbed protein layer is largely unknown. Here, the layer thickness and surface fraction of two FIII9–10 mutants (both protonated and deuterated) adsorbed to TiO2 were determined over concentrations used in cell adhesion assays. Unexpectedly, the isotopic forms had different adsorption behaviours. At solution concentrations of 10 mg l−1, the surface fraction of the less conformationally stable mutant (FIII9′10) was 42% for the deuterated form and 19% for the protonated form (fitted to the same monolayer thickness). Similarly, the surface fraction of the more stable mutant (FIII9′10–H2P) was 34% and 18% for the deuterated and protonated forms, respectively. All proteins showed a transition from monolayer to bilayer between 30 and 100 mg l−1, with the protein longitudinal orientation moving away from the plane of the TiO2 surface at high concentrations. Baby hamster kidney cells adherent to TiO2 surfaces coated with the proteins (100 mg l−1) showed a strong spreading response, irrespective of protein conformational stability. After surface washing, FIII9′10 and FIII9′10–H2P bilayer surface fractions were 30/25% and 42/39% for the lower/upper layers, respectively, implying that the cell spreading response requires only a partial protein surface fraction. Thus, we can use neutron reflectivity to inform the coating process for generating bioadhesive TiO2 surfaces. PMID:25926699

  15. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate


    ACC Alleoni; AJ Antunes


    Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and n...

  16. Preparation of Urea Nitrogen Adsorbent of Complex Type and Adsorption Capacity of Urea Nitrogen onto the Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The urea nitroge n adsorbent of complex type, which consists of chitosan coated dialdehyde cellulose (CDAC) and immobilized urease in gelatin membrane (IE), was prepared. The cellulose, the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) and the CDAC were characterized by scanning electronic microscope. The results indicate that the cellulose C2-C3 bond was broken under the oxidation of periodate and it was oxidated to DAC. The DAC was coated with chitosan and the CDAC was obtained. The adsorption of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent in Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 buffer solution was studied in batch system. The effects of the experiment parameters, including degree of oxidation of CDAC, initial urea nitrogen concentration, pH and temperature, on the adsorption capacity of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent at CDAC/IE weight ratio 10:1 were investigated. The results indicate that these parameters affected significantly the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent was 36.7 mg/g at the degree of oxidation of CDAC 88%, initial urea nitrogen concentration 600 mg/L, pH 7.4 and temperature 37 ℃.

  17. Leptin inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells at supraphysiological concentrations by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. (United States)

    Weichhaus, Michael; Broom, John; Wahle, Klaus; Bermano, Giovanna


    Leptin is a hormone secreted by white fat tissue and signals the amount of overall body fat to the hypothalamus. The circulating concentration of leptin correlates with the level of obesity. Breast cancer risk is higher in obese postmenopausal women compared with postmenopausal women of a normal weight, and high leptin concentrations may contribute to this risk. In the present study, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were treated with various concentrations (6.25-1,600 ng/ml) of recombinant leptin and changes in cell proliferation were assessed. The SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells exhibited a concentration-dependent increase in proliferation with physiological leptin concentrations (100 ng/ml) was observed. Cell proliferation was not affected at supraphysiological leptin concentrations (>800 ng/ml) in SK-BR-3 cells, whereas it decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, cell signaling and cell cycle changes were assessed at supraphysiological concentrations (1,600 ng/ml). In the two cell lines, leptin treatment decreased the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell signaling pathway activation. Leptin treatment did not increase Akt phosphorylation or significantly alter the cell population distribution across cell cycle stages. To the best of our knowledge, leptin-induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells at supraphysiological concentrations has not been reported in the literature to date, and the findings of this study suggest that reduced MAPK activity may be the underlying cause. Thus, the effect of leptin on breast cancer growth warrants further investigation since leptin is considered to be one of the main mediators in the obesity-breast cancer connection.

  18. Time course of hepatic gene expression and plasma vitellogenin protein concentrations in estrone-exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Osachoff, Heather L; Brown, Lorraine L Y; Tirrul, Leena; van Aggelen, Graham C; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Kennedy, Christopher J


    Estrone (E1), a natural estrogen hormone found in sewage effluents and surface waters, has known endocrine disrupting effects in fish, thus, it is a contaminant of emerging concern. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to an environmentally-relevant concentration of E1 (24ng/L E1 [0.1nM]) for 7d and then placed in clean water for a 9d recovery period. RNA sequencing showed transcripts from numerous affected biological processes (e.g. immune, metabolic, apoptosis, clotting, and endocrine) were altered by E1 after 4d of treatment. The time course of E1-inducible responses relating to vitellogenesis was examined daily during the two phases of exposure. Hepatic gene expression alterations evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) were found during the treatment period for vitellogenin (VTG), vitelline envelope proteins (VEPs) α, β and γ, and estrogen receptor α1 (ERα1) transcripts. ERα1 was the only transcript induced each day during the treatment phase, thus it was a good indicator of E1 exposure. Gradual increases occurred in VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts, peaking at d7. VTG transcript was only elevated at d4, making it less sensitive than VEPs to this low-level E1 treatment. Inductions of ERα1, VEPα, VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts ceased 1d into the recovery phase. Plasma VTG protein concentrations were not immediately elevated but peaked 7d into the recovery phase. Thus, elevated vitellogenesis-related gene expression and protein production occurred slowly but steadily at this concentration of E1, confirming the sequence of events for transcripts and VTG protein responses to xenoestrogen exposure.

  19. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.


    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were highe

  20. Analytical phase diagrams for colloids and non-adsorbing polymer. (United States)

    Fleer, Gerard J; Tuinier, Remco


    We review the free-volume theory (FVT) of Lekkerkerker et al. [Europhys. Lett. 20 (1992) 559] for the phase behavior of colloids in the presence of non-adsorbing polymer and we extend this theory in several aspects: (i) We take the solvent into account as a separate component and show that the natural thermodynamic parameter for the polymer properties is the insertion work Pi(v), where Pi is the osmotic pressure of the (external) polymer solution and v the volume of a colloid particle. (ii) Curvature effects are included along the lines of Aarts et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matt. 14 (2002) 7551] but we find accurate simple power laws which simplify the mathematical procedure considerably. (iii) We find analytical forms for the first, second, and third derivatives of the grand potential, needed for the calculation of the colloid chemical potential, the pressure, gas-liquid critical points and the critical endpoint (cep), where the (stable) critical line ends and then coincides with the triple point. This cep determines the boundary condition for a stable liquid. We first apply these modifications to the so-called colloid limit, where the size ratio q(R)=R/a between the radius of gyration R of the polymer and the particle radius a is small. In this limit the binodal polymer concentrations are below overlap: the depletion thickness delta is nearly equal to R, and Pi can be approximated by the ideal (van't Hoff) law Pi=Pi(0)=phi/N, where phi is the polymer volume fraction and N the number of segments per chain. The results are close to those of the original Lekkerkerker theory. However, our analysis enables very simple analytical expressions for the polymer and colloid concentrations in the critical and triple points and along the binodals as a function of q(R). Also the position of the cep is found analytically. In order to make the model applicable to higher size ratio's q(R) (including the so-called protein limit where q(R)>1) further extensions are needed. We

  1. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  2. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin


    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...... of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yishi; LI Huaizhong; LIU Pengfei; HA Hongfei


    Poly N-isopropyl acrylamide (abbreviated as PNIPA) as a kind of thermally sensitive hydrogel is utilized to concentrate Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) solution. In order to decrease its surface adsorption to BSA in aqueous solution, surface layer grafting of the gels by radiation technology was carried out. The results showed that hydroxyl propyl methacrylate (HPMA) grafted gel exhibited a low level of BSA adsorption and still kept the original thermally sensitive properties of PNIPA hydrogels.

  4. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.A. [Chemica Technologies, Inc., Bend, OR (United States)


    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  5. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration. (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H


    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  6. The effect of acidification of liquid whey protein concentrate on the flavor of spray-dried powder. (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne


    Off-flavors in whey protein negatively influence consumer acceptance of whey protein ingredient applications. Clear acidic beverages are a common application of whey protein, and recent studies have demonstrated that beverage processing steps, including acidification, enhance off-flavor production from whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preacidification of liquid ultrafiltered whey protein concentrate (WPC) before spray drying on flavor of dried WPC. Two experiments were performed to achieve the objective. In both experiments, Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 mg/kg of hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain liquid WPC that was 13% solids (wt/wt) and 80% protein on a solids basis. In experiment 1, the liquid retentate was then acidified using a blend of phosphoric and citric acids to the following pH values: no acidification (control; pH 6.5), pH 5.5, or pH 3.5. The UF permeate was used to normalize the protein concentration of each treatment. The retentates were then spray dried. In experiment 2, 150 μg/kg of deuterated hexanal (D₁₂-hexanal) was added to each treatment, followed by acidification and spray drying. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Flavor properties of the spray-dried WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses in experiment 1 and by instrumental analysis in experiment 2. Preacidification to pH 3.5 resulted in decreased cardboard flavor and aroma intensities and an increase in soapy flavor, with decreased concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide compared with spray drying at pH 6.5 or 5.5. Adjustment to pH 5.5 before spray drying increased cabbage flavor and increased concentrations of nonanal at evaluation pH values of 3.5 and 5.5 and dimethyl trisulfide at all evaluation pH values. In general, the flavor effects of preacidification were consistent regardless of the pH to

  7. Effects of chronic heat stress on plasma concentration of secreted heat shock protein 70 in growing feedlot cattle. (United States)

    Gaughan, J B; Bonner, S L; Loxton, I; Mader, T L


    Sixty Angus steers (449.2±11.0 kg) with implanted body temperature (BT) transmitters were used in a 110-d study to determine the effect of chronic stress (housing, diet, and climate) on extracellular heat shock protein 70 (eHsp70) concentration in plasma. The steers were a subset of a larger study involving 164 steers. Before the start of the study (d -31), 63 steers were implanted with a BT transmitter between the internal abdominal muscle and the peritoneum at the right side flank. Steers were housed in 20 pens (10 with shade and 10 without). Within each pen, 3 steers had a transmitter, and BT was recorded at 30-min intervals throughout the study. On d 0, 30, 60, 90, and 110, steers were weighed, BCS assessed (1 to 9 scale in which 1=emaciated and 9=obese), and 10 mL of blood from the coccygeal vein was collected for determination of inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) concentration by ELISA. Climatic variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, black globe temperature, and wind speed) were obtained every 30 min from an on-site weather station. The relationship between the climatic variables and Hsp70 concentration were examined. As we failed to detect an effect of shade, all data were pooled. Mean BT over the duration of the study was 39.6±0.10°C. Mean BT was lowest (38.7±0.10°C) on d 0 and highest on d 110 (40.2°C±0.10). The Hsp70 concentration was least on d 0 (2.33±0.47 ng/mL) and greatest on d 30 (8.08±0.78 ng/mL). The Hsp70 concentration decreased from d 30 but remained above the d-0 concentrations on d 60, 90, and 110. There was a strong relationship between Hsp70 concentration and ambient temperature (r2=0.86; P38.6°C. The Hsp70 concentration is a reliable indicator of chronic stress but is not a reliable indicator of a single stressor when animals are exposed to multiple chronic stressors.

  8. Effect of testosterone on differential muscle growth and on protein and nucleic acid concentrations in muscles of growing lambs. (United States)

    Arnold, A M; Peralta, J M; Thonney, M L


    Growth, nucleic acid, and protein concentrations were measured in three muscles of 20 rams, 20 wethers, and 20 wethers implanted with testosterone. Two lambs from each group were slaughtered at 14-d intervals from 49 to 133 d, and then at 28-d intervals until 217 d, for a total of 10 slaughter ages. Immediately after slaughter, the semitendinosus, splenius, and triceps brachii muscles were removed, trimmed of adhering fat, and weighed. The DNA, RNA, and protein concentrations of these muscles were determined. Testosterone increased combined weight of the three muscles. The splenius muscles of rams and wethers implanted with testosterone were heavier and had a biphasic growth pattern as the combined muscle weight increased, whereas the splenius muscle of wethers had a single growth phase. Rams and implanted wethers had greater splenius muscle DNA and RNA concentrations than wethers as muscle weight increased. This model could be used to study the gene regulation of testosterone-induced muscle growth with the possibility of invoking similar effects in more economically important muscles.

  9. Molecularly Imprinted Filtering Adsorbents for Odor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Shinohara


    Full Text Available Versatile odor sensors that can discriminate among huge numbers of environmental odorants are desired in many fields, including robotics, environmental monitoring, and food production. However, odor sensors comparable to an animal’s nose have not yet been developed. An animal’s olfactory system recognizes odor clusters with specific molecular properties and uses this combinatorial information in odor discrimination. This suggests that measurement and clustering of odor molecular properties (e.g., polarity, size using an artificial sensor is a promising approach to odor sensing. Here, adsorbents composed of composite materials with molecular recognition properties were developed for odor sensing. The selectivity of the sensor depends on the adsorbent materials, so specific polymeric materials with particular solubility parameters were chosen to adsorb odorants with various properties. The adsorption properties of the adsorbents could be modified by mixing adsorbent materials. Moreover, a novel molecularly imprinted filtering adsorbent (MIFA, composed of an adsorbent substrate covered with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP layer, was developed to improve the odor molecular recognition ability. The combination of the adsorbent and MIP layer provided a higher specificity toward target molecules. The MIFA thus provides a useful technique for the design and control of adsorbents with adsorption properties specific to particular odor molecules.

  10. Nutritional evaluation of phosphorylated pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata) protein concentrate in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824). (United States)

    Lovatto, Naglezi de Menezes; Goulart, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Freitas, Silvandro Tonetto; Mombach, Patricia Inês; Loureiro, Bruno Bianch; Bender, Ana Betine Beutinger; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Radünz Neto, João; da Silva, Leila Picolli


    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with pumpkin seed meal (PSM) or phosphorylated protein concentrate of pumpkin seed meal (PPCPS) on growth and metabolic responses of silver catfish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated. Control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source. The treatment groups contained 25 and 50% of either PSM or PPCPS protein replaced the fishmeal protein. A total of 400 silver catfish, with initial mean weight of 24 ± 0.46 g, were distributed into 20 tanks. For data four orthogonal contrasts were applied: control diet versus PSM diets; control diets versus PPCPS diets; control versus other diets; PSM diets versus PPCPS diets. The results indicated that the fish fed PSM diets had lower weight gain when compared to either control diet or PPCPS. The PPCPS do not affect growth and protein efficiency ratio. Lower albumin contents were found for the control diet fish for the contrasts control diet versus PPCPS diet and control diet versus other diets. The hepatic ALAT enzyme activity was higher in the fish fed the control diet (P < 0.05). The hepatic ALP was most active in fish that received the PPCPS diets, when comparing control diet versus PPCPS diets and control diet versus other diets. The hepatosomatic index was higher for fish fed the PPCPS. Our results indicated that PPCPS presents relevant nutritional quality for fish and can replace the fish meal protein up to 50% without affecting growth, PER and intermediate metabolites in silver catfish.

  11. Solid-state conversion of fly ash to effective adsorbents for Cu removal from wastewater. (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Li, Lin; Zhu, Z H


    Solid-state conversion of fly ash to an amorphous aluminosilicate adsorbent (geopolymer) has been investigated under different conditions and the synthesised material has been tested for Cu2+ removal from aqueous solution. It has been found that higher reaction temperature and Na:FA ratio will make the adsorbents achieving higher removal efficiency. The adsorbent loading and Cu2+ initial concentration will also affect the removal efficiency while the adsorption capacity exhibits similarly at 30-40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbent shows much higher value than fly ash and natural zeolite. The capacity is 0.1, 3.5 and 92 mg/g, for fly ash, natural zeolite, and FA derived adsorbent, respectively. The kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption can be fitted by the second-order kinetic model. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms also can fit to the adsorption isotherm.

  12. Effects of different protein concentrations on longevity and feeding behavior of two adult populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido-Silva, Maria do Carmo; Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia


    The effects of protein intake on two adult male and female populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann were assessed. One population consisted of flies reared for twenty years in the laboratory (Lab-pop); the other population consisted both of flies reared in the laboratory for approximately fifteen years and of the periodically introduced wild flies (Hybrid-pop). Three diets were tested: a no-yeast diet and two diets containing yeast (protein source) at the concentrations 6.5 g or 1.5 g per 100 ml diet. The parameters analyzed were: adult longevity, diet intake with and without yeast, and discrimination threshold for yeast. Protein intake increased Lab-pop adult longevity and did not affect longevity of the Hybrid-pop. Longevity in each population was similar for males and females fed on the same diet. Food behavior were similar for male and female adults of both populations; all preferred diets containing protein (yeast). Males and females in both populations ingested similar amounts of each diet. The discrimination threshold for yeast was similar for all males (0.5 g yeast/100 ml diet); Lab-pop females were able to detect the presence of smaller quantities of yeast in their diet, thus having a higher discrimination capacity (0.4 g/100 ml diet) as compared to the Hybrid-pop females (0.6 g/ 100 ml diet). (author)

  13. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanucci, Silvana [Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 S Agata, Messina (Italy)]. E-mail:; Minerdi, Daniela [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Kadomatsu, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nagoya Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mengoni, Alessio [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Bazzicalupo, Marco [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy)


    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l{sup -1} Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability.

  14. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square...... design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables...... were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while...

  15. Conformational aspects of proteins at the air/water interface studied by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Bos, M.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Vliet, T. van


    From absorption spectra obtained with infrared reflection - absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), it is possible to obtain information on conformational changes at a secondary folding level of proteins adsorbed at the air/water interface. In addition, information on protein concentration at the interface

  16. Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and –SH groups concentrations in liver homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ciejka


    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency magnetic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF on the concentration of sulfhydryl groups (–SH and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals depending on the time of exposure to the field. Material and Methods: Twenty one Sprague-Dawley male rats, aged 3–4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals: controls (group I, the rats exposed to ELF-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy, 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III. The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Results: Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of –SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. Conclusions: The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure. Med Pr 2014;65(5:639–644

  17. High-capacity hydrogen storage in Al-adsorbed graphene (United States)

    Ao, Z. M.; Peeters, F. M.


    A high-capacity hydrogen storage medium—Al-adsorbed graphene—is proposed based on density-functional theory calculations. We find that a graphene layer with Al adsorbed on both sides can store hydrogen up to 13.79wt% with average adsorption energy -0.193eV/H2 . Its hydrogen storage capacity is in excess of 6wt% , surpassing U. S. Department of Energy (DOE’s) target. Based on the binding-energy criterion and molecular-dynamics calculations, we find that hydrogen storage can be recycled at near ambient conditions. This high-capacity hydrogen storage is due to the adsorbed Al atoms that act as bridges to link the electron clouds of the H2 molecules and the graphene layer. As a consequence, a two-layer arrangement of H2 molecules is formed on each side of the Al-adsorbed graphene layer. The H2 concentration in the hydrogen storage medium can be measured by the change in the conductivity of the graphene layer.

  18. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.


    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  19. Pharmacological zinc and phytase supplementation enhance metallothionein mRNA abundance and protein concentration in newly weaned pigs. (United States)

    Martínez, Michelle M; Hill, Gretchen M; Link, Jane E; Raney, Nancy E; Tempelman, Robert J; Ernst, Catherine W


    The swine industry feeds pharmacological zinc (Zn) to newly weaned pigs to improve health. Because most swine diets are plant-based with a high phytic acid content, we hypothesized that adding phytase to diets could reduce the amount of Zn required to obtain beneficial responses. The role of metallothionein (MT) in Zn homeostasis could be important in this positive response. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Zn and phytase on relative MT mRNA abundance and protein concentration in newly weaned pigs. Diets containing adequate (150 mg Zn/kg) or pharmacological concentrations of Zn (1000 or 2000 mg Zn/kg), as zinc oxide, with or without phytase [0, 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg, Natuphos, BASF] were fed in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Plasma and tissue minerals were measured in pigs killed after 14 d of dietary intervention. Hepatic and renal relative MT mRNA abundance and protein were greater (P pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase, or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase vs. the remaining treatments. Intestinal mucosa MT mRNA abundance and protein were greater (P pigs fed 2000 mg Zn/kg with phytase than in pigs fed 2000 mg Zn/kg alone or 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase. Pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg plus phytase or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase had higher plasma, hepatic, and renal Zn than those fed the adequate Zn diets or 1000 mg Zn/kg. We conclude that feeding 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase enhances MT mRNA abundance and protein and Zn absorption to the same degree as 2000 mg Zn/kg with and without phytase.

  20. Formaldehyde at low concentration induces protein tau into globular amyloid-like aggregates in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lai Nie

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that neurodegeneration is closely related to misfolding and aggregation of neuronal tau. Our previous results show that neuronal tau aggregates in formaldehyde solution and that aggregated tau induces apoptosis of SH-SY5Y and hippocampal cells. In the present study, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM observation, we have found that formaldehyde at low concentrations induces tau polymerization whilst acetaldehyde does not. Neuronal tau misfolds and aggregates into globular-like polymers in 0.01-0.1% formaldehyde solutions. Apart from globular-like aggregation, no fibril-like polymerization was observed when the protein was incubated with formaldehyde for 15 days. SDS-PAGE results also exhibit tau polymerizing in the presence of formaldehyde. Under the same experimental conditions, polymerization of bovine serum albumin (BSA or alpha-synuclein was not markedly detected. Kinetic study shows that tau significantly misfolds and polymerizes in 60 minutes in 0.1% formaldehyde solution. However, presence of 10% methanol prevents protein tau from polymerization. This suggests that formaldehyde polymerization is involved in tau aggregation. Such aggregation process is probably linked to the tau's special "worm-like" structure, which leaves the epsilon-amino groups of Lys and thiol groups of Cys exposed to the exterior. Such a structure can easily bond to formaldehyde molecules in vitro and in vivo. Polymerizing of formaldehyde itself results in aggregation of protein tau. Immunocytochemistry and thioflavin S staining of both endogenous and exogenous tau in the presence of formaldehyde at low concentrations in the cell culture have shown that formaldehyde can induce tau into amyloid-like aggregates in vivo during apoptosis. The significant protein tau aggregation induced by formaldehyde and the severe toxicity of the aggregated tau to neural cells may suggest that toxicity of methanol and formaldehyde ingestion is related to

  1. [Dynamics of blood concentration of neurospecific proteins and risk of neuropathy development in the conditions of 105-day confinement]. (United States)

    Nichiporuk, I A; Vasil'eva, G Iu; Rykova, M P; Morukov, B V


    Six male volunteers (aged 25 to 40 years) were subjects in all-round psychophysiological, hormonal and immunological studies before, in and after 105-day isolation and confinement. Blood was drawn and the 16-factorial Cattell personality inventory was filled out every 30 days. Concentrations of blood hormones, neurospecific proteins and cytokines point to a close interrelation between antibody titers to myelin-associated glycoprotein and changes in the parameters of metabolism and reproduction-related hormones, as well as cytokines and individual psychophysiology (extra-introversion, dominance, intropunitiveness, social contact selectivity, etc.), and suggest a minimum risk of demyelinizing neuropathy due to exposure to the conditions of isolation and confinement.

  2. Some functional characteristics of extruded blends of fiber from sugarcane bagasse, whey protein concentrate, and corn starch



    Blends of fiber from sugar cane bagasse, corn starch, and whey protein concentrate were extruded. A single screw extruder, equipped with a screw at a constant compression ratio of 1:1 and a die diameter of 3 mm, was used. The best processing conditions were determined according to a central composite rotatable design (α = 1.41) with 5 central points, which gives a total of 13 tests. During the extrusion process the content of insoluble fiber decreased and that of soluble fiber increased....

  3. Increased serum C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with congestive heart failure due to myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M. J.; Ljungvall, I.; Hillstrom, A.;


    Cardiovascular disease in humans and dogs is associated with mildly increased circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Few studies have evaluated associations between circulating CRP and canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and the results reported have been divergent....... The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum concentrations of CRP, determined using a novel automated canine-specific high -sensitivity CRP assay (Gentian hsCRP), were associated with severity of MMVD and selected clinical variables in dogs. The study included 188 client-owned dogs...... with different severities of MMVD. Dogs were classified based on ACVIM consensus statement guidelines (group A, n = 58; group BI, n = 56; group B2, n = 38; group C, n = 36). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF; group C) had...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The adsorption of phenol and nitrophenols on hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent wasstudied as a function of the solution concentration and temperature. Adsorption isotherms of phenoland nitrophenols on hypercrosslinked resin were determined. These isotherms were modeledaccording to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The isotherms for phenol and nitrophenols onhypercrosslinked resin were assigned as L curves. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated for allphenol and nitrophenols. The kinetics experiment results showed that the adsorption rates were of thefirst-order kinetics. The rate constants at 303K were calculated.

  5. Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein concentrations in mice lacking brain serotonin. (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Mosienko, Valentina; Gertz, Karen; Alenina, Natalia; Hellweg, Rainer; Klempin, Friederike


    The interplay between BDNF signaling and the serotonergic system remains incompletely understood. Using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we studied BDNF concentrations in hippocampus and cortex of two mouse models of altered serotonin signaling: tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)2-deficient (Tph2 (-/-)) mice lacking brain serotonin and serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient (SERT(-/-)) mice lacking serotonin re-uptake. Surprisingly, hippocampal BDNF was significantly elevated in Tph2 (-/-) mice, whereas no significant changes were observed in SERT(-/-) mice. Furthermore, BDNF levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex of Tph2 (-/-) but not of SERT(-/-) mice. Our results emphasize the interaction between serotonin signaling and BDNF. Complete lack of brain serotonin induces BDNF expression.

  6. Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaq


    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on a novel ultraclean desulfurization process of model oil by the adsorption method using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent. The parameters investigated are effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dibenzothiophene (DBT concentration and temperature. Experimental tests were conducted in batch process. Pseudo first and second order kinetic equations were used to examine the experimental data. It was found that pseudo second order kinetic equation described the data of the DBT adsorption onto all types of adsorbents very well. The isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the data very well for the adsorption of DBT onto all three forms of adsorbents. The adsorption of DBT was also investigated at different adsorbent doses and was found that the percentage adsorption of DBT was increased with increasing the adsorbent dose, while the adsorption in mg/g was decreased with increasing the adsorbent dose. The prepared adsorbents were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  7. Dye removal from wastewater using the adsorbent developed from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun-yun; WANG Peng; ZHUANG Yuan-yi


    Sewage sludge was used to develop an effective carbon adsorbent. This adsorbent was employed for the removal of azo dye such as Direct Dark Brown M and Acid Mordant Brown RH. The adsorption of dyes on this adsorbent was studied as a function of contact time, concentration, pH and temperature by batch method. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of a carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from city wastewater treatment plant was 502, and 329.7 mg/g of Direct Dark Brown M and Acid Mordant Brown RH, respectively. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to the Lagergren second-order kinetics with good correlation. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous adsorbents was determined with the Langmuir equation as well as the Lagergren second-order rate equation. The most ideal pH for adsorption of two dyes onto adsorbents was found to be 3 and below. The results indicate that the carbonaceous adsorbents could be employed as a low cost adsorbent in the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  8. Effect of adsorbents and chemical treatments on the removal of strontium from aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Ahmadpour, A; Zabihi, M; Tahmasbi, M; Bastami, T Rohani


    In the present investigation, three different solid wastes namely almond green hull, eggplant hull, and moss were initially treated and used as adsorbents for the adsorption of strontium ion from aqueous solutions. Adsorbent types and chemical treatments are proved to have effective roles on the adsorption of Sr(II) ion. Among the three adsorbents, almond green hull demonstrated strong affinity toward strontium ion in different solutions. The effectiveness of this new adsorbent was studied in batch adsorption mode under a variety of experimental conditions such as: different chemical treatments, various amounts of adsorbent, and initial metal-ion concentration. The optimum doses of adsorbent for the maximum Sr(II) adsorption were found to be 0.2 and 0.3 g for 45 and 102 mg L(-1) solutions, respectively. High Sr(II) adsorption efficiencies were achieved only in the first 3 min of adsorbent's contact time. The kinetics of Sr(II) adsorption on almond green hull was also examined and it was observed that it follows the pseudo second-order behavior. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models well predicted the experimental adsorption isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacity on almond green hull was found to be 116.3 mg g(-1). The present study also confirmed that these low cost agriculture byproducts could be used as efficient adsorbents for the removal of strontium from wastewater streams.

  9. Potentiality of agricultural adsorbent for the sequestering of metal ions from wastewater

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    P.C. Emenike


    Full Text Available The expensive nature of metal ions detoxification from wastewater have restricted the use of conventional treatment technologies. Cheap, alternative measures have been adopted to eliminate metal contamination, and adsorptions using agricultural adsorbents seem to be the way forward. The use of agricultural adsorbents for cadmium (II, copper (II and lead (II ion removal has gained more interest in literature due to the level of contamination in water bodies. This review shed lights on the removal proficiency of various low–cost agricultural adsorbent for the elimination of cadmium (II, copper (II and lead (II ions, considering performance, surface modification, equilibrium adsorptive studies, kinetic characteristics, coefficient of correlation (R2 and reuse. Furthermore, these agricultural adsorbents have displayed better performance when rivaled with commercial/conventional adsorbent. Observations from different adsorptive capacities presented owe their performance to surface area improvement/modification, pH of the adsorbent, ionic potential of the solution, initial concentration and elemental component of the adsorbent. However, gaps have been identified to improve applicability, sorption performance, economic viability, optimization, and commercialization of suitable agricultural adsorbents.

  10. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Chris [ORNL; Yatsandra, Oyola [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL; none,; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Li-Jung, Kuo [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL


    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  11. Leptin level in plasma of lactating buffaloes fed two diets with different energy and protein concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parmeggiani


    Full Text Available Leptin, a protein mainly secreted from the white adipocytes, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and whole body energy balance. Moreover, leptin gene activity and leptin secretion are correlated with body adiposity and changes in food intake. Furthermore, leptin could also modulate endocrine response to changes in nutritional status and/or tissue sensitivity to hormones (Houseknecht et al., 1998; Romsos, 1998. Several factors are known to influence plasma leptin in rodents and humans: particularly it increases by body fatness, insulin, glucocorticoids, estrogens and decreases by food deprivation (Saladin et al., 1995; Ahima et al., 1996; Shimizu et al., 1997. These ones and several other observations have led to the hypothesis that leptin is a signal arising from adipose tissue, linked to the level of fat reserves and/or the nutritional status. This signal directly influences the central nervous system and peripheral organs, resulting in a better adaptation of body metabolism and physiological functions to the availability of metabolic energy...........

  12. Association of the IL6-174(G/C) polymorphism with C-reactive protein concentration after weight loss in obese men. (United States)

    Eklund, Carita; Nenonen, Arja; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Borg, Patrik; Fogelholm, Mikael; Laine, Seppo; Huhtala, Heini; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hurme, Mikko


    Elevated plasma concentration of C-reactive protein has emerged as an important predictor of future cardiovascular diseases and metabolic abnormalities in apparently healthy individuals. Obese individuals tend to have elevated C-reactive protein concentrations. Weight loss induces a change in this protein, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in regulating genes might affect this change, since C-reactive protein concentration is known to be approximately 40-50% heritable. Our aim was to study the association between the IL6 -174(G/C), IL1B +3,954(C/T) and CRP +1,059(G/C) single nucleotide polymorphisms, and CRP concentrations in obese men during a weight reduction program. We genotyped 72 obese men who had participated in a weight reduction program. Their C-reactive protein concentrations, interleukin-6 levels and fat mass were determined at two time points: at baseline and after weight reduction (after 2 months). After weight reduction, the mean weight loss was 14.3 kg. Median C-reactive protein concentrations decreased, after weight reduction, from 1.72 to 1.22 mg/l (p polymorphisms studied were not associated with CRP concentrations. Our results show that, at baseline, there is no difference in C-reactive protein concentrations among the different IL6-174(G/C) genotypes, but after weight loss the CC genotype is associated with highest C-reactive protein concentrations, resulting from the fact that C-reactive protein seems not to decrease with weight loss in this genotype.

  13. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration. (United States)

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

  14. Protein-Protein Multilayer Oil-in-Water Emulsions for the Microencapsulation of Flaxseed Oil: Effect of Whey and Fish Gelatin Concentration. (United States)

    Fustier, Patrick; Achouri, Allaoua; Taherian, Ali R; Britten, Michel; Pelletier, Marylène; Sabik, Hassan; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Mondor, Martin


    The impact of whey protein isolate (WPI) and fish gelatin (FG) deposited sequentially at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.75% on the surface of primary oil-in-water emulsions containing 5% flaxseed oil stabilized with either 0.5% fish gelatin or whey protein, respectively, was investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption of WPI/FG or FG/WPI complexes to the emulsion interface led to the formation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with different stabilities and different protection degrees of the flaxseed oil. Deposition of FG on the WPI primary emulsion increased the particle size (from 0.53 to 1.58 μm) and viscosity and decreased electronegativity (from -23.91 to -11.15 mV) of the complexes. Different trends were noted with the deposition of WPI on the FG primary emulsion, resulting in decreasing particle size and increasing electronegativity and viscosity to a lower extent. Due to the superior tension-active property of WPI, the amount of protein load in the WPI primary emulsion as well as in WPI/FG complex was significantly higher than the FG counterparts. A multilayer emulsion made with 0.5% WPI/0.75% FG exhibited the lowest oxidation among all of the multilayered emulsions tested (0.32 ppm of hexanal) after 21 days, likely due to the charge effect of FG that may prevent pro-oxidant metals to interact with the flaxseed oil.

  15. Concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins facilitate osteogenesis through activation of the JNK-ATF4 pathway. (United States)

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro; Jack, Ralph W


    Concentrated fractions of low molecular weight whey proteins (1-30 kDa), that is concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins (CBP), have been found to enhance bone formation in both in vivo and clinical studies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we found that CBP promoted osteoblastic differentiation in normal human osteoblasts, and determined the involvement of the c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway. We observed that alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization were significantly induced by CBP treatment. In addition, mRNA expression of ATF4 was intensely elevated in CBP-treated osteoblasts, indicating that the late-phase events of differentiation were promoted. We found that CBP activated the phosphorylation of JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, pathway analyses using the various signaling pathway-specific inhibitors revealed that JNK activation, but not ERK activation, is essential for CBP-induced mineralization and ATF4 expression. Our results indicate that the JNK-mediated ATF4 pathway is required for CBP-promotive osteogenesis.

  16. Measurement of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid by surface plasmon resonance with D-galactose/D-glucose binding protein (United States)

    Li, D. C.; Zhang, J. X.; Wu, P.; Huang, F. X.; Song, B.; Xu, K. X.


    A novel minimally invasive way to measure blood glucose concentration is proposed by combining interstitial fluid transdermal extraction and surface plasma resonance (SPR) detecting. 55K Hz low-frequency ultrasound pulse is applied for less than 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin by vacuum. The mathematical model to express the correlation between interstitial fluid glucose and blood glucose is also developed by considering the changes of the skin conductivity. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is determined using an optical SPR biological sensor that measures the refractive index. A protein-glucose binding technology using Dgalactose/ D-glucose Binding Protein for specific absorption of glucose is employed to increase SPR measurement precision. By immobilizing GGBP onto the surface of the SPR sensor, the experimental result indicates the detecting resolution of glucose rises to 1mg/L, the system succeeds in distinguishing glucose from other components in mixture. The feasibility of this method is validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring and a prototype microfluidic diabetes-monitoring device is under development.

  17. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A


    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety.

  18. Evolution of photorespiration from cyanobacteria to land plants, considering protein phylogenies and acquisition of carbon concentrating mechanisms. (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Kern, Ramona; Maurino, Veronica G; Hanson, David T; Weber, Andreas P M; Sage, Rowan F; Bauwe, Hermann


    Photorespiration and oxygenic photosynthesis are intimately linked processes. It has been shown that under the present day atmospheric conditions cyanobacteria and all eukaryotic phototrophs need functional photorespiration to grow autotrophically. The question arises as to when this essential partnership evolved, i.e. can we assume a coevolution of both processes from the beginning or did photorespiration evolve later to compensate for the generation of 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG) due to Rubisco's oxygenase reaction? This question is mainly discussed here using phylogenetic analysis of proteins involved in the 2PG metabolism and the acquisition of different carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). The phylogenies revealed that the enzymes involved in the photorespiration of vascular plants have diverse origins, with some proteins acquired from cyanobacteria as ancestors of the chloroplasts and others from heterotrophic bacteria as ancestors of mitochondria in the plant cell. Only phosphoglycolate phosphatase was found to originate from Archaea. Notably glaucophyte algae, the earliest branching lineage of Archaeplastida, contain more photorespiratory enzymes of cyanobacterial origin than other algal lineages or land plants indicating a larger initial contribution of cyanobacterial-derived proteins to eukaryotic photorespiration. The acquisition of CCMs is discussed as a proxy for assessing the timing of periods when photorespiratory activity may have been enhanced. The existence of CCMs also had marked influence on the structure and function of photorespiration. Here, we discuss evidence for an early and continuous coevolution of photorespiration, CCMs and photosynthesis starting from cyanobacteria via algae, to land plants.

  19. Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of cassava leaf protein concentrate from six cassava varieties for use in aqua feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oresegun


    Full Text Available Leaves from six varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz cultivated in Nigeria were harvested and analysed for their nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors using standard analytical techniques. The leaves were further processed into cassava leaf protein concentrate. Results obtained indicated highest crude protein levels, β-carotene levels and lipid levels of 48.85 ± 0.45, 816.92 ± 8.80 and 13.27 ± 0.06, respectively, in variety 419 and lowest crude protein levels and β-carotene levels of 40.19 ± 0.08 and 298 ± 5.74 in variety 326. However, ash, moisture and carbohydrate levels for all six varieties were relatively the same. Mineral compositions for all varieties were also fairly similar. Hydrogen cyanide levels were significantly low (p > 0.05 in variety 419 with a value of 0.98 ± 0.05. However, phytate and tannin levels for all six varieties were not significantly different (p > 0.05. It can be concluded from this study that cassava variety 419 had the highest potential for use in aqua feed production.

  20. Serum haptoglobin and C-reactive protein concentration in relation to rectal and vaginal temperature of early postpartum sows. (United States)

    Stiehler, T; Heuwieser, W; Pfützner, A; Burfeind, O


    Various attempts were made to improve the diagnosis of the periparturient hypogalactia syndrome in sows. A new approach was the detection of elevated concentrations of acute phase proteins. The objective of our study was to investigate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sows on Day 7 postpartum and relationship to body temperature. From Day 1 to Day 6 postpartum, 199 sows were clinically examined and a blood sample was taken for measuring Hp and CRP at Day 7. The median of Hp and CRP were 1.83 mg/mL (interquartile range: 1.42-2.13 mg/mL) and 60.0 μg/mL (interquartile range: 15.2-216.5 μg/mL). We did not find a correlation between Hp and CRP (ρ = 0.11, P = 0.12) nor a difference between sows categorized as ill and healthy sows in Hp concentration (P = 0.1) and CRP (P = 0.34). Sows with Hp > 2.13 mg/mL had a higher rectal temperature than sows with Hp ≤ 2.13 mg/mL (P = 0.037), but there was no difference in vaginal temperature (P = 0.24). Regarding CRP, sows with CRP greater than 216.5 μg/mL had higher rectal temperature (P = 0.017) and vaginal temperature (P = 0.02) than sows with CRP ≤ 216.5 μg/mL. As demonstrated in this study, Hp and CRP do not support the detection of early postpartum disorders in sows.

  1. Influence of using a blend of rennet casein and whey protein concentrate as protein source on the quality of Mozzarella cheese analogue. (United States)

    Dhanraj, Padhiyar; Jana, Atanu; Modha, Hiral; Aparnathi, K D


    The effect of incorporating whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the quality characteristics of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) based on rennet casein (RC) was studied. The proportion of RC:WPC tried out were 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15 w/w. The formulation of MCA comprised of 23.5% of blend of RC and WPC, 15% specialty vegetable fat, 2.75% trisodium citrate + disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (2.5:1, w/w), 0.07% calcium chloride, 0.6% citric acid, 1.1% NaCl, 1.5% cheese bud flavoring, and rest water. Varying the proportion of RC and WPC had a significant influence on the composition, textural properties, baking qualities and sensory quality of MCA judged as a topping on pizza pie. MCA made using protein blends (RC:WPC-90:10 or 85:15) behaved satisfactorily during pizza baking trials. However, looking at the superiority of MCA made using RC:WPC (90:10) with regard to shred quality and marginal superiority in terms of the total sensory score of cheese, judged as pizza topping, the former blend (i.e. RC:WPC, 90:10) was selected. The MCA obtained employing such protein blend had composition similar to that of Pizza cheese prepared from cheese milk and had requisite baking characteristics needed as a pizza topping. It is recommended to use a blend of RC and WPC (90:10) as the protein source in the formulation of MCA to obtain nutritionally superior cheese product having desired functional properties for its end use in baking applications.

  2. Comparative analysis of some serum proteins and immunoglobulin G concentration in the blood of Yugoslav Trotter mares and newborn foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš S.


    Full Text Available The comparison of some serum protein concentrations was performed on 12 Yugoslav Trotter mares and their newborn foals. The mares included in the evaluation were divided into two groups of 6 each. The mares in the first group were vaccinated against equine herpes virus 1 and 4, in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy, while mares in the second group were not vaccinated at all. Pregnant mares were clinically observed during the last stage of pregnancy and blood for biochemical evaluations was sampled immediately after foaling. Foals were clinically observed for seven days after birth and blood samples were collected immediately after foaling (before nursing, and 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after birth. Foals included in the evaluation were divided into two groups according to the group allocation of the respective mares. All mares gave birth to normal foals in expected terms. Biochemical examination revealed slightly lower total gammaglobulin and IgG values in tested mares compared to the values obtained in other horse breeds. The antibody titres against equine herpes virus-1 reached the level that provides sufficient protection in vaccinated mares. Gammaglobulin and traces of IgG were present in the blood serum of foals tested immediately after birth and before nursing. A significant increase of IgG and gammaglobulin concentration was revealed in all foals after the first 24 hours of life. The observed first day increase of concentration was followed by stagnation of gammaglobulin and IgG levels in all foals. Total protein values showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake of colostrum in all foals. Immunoglobulin G concentration established by semiquantitative test was considered low positive in 16.67% and in 33.34% of foals from vaccinated and unvaccinated mares, respectively. Turbidimetric analyses of the same samples revealed sufficient Ig transfer, i.e. Ig concentration over 8 g/L. Comparison of the results obtained by the

  3. The Utilization of Indigofera sp as the sole foliage in goat diets supplemented with high carbohydrate or high protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting


    Full Text Available Indigofera sp is a tree leguminous forage species known to be adaptable to the drought climate and saline soil and so it has potential as alternative feed resource to support the ruminant animal production. This study aimed to study the responses of goats fed Indigofera sp as the sole foliages in their diets. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred goats (6 months of age;16 ± 2,1 kg BW were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing fresh or wilted leaves of Indigifera sp. as the sole foliages and supplemented with high carbohydrate (HCC or protein (HPCconcentrates. Consumable parts i.e. leaves and twigs of about 8 to 10 months of age of Indigofera sp. were harvested by hand plucking every day in the morning. The experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design. The ruminal pH ranged from 6.14-6.85 and were not affected (P > 0.05 by wilting nor by the type of concentrates. Wilting did not affect (P > 0.05 the concentration of ruminal NH3-N, but it was significantly higher (P 0.05. Goats in the HCC group,however,numerically have higher total VFA concentration (178.5-183.75 mmol L-1 than those in the HPC group (142.21-174.64 mmol L-1. The apparent digestibility coeficients of DM, OM, CP and energy of the diet were not different (P > 0.05 when contained wilted or fresh Indigofera foliage. Significant increases (P 0.05 among dietary treatments, but the ADG of goats in the HCC group (60-63 g d-1 were significantly lower (P 0.05. BUN was not affected by wilting process, but providing high protein concentrates significantly (P < 0.05 increased the BUN concentration. It is concluded that foliage of Indigofera sp could be used as the sole forage in intensive production of goats. Wilting the foliage prior to feeding seemed to be unnecessary, since this process does not improve the animal productivity in term of daily gain and efficiency of feed utilization.


    Ozone reacts with n-aldehydes (n = 4 - 10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon/carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge. Destruction of n-aldehydes increases with n number and with ozone concentration. In some samp...

  5. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  6. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows. (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A


    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  7. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition (United States)

    Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.


    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  8. Stoichiometries and affinities of interacting proteins from concentration series of solution scattering data: decomposition by least squares and quadratic optimization. (United States)

    Chandola, Himanshu; Williamson, Tim E; Craig, Bruce A; Friedman, Alan M; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris


    In studying interacting proteins, complementary insights are provided by analyzing both the association model (the stoichiometry and affinity constants of the intermediate and final complexes) and the quaternary structure of the resulting complexes. Many current methods for analyzing protein interactions either give a binary answer to the question of association and no information about quaternary structure or at best provide only part of the complete picture. Presented here is a method to extract both types of information from X-ray or neutron scattering data for a series of equilibrium mixtures containing the initial components at different concentrations. The method determines the association pathway and constants, along with the scattering curves of the individual members of the mixture, so as to best explain the scattering data for the mixtures. The derived curves then enable reconstruction of the intermediate and final complexes. Using simulated solution scattering data for four hetero-oligomeric complexes with different structures, molecular weights and association models, it is demonstrated that this method accurately determines the simulated association model and scattering profiles for the initial components and complexes. Recognizing that experimental mixtures contain static contaminants and nonspecific complexes with the lowest affinities (inter-particle interference) as well as the desired specific complex(es), a new analytical method is also employed to extend this approach to evaluating the association models and scattering curves in the presence of static contaminants, testing both a nonparticipating monomer and a large homo-oligomeric aggregate. It is demonstrated that the method is robust to both random noise and systematic noise from such contaminants, and the treatment of nonspecific complexes is discussed. Finally, it is shown that this method is applicable over a large range of weak association constants typical of specific but transient

  9. Stable binding of alternative protein-enriched food matrices with concentrated cranberry bioflavonoids for functional food applications. (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann


    Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium-roast peanut flour (MPF), and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), whereas total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC, and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable antiadhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4-0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in 1 cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail, which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations.

  10. Adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic solution onto porous adsorbents (United States)

    Bono, A.; Ramlan, N. A.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Chu, C. M.; Farm, Y. Y.


    Adsorption isotherm is essential component in the understanding of the adsorption process. Several methods of the measurements, analysis and interpretation of adsorption from solution have been reported in the literature. Most of the measurements of adsorption isotherm from solution were involved the measurement of excess isotherm conducted at low region of sorbates concentration. Direct interpretation of excess adsorption isotherm as adsorption isotherm is always been practice. Therefore, in this work a study on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm from solution of non-azeotropic organic solvent mixture onto porous adsorbents for whole range of liquid concentration was conducted. The study included the measurement of excess adsorption isotherm using conventional technique. Theoretical analysis and interpretation of adsorption isotherm from the excess isotherm were conducted using Pseudo Ideal Adsorption, Gibbs Dividing Plane Model and Langmuir-Fruendlich binary isotherm model. For organic solvents, acetone and propanol were chosen as the adsorbates due to the non-azeotropic properties in the mixture. Activated carbon and silicalite were chosen as adsorbents due to the different in their porosity such as macro porous and micro porous structure. The result of the study has revealed that the adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic mixture onto activated carbon and silicalite can be interpreted as monolayer type of adsorption.

  11. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows. (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  12. Removal of lead from aqueous solution using waste tire rubber ash as an adsorbent


    Mousavi,H. Z.; Hosseynifar,A.; Jahed,V.; S. A. M. Dehghani


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of the utilization of waste tire rubber ash (WTRA) as a low cost adsorbent for removal of lead (II) ion from aqueous solution. The effect of different parameters (such as contact time, sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH of the medium and temperature) were investigated. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 90 min of contact. The experimental data were analyzed by the Freundlich iso...

  13. Effect of rosiglitazone on visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 plasma concentrations in HIV-positive patients. (United States)

    Haider, D G; Schindler, K; Mittermayer, F; Müller, M; Nowotny, P; Rieger, A; Luger, A; Ludvik, B; Wolzt, M


    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) may improve insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and HIV. The novel adipocytokines visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) have been proposed to influence the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The impact of TZD on these cytokines is yet unknown. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, 37 lean HIV-positive subjects aged 19-50 years were treated with 8 mg/day rosiglitazone (n=20) or placebo (n=17) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity was estimated from the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Fasting visfatin, RBP-4, leptin, and adiponectin plasma concentrations were analyzed by immunoassays. Rosiglitazone had no effect on impaired insulin sensitivity, but increased median plasma visfatin from 6.2 ng/ml (95% CI: 5.9; 6.5) to 13.7 ng/ml (12.6; 19.1) (P<0.001) and adiponectin from 3.2 ng/ml (2.2; 4.0) to 4.0 ng/ml (3.3; 8.5; P<0.001). RBP-4 was lowered from 21.0 ng/ml (19.6; 23.1) to 16.3 ng/ml (15.2; 17.0; P<0.001), and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Adipocytokine concentrations were stable in subjects receiving placebo, where a deterioration in insulin sensitivity was detectable (P<0.05). Changes in visfatin and RBP-4 were correlated in subjects receiving rosiglitazone (r=-0.64, P<0.01) but not placebo (r=0.12, P=0.15). TZD treatment affects circulating adipocytokine concentrations in subjects with HIV. Reductions in RBP-4 and increases in visfatin may contribute to the pharmacodynamic action of TZD on glucose homeostasis. Quantification of adipocytokines might be useful to assess TZD treatment effectiveness in insulin-resistant subjects with HIV.

  14. [Influences of the mobile phase constitution, salt concentration and pH value on retention characters of proteins on the metal chelate column]. (United States)

    Li, R; Di, Z M; Chen, G L


    The effects of the nature and concentration of salts, pH value and competitive eluent in the mobile phase on the protein retention have been systematically investigated. A mathematical expression describing the protein retention in metal chelate chromatography has been derived. It is proposed that the eluting power of the salt solution can be expressed by the eluent strength exponent epsilon. According to the retention characters of protein under different chromatographic conditions, the interaction between the various metal chelate ligands and proteins is discussed. The protein retention on the metal chelate column is a cooperative interactions of coordination, electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction. For the strong combined metal column with proteins such as IDA-Cu, the coordination is the most important, and the electrostatic interaction is secondary in chromatographic process. However, for the weak combined metal columns with proteins such as IDA-Ni, IDA-Co and IDA-Zn, the electrostatic interaction between the metal chelate ligands and proteins is the chief one, while the coordination is the next in importance. When the mobile phase contains high concentration of salt which can't form complex with the immobilized metal, the hydrophobic interaction between the protein and stationary phase will be increased. As the interaction between the metal chelate ligand and proteins relates to chromatographic operating conditions closely, different elution processes may be selected for different metal chelate columns. The gradient elution is generally performed by the low concentration of salt or different pH for weakly combined columns with proteins, however the competitive elution procedure is commonly utilized for strongly combined column. The experiment showed that NH3 is an excellent competitive eluent. It isn't only give the efficient separation of proteins, but also has the advantages of cheapness, less bleeding of the immobilized metals and ease of controlling NH3

  15. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.


    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  16. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.


    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...... in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection....

  17. Effects of dietary protein and energy concentrations on performance and carcase characteristics of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) raised in captivity. (United States)

    Ozek, K; Yazgan, O; Bahtiyarca, Y


    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of starter and grower diets with differing crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations on the body weight (BW), live weight gain (LWG), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcase, breast+back, rump, wing, neck and abdominal fat weights of chukar partridge raised in captivity. 2. Chukar partridges were fed on starter diets containing 4 concentrations of CP (160, 200, 240, 280 g/kg) and 4 concentrations of ME (10.9, 11.7, 12.6, 13.4 MJ/kg) from hatch to 8 weeks of age; they were fed on grower diets containing 4 concentrations of CP (150, 175, 200, 225 g/kg) and 4 concentrations of ME (11.9, 12.6, 13.2, 13.8 MJ/kg) from 9 to 16 weeks of age. All diets contained at least 5.5 g/kg methionine, 15 g/kg lysine and 10 g/kg methionine+cystine. Sixteen starter and 16 grower diets were arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial design with 4 levels of CP and 4 levels of ME. Each treatment was replicated three times with each replicate consisting of 5 males and 5 females. 3. Partridges fed on a starter diet containing 160 g CP/kg were significantly lighter at 8 weeks of age than those in groups given diets containing a higher CP. However, at 16 weeks of age, the differences in BW among treatments had disappeared. Throughout, there were no significant effects of ME concentration on BW and LWG. 4. The daily mean FC for the 0 to 8 week and 0 to 16 week periods was not affected by dietary CP concentration. For the 9 to 16 week period, the partridges fed on a grower diet containing 225 g CP/kg consumed more feed than those given a diet containing 175 g CP/kg. 5. The highest FCR for the 0 to 8 week period was in partridges fed on a starter diet containing 160 g CP/kg. For the 9 to 16 week period, the lowest FCR was in partridges fed on a grower diet containing 150 g CP/kg. For the 0 to 16 week period, there was not a significant effect of dietary CP concentration on FCR. The daily mean FC and the FCR for

  18. Effect of protein levels and Zinc-biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performance of young male goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati I


    Full Text Available This trial was carried out to investigate effects of protein levels and Zinc biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performances of young male Etawah grade goats. Twenty-four young male goats were divided into four groups and received concentrate diets as follows: R0= 14% crude protein (CP, R1= 18% CP, R2= R0 + 60 ppm Zn and R3= R0 + 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex. Initial live weight was 16.39±2.19 kg. Animals were offered King grass ad libitum and 400 g/h/d of concentrates diets for 16 week trial. The experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete design with four treatments and six replications. The concentrate diets had no significant effect on DM, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes (P>0.05 but significantly (P>0.05 influenced the CP and Zn daily intakes, ADG and FCR. The average DMI, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes for all treatments were 670, 547, 333 and 229 g, respectively. The CP daily intake for R0, R1, R2 and R3 treatments were 76.33, 91.83, 75.83 and 76.67 g, and the Zn daily intakes were 42.83, 45.50, 68.83 and 91.33 mg, respectively. The ADG for R0, R1, R2 and R3 were 71.65, 79.96, 78.17 and 82.74 g with the FCR values were 9.95, 8.50, 8.44 and 8.06, respectively. The in vivo digestibility of DM, NDF and ADF were not significant (P>0.05 but the digestibility of CP and GE were significant (P<0.05. The highest IOFC value occurred at R3 treatment. In conclusion, the improvement of CP levels from 14% to 18% in diets increased the goat performance and the supplementation of 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex in diet containing 14% CP gave better performance and increased the IOFC value compared to animals receiving 18% level of CP in diet of young male goat

  19. Effects of Chitosan Concentration on the Protein Release Behaviour of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone/Chitosan Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Roozbahani


    Full Text Available Poly(ε-caprolactone/chitosan (PCL/chitosan blend nanofibers with different ratios of chitosan were electrospun from a formic acid/acetic acid (FA/AA solvent system. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used as a model protein to incorporate biochemical cues into the nanofibrous scaffolds. The morphological characteristics of PCL/chitosan and PCL/chitosan/BSA Nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was used to detect the presence of polymeric ingredients and BSA in the Nanofibers. The effects of the polymer blend ratio and BSA concentration on the morphological characteristics and consequently on the BSA release pattern were evaluated. The average fiber diameter and pore size were greater in Nanofibers containing BSA. The chitosan ratio played a significant role in the BSA release profile from the PCL/chitosan/BSA blend. Nanofibrous scaffolds with higher chitosan ratios exhibited less intense bursts in the BSA release profile.

  20. The lipid transfer proteins (LTP) essentially concentrate in the skin of Rosaceae fruits as cell surface exposed allergens. (United States)

    Borges, J-P; Jauneau, A; Brulé, C; Culerrier, R; Barre, A; Didier, A; Rougé, P


    The localization and distribution of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) allergens in the skin and pulp of Rosaceae fruits (apple, peach, apricot, plum) has been investigated. nsLTP essentially concentrate in the pericarp of the fruits whereas the pulp contains lower amounts of allergens. Immunolocalization showed they are primarily located in the cytosol but are subsequently excreted and finally accumulate at the plasmalemma-cell wall interface and in the cell wall. However, high discrepancies were observed in the content of allergens among, e.g. different cultivars of apple. As a consequence, the consumption of peeled-off fruits is recommended to reduce the risk of severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) in individuals sensitized to Rosaceae fruits.