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Sample records for adsorbed package insert

  1. A critical appraisal of medication package inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjit Narzaree

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Package Inserts (PIs refers to officially specified document that accompanies a drug for relevant, updated and unbiased information for rational drug use based on regulatory guidelines as per section 6.2 and 6.3 of schedule D of Indian Drug and cosmetic Act 1945. But some studies had shown non-uniformity with suboptimal level of informations which frequently can lead to medication errors. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the completeness of PIs.Aim: To critically evaluate package inserts of allopathic medicines.Material and Methods: 100 allopathic drug PIs were collected from pharmacies in Rohtak and were checked for the presence of each heading as per schedule D criteria, followed by scrutiny of the information included under the heading. Indian guidelines were also compared with US FDA guidelines for PIs.Scoring of package inserts: The informations were evaluated for completeness and scored as 1 if present otherwise scored as zero for no information or partial information. Scores for each heading were calculated by totaling the scores of all the package inserts. The total scores were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages.Results:  On an average PIs analyzed for the completeness of the criteria scored 10 (Mean± SD = 9.73±2.48 out of 16. Absence of common layout and headings caused inconvenience. In comparison to US FDA guidelines it lacked, disclaimer statement, boxed warning, revision date, approval date, toll-free number etc.Conclusion: PIs don’t seem to be serving effectively because of multiple deficiencies like completeness, uniformity, absence of headings.Keywords: Critical appraisal, package inserts.

  2. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  3. A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF PACKAGE INSERTS IN INDIA

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    Makbool Ali M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available formation is a Package Insert. It is a printed leaflet that contains information based on regulatory guidelines for the safe and effective use of a drug. Incomplete and incorrect product information may have serious consequences including disability or death. In India, the concept of package insert is governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (1940 and Rules (1945. Keeping this in mind, this study was designed to assess the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. AIM To evaluate the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. OBJECTIVES To evaluate drug information in package inserts according to headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and 6.3 of Schedule D, Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. MATERIAL AND METHODS Package inserts accompanying allopathic medicines were obtained from a drug store and three pharmacies around a tertiary care centre in Western India on request over a 1-month period. The package inserts were included in the study and analysed for the presentation and completeness of information according to the headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and Section 6.3 of Schedule D, The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. RESULTS 110 package inserts were analysed in the study. None of the reviewed package insert contained all the sections as required by the Drugs and Cosmetic Rules. CONCLUSION To avoid medication errors due to deficits in drug information in package inserts, tighter monitoring of package inserts by regulatory authorities is recommended. Steps should be taken to ensure that the information in the package inserts follows a standard layout for easy and convenient comprehension.

  4. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

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    Shivkar Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  5. Towards Quality Control in Pharmaceutical Packaging: Screening Folded Boxes for Package Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, S.; Vieweg, N.; Gärtner, G.; Plew, P.; Deninger, A.

    2017-03-01

    We applied a recently developed, ultrafast terahertz measurement technique to screen folded cardboard boxes for package inserts. The presence or absence of an enclosed leaflet could be detected unambiguously in samples moving at velocities up to 21 m/s and, depending on the sample, up to an area overlap of 50-60%. The simple, robust measurement setup may pave the way to new applications of terahertz technology for quality control in pharmaceutical packaging.

  6. Towards Quality Control in Pharmaceutical Packaging: Screening Folded Boxes for Package Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, S.; Vieweg, N.; Gärtner, G.; Plew, P.; Deninger, A.

    2016-11-01

    We applied a recently developed, ultrafast terahertz measurement technique to screen folded cardboard boxes for package inserts. The presence or absence of an enclosed leaflet could be detected unambiguously in samples moving at velocities up to 21 m/s and, depending on the sample, up to an area overlap of 50-60%. The simple, robust measurement setup may pave the way to new applications of terahertz technology for quality control in pharmaceutical packaging.

  7. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. The...

  8. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  9. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  10. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuya, Ryo; Kimura, Masaomi; Ohkura, Michiko; Tsuchiya, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could regenerate the descriptions in the original package insert. In future research, the table schemata and text templates will be extended to regenerate other information in the package inserts.

  11. Comparison of Indian package inserts in public and private sector: an urgent need for self regulation

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    Mohini S. Mahatme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Package inserts are the authentic source of information for the new molecules in the market. Incomplete and incorrect product information may promote irrational prescribing and may have serious consequences. Hence, our aim was to analyse and compare the information supplied in the package insert according to the section 6.2 and section 6.3 of schedule D of Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940 in public (government and private (non-government sector. Methods: Package inserts of allopathic drugs which were supplied by government from drug store of tertiary care centre and hospital and from pharmacies on request were collected. A total of 270 package inserts in English were collected that is 38 from government hospital and 232 from the pharmacies nearby the hospital. The package inserts were analysed for the presentation of completeness of the information as per section 6.2 and 6.3. Results: The presentation of information on analysing 233 package inserts (28 government and 205 non government was not uniform and it was difficult to locate and retrieve information easily due to lack of common layout and heading. Moreover, the package inserts were of variable shape and size with different font size which made it inconvenient for analysing as well as for reference. Posology and method of administration was incomplete in 3% package insert in non- government cases whereas in government supply it was 7%. Use of drug in pregnancy and lactation was deficient in 11% and 14% packages inserts of non-government sources and government sources respectively. Instructions for use were lacking in 25% and 29% package inserts of government and non-government sources respectively. Conclusions: The need of the hour is to further refine contents of the circulated package inserts to make them complete, reliable and up to date. This can be a step forward for ethical and effective dissemination of healthcare services in our growing society. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol

  12. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuya R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Okuya,1 Masaomi Kimura,2 Michiko Ohkura,2 Fumito Tsuchiya3 1Graduate School of Engineering and Science, 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could

  13. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Insertion of New Electronics Technologies

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    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program's new electronics technology trends. The topics include: 1) The Changing World of Radiation Testing of Memories; 2) Even Application-Specific Tests are Costly!; 3) Hypothetical New Technology Part Qualification Cost; 4) Where we are; 5) Approaching FPGAs as a More Than a "Part" for Reliability; 6) FPGAs Beget Novel Radiation Test Setups; 7) Understanding the Complex Radiation Data; 8) Tracking Packaging Complexity and Reliability for FPGAs; 9) Devices Supporting the FPGA Need to be Considered; 10) Summary of the New Electronic Technologies and Insertion into Flight Programs Workshop; and 11) Highlights of Panel Notes and Comments

  14. MassToMI - a Mathematica package for an automatic Mass Insertion expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Rosiek, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    We present a Mathematica package designed to automatize the expansion of QFT transition amplitudes calculated in the mass eigenstates basis (i.e. expressed in terms of physical masses and mixing matrices) into series of "mass insertions", defined as off-diagonal entries of mass matrices in Lagrangian before diagonalization and identification of the physical states. The algorithm implemented in this package is based on the general "Flavor Expansion Theorem" proven in Ref.~\\cite{FET}. The supplied routines are able to automatically analyze the structure of the amplitude, identify the parts which could be expanded and expand them to any required order. They are capable of dealing with amplitudes depending on both scalar or vector (Hermitian) and Dirac or Majorana fermion (complex) mass matrices. The package can be downloaded from the address www.fuw.edu.pl/masstomi.

  15. Analysis on descriptions of precautionary statements in package inserts of medicines

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    Tsuchiya F

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Keita Nabeta1, Masaomi Kimura2, Michiko Ohkura2, Fumito Tsuchiya31Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Minami-Aoyama 1-24-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 JapanBackground: To prevent medical accidents, users must be informed of the cautions written in medical package inserts. To realize countermeasures by utilizing information systems, we must also implement a drug information database. However, this is not easy to develop, since the descriptions in package inserts are too complex and their information poorly structured. It is necessary to analyze package insert information and propose a data structure.Methods: We analyzed the descriptions of 'precautions for application' in package inserts via text mining methods. In order to summarize statements, we applied dependency analysis to statements and visualized their relations between predicate words and other words. Furthermore, we extracted words representing timing to execute the order.Results: We found that there are four types of statements: direct orders such as "使用する" (use, causative orders such as "使用させる" (make someone use, direct interdictions such as "使用しない" (do not use, and causative interdictions such as "使用させない" (do not make user use. As for words representing timing, we extracted six groups: "at the time of delivery," "at the time of preparation," "in use," "after use," and "at the time of storage." From these results, we obtained points of consideration concerning the subjects of orders in the statements and timing of their execution.Conclusion: From the obtained knowledge, we can define the information structure used to describe the precautionary statement. It should contain information such

  16. BAHAN PENYERAP KMnO4 DAN ASAM L-ASKORBAT DALAM PENGEMASAN AKTIF (ACTIVE PACKAGING UNTUK MEMPERPANJANG MASA SIMPAN DAN MEMPERTAHANKAN MUTU BUAH DUKU (Lansium domesticum Corr. [Adsorbers for KMnO4 and L-Ascorbic Acid in the Active Packaging to Prolong the Shelve-Life and Maintain the Quality of Lanzone (Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruits

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    Soesiladi E Widodo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop an active packaging of lanzone (Lansium domisticum Corr. Fruits, KmnO4 as an ethylene scavenger and L-ascorbic acid as an oxygent scavenger were inserted into packaging. As direct contact of KmnO4 with agricultural product was not recommended and due to the liquid characteristic of both scavenger was carried out. This research was aimed at finding out the best adsorbers for KmnO4, L-ascorbic acid, and their combination in an active packaging to prolog the shelve-life and to maintain the quality of lanzone fruits. The result showed that 1 among the four adsorbers tested, pumice could was the best alternative as a KmnO4 or L-ascorbic acid adsorbers, and 2 spon and pumice were the best alternative adsorber for the combination of KmnO4 or L-ascorbic acid. Both adsorber were effective in prolonging the shelve-live (8-11 days longer than with out packaging and as good as using silica gel and vermiculite and maintaining the quality of lanzone fruits.

  17. Medication package inserts: how far do they adhere to the guidelines?

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    Neha Deep

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Package Insert (PI is a document that is provided with the package of a drug. It is chiefly directed at the prescribers and is set to provide information for the safe and effective use of the respective drug. This study was conducted to assess the completeness of clinical information provided in the currently available PIs. Methods: PIs were collected from pharmacies located at various parts of Bangalore over three months. A total of 310 drugs were checked for package inserts (PI and 192 PI’s were collected. They were analysed based on the criteria mentioned in Schedule D of Drug and Cosmetic act 1945. Results: Out of 192 PIs, 33 were repeated and so were not taken into account. Hence, 159 PIs were analysed. Among 159 PIs, 43 (27.04% were of Cancer chemotherapy drugs; 19 (11.94% of antibiotics, 18 of anti-diabetic drugs, 13 (8.17% of Vitamins and minerals, 10 (6.28% of Cardiac drugs, 9 (5.66% of Respiratory drugs, 6 (3.77% of CNS drugs, 5 (3.14% of Ophthalmic eye solutions, 4 (2.51% of Hormones and reproductive system, 4 (2.51% of GIT, 4 (2.51% of Antifungals, 3 (1.88% of steroids, and 21 (13.20% of miscellaneous drugs respectively. Out of them, the PIs that belonged to “A”, “B”, and “C” categories were 5 (3.14%, 150 (94.33%, and 4 (2.51% respectively. It was observed that the PIs were inadequate in many aspects. Majority of the PIs had unclear instructions about drug usage, special precautions, ability to drive and use machines and adverse effects to name a few. Conclusions: This study showed that many of the drugs now days come without PI. Also of the available ones, very few fulfil all the criteria mentioned in the guidelines. With the growing sales of over the counter drugs in India, it is important for companies to dispense PIs with all the drugs. PIs oriented toward educating the patient are the need of the hour.

  18. Attitudes of consumers and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts - a study in Palestine

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    Al-Ramahi R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading the patient package inserts (PPIs is a key source of information about medications for patients. They should be clear and understandable to the general population. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain base-line data on the extent of reading PPIs by consumers and possible factors that might affect this; to explore the attitude of the Palestinian public and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts (PPIs; and to review a random sample of PPIs for the availability of different information.Methods: The first part of the study was a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire for consumers included 15 items. The questionnaire for healthcare professionals included 10 items and it was very similar to that of consumers with some modifications. In the second part, a random sample of PPIs was reviewed. In our community pharmacies, where medications are arranged according to their producing company, a researcher was asked to choose randomly 10-15 medications for every company to check for the availability of pharmacological, pharmaceutical and clinical information. Results: A total of 304 healthcare professionals out of 320 (95.0% and 223 consumers out of 240 (92.9% accepted to answer the survey. Forty five percent consumers reported that they always read the PPIs, and 29.3% said that they read the PPIs most of the times. Increased rate of reading the leaflet was found among females (P = 0.047. The preferred language for the PPIs was Arabic for most of the consumers (89.6% while it was English for most of the healthcare professionals (80.8%. 35.9% of the consumers and 43.6% of the healthcare professionals found the font size suitable. 42.3% of the consumers and 25.5% of the healthcare professionals said that they found the information in the PPIs useful and enough. The PPIs of 135 randomly sampled medications were reviewed. Many important sections were not found in the PPIs' sample. Conclusion

  19. Qualidade das bulas de fitoterápicos no Brasil | Quality of the package inserts of phytomedicines in Brazil

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    Marcia Maria Barros dos Passos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se as bulas de medicamentos fitoterápicos industrializados estão de acordo com a legislação nacional vigente. Foram analisadas 41 bulas dos medicamentos fitoterápicos compostos por alcachofra, castanha da Índia, ginkgo e sene, adquiridas nos sites das empresas titulares dos registros. A análise foi feita quanto à presença de itens segundo a RDC nº 47 de 2009 e ao conteúdo de indicação de uso, posologia e reações adversas comparada às bulas padrão e à literatura científica. A análise quantitativa provou que as bulas têm cumprido o que é exigido pela legislação vigente. No entanto, quanto à análise qualitativa, todos os fitoterápicos analisados neste trabalho possuíam pelo menos uma bula com erro relacionado à posologia, indicações de uso e reações adversas. Houve uma melhora gradativa das bulas dos medicamentos fitoterápicos, porém mesmo com as bulas padrão ainda existem erros, que podem induzir o paciente ao uso incorreto do medicamento. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The objective of this study was to assess whether the package inserts of industrialized phytomedicines are in line with current Brazilian legislation or not. Forty-one package inserts of phytomedicines containing artichoke, horse chestnut, ginkgo and senna were accessed in the respective proprietary websites and then analyzed. The analysis aimed to verify the presence of items required by the normative RDC 47/2009 and the usage indication, dosage and side effects compared to standard package inserts and to the scientific literature. Quantitative analysis proved that the package inserts are in accordance with the current legislation. However, in qualitative analysis, all phytomedicines analyzed in this study had at least one error related to dosage, posology or adverse reactions. A gradual improvement of the package inserts of phytomedicines has

  20. Lexis in Chinese-English Translation of Drug Package Inserts: Corpus-based Error Analysis and Its Translation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Lin; Yumei, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Error analysis (EA) has been broadly applied to the researches of writing, speaking, second language acquisition (SLA) and translation. This study was carried out based on Carl James’ error taxonomy to investigate the distribution of lexical errors in Chinese-English (C-E) translation of drug package inserts (DPIs)(1), explore the underlying causes and propose some translation strategies for correction and reduction of lexical errors in DPIs. A translation corpus consisting of 25 DPIs transla...

  1. Evaluation of medicine package inserts: a study of two cases of Pelargonium sidoides D.C. phytomedicines

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    Tiago Duarte Linhares

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order for a phytotherapeutic drug be approved and sold in Brazil, it must be registered with the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, where the quality, safety and efficacy of the product are carefully appraised. In addition, the drug must also meet a number of criteria one of which is the adequacy of the package inserts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to appraise the package inserts of all phytotherapeutic drugs produced using a standardized extract of Pelargonium sidoides, which were registered and available from Brazilian pharmacies. This checking was to ascertain whether these inserts fulfilled the requirements stipulated by RDC 140/03. The information required under RDC 140/03 was appraised through a previously devised standard form. Evaluation of the package inserts revealed that neither of the two brands fully met the requirements of the legislation. Manufacturer 'A' met only 37.0% of the requirements satisfactorily, while 16.0% of the information was considered unsatisfactory and 47.0% of the information was absent. Regarding manufacturer 'B', 64.2% of the analyzed requirements were considered satisfactory, while 16.0% were considered unsatisfactory and 19.8% of the information was absent. A package insert should contain information about medicine for consumers, pharmacists and doctors. However, the results obtained in this study showed that the information presented in the package insert of both medicines was unsatisfactory, and in many cases, violates the legislation.Para que um medicamento fitoterápico seja comercializado no Brasil, este deve ser registrado junto à ANVISA, onde são avaliados todos os aspectos referentes à qualidade, segurança e eficácia do produto, além de verificar se estes atendem alguns requisitos, sendo um deles a adequação da bula. Por esta razão, neste estudo foram avaliadas as bulas de todos os fitoterápicos elaborados à base do extrato padronizado de Pelargonium sidoides

  2. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.;

    2015-01-01

    of this container is to enable venting of CO2, which is produced during the use of the DMFC system. This attribute is realized by a functional film insert in the form of a microporous, oleophobic membrane, which covers a venting hole in the injection moulded part of the container. The mould was designed to allow......This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...

  3. Lexis in Chinese-English Translation of Drug Package Inserts: Corpus-based Error Analysis and Its Translation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Lin; Yumei, Zhou

    2010-12-01

    Error analysis (EA) has been broadly applied to the researches of writing, speaking, second language acquisition (SLA) and translation. This study was carried out based on Carl James' error taxonomy to investigate the distribution of lexical errors in Chinese-English (C-E) translation of drug package inserts (DPIs)(1), explore the underlying causes and propose some translation strategies for correction and reduction of lexical errors in DPIs. A translation corpus consisting of 25 DPIs translated from Chinese into English was established. Lexical errors in the corpus and the error causes were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Some examples were used to analyze the lexical errors and their causes, and some strategies for translating vocabulary in DPIs were proposed according to Eugene Nida's translation theory. This study will not only help translators and medical workers reduce errors in C-E translation of vocabulary in DPIs and other types of medical texts but also shed light on the learning and teaching of C-E translation of medical texts.

  4. Role of amino acid insertions on intermolecular forces between arginine peptide condensed DNA helices: implications for protamine-DNA packaging in sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouchey, Jason E; Rau, Donald C

    2011-12-09

    In spermatogenesis, chromatin histones are replaced by arginine-rich protamines to densely compact DNA in sperm heads. Tight packaging is considered necessary to protect the DNA from damage. To better understand the nature of the forces condensing protamine-DNA assemblies and their dependence on amino acid content, the effect of neutral and negatively charged amino acids on DNA-DNA intermolecular forces was studied using model peptides containing six arginines. We have previously observed that the neutral amino acids in salmon protamine decrease the net attraction between protamine-DNA helices compared with the equivalent homo-arginine peptide. Using osmotic stress coupled with x-ray scattering, we have investigated the component attractive and repulsive forces that determine the net attraction and equilibrium interhelical distance as a function of the chemistry, position, and number of the amino acid inserted. Neutral amino acids inserted into hexa-arginine increase the short range repulsion while only slightly affecting longer range attraction. The amino acid content alone of salmon protamine is enough to rationalize the forces that package DNA in sperm heads. Inserting a negatively charged amino acid into hexa-arginine dramatically weakens the net attraction. Both of these observations have biological implications for protamine-DNA packaging in sperm heads.

  5. Real-life versus package insert: a post-marketing study on adverse-event rates of the virosomal hepatitis A vaccine Epaxal® in healthy travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatz, Christoph; Beck, Bernhard; Steffen, Robert; Genton, Blaise; d'Acremont, Valérie; Loutan, Louis; Hartmann, Katharina; Herzog, Christian

    2011-07-12

    There are various methods to collect adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials. The methods how AEs are collected in vaccine trials is of special interest: solicited reporting can lead to over-reporting events that have little or no biological relationship to the vaccine. We assessed the rate of AEs listed in the package insert for the virosomal hepatitis A vaccine Epaxal(®), comparing data collected by solicited or unsolicited self-reporting. In an open, multi-centre post-marketing study, 2675 healthy travellers received single doses of vaccine administered intramuscularly. AEs were recorded based on solicited and unsolicited questioning during a four-day period after vaccination. A total of 2541 questionnaires could be evaluated (95.0% return rate). Solicited self-reporting resulted in significantly higher (p<0.0001) rates of subjects with AEs than unsolicited reporting, both at baseline (18.9% solicited versus 2.1% unsolicited systemic AEs) and following immunization (29.6% versus 19.3% local AEs; 33.8% versus 18.2% systemic AEs). This could indicate that actual reporting rates of AEs with Epaxal(®) may be substantially lower than described in the package insert. The distribution of AEs differed significantly between the applied methods of collecting AEs. The most common AEs listed in the package insert were reported almost exclusively with solicited questioning. The reporting of local AEs was more likely than that of systemic AEs to be influenced by subjects' sex, age and study centre. Women reported higher rates of AEs than men. The results highlight the need for detailing the methods how vaccine tolerability was reported and assessed.

  6. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruggeman Cathrien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Methods Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC, relevant World Health Organization (WHO documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level were assessed. Results Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers. Shortcomings in devices were (i insufficient place for writing sample identification (n = 40 and (ii ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n = 6. Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n = 24 or were of poor quality (n = 16. Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1 - 12.9 and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5 - 10. Inadequacies included (i no referral to biosafety (n = 18, (ii critical differences between depicted and real devices (n = 8, (iii figures with unrealistic colours (n = 4, (iv incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n = 31 and no data on test characteristics (n = 8. Other problems included (i kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n = 4, (ii not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n = 2 and (iii slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC

  7. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting.

  8. To Pay Attention to “Warning Words” in Package Inserts of Chinese Patent Medicine%重视中成药说明书中的警示语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严洁

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To play the role of "warning words" in package inserts of Chinese patent medicine. METHODS: According to the requirements of package inserts issued by SFDA, warning words of 242 package inserts of Chinese patent medicine in my hospital were collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: 35 package inserts of Chinese patent medicine included warning words, and only 10 package inserts were in line with the standard completely. CONCLUSION: Enterprises, administration depart-. Ments, physicians, pharmacists and patients all should pay attention to the effects of warning words. The warning effects of it can be played really to promote rational and standard use of drugs.%目的:让中成药说明书的“警示语”真正发挥警示作用.方法:根据国家食品药品监督管理局对说明书内容要求,对我院242份中成药说明书中“警示语”项进行统计和分析.结果:有35份中成药说明书含有此项内容,完全符合规定的仅有10份.结论:生产企业、监管部门以及医师、药师和病人都应重视“警示语”的作用,使中成药的使用更加合理、规范.

  9. Case analysis on pharmacology-toxicology section of mock-up package inserts in registration%申报注册药品说明书样稿[药理毒理]部分问题案例讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅; 萧惠来

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacology & Toxicology section is an important element of package inserts. The section aims to describe the essential disciplines of drug interaction with organisms (in particular referring to human body) , including dose-effect relationship, time-effect relationship and mechanism of action, etc. From the several hundreds mock-up package inserts in registration database, specific issues from 17 typical cases in which the section of Pharmacology & Toxicology violated the requirement of related US and Chinese regulatory guidance. The expertise are I-dentified and discussed one by one. The authors wish the review would be a useful reference to the authors, users and governors of package inserts, and also helpful in the improvement for quality of package inserts.%药品说明书中[药理毒理]项是揭示药品对机体(特别是人体)作用的基本规律,包括剂量(浓度)-效应关系、时间—效应关系以及作用机制等,是说明书的重要内容.作者根据我国及美国相关指导原则要求,从当前药品注册申报的数百份说明书样稿中,收集了17个[药理毒理]部分不符合法规要求和违背专业知识的典型案例,进行了逐一讨论,分析存在的问题,供药品说明书的起草者、使用者和监管者借鉴,希望有助于药品说明书质量的提高.

  10. Investigation and Analysis of Drug Labeling on Special Populations in 132 Package Inserts of TCM%132种中成药说明书中特殊人群用药标注情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查分析中成药说明书中特殊人群用药标注. 方法 对本院门诊中药房在用的132 份中成药说明书中特殊人群用药信息进行统计、分析. 结果 在用的132份中成药说明书中对妊娠期及哺乳期妇女用药、儿童用药、其他特殊人群用药进行了说明的分别为53.03%,5.30%和40.15%,完全没有特殊人群用药标注为23.48%. 结论 目前中成药说明书对特殊人群用药信息的标注存在信息量不足或过于简单,应进一步完善其说明书管理.%Objective To investigate and annlyze the drug labeling on special populations.Method To analyze each items of information on special populations in 132 package inserts of TCM.Results Drug use information for pregnant and lactating women,children,and other special populations respectively for 53.03%,5.30%and 40.15%,no drug use information for these three types of special populations for 23.48%.Conclusion There are some problems about package inserts of TCM,such as inadequate information and simple.To ensure safe use,the package inserts of TCM should be further improved.

  11. Analysis of Drug Use Labeling for Pregnant and Lactating Women in 762 Drug Package Inserts%762份药品说明书中孕妇及哺乳期妇女用药标注情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛金茹; 李君; 吴斯; 刘海净

    2016-01-01

    目的:为孕妇及哺乳期妇女用药标注提供参考。方法:收集开滦总医院林西医院2013年7月-2015年12月使用的药品说明书,对孕妇及哺乳期妇女用药标注情况进行统计、分析。结果:收集的762份药品说明书中,孕妇和哺乳期妇女用药未标注或尚不明确的分别占总数的31.89%和52.76%。在国产化学药及生物制品说明书361份、中成药说明书339份、进口药品说明书62份中,孕妇和哺乳期妇女用药未标注或尚不明确的比例分别为22.99%和25.21%、44.54%和88.50%、14.52%和17.74%。结论:除药品说明书中孕妇及哺乳期妇女用药整体标注情况欠佳外,还存在列项分散、表述内容不一致的问题。与进口药比较,国产化学药及生物制品说明书中孕妇及哺乳期妇女用药信息缺失明显,在中成药说明书中则缺失严重。建议药品生产企业应加强药品上市后的跟踪监测,及时更新修订药品说明书的相关内容;药监部门应加强对药品说明书的监管力度,对用药标注的内容进行统一规范管理。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for drug use labeling for pregnant and lactating women. METHODS:The drug package inserts were collected from Linxi Hospital of Kailuan General Hospital during Jul. 2013-Dec. 2015. The information about drug use labeling for pregnant and lactating women was analyzed statistically. RESULTS:Among 762 drug package inserts,pack-age inserts which were not labeled with or labeled with indefinite drug use information for pregnant and lactating women accounted for 31.89% and 52.76% respectively. Among package inserts of 361 domestic chemical drugs and biological products,339 Chinese patent medicine and 62 imported drug,package inserts which were not labeled or labeled with indefinite drug use information for pregnant and lactating women accounted for 22.99% and 25.21%,44.54% and 88.50%,14.52% and 17.74%,respectively

  12. Development of bioactive food packaging materials using immobilised bacteriocins lacticin 3147 and nisaplin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, A G; Hill, C; Ross, R P; Marx, S; Hartmeier, W; Elke; Arendt, K

    2000-09-25

    Immobilisation of the bacteriocins nisin and lacticin 3147 to packaging materials was investigated. Stability of both cellulose-based bioactive inserts and anti-microbial polyethylene/polyamide pouches was examined over time. Anti-microbial activity against the indicator strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis HP, in addition to Listeria innocua DPC 1770 and Staphylococcus aureus MMPR3 was observed for all bacteriocin-adsorbed materials. Activity retention of the inserts showed an initial decrease in the first week of storage but remained stable for the remaining 3 months of the trial. However, adsorption of lacticin 3147 to plastic film was unsuccessful, nisin bound well and the resulting film maintained its activity for 3-month period, both at room temperature and under refrigeration. When applied to food systems, the anti-microbial packaging reduced the population of lactic acid bacteria in sliced cheese and ham stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at refrigeration temperatures, thus extending the shelf life. Nisin-adsorbed bioactive inserts reduced levels of Listeria innocua by > or = 2 log units in both products, and Staphylococcus aureus by approximately 1.5 log units in cheese, and approximately 2.8 log units in ham. Similar reductions were observed in cheese vacuum-packaged in nisin-adsorbed pouches.

  13. Readability and Preciseness of English Package Inserts from the Perspective of Discourse Analysis%从语篇分析的角度解析英文药品说明书的可读性和严谨性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹青

    2015-01-01

    正确解读进口药品说明书是保证合理用药从而达到最佳治疗效果的必要条件,但由于药品说明书是具有一定专业性和风险性的专门性语篇,因此往往给非专业人士的阅读和理解造成一定困难。该文抛开药品的专业性知识,运用连贯性理论、及物性理论等方法分析了以Buffered Aspirin说明书为代表的英文药品说明书的语篇学特点,证明其具有较强的可读性和严谨性。%Effective drug effects presuppose people’s thorough and deep understanding of the medical instructions, which, as a specialized discourse, always causes difficulties to people’s correct understanding. This essay intends to take the English package insert of Buffered Aspirin for example, putting aside those terminologies and digging into readability and preciseness of English medical instructions from the perspective of discourse analysis instead, attempting to offer some favorable guidance to people.

  14. Calorimeter insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeter insertion between toroids in the ATLAS experiment detector Calorimeters are surrounding the inner detector. Calorimeters will absorb and measure the energies of the most charged and neutral particles after the collisions. The saved energy in the calorimeter is detected and converted to signals that are taken out with data taking electronics.

  15. Insertion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of an insertion device with the electron beam in a storage ring is discussed. The radiation property including brightness, ux and polarization of an ideal and real planar and helical / elliptical device is described. The magnet design of planar, helical, quasiperiodic devices and of devices with a reduced on axis power density are resumed.

  16. A Contrastive Analysis of Interpersonal Metadiscourse in English and Chinese Pharmaceutical Packaging Inserts%中英文医药说明书人际元话语的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方英

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal metadiscourse refers to aspects of a text which explicitly engage the audience and signal the writer' s attitude. Social contextual, generic, pragmatic, and socio-cuhural constraints can af- fect the choices of certain interpersonal metadiscourse devices. This is a contrastive study of the similarities and differences between English and Chinese pharmaceutical packaging inserts based on 10 samples respec- tively. Corpus statistics show that social contextual, generic and pragmatic similarities explain the relative uniformity in the employment of interpersonal metadiscourse between English and Chinese texts; and the differences in the use of interpersonal metadiscourse devices between them are due to pragmatic and socio- cultural differences across the languages.%人际元话语是用来表明作者态度、体现作者和读者之间互动关系的语言手段。社会语境、体裁、语用及社会文化特征能限制和影响文本中人际元话语手段的选择和使用。取近期中英文医药说明书各10份为语料对比研究样本,语料统计分析表明,相似的社会语境、体裁、语用交际策略使中英文本中人际元话语的使用呈现一定的共性:而各自社会文化、语用差异,则令其使用表现出一定的差异。

  17. 注射剂溶媒选择与说明书不符致医患矛盾3例分析%Analysis of doctor-patient contradictions induced by drug solvents inconsistent with drug package insert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司继刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how to handle doctor-patient contradictions induced by drug solvents incon-sistent with drug package insert,to provide references for solving the doctor-patient contradictions by multidisciplinar-y. Methods Pharmacist participated in solving the doctor-patient contradictions caused by injective omeprazole sodi-um,injective alanyl glutamine and amiodarone injection for dilution solvent inconsistent with drug instructions. Results By pharmacy service and pharmacy education,doctor-patient contradictions resolved. Conclusion Hospital should develop pharmacists professional technical service,carry out rational drug use,reduce medical contradictions and dis-putes caused by improper irrational drug use and drug incompatibility.%目的:探讨药物溶媒选择与药品说明书不符致医患矛盾的处理,为医院多学科处理医患矛盾提供参考。方法对于注射用奥美拉唑钠、注射用丙氨酰谷氨酰胺及胺碘酮注射液3种药物因为稀释溶媒与药品说明书不符所引起医患矛盾进行了分析,药师发挥了在处理此类纠纷方面的积极作用。结果通过药师的药学服务和用药宣教工作,医患矛盾得以化解。结论医院应发挥药师专业技术特长,开展合理用药的药学服务工作,减少因不合理用药和药物配伍不当引起的医患矛盾和医患纠纷。

  18. 103份肝胆疾病辅助用药说明书的调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of 103 Package Inserts of Auxiliary Liver Disease Drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一敏; 郑绯; 赵庆国; 朱姗薇; 徐娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide reference for the complete inserts of auxiliary liver disease drug,improve the level of rational drug use. MethodsAccording to the standard issued by State Food and Drug Administration,103 package inserts of auxiliary liver disease drug were analyzed on the basis of clinical practice. Results The survey of 103 instructions,the project marked rate of the chemical medicine was higher than traditional Chinese medicine,imported drugs was higher than the domestic medicine.Description of the drug of chemical medicine content details,much better than the quality of traditional Chinese medicine. Imported drugs more detailed instructions. Special Populations project instructions and interaction marked lower rate,marked less proprietary in Chinese medicines instructions on the pharmacology and toxicology. ConclusionThe part of the contents of the auxiliary liver disease medication instructions are incomplete,especially Chinese patent medicine manual,so that it can not play the role of guide rational drug.Recommendations to strengthen management,to supplement and improve the content of the manual,and provide strong support for the rational use of clinical.%目的:完善肝胆疾病辅助用药的说明书,为合理使用肝胆疾病辅助用药提供参考。方法结合临床实际需要对103份肝胆疾病辅助用药说明书进行调查分析,进行综合分析。结果调查的103份说明书中,化学药品的项目标注率高于中药的项目标注率,进口药品的项目标注率高于国产药品的项目标注率。化学药品说明书项目较全,内容较详,质量明显优于中药说明书。而进口药品说明书更加详细。说明书中特殊人群用药项目及相互作用的标注率较低,中成药说明书中关于药理毒理标注少。结论肝胆疾病辅助用药说明书部分内容还不够完整,尤其是中成药说明书,使其不能发挥指导临床合理用药的作用。建议加强管理,

  19. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  20. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  1. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  2. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  3. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  4. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  5. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  6. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  7. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  8. Tie rod insertion test

    CERN Multimedia

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  9. Optimized production and concentration of lentiviral vectors containing large inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Yacoub, Nadya; Romanowska, Malgorzata; Haritonova, Natalie; Foerster, John

    2007-07-01

    Generation of high titer lentiviral stocks and efficient virus concentration are central to maximize the utility of lentiviral technology. Here we evaluate published protocols for lentivirus production on a range of transfer vectors differing in size (7.5-13.2 kb). We present a modified virus production protocol robustly yielding useful titers (up to 10(7)/ml) for a range of different transfer vectors containing packaging inserts up to 7.5 kb. Moreover, we find that virus recovery after concentration by ultracentrifugation depends on the size of the packaged inserts, heavily decreasing for large packaged inserts. We describe a fast (4 h) centrifugation protocol at reduced speed allowing high virus recovery even for large and fragile lentivirus vectors. The protocols outlined in the current report should be useful for many labs interested in producing and concentrating high titer lentiviral stocks.

  10. Chest tube insertion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100008.htm Chest tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... pleural space is the space between the inner and outer lining of the lung. It is normally very thin, and lined only ...

  11. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  12. MMIC Package for Millimeter Wave Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharj, Sarjit Singh; Yuan, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Princeton Microwave Technology has successfully demonstrated the transfer of technology for the MMIC package. During this contract the package design was licensed from Hughes Aircraft Company for manufacture within the U.S. A major effort was directed towards characterization of the ceramic material for its dielectric constant and loss tangent properties. After selection of a ceramic tape, the high temperature co-fired ceramic package was manufactured in the U.S. by Microcircuit Packaging of America, Inc. Microwave measurements of the MMIC package were conducted by an intercontinental microwave test fixture. The package demonstrated a typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB per transition up to 32 Ghz and a return loss of better than 15 db. The performance of the package has been demonstrated from 2 to 30 Ghz by assembling three different MMIC amplifiers. Two of the MMIC amplifiers were designed for the 26 Ghz to 30 Ghz operation while the third MMIC was a distributed amplifier from 2 to 26.5 Ghz. The measured gain of the amplifier is consistent with the device data. The package costs are substantially lower than comparable packages available commercially. Typically the price difference is greater than a factor of three. The package cost is well under $5.00 for a quantity of 10,000 pieces.

  13. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  14. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld;

    1984-01-01

    . The theoretical basis for such electrodes is discussedand, using a simplified model, equations are derived to describe the distribution of potential and current duringdischarge/charge operation. Under the assumption that the insertion compound particles are small enough to ensureequilibrium, and that the local...... electrode potential depends linearly on the degree of insertion, these equations are solvedto obtain analytical expressions for the discharge curve. It is shown that the parameters which determine the dischargebehavior for a given discharge current are simply related to the effective ionic and electronic...

  15. Inserting the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The huge superconducting solenoid for CMS is inserted into the cryostat barrel. CMS uses the world's largest thin solenoid, in terms of energy stored, and is 12 m long, with a diameter of 6 m and weighing 220 tonnes. When turned on the magnet will produce a field strength of 4 T using superconducting niobium-titanium material at 4.5 K.

  16. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  17. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEPT 2005) (a) The Contractor...

  18. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Packing. 552.211-75 Section 552.211-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  19. 48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... packing. 852.214-73 Section 852.214-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(3), insert the following provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The bidder's offer must clearly indicate the...

  20. Substrate-adsorbate coupling in CO-adsorbed copper

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, S P; Lewis, Steven P.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    1996-01-01

    The vibrational properties of carbon monoxide adsorbed to the copper (100) surface are explored within density functional theory. Atoms of the substrate and adsorbate are treated on an equal footing in order to examine the effect of substrate--adsorbate coupling. This coupling is found to have a significant effect on the vibrational modes, particularly the in-plane frustrated translation, which mixes strongly with substrate phonons and broadens into a resonance. The predicted lifetime due to this harmonic decay mechanism is in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment.

  1. Adsorbed Water Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander detected small and variable amounts of water in the Martian soil. In this schematic illustration, water molecules are represented in red and white; soil minerals are represented in green and blue. The water, neither liquid, vapor, nor solid, adheres in very thin films of molecules to the surfaces of soil minerals. The left half illustrates an interpretation of less water being adsorbed onto the soil-particle surface during a period when the tilt, or obliquity, of Mars' rotation axis is small, as it is in the present. The right half illustrates a thicker film of water during a time when the obliquity is greater, as it is during cycles on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years. As the humidity of the atmosphere increases, more water accumulates on mineral surfaces. Thicker films behave increasingly like liquid water. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. ENDOSCOPIC GROMMET INSERTION OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Grommet insertion the commonest surgical procedure next only to circumcision is usually performed using an operating microscope 1. Authors have been using 4 mm 0 degree nasalendoscopes to perform this procedure during the last 5 years. This is a report of their experience in using endoscope inlieu of microscope in performing this surgery. This study makes a comparative analysis of Endoscopic Grommet insertion viz a viz Microscopic Grommet insertion. For this comparative analysis one year (2009 data base of Government Stanley Medical College Chennai India was used. This study reveals that Endoscopic Grommet insertion compared favorably with Microscopic Grommet insertion in all aspects with certain obvious advantages.

  3. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  4. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Malolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    and insertion site identification. So far, only floral dip T-DNA transformation of Arabidopsis has produced independent germinal insertions, thereby allowing generation of mutant populations from seeds of single plants. In addition, advances in insertion detection have been hampered by a lack of protocols...... including software for automated data analysis, which take full advantage of high next-generation sequencing throughput. Here we address these challenges by developing the FSTpoolit protocol and software package and we demonstrate its efficacy by detecting 8,935 LORE1 insertions in 3,744 Lotus japonicus...... plants. The identified insertions showed that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to its homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. Since LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating...

  5. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  6. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  7. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  8. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  9. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  10. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This novel molecular adsorber coating would alleviate the size, weight, and complexity issues of traditional molecular adsorber puck.  A flexible tape version...

  11. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanča, Stanislav; Majnarić, Igor; Golubović, Kristijan

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid print...

  12. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  13. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  14. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  15. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  16. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  17. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereau, Tristan, E-mail: bereau@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bennett, W. F. Drew [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pfaendtner, Jim [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Deserno, Markus [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Karttunen, Mikko [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science & Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, MetaForum, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  18. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  19. Gas turbine vane cooling air insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.E.; Hultgren, K.G.; Dishman, C.D.; Van Heusden, G.S.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a gas turbine. It comprises turbine vanes, each of the vanes supplied with cooling air and having: an airfoil portion forming a first cavity having an insert disposed therein for directing the flow of the cooling air, the insert having first and second insert ends; a shroud portion from which the airfoil portion extends, the insert attached to the shroud portion at the first insert end; an insert extension extending through a portion of the insert and extending beyond the first insert end, the insert extension and the insert forming an annular gap therebetween separating the insert from the insert extension; a plate covering at least a portion of the shroud, the plate having a first hole formed therein through which the insert extension extends; and at least a first seal extending between the insert extension and the insert, and sealing the annular gap therebetween. This patent also describes a method of making a gas turbine. It comprises welding a first tubular insert adjacent its first end to a vane outer shroud; partially inserting a second tubular insert into the first tubular member and attaching the second tubular insert thereto; placing a plate having a hole formed therein on the outer shroud so that the hole surrounds the second tubular insert; and attaching the second tubular insert to the plate by placing a first seal between the first and second tubular inserts and attaching the first seal to each of the first and second tubular inserts, and placing a second seal between the second tubular insert and the plate and welding the second seal to the second tubular insert and the plate.

  20. 48 CFR 552.211-76 - Charges for packaging, packing, and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., packing, and marking. 552.211-76 Section 552.211-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.211-76 Charges for packaging, packing, and marking. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(3), insert a clause substantially as follows: Charges for Packaging, Packing, and Marking (JAN 2010)...

  1. Packaging Aspects of Photodetector Modules for 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Mekonnen, G.G.; Krozer, Viktor;

    2008-01-01

    Packaging is a major problem at millimetre-wave frequencies approaching 100 GHz. In this paper we present that insertion losses in a multi-chip module (MCM) can be less IL <0.6 dB at 100 GHz. The paper also analyzes in detail resonance modes in the packages. The characteristic of conductor-backed...

  2. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  3. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  4. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  5. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.A. [Chemica Technologies, Inc., Bend, OR (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  6. An insertion algorithm for catabolizability

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Jonah

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by our recent work relating canonical bases to combinatorics of Garsia-Procesi modules \\cite{B}, we give an insertion algorithm that computes the catabolizability of the insertion tableau of a standard word. This allows us to characterize catabolizability as the statistic on words invariant under Knuth transformations, certain (co)rotations, and a new operation called a catabolism transformation. We also prove a Greene's Theorem-like characterization of catabolizability, and a result about how cocyclage changes catabolizability, strengthening a similar result in \\cite{SW}.

  7. Molecularly Imprinted Filtering Adsorbents for Odor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Shinohara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Versatile odor sensors that can discriminate among huge numbers of environmental odorants are desired in many fields, including robotics, environmental monitoring, and food production. However, odor sensors comparable to an animal’s nose have not yet been developed. An animal’s olfactory system recognizes odor clusters with specific molecular properties and uses this combinatorial information in odor discrimination. This suggests that measurement and clustering of odor molecular properties (e.g., polarity, size using an artificial sensor is a promising approach to odor sensing. Here, adsorbents composed of composite materials with molecular recognition properties were developed for odor sensing. The selectivity of the sensor depends on the adsorbent materials, so specific polymeric materials with particular solubility parameters were chosen to adsorb odorants with various properties. The adsorption properties of the adsorbents could be modified by mixing adsorbent materials. Moreover, a novel molecularly imprinted filtering adsorbent (MIFA, composed of an adsorbent substrate covered with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP layer, was developed to improve the odor molecular recognition ability. The combination of the adsorbent and MIP layer provided a higher specificity toward target molecules. The MIFA thus provides a useful technique for the design and control of adsorbents with adsorption properties specific to particular odor molecules.

  8. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  9. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  10. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  11. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  12. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  13. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  14. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Chris [ORNL; Yatsandra, Oyola [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL; none,; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Li-Jung, Kuo [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  16. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  17. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    CERN Document Server

    Bereau, Tristan; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum---in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even tho...

  18. PROSPECTS OF POLYMER PACKAGING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main types of materials used in the manufacture of packaging. Analyzed trends in further development of packaging materials. Shows how to improve the quality of plastic packaging materials in today's market.

  19. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  20. Palladium dimers adsorbed on graphene: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gagandeep, E-mail: gaganj1981@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran, Mohali, Punjab (India); Gupta, Shuchi, E-mail: sgupta@pu.ac.in [University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh -160014 (India); Dharamvir, Keya, E-mail: keya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

    2015-05-15

    The 2D structure of graphene shows a great promise for enhanced catalytic activity when adsorbed with palladium. We performed a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study of the adsorption of palladium dimer (Pd{sub 2}) on graphene using SIESTA package, in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The adsorption energy, geometry, and charge transfer of Pd{sub 2}-graphene system are calculated. Both horizontal and vertical orientations of Pd{sub 2} on graphene are studied. Our calculations revealed that the minimum energy configuration for Pd dimer is parallel to the graphene sheet with its two atoms occupying centre of adjacent hexagonal rings of graphene sheet. Magnetic moment is induced for Pd dimer adsorbed on graphene in vertical orientation while horizontal orientation of Pd dimer on graphene do not exhibit magnetism. Insignificant energy differences among adsorption sites means that dimer mobility on the graphene sheet is high. There is imperceptible distortion of graphene sheet perpendicular to its plane. However, some lateral displacements are seen.

  1. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  2. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  3. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  4. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  5. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  6. Inserting Agility in System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature...1,700 individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other...University http://www.dau.mil 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is

  7. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  8. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  9. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  10. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  11. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  12. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbański, Dorian Fabian; Małolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2012-02-01

    Use of insertion mutants facilitates functional analysis of genes, but it has been difficult to identify a suitable mutagen and to establish large populations for reverse genetics in most plant species. The main challenge is developing efficient high-throughput procedures for both mutagenesis and identification of insertion sites. To date, only floral-dip T-DNA transformation of Arabidopsis has produced independent germinal insertions, thereby allowing generation of mutant populations from seeds of single plants. In addition, advances in insertion detection have been hampered by a lack of protocols, including software for automated data analysis, that take full advantage of high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We have addressed these challenges by developing the FSTpoolit protocol and software package, and here we demonstrate its efficacy by detecting 8935 LORE1 insertions in 3744 Lotus japonicus plants. The identified insertions show that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. As LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating progeny generates a complete mutant population. This ease of LORE1 mutagenesis, combined with the efficient FSTpoolit protocol, which exploits 2D pooling, Illumina sequencing and automated data analysis, allows highly cost-efficient development of a comprehensive reverse genetic resource.

  13. Lush Cosmetics packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    Frazer Hudson – Lush Cosmetics Packaging Commissioned by Suzie Hackney for Lush Cosmetics via illustration Agency - Debut Art - February 2014 I was approached in February 2014 via my London based Illustration agency Debut Art to create packaging illustration designs for the high street retailer and International cosmetics brand ‘Lush’. The illustrations would be used on an octagonal gift box set and be positioned amongst other bespoke gift box set designs within Lush Cosme...

  14. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  16. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  18. Dual Use of Packaging on the Moon: Logistics-2-Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a modular packaging system for logistics that can be reconfigured into internal outfitting for a lunar outpost, including desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. Logistics include clothes, equipment, food, and other consumables needed to sustain the crew for the duration of the mission. A significant mass penalty is required for the packaging and handling of logistics for re-supply of short to long-term space missions that must be brought out of the gravity well on a launch vehicle. Once the supplies have been exhausted, the packaging material is typically of no further use and is discarded. If a scheme can be developed that reuses the logistics packaging, the mass penalty can be reduced. In this research, a modular packaging system has been devised as a kit-of-parts that can be used for both handling logistics supplies, and then reconfigured into desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. The system is derived from a standard International Space Station (ISS)-type Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), using soft, unfoldable box-like containers with stiff metal inserts. The empty hydrogen-impregnated CTBs can be used as-is for cabinets, opened up for use as partitions, or draped over the habitat as layers of radiation shielding. Stiff metal inserts can be reconfigured into desks and other useful outfitting.

  19. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  20. Chitin Adsorbents for Toxic Metals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Anastopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is still a critical issue all over the world. Among examined methods for the decontamination of wastewaters, adsorption is a promising, cheap, environmentally friendly and efficient procedure. There are various types of adsorbents that have been used to remove different pollutants such as agricultural waste, compost, nanomaterials, algae, etc., Chitin (poly-β-(1,4-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine is the second most abundant natural biopolymer and it has attracted scientific attention as an inexpensive adsorbent for toxic metals. This review article provides information about the use of chitin as an adsorbent. A list of chitin adsorbents with maximum adsorption capacity and the best isotherm and kinetic fitting models are provided. Moreover, thermodynamic studies, regeneration studies, the mechanism of adsorption and the experimental conditions are also discussed in depth.

  1. IR investigations of surfaces and adsorbates

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, W

    2001-01-01

    Synchrotron infrared reflection-absorption measurements on single crystal metal surfaces with adsorbates have led to the determination of many key parameters related to the bonding vibrational modes and the dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, energy couplings between electrons and adsorbate motion have been shown to be a dominant mechanism on metal surfaces. Excellent agreement has been obtained with calculations for many of the observations, and the synergy between theory and experiment has led to a deeper understanding of the roles of electrons and phonons in determining the properties of interfaces and their roles in phenomena as diverse as friction, lubrication, catalysis and adhesion. Nonetheless, as the experiments are pushed harder, to describe such effects as co-adsorbed systems, disagreements continue to challenge the theory and our comprehension also is still evolving.

  2. JT/LJT connector insert material evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, J.R.F.

    1991-10-01

    Different insert (insulator) materials are undergoing evaluation to replace the Fiberite E-3938 BE96 material currently used. Also being evaluated is the reconfiguration of the insert and metal shell-edge geometries for the purpose of reducing the alleged interference principally responsible for insert damage.

  3. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  4. Behavior of macromolecules in adsorbed layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for describing the behavior of macromolecules in adsorbed layers is developed by introducing a concept of distribution density of layer thickness U based on stochastic process and probabilistic statistics. The molecular behavior of layers adsorbed on clay particle surfaces is discussed; the random distribution and its statistics of the layer thickness are given by incorporating experimental results with an ionic polyelectrolyte with the molecular weight of 1.08×106 and chain charged density of 0.254.

  5. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahzadeh-Ghom Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices.

  6. ADSORBENTS USED IN THE CLEARANCE OF ENDOTOXIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei; LIU Tao; Hou Guanghui; YUAN Zhi

    2003-01-01

    A series of modified poly (methyl methacrylate, PMMA) resins were prepared and compared their adsorption abilities to endotoxin. The results showed that adsorbents, which were grafted with tertiary amine and long spacing arms, had the best adsorption capacities and good blood compatibility, It is hopeful to be used as adsorbent in hemoperfusion for clinical clearance of endotoxin. The influence of original concentration of endotoxin on adsorption and the adsorption mechanism were also investigated.

  7. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santander

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  8. Hydrophobic Porous Material Adsorbs Small Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    Composite molecular-sieve material has pore structure designed specifically for preferential adsorption of organic molecules for sizes ranging from 3 to 6 angstrom. Design based on principle that contaminant molecules become strongly bound to surface of adsorbent when size of contaminant molecules is nearly same as that of pores in adsorbent. Material used to remove small organic contaminant molecules from vacuum systems or from enclosed gaseous environments like closed-loop life-support systems.

  9. The Dynamics and Structures of Adsorbed Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Ellenson, W. D.; McTague, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    of molecules such as NH3 or the internal modes of adsorbed molecules such as C4H10. Neutron scattering measurements where substrates other than graphite products are used as the adsorbents will not be reviewed here. However, the power of the technique will be demonstrated in an example of H2 physisorbed...... to activated alumina and in an example where hydrogen is chemisorbed to Raney nickel...

  10. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  11. Packaging the MAMA module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  12. Probing gas adsorption in MOFs using an efficient ab initio widom insertion Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youhan; Poloni, Roberta; Kim, Jihan

    2016-12-15

    We propose a novel biased Widom insertion method that can efficiently compute the Henry coefficient, KH , of gas molecules inside porous materials exhibiting strong adsorption sites by employing purely DFT calculations. This is achieved by partitioning the simulation volume into strongly and weakly adsorbing regions and selectively biasing the Widom insertion moves into the former region. We show that only few thousands of single point energy calculations are necessary to achieve accurate statistics compared to many hundreds of thousands or millions of such calculations in conventional random insertions. The methodology is used to compute the Henry coefficient for CO2 , N2 , CH4 , and C2 H2 in M-MOF-74(M = Zn and Mg), yielding good agreement with published experimental data. Our results demonstrate that the DFT binding energy and the heat of adsorption are not accurate enough indicators to rank the guest adsorption properties at the Henry regime. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sorbent track: Quantitative monitoring of adsorbed VOCs under in-situ plasma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zixian; Rousseau, Antoine

    2016-08-01

    Sorbent-TRACK is a new device developed to monitor adsorption and surface oxidation of pollutants under direct plasma exposure. It is based on direct transmitted Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A pyrex reactor under controlled gas pressure and composition is inserted on the infrared beam of a commercially available Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer. A substrate holder is located on the optical path of the infrared beam. A thin pellet of a dedicated catalyst (CeO2 in the present work) is inserted in a substrate holder and can be exposed to direct plasma treatment using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The time resolution of Sorbent-TRACK is limited by the time resolution of the Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer and close to 30 s. The dynamic of the adsorption and plasma oxidation of acetone and isopropanol on CeO2 are studied and intermediates are monitored. Performances and sensitivity of Sorbent-TRACK are reported Adsorption and oxidation of acetone leads to production of adsorbed isobutene and acetic acid, where oxidation of isopropanol gives mainly to adsorbed acetone, mesityl oxide and acetate. An increase of the plasma power leads to an increase of the isopropanol and acetone oxidation rate and a related increase of the production of adsorbed intermediates.

  14. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  15. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  16. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.

  17. Adsorbent Selection by Functional Group Interaction Screening for Peptide Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntje, Renze; Bosch, Hans; Haan, de Andre B.; Bussman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    In order to selectively adsorb small peptides from complex aqueous feeds, selective adsorbents are required. The goal is to first find adsorbents with capacity for triglycine, as triglycine contains all groups common to small peptides. Selectivity studies will follow. Adsorbent selection was based o

  18. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  19. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  20. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  1. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil;

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  2. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  3. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  4. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  5. Polymers in Waveguide Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyi Zhang; G. Z.Xiao; Jiaren Liu; C. P. Grover

    2003-01-01

    Polymers were successfully used in the packaging of waveguide-based photonic components in the area of fiber-to-waveguide coupling, waveguide die attachment, strain relief, and waveguide encapsulation. The application results of these polymers were described in this paper.

  6. Direct comparison of the electronic coupling efficiency of sulfur and selenium alligator clips for molecules adsorbed onto gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrone, L.; Palacin, S.; Bourgoin, J.P

    2003-05-15

    Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have been performed to compare the electronic coupling provided by S and by Se used as alligator clips for bisthiol- and biselenol-terthiophene molecules adsorbed onto gold. The molecules were inserted in a dodecanethiol (DT) self-assembled monolayer. Their apparent height above the dodecanethiol matrix was used as a measure of the electronic coupling strength corresponding to S and Se, respectively. We show that the insertion behaviors of the two molecules are qualitatively the same, and that Se provides systematically a better coupling link than S, whatever the tunneling conditions.

  7. Size selective hydrophobic adsorbent for organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Hickey, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an adsorbent formed by the pyrolysis of a hydrophobic silica with a pore size greater than 5 .ANG., such as SILICALITE.TM., with a molecular sieving polymer precursor such as polyfurfuryl alcohol, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylidene chloride, phenol-formaldehyde resin, polyvinylidene difluoride and mixtures thereof. Polyfurfuryl alcohol is the most preferred. The adsorbent produced by the pyrolysis has a silicon to carbon mole ratio of between about 10:1 and 1:3, and preferably about 2:1 to 1:2, most preferably 1:1. The pyrolysis is performed as a ramped temperature program between about 100.degree. and 800.degree. C., and preferably between about 100.degree. and 600.degree. C. The present invention also relates to a method for selectively adsorbing organic molecules having a molecular size (mean molecular diameter) of between about 3 and 6 .ANG. comprising contacting a vapor containing the small organic molecules to be adsorbed with the adsorbent composition of the present invention.

  8. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  9. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  10. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  11. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  12. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  13. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Geert; Widding, Sofie Hartvig

    "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  14. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  15. A HTS dipole insert coil constructed

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Rey, J M; Stenvall, A; Sorbi, M; Tixador, P

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.4.1 “A HTS dipole insert coil constructed“. The report has three parts: “Design report for the HTS dipole insert”, “One insert pancake prototype coil constructed with the setup for a high field test”, and “All insert components ordered”. The three report parts show that, although the insert construction will be only completed by end 2013, all elements are present for a successful completion and that, given the important investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment of all of them to finish the project

  16. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  18. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  19. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-07-07

    The Henry coefficients of a single component adsorbent + adsorbate system are calculated from experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data, from which the heat of adsorption at zero coverage is evaluated. The first part of the papers relates to the development of thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system1 (Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B. B.; Ng, K. C.; Koyama, S.; Srinivasan, K. Langmuir 2009, 25, 2204). A thermodynamic framework is presented to capture the relationship between the specific surface area (Ai) and the energy factor, and the surface structural and the surface energy heterogeneity distribution factors are analyzed. Using the outlined approach, the maximum possible amount of adsorbate uptake has been evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH° for (i) carbonaceous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), carbon nanotubes, zeolites + hydrogen, and (ii) activated carbons + methane systems. The proposed theoretical framework of At and AH0 provides valuable guides for researchers in developing advanced porous adsorbents for methane and hydrogen uptake. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Planar architecture for microstrip interfaced packaging of coplanar-waveguide-based radio frequency microelectromechanical system switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Giridhar, Malalahalli Sreenivasamurthy; Rao, Cheemalamarri Venkata Narasimha; Bhalke, Sangam; Islam, Rifqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of microstrip (MS) interfaced packaging of a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-based radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch in a hermetic metal-ceramic RF package. The switch is integrated along with CPW to MS (CPW-MS) transitions within the package itself. This makes the MS interfaced packaged switch module readily mountable on MS based RF boards and subsystems. The CPW-MS transition for the package was designed as a separate off-chip entity on an alumina substrate and utilizes via hole. The integrated three-dimensional model of the package consisting of the RF MEMS switch and the transitions was simulated using high frequency structure simulator. The realized module shows an insertion loss of 0.2 and 1.1 dB at 100 MHz and 7 GHz, respectively. The measured isolation is better than 60 dB at 100 MHz and 30 dB at 7 GHz. The return loss is better than 15 dB up to 7 GHz. The estimated packaging and transitioning loss is 0.5 dB at 5 GHz. This packaging architecture is a planar solution for the MS interfaced packaging of CPW based RF MEMS switches for designers who do not have access to high-end technologies, such as zero-level packaging, through silicon via or low temperature co-fired ceramics.

  1. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  2. Effect of Adsorbent Diameter on the Performance of Adsorption Refrigeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏宇; 何兆红; 袁浩然; 小林敬幸; 赵丹丹; 窪田光宏; 郭华芳

    2014-01-01

    Adsorbents are important components in adsorption refrigeration. The diameter of an adsorbent can af-fect the heat and mass transfer of an adsorber. The effect of particle diameter on effective thermal conductivity was investigated. The heat transfer coefficient of the refrigerant and the void rate of the adsorbent layer can also affect the effective thermal conductivity of adsorbents. The performance of mass transfer in the adsorber is better when pressure drop decreases. Pressure drop decreases with increasing permeability. The permeability of the adsorbent layer can be improved with increasing adsorbent diameter. The effect of adsorbent diameter on refrigeration output power was experimentally studied. Output power initially increases and then decreases with increasing diameter under different cycle time conditions. Output power increases with decreasing cycle time under similar diameters.

  3. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  4. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-06-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds.

  5. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. II - Selective adsorption of mononucleotides on adsorbed polynucleotide templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the specific interaction step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The experimental system consisted of gypsum as the mineral to which an oligonucleotide template attaches (Poly-C or Poly-U) and (5-prime)-AMP, (5-prime)-GMP, (5-prime)-CMP and (5-prime)-UMP as the interacting biomonomers. When Poly-C or Poly-U were used as adsorbed templates, (5-prime)-GMP and (5-prime)-AMP, respectively, were observed to be the most strongly adsorbed species.

  6. Radon emanation from radium specific adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Maghrawy, Hamed B

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies were undertaken to quantify the total activity of radon that is eluted following no-flow periods from several Ra-226 adsorbents loaded to near exhaustion. The adsorbents studied included two types of barium sulphate impregnated alumina (ABA-8000 and F-1) and Dowex MSC-1 resin treated by either barium hydroxide or barium chloride. In parallel, radium loaded plain activated aluminas and Dowex MSC-1 resin were similarly investigated. The results revealed that radon was quantitatively eluted during the first few bed volumes of column operation after no-flow periods. Although similar radon elution profiles were obtained, the position of the radon peak was found to vary and depended on the adsorbent type. Radon levels up to 24 and 14 kBq dm(-3) were measured after a rest period of 72h from radium exhausted Dowex MSC-1 treated with barium chloride and F-1 impregnated alumina with barium sulphate, respectively. The eluted radon values measured experimentally were compared to those calculated theoretically from accumulated radium quantities for the different media. For plain adsorbents, an agreement better than 10% was obtained. For treated resin-types a consistency within 30% but for impregnated alumina-types high discrepancy between respective values were obtained.

  7. Linear Sweep Voltammetry of Adsorbed Neutral Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    E. Creager, G. T. Marks, D. A. Aikens and H. H. Richtol Prepared for Publication in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry Rensselaer Polytechnic... Electroanalytical Chemistry It. KEY WORDS (Continue oun reverse side It necessary mid Ideneliy by block ntaibor) Neutral Red, cyclic voltammetry, adsorbed dye 20

  8. Adsorbate Diffusion on Transition Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    catalysis . KEYWORDS: Heterogeneous catalysis , diffusion, edge barrier, transition metal nanoparticles, DFT calculations 2 Diffusion of adsorbed...species on transition metal surfaces is an important process for thin-film and nanostructure growth and for heterogeneous catalysis , among others.1-4 In...process for heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, and as a result, an atomistic understanding of the diffusion mechanism is very important. We

  9. Heparin interaction with protein-adsorbed surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterton, Lynn C.; Andrade, Joseph D.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1986-01-01

    Albumin and fibrinogen show no binding affinity to varied molecular weights of heparin at physiological pH. Human plasma fibronectin was shown to bind heparins in both the solution and adsorbed states. Fibronectin was shown to have six active binding sites for heparins which may be sterically blocke

  10. Marginal adaptation of ceramic inserts after cementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Pfeiffer, P; Nergiz, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    The advantage of using ceramic inserts is to prevent major drawbacks of composite resins such as polymerization shrinkage, wear and microleakage. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation of two approximal ceramic insert systems after cementation to the cavities opened with ultrasonic ti

  11. HOW TO REDUCE NEEDLE INSERTION INDUCED PAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 董莉

    2001-01-01

    Acupuncture needle insertion always results in pain in the local area due to stimulating the free nerve endings—algesireceptors of the skin. In spite of mildness, this pain may induce many patients' fright, and thus, hinders more extensive application of acupuncture. In the present paper, the author introduces some methods for reducing needle insertion induced pain.

  12. An Elementary Account of Needle Insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文兵; 霍则军

    2004-01-01

    @@ Based on the authors' clinical and personal experiences, several pain-inducing factors easily to be ignored by the operators when quick needle insertion is applied, and the authors' first invented slow painless needle insertion method are introduced in the article.

  13. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  14. Nitric oxide adsorbed on zeolites: EPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, Hidenori; Lund, Anders; Shiotani, Masaru

    2004-05-01

    CW-EPR studies of NO adsorbed on sodium ion-exchanged zeolites were focused on the geometrical structure of NO monoradical and (NO)2 biradical formed on zeolites. The EPR spectrum of NO monoradical adsorbed on zeolite can be characterized by the three different g-tensor components and the resolved y-component hyperfine coupling with the 14N nucleus. Among the g-tensor components, the value of g(zz) is very sensitive to the local environment of zeolite and becomes a measure of the electrostatic field in zeolite. The temperature dependence of the g-tensor demonstrated the presence of two states of the Na-NO adduct, in rigid and rotational states. The EPR spectra of NO adsorbed on alkaline metal ion-exchanged zeolite and their temperature dependency are essentially the same as that on sodium ion-exchanged zeolite. On the other hand, for NO adsorbed on copper ion-exchanged zeolite it is known that the magnetic interaction between NO molecule and paramagnetic copper ion are observable in the spectra recorded at low temperature. The signals assigned to (NO)2 biradical were detected for EPR spectrum of NO adsorbed on Na-LTA. CW-EPR spectra as well as their theoretical calculation suggested that the two NO molecules are aligned along their N-O bond axes. A new procedure for automatical EPR simulation is described which makes it possible to analyze EPR spectrum easily. In the last part of this paper, some instances when other nitrogen oxides were used as a probe molecule to characterize the zeolite structure, chemical properties of zeolites, and dynamics of small molecules were described on the basis of selected literature data reported recently.

  15. A theoretical study of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Using density functional theory we study the effect of pre-adsorbed atoms on the dissociation of N(2) and the adsorption of N, N(2), and CO on Ru(0001). We have done calculations for pre-adsorbed Na, Cs, and S, and find that alkali atoms adsorbed close to a dissociating N(2) molecule will lower...... the barrier for dissociation, whereas S will increase it. The interaction with alkali atoms is mainly of an electrostatic nature. The poisoning by S is due to two kinds of repulsive interactions: a Pauli repulsion and a reduced covalent bond strength between the adsorbate and the surface d-electrons. In order...... to investigate these different interactions in more detail, we look at three different species (N atoms, and terminally bonded N(2) and CO) and use them as probes to study their interaction with two modifier atoms (Na and S). The two modifier atoms have very different properties, which allows us to decouple...

  16. Long-distance effects of insertional mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most common systems of genetic engineering of mammalian cells are associated with insertional mutagenesis of the modified cells. Insertional mutagenesis is also a popular approach to generate random alterations for gene discovery projects. A better understanding of the interaction of the structural elements within an insertional mutagen and the ability of such elements to influence host genes at various distances away from the insertion site is a matter of considerable practical importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that, in the context of a lentiviral construct, a transcript, which is initiated at an internal CMV promoter/enhancer region and incorporates a splice donor site, is able to extend past a collinear viral LTR and trap exons of host genes, while the polyadenylation signal, which is naturally present in the LTR, is spliced out. Unexpectedly, when a vector, which utilizes this phenomenon, was used to produce mutants with elevated activity of NF-κB, we found mutants, which owed their phenotype to the effect of the insert on a gene located tens or even hundreds of kilobases away from the insertion site. This effect did not result from a CMV-driven transcript, but was sensitive to functional suppression of the insert. Interestingly, despite the long-distance effect, expression of loci most closely positioned to the insert appeared unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that a polyadenylation signal in a retroviral LTR, when occurring within an intron, is an inefficient barrier against the formation of a hybrid transcript, and that a vector containing a strong enhancer may selectively affect the function of genes far away from its insertion site. These phenomena have to be considered when experimental or therapeutic transduction is performed. In particular, the long-distance effects of insertional mutagenesis bring into question the relevance of the lists of disease-associated retroviral integration

  17. BOK-Underfill Optimization for FPGA Package/Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Commercial-off-the-shelf area array package technologies in high-reliability versions are being considered for NASA electronic systems. These packages are prone to early failure due to the severe mechanical shock and vibration of launch, as well as other less severe conditions, such as mechanical loading during descent, rough terrain mobility, handling, and ground tests. As the density of these packages increases and the size of ball interconnections decrease, susceptibility to mechanical loading and cycling fatigue grows. This report presents a summary of the body of knowledge developed for the evaluation of area array packages and is based on surveys of literature from industry and academia. For high-reliability applications, the limited data that exists will be presented. Most data from industry deals with mechanical fatigue caused by four-point bend tests, as well as from drop tests for hand-held electronics; the most recent data will be presented, along with a brief background of prior literature. Understanding the key design guidelines and failure mechanisms from past tests is critical to developing an approach that will minimize future failures. Additional specific testing enables low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages.

  18. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  19. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  20. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  1. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  2. New package for CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  3. Submersible Packaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Butyraldehyde E,K Aniline Hydrochloride E Butyric Acid V,E Fluid codes are defined in paragraph 40.2.1 and are listed in order of recommended use . 20...Furfuryl Alcohol E Ethyl Chloride E,B,N Gallic Acid V,FE Ethyl Chiorocarbonate V,F Gasoline BV,F Ethyl Chioroformate V,F Glycerine B,E Ethylene Chloride...This document describes packaging techniques that would allow sophisticated electronics to be used and transported reliably underwater. 20. DISTRIBUTION

  4. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, which provides access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  5. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  6. Investigation on Adsorption State of Surface Adsorbate on Silicon Wafer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    An adsorption kinetics model for adsorbate on the specularly polished silicon wafer was suggested. The mathematical model of preferential adsorption and the mechanism controlling the adsorption state of adsorbate were discussed.

  7. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  8. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  9. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  10. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  11. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  12. Insertions and the emergence of novel protein structure: a structure-based phylogenetic study of insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blouin Christian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protein evolution, the mechanism of the emergence of novel protein domain is still an open question. The incremental growth of protein variable regions, which was produced by stochastic insertions, has the potential to generate large and complex sub-structures. In this study, a deterministic methodology is proposed to reconstruct phylogenies from protein structures, and to infer insertion events in protein evolution. The analysis was performed on a broad range of SCOP domain families. Results Phylogenies were reconstructed from protein 3D structural data. The phylogenetic trees were used to infer ancestral structures with a consensus method. From these ancestral reconstructions, 42.7% of the observed insertions are nested insertions, which locate in previous insert regions. The average size of inserts tends to increase with the insert rank or total number of insertions in the variable regions. We found that the structures of some nested inserts show complex or even domain-like fold patterns with helices, strands and loops. Furthermore, a basal level of structural innovation was found in inserts which displayed a significant structural similarity exclusively to themselves. The β-Lactamase/D-ala carboxypeptidase domain family is provided as an example to illustrate the inference of insertion events, and how the incremental growth of a variable region is capable to generate novel structural patterns. Conclusion Using 3D data, we proposed a method to reconstruct phylogenies. We applied the method to reconstruct the sequences of insertion events leading to the emergence of potentially novel structural elements within existing protein domains. The results suggest that structural innovation is possible via the stochastic process of insertions and rapid evolution within variable regions where inserts tend to be nested. We also demonstrate that the structure-based phylogeny enables the study of new questions relating to the

  13. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...

  14. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegrada...

  15. Creating R Packages: A Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a practical introduction to creating R packages. We discuss how object oriented programming and S formulas can be used to give R code the usual look and feel, how to start a package from a collection of R functions, and how to test the code once the package has been created. As running example we use functions for standard linear regression analysis which are developed from scratch.

  16. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  17. Fluorescence of dyes adsorbed on highly organized nanostructured gold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Stefano A.; Mourran, Ahmed; Spatz, Joachim P.; Veggel, van Frank C.J.M.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Möller, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that fluorescent dyes can be adsorbed selectively on gold nanoparticles which are immobilized on a glass substrate and that the fluorescence originating from the adsorbed dyes exhibits significantly less quenching when compared to dyes adsorbed on bulk gold. Self-assembled monolayers of

  18. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  19. Behavior of macromolecules in adsorbed layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟伯中[1; 姚恒申[2; 罗平亚[3

    2000-01-01

    A model for describing the behavior ot macromoiecuies in aosoroea layers is developed by introducing a concept of distribution density of layer thickness U based on stochastic process and probabilistic statistics. The molecular behavior of layers adsorbed on clay particle surfaces is discussed; the random distribution and its statistics of the layer thickness are given by incorporating experimental results with an ionic polyelectrolyte with the molecular weight of 1.08×106and chain charged density of 0.254.

  20. MOLECULAR IMPRINTED POLYMERS--Novel Polymer Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haitao; XU Mancai; SHI Zuoqing; HE Binglin

    2001-01-01

    Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are novel functional polymer materials and known as specific adsorbents for the template molecules. These novel functional polymers have promised potential applications in racemic resolution, sensor, chromatography, adsorptive separation and other fields. This review exhibits the approach for preparing MIPs, the features of MIPs obtained by different routes and the characteristics of adsorptive separations with MIPs. The molecular recognition mechanism and the idea of the present possibilities and limitations of molecular imprinting polymerization are discussed as well.

  1. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  2. About the ZOOM minimization package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  3. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  4. Remediation of AMD using industrial waste adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nuur Hani Bte; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2016-11-01

    The study investigates the characteristic of industrial waste as adsorbents and its potential as heavy metals absorbents in AMD samples. The AMD sample was collected from active mine pond and the pH was measured in situ. The metal contents were analyzed by ICP-MS. The AMD water was very acidic (pH< 3.5), and the average heavy metals content in AMD were high especially in Fe (822.029 mg/l). Fly ash was found to be the most effective absorbent material containing high percentage of CaO (57.24%) and SiO2 (13.88%), followed by ladle furnace slag containing of high amount of CaO (51.52%) and Al2O3 (21.23%), while biomass ash consists of SiO2 (43.07%) and CaO (12.97%). Tank analysis display a huge changes due to pH value change from acidity to nearly neutral phases. After 50 days, fly ash remediation successfully increase the AMD pH values from pH 2.57-7.09, while slag change from acidity to nearly alkaline phase from pH 2.60-7.3 and biomass has change to pH 2.54-6.8. Fly ash has successfully remove Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Meanwhile, slag sample displays as an effective adsorbent to adsorb more Pb and Cd in acid mine drainage.

  5. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  6. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  7. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  8. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    sheets is either expensive or logistically complicated3. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biobased , biodegradable natural plastics that... plastic for foamed packaging and stretch/shrink film applications. PHA packaging foams and stretch-shrink films were produced and tested for...accelerated our success in developing PHA foaming technology. Page 1 Executive Summary Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biobased

  9. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  10. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  11. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  12. Design, fabrication, testing and packaging of a silicon micromachined radio frequency microelectromechanical series (RF MEMS) switch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Giridhar; Ashwini Jambhalikar; Jiju John; R Islam; Ananda Behera; C L Nagendra; George Thachil; M P Srikanth; Shailesh Somani; B H M Darukesha; Srinivasarao Bollu

    2013-04-01

    RF characterization and packaging of a single pole single throw (SPST) direct contact microelectromechanical (MEMS) series radio frequency (RF) switch is reported. Precise thickness of the silicon MEMS structure is achieved using a specially developed silicon Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) thinning process. A stress free release process is employed which ensures a high yield of released microstructures. The design of the device is based on stiffness equations derived from first principles. Displacement of the actuator under applied field is measured to confirm electrostatic pull in, which occurs in the 30–50 V range. The variation of contact resistance with time has been measured and is found to have a power law decay, in agreement with theoretical models. At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation of the switch were measured to be −0.43 dB, −25 dB and −21 dB, respectively at 10 GHz. The devices were packaged in commercially available RF packages and mounted in alumina boards for post package characterization. Due to the presence of bond wires in the signal path of the packaged devices, the RF performance was found to degrade at high frequencies. However, losses were measured to be at acceptable levels up to 2 GHz. Factors contributing to insertion loss at the die and package device levels are discussed in detail with possible solutions.

  13. Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

  14. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof, DN 2940; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised...

  15. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof by... Investigation: Having considered the complaint, the U.S. International Trade Commission, on March 22,...

  16. The Uranium from Seawater Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Overview of Marine Testing, Adsorbent Characterization, Adsorbent Durability, Adsorbent Toxicity, and Deployment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Janke, Chris J.; Park, Jiyeon; Jeters, Robert T.; Bonheyo, George T.; Pan, Horng-Bin; Wai, Chien; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Bianucci, Laura; Wood, Jordana R.; Warner, Marvin G.; Peterson, Sonja; Abrecht, David G.; Mayes, Richard T.; Tsouris, Costas; Oyola, Yatsandra; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; Addleman, R. Shane; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Das, Sadananda; Kim, Jungseung; Buesseler, Ken; Breier, Crystal; D’Alessandro, Evan

    2016-02-07

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) located along the coast of Washington State is evaluating the performance of uranium adsorption materials being developed for seawater extraction under realistic marine conditions with natural seawater. Two types of exposure systems were employed in this program: flow-through columns for testing of fixed beds of individual fibers and pellets and a recirculating water flume for testing of braided adsorbent material. Testing consists of measurements of the adsorption of uranium and other elements from seawater as a function of time, typically 42 to 56 day exposures, to determine the adsorbent capacity and adsorption rate (kinetics). Analysis of uranium and other trace elements collected by the adsorbents was conducted following strong acid digestion of the adsorbent with 50% aqua regia using either Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ORNL 38H adsorbent had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.30 ± 0.68 g U/ kg adsorbent (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation adsorption capacity of 4.89 ± 0.83 g U/kg of adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half-saturation time of 28 ± 10 days. The AF1 adsorbent material had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.9 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation capacity of 5.4 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half saturation time of 23 ± 2 days. The ORNL amidoxime-based adsorbent materials are not specific for uranium, but also adsorb other elements from seawater. The major doubly charged cations in seawater (Ca and Mg) account for a majority of the cations adsorbed (61% by mass and 74% by molar percent). For the ORNL AF1 adsorbent material, U is the 4th most abundant element adsorbed by mass and 7th most abundant by molar percentage

  17. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  18. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  19. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  20. Problem-based learning packages: considerations for neophyte package writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstberger-Sims, C; McMillan, M A

    1993-02-01

    Adopting problem-based learning (PBL) as the major educational approach in the implementation of a nursing curriculum requires the development of numerous learning stimulus packages. When reviewing the experience of the Division of Nursing within the Faculty of Health at the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur in Australia, several considerations for package writers were identified and are discussed. These include needs assessment, integration of the curricula content strands, multi-media learning stimuli, context, role and the incorporation of ongoing client management. The need for nurturance of writers and peer review of the developed packages is also addressed, as is a review of the impact of different learning stimuli.

  1. Sites and gene products involved in lambdoid phage DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M P; Feiss, M

    1993-04-01

    21 is a temperate lambdoid coliphage, and the genes that encode the head proteins of lambda and 21 are descended from a common ancestral bacteriophage. The sequencing of terminase genes 1 and 2 of 21 was completed, along with that of a segment at the right end of 21 DNA that includes the R4 sequence. The R4 sequence, a site that is likely involved in termination of DNA packaging, was found to be very similar to the R4 sequences of lambda and phi 80, suggesting that R4 is a recognition site that is not phage specific. DNA packaging by 21 is dependent on a host protein, integration host factor. A series of mutations in gene 1 (her mutations), which allow integration host factor-independent DNA packaging by 21, were found to be missense changes that affect predicted alpha-helixes in gp1. gp2, the large terminase subunit, is predicted to contain an ATP-binding domain and, perhaps, a second domain important for the cos-cutting activity of terminase. orf1, an open reading frame analogous in position to FI, a lambda gene involved in DNA packaging, shares some sequence identity with FI. orf1 was inactivated with nonsense and insertion mutations; these mutations were found not to affect phage growth. 21 was also not able to complement a lambda FI mutant.

  2. MOLECULAR IMPRINTED POLYMERS—Novel Polymer Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHaitao; XUMancai; 等

    2001-01-01

    Molecular imprinted polymers(MIPs) are novel functional polymer materials and known as specific adsorbents for the template molecules,These novel functional polymers have promised potential applications in racemic resolution,sensor,chromatography,adsorptive separation and other fields.This review exhibits the approach for preparing MIPs,the features of MIPs obtained by different routes and the characteristics of adsorptive separations with MIPs.The molecular recognition mechanism and the idea of the present possibilities and limitations of molecular imprinting polymerization are discussed as well.

  3. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  4. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on honeycomb adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Takeishi, Toshiharu; Hara, Keisuke; Wada, Kouhei; Katekari, Kenichi; Inoue, Keita; Shinozaki, Yohei; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masahiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    Recovery of tritium released into working areas in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue of safety. A large volume of air from tritium fuel cycle or vacuum vessel should be processed by air cleanup system (ACS). In ACS, tritium gas is oxidized by catalysts, and then tritiated water vapor is collected by adsorbents. This method can remove tritium effectively, whereas high throughput of air causes high-pressure drop in catalyst and adsorbent beds. In this study, the applicability of honeycomb-type adsorbents, which offers a useful advantage in terms of their low-pressure drop, to ACS was examined, in comparison with conventional pebble-type adsorbent. Honeycomb-type adsorbent causes far less pressure drop than pebble-type adsorbent beds. Adsorption capacity of water vapor on a honeycomb-type adsorbent is slightly lower than that on a pebble-type adsorbent, while adsorption rate of water vapor on honeycomb-type adsorbent is much higher than that of pebble-type adsorbent.

  5. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  6. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M; Mason, Jarad A; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O; Drisdell, Walter S; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-19

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as 'phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg(2+) within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  7. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M.; Mason, Jarad A.; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D.; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L.; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K.; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F.; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-03-01

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as `phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg2+ within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  8. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  9. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  10. An NMR study of adsorbed helium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Anthony Joseph

    The properties of sub-monolayer Helium-3 films adsorbed on two totally different but planar substrates, Mylar† film and exfoliated graphite have been studied using NMR. The nuclear magnetic relaxation times T1 and T 2 have been measured as functions of fractional monolayer completion, temperature, substrate plane orientation and Larmor frequency using a specially designed and constructed NMR spectrometer system. The results obtained with a Mylar film substrate are consistent3with the formation of patches of solid 3He at regions of preferential adsorption on the substrate. Measurements of T2 m very low coverage 3He films on exfoliated graphite also indicate that the adsorbate forms areas of relatively high density solid, in agreement with the thermodynamic analysis of Elgin and Goodstein. Finally, detailed measurements of T2 as a function of all of the above parameters at low areal densities will help us to characterise the relaxation processes for the fluid phase of 33He on exfoliated graphite. †Mylar is the tradename of poly(ethelene-terephthalate) film, marketed by Du Pont.

  11. Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Adesina Adegoke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is a visible pollutant and the presence of even minute amounts of coloring substance makes it undesirable due to its appearance. The removal of color from dye-bearing effluents is a major problem due to the difficulty in treating such wastewaters by conventional treatment methods. The most commonly used methods for color removal are biological oxidation and chemical precipitation. However, these processes are effective and economic only in the case where the solute concentrations are relatively high. Most industries use dyes and pigments to color their products. The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to its adverse effect on various forms of life. The discharge of dyes in the environment is a matter of concern for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. It is evident from a literature survey of about 283 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for dye removal and the optimal equilibrium time of various dyes with different charcoal adsorbents from agricultural residues is between 4 and 5 h. Maximum adsorptions of acidic dyes were obtained from the solutions with pH 8–10. The challenges and future prospects are discussed to provide a better framework for a safer and cleaner environment.

  12. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  13. TRMM project contamination control using molecular adsorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, S.; Chen, P.; Thomson, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Bettini, R.; Triolo, J.; Carosso, N. [Swales and Associates, Inc., 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a spacecraft under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and is scheduled for launch in August 1997. The spacecraft design includes the use of numerous optical instruments and the thermal control surfaces. In addition to the inherent contamination sensitivities of the optical and thermal systems, TRMM has had the added challenge of designing systems to function at a relatively low altitude (350 km), with solar exposure. Under these conditions, high atomic oxygen densities and potentially high levels of backscattered contamination (self-contamination), as well as UV photopolymerization effects, all pose major threats to sensitive TRMM elements. In considering the various contamination control paths to follow, the TRMM project management has opted for pursuing a relatively new, but very promising technology for the TRMM spacecraft in order to lower the on-orbit contamination levels. TRMM will be incorporating Molecular Adsorbers as part of the basic spacecraft design. This paper will summarize the TRMM requirements, describe the Molecular Adsorbers being fabricated for the mission, and discuss the expected benefits of this method of on-orbit contamination control. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Equilibrium molecular theory of two-dimensional adsorbate drops on surfaces of heterogeneous adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2016-08-01

    A molecular statistical theory for calculating the linear tension of small multicomponent droplets in two-dimensional adsorption systems is developed. The theory describes discrete distributions of molecules in space (on a scale comparable to molecular size) and continuous distributions of molecules (at short distances inside cells) in their translational and vibrational motions. Pair intermolecular interaction potentials (the Mie type potential) in several coordination spheres are considered. For simplicity, it is assumed that distinctions in the sizes of mixture components are slight and comparable to the sizes of adsorbent adsorption centers. Expressions for the pressure tensor components inside small droplets on the heterogeneous surface of an adsorbent are obtained, allowing calculations of the thermodynamic characteristics of a vapor-fluid interface, including linear tension. Problems in refining the molecular theory are discussed: describing the properties of small droplets using a coordination model of their structure, considering the effect an adsorbate has on the state of a near-surface adsorbent region, and the surface heterogeneity factor in the conditions for the formation of droplets.

  15. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegradable polymer materials will reduce the need for synthetic polymer production (thus reducing pollution at a low cost, thereby producing a positive effect both environmentally and economically.

  16. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  17. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  18. On the Insertion Time of Cuckoo Hashing

    CERN Document Server

    Fountoulakis, Nikolaos; Steger, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Cuckoo hashing is an efficient technique for creating large hash tables with high space utilization and guaranteed constant access times. There, each item can be placed in a location given by any one out of k different hash functions. In this paper we investigate further the random walk heuristic for inserting in an online fashion new items into the hash table. Provided that k > 2 and that the number of items in the table is below (but arbitrarily close) to the theoretically achievable load threshold, we show a polylogarithmic bound for the maximum insertion time that holds with high probability.

  19. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  20. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  1. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  2. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  3. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  4. Software package requirements and procurement

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the problems of specifying requirements and deploying these requirements in the procurement of software packages. Despite the fact that software construction de novo is the exception rather than the rule, little or no support for the task of formulating requirements to support assessment and selection among existing software packages has been developed. We analyse the problems arising in this process and review related work. We outline the key components of a programme of ...

  5. A Pre- and Post-Evaluation of Integrating Sustainability Curriculum by Inserting Okala Modules into an Interior Design Materials and Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the integration of Okala curriculum into Interior Design coursework. Okala, as a teaching package, is utilized extensively in industrial design education. However, this study examines the expansion and insertion of Okala modules in an existing interior design curriculum. The Okala modules included…

  6. DESORPTION OF VOCs FROM POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS UNDER MICROWAVE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)from polymeric adsorbents by microwave was investigated experimentally. Two kinds of organic compounds, benzene and toluene,were separately used as adsorbates in this work. Results showed that the application of microwave to regenerate the polymeric adsorbents not only can get higher regeneration efficiency in comparison with the use of heat regeneration, but also make the temperatures of the fixed beds much lower than that when using the heat regeneratton The weaker the polarity of a polymeric adsorbent, the easier its regeneration was.

  7. Packaging food for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  8. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  9. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-02-17

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations. They enable us to compute the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed phase, the isosteric heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, and the adsorbed phase volume thoroughly. These equations are very simple and easy to handle for calculating the energetic performances of any adsorption system. We have shown here that the derived thermodynamic formulations fill up the information gap with respect to the state of adsorbed phase to dispel the confusion as to what is the actual state of the adsorbed phase. We have also discussed and established the temperature-entropy diagrams of (i) CaCl 2-in-silica gel + water system for cooling applications, and (ii) activated carbon (Maxsorb III) + methane system for gas storage. © Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2016-12-21

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics.

  11. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  12. Trends in adsorbate induced core level shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Viktor; Van den Bossche, Maxime; Hellman, Anders; Grönbeck, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Photoelectron core level spectroscopy is commonly used to monitor atomic and molecular adsorption on metal surfaces. As changes in the electron binding energies are convoluted measures with different origins, calculations are often used to facilitate the decoding of experimental signatures. The interpretation could in this sense benefit from knowledge on trends in surface core level shifts for different metals and adsorbates. Here, density functional theory calculations have been used to systematically evaluate core level shifts for (111) and (100) surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals upon CO, H, O and S adsorption. The results reveal trends and several non-intuitive cases. Moreover, the difficulties correlating core level shifts with charging and d-band shifts are underlined.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EARLY POSTPARTUM IUCD INSERTION TO INTERVAL IUCD INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to National Family Health Survey-3, Indian women have 13% unmet need for contraception and according to District Level Household & Facility Survey-3, it is 21.3% in the postpartum period. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion - both immediately post-placental delivery and somewhat later, but within 48 hours after delivery are options which merit consideration as the woman is likely to have a high motivation for accepting contraception and the healthcare centre provides a convenient setting for insertion of IUCD. AIM Comparison of efficacy and complications of IUCD insertions in post-placental with interval period: 6-month followup. METHOD This perspective study was conducted among 100 women: - 50 women had IUCD inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery and 50 had insertion more than 6 weeks after delivery. They were followed till 6 months post insertion and were compared regarding early and late complications, continuation rates and expulsion rates. RESULT At the end of six months, we found higher occurrence of lower abdominal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding in case of interval insertion as compared to post-placental insertion which was statistically significant (p value-0.04 & 0.007 respectively. However, the expulsion rates of post-placental IUCD were somewhat elevated (14% compared to interval insertions (2%. Continuation rates at the end of 6 months in both the groups were 82% and 86% respectively which is comparable. CONCLUSION Post-placental IUCD is thus found to be an ideal method to meet the unmet need of postpartum women as it is easily accessible and convenient for both women and their health care providers, is associated with less discomfort and fewer side effects and allow women to obtain safe, long acting, highly effective contraception while still in the health care system.

  14. Understanding Trends in Catalytic Activity: The Effect of Adsorbate-Adsorbate Interactions for CO Oxidation Over Transition Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2010-01-01

    Using high temperature CO oxidation as the example, trends in the reactivity of transition metals are discussed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Volcano type relations between the catalytic rate and adsorption energies of important intermediates are introduced...... and the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on the trends is discussed. We find that adsorbate-adsorbate interactions significantly increase the activity of strong binding metals (left side of the volcano) but the interactions do not change the relative activity of different metals and have a very small...... influence on the position of the top of the volcano, that is, on which metal is the best catalyst....

  15. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  16. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  17. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  18. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  19. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  20. DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Spakowitz, Andrew James; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2005-01-01

    We study the packaging of DNA into a bacteriophage capsid using computer simulation, specifically focusing on the potential impact of twist on the final packaged conformation. We perform two dynamic simulations of packaging a polymer chain into a spherical confinement: one where the chain end is rotated as it is fed, and one where the chain is fed without end rotation. The final packaged conformation exhibits distinct differences in these two cases: the packaged conformation from feeding with...

  1. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  2. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  3. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  4. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste preve

  5. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of stea

  6. Friction and diffusion dynamics of adsorbates at surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusco, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical study of the motion of adsorbates (e. g. atoms, molecules or clusters) on solid surfaces is presented, with a focus on surface diffusion and atomic-scale friction. These two phenomena are inextricably linked, because when an atomic or molecular adsorbate diffuses, or is pulled, it unav

  7. Selective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubo DENG; Danmeng SHUAI; Qiang YU; Jun HUANG; Gang YU

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), as a potential persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in water environments, and has become a great concern in recent years. PFOS is very stable and difficult to decompose using conventional techniques. Sorption may be an attractive method to remove it from water. In this study, the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents were prepared through the polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine under different preparation conditions in order to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water. The MIP adsorbents using perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the template had good imprinting effects and could selectively remove PFOS from aqueous solution. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics,isotherms, and effect of pH, salt, and competitive anions were investigated. Experimental results showed that the sorption of PFOS On the MIP adsorbents was very fast, pH-dependent, and highly selective. The achieved fast sorption equilibrium within 1 h was attributed to the surface sorption on the fine adsorbents. The sorption isotherms showed that the sorption selectivity of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents decreased at high PFOS concentrations, which may be due to the double-layer sorption and the formation of PFOS micelles on the sorbent surface. The sorption of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents was mainly dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the protonated vinylpyridine on the adsorbent surface and the anionic PFOS. The prepared MIP adsorbents can potentially be applied in water and wastewater treatment for selective removal of PFOS.

  8. Mixed-matrix membrane adsorbers for protein separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, Maria-Elena; Borneman, Zandrie; Wessling, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The separation of two similarly sized proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was carried out using a new type of ion-exchange mixed-matrix adsorber membranes. The adsorber membranes were prepared by incorporation of various types of Lewatit ion-exchange resins into an ethyle

  9. Adsorbent Carbon Fabrics : New Generation Armour for Toxic Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gurudatt

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon in the form of a regular fabric obtained using viscose rayon precursor is a new generation adsorbent material having superior sorptional properties and is finding varied defence applications. Carbonisation and activation mechanisms and properties and applications of adsorbent carbort fibres made from viscose rayon precursor are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  11. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  12. Reference waste package environment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

  13. Adsorption of Fluoride Ion by Inorganic Cerium Based Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Zhongzhi(焦中志); Chen Zhonglin; Yang Min; Zhang Yu; Li Guibai

    2004-01-01

    Excess of fluoride in drinking water is harmful to human health, the concentration of F- ions must be maintained in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L. An inorganic cerium based adsorbent (CTA) is developed on the basis of research of adsorption of fluoride on cerium oxide hydrate. Some adsorption of fluoride by CTA adsorbent experiments were carried out, and results showed that CTA adsorbent has a quick adsorption speed and a large adsorption capacity. Adsorption follows Freundlich isotherm, and low pH value helps fluoride removal. Some physical-chemical characteristics of CTA adsorbent were experimented, fluoride removal mechanism was explored, and results showed that hydroxyl group of CTA adsorbent played an important role in the fluoride removal.

  14. Development of ocular inserts for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R T; Ryoo, J P

    1987-06-01

    Ring shaped ocular inserts have been developed to administer a therapeutic level of tylosin tartrate throughout a five day period to treat pinkeye in cattle. The inserts are based on polyvinyl chloride rings which are dip coated with a copolymer containing the antibiotic (tylosin tartrate). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of surfaces has been of value to evaluate the presence and extent of surface flaws in the hydrogel coating, and to contribute to improvement in fabrication of the rings to insure the establishment of satisfactory seals at joints, uniformity of microporosity and cross sections, and the absence of significant cracking or flaking. In vitro release rates were determined using thin layer chromatography techniques, and rates were seen to be above a few micrograms of antibiotic per hour for experiments as long as nine days at simulated tear rates as high as 2 milliliters per hour.

  15. Perception and Action in Teleoperated Needle Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisky, I; Pressman, A; Pugh, C M; Mussa-Ivaldi, F A; Karniel, A

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such a field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without perceptual change. These experimental results are supported by simulation of a simplified mechanical model of the arm and neural controller, and a model for perception of stiffness, which is based on regression in the force-position space. In addition, we show that changing the gain of the teleoperation channel cancels the motor effect of delay without adding perceptual distortion. We conclude that it is possible to achieve perceptual and motor transparency in virtual one-dimensional remote needle insertion task.

  16. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M

    1997-05-06

    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  17. Bio-regeneration of π-complexation desulfurization adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wangliang; XING; Jianmin; XIONG; Xiaochao; SHAN; Guob

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of adsorption desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new approach to produce clean fuels. Sulfur compounds are firstly adsorbed on adsorbents, and then the adsorbents are regenerated by microbial conversion. π-Complexation adsorbent, Cu(Ⅰ)-Y, was obtained by ion exchanging Y-type zeolite with Cu2+ and then by auto-reduction in helium at 450℃ for 3 h. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) was used as a model compound. The effects of cell concentration, volume of oil phase, the ratio of aqueous phase to adsorbent on DBT desorption by a bacterium were studied. The amounts of DBT desorbed and 2-HBP produced can be apparently increased with addition of n-octane. BDS activity can be improved by increasing cell concentration and the ratio of water-to-adsorbent. 89% of DBT desorbed from the adsorbents can be converted to 2-HBP within 6 h and almost 100% within 24 h, when the volume ratio of oil-to-water was 1/5 mL/mL, the cell concentration was 60 g·L-1, and the ratio of adsorbent-to-oil was 0.03 g·mL-1. The amount of 2-HBP produced was strongly dependent on the volume ratio of oil-to- water, cell concentration and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbent is 95% that of the fresh one after being desorbed with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8, washed with n-octane, dried at 100℃ for 24 h and auto-reduced in He.

  18. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  19. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael C. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  20. Nonparametric Econometrics: The np Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristen Hayfield

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R np package via a series of applications that may be of interest to applied econometricians. The np package implements a variety of nonparametric and semiparametric kernel-based estimators that are popular among econometricians. There are also procedures for nonparametric tests of significance and consistent model specification tests for parametric mean regression models and parametric quantile regression models, among others. The np package focuses on kernel methods appropriate for the mix of continuous, discrete, and categorical data often found in applied settings. Data-driven methods of bandwidth selection are emphasized throughout, though we caution the user that data-driven bandwidth selection methods can be computationally demanding.

  1. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  2. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  3. Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

    We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

  4. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  5. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  6. Methane Recovery from Gaseous Mixtures Using Carbonaceous Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Bronisław

    2016-06-01

    Methane recovery from gaseous mixtures has both economical and ecological aspect. Methane from different waste gases like mine gases, nitrogenated natural gases and biogases can be treated as local source for production electric and heat energy. Also occurs the problem of atmosphere pollution with methane that shows over 20 times more harmful environmental effect in comparison to carbon dioxide. One of the ways utilisation such gases is enrichment of methane in the PSA technique, which requires appropriate adsorbents. Active carbons and carbon molecular sieve produced by industry and obtained in laboratory scale were examined as adsorbent for methane recuperation. Porous structure of adsorbents was investigated using densimetry measurements and adsorption of argon at 77.5K. On the basis of adsorption data, the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation parameters, micropore volume (Wo) and characteristics of energy adsorption (Eo) as well as area micropores (Smi) and BET area (SBET) were determined. The usability of adsorbents in enrichment of the methane was evaluated in the test, which simulate the basic stages of PSA process: a) adsorbent degassing, b) pressure raise in column by feed gas, c) cocurrent desorption with analysis of out flowing gas. The composition of gas phase was accepted as the criterion of the suitability of adsorbent for methane separation from gaseous mixtures. The relationship between methane recovery from gas mixture and texture parameters of adsorbents was found.

  7. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  8. Novel adhesive properties of poly(ethylene-oxide) adsorbed nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenduo

    Solid-polymer interfaces play crucial roles in the multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology and are the confluence of physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. There is now growing evidence that polymer chains irreversibly adsorb even onto weakly attractive solid surfaces, forming a nanometer-thick adsorbed polymer layer ("adsorbed polymer nanolayers"). It has also been reported that the adsorbed layers greatly impact on local structures and properties of supported polymer thin films. In this thesis, I aim to clarify adhesive and tribological properties of adsorbed poly(ethylene-oxide) (PEO) nanolayers onto silicon (Si) substrates, which remain unsolved so far. The adsorbed nanolayers were prepared by the established protocol: one has to equilibrate the melt or dense solution against a solid surface; the unadsorbed chains can be then removed by a good solvent, while the adsorbed chains are assumed to maintain the same conformation due to the irreversible freezing through many physical solid-segment contacts. I firstly characterized the formation process and the surface/film structures of the adsorbed nanolayers by using X-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Secondly, to compare the surface energy of the adsorbed layers with the bulk, static contact angle measurements with two liquids (water and glycerol) were carried out using a optical contact angle meter equipped with a video camera. Thirdly, I designed and constructed a custom-built adhesion-testing device to quantify the adhesive property. The experimental results provide new insight into the microscopic structure - macroscopic property relationship at the solid-polymer interface.

  9. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  10. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  11. Comparison of different LED Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  12. Magnetic Package data quality overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qamili, Enkelejda; Ottavianelli, Giuseppe; Olsen, Nils

    The ESA Swarm satellites, launched in November 2013, carry on-board instuments devoted to measure extremely accurate data necessary to improve our understanding of Earth’s magnetic field. The Swarm instrument package is made by two magnetometers (one vector and one scalar), one Electric field Ins...

  13. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    ) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...

  14. The Macro - Games Course Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    Part of an Economic Education Series, the course package is designed to teach basic concepts and fundamental principles of macroeconomics and how they can be applied to various world problems. For use with college students, learning is gained through lectures, discussion, simulation games, programmed learning, and text. Time allotment is a 15-week…

  15. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  16. New cardiac retractor for epicardial electrode insertion via subxiphoid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Arai, H; Suzuki, A

    1993-04-01

    A new retractor for the insertion of epicardial screw-in electrodes is described. We have found that this instrument can be easily applied to the heart and gives excellent exposure for electrode insertion.

  17. The Electrochemical Properties of Thionine Adsorbed Monolayer on Gold Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A gold electrode modified with adsorbed thionine monolayer was investigated with ac impedance and cyclic voltammetry method. It was found therewere some different redox properties for the adsorbed thionine depended on the different potential scanning rate. At the slower potential scanning rate (10 mV@s-1), the dimer of thionine appeared and possessed the catalytic activity for the oxidation of ascorbic acid.The underpotential deposition (UPD) and the bulk deposition of Cu2+ were also employed to investigate the monolayer of adsorbed thionine.

  18. ADSORPTION OF PHENYLACETIC ACID ON MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANBingcai; CHENJinlong; 等

    2002-01-01

    Several macroporous polymeric adsorbents(NDA-999,XAD-8,X-5 and XAD-2)were emplyed in the study to adsorb phenylacetic acid from aqueous solution.Effect of salt and ambient temperature on adsorption was studied using NDA-999 adsorbent and the adsorption process conforms to Freundlich′s model reasonably.Adsorption dynamics were conducted in batch experiments in order to make clear the mechanism of adsorption process.It is proved that the squared driving force mass transfer model can be adopted to elucidate the process.The treatment process of industrial wastewater containing high strength of phenylacetic acid was proposed for cleaner production of phenylacetic acid.

  19. ADSORPTION OF PHENYLACETIC ACID ON MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several macroporous polymeric adsorbents (NDA-999, XAD-8, X-5 and XAD-2) wereemployed in the study to adsorb phenylacetic acid from aqueous solution. Effect of salt and ambienttemperature on adsorption was studied using NDA-999 adsorbent and the adsorption processconforms to Freundlich's model reasonably. Adsorption dynamics were conducted in batchexperiments in order to make clear the mechanism of adsorption process. It is proved that thesquared driving force mass transfer model can be adopted to elucidate the process. The treatmentprocess of industrial wastewater containing high strength of phenylacetic acid was proposed forcleaner production of phenylacetic acid.

  20. Atom-Specific Identification of Adsorbed Chiral Molecules by Photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; Carbone, M.; Dil, J. H.; Tallarida, M.; Flammini, R.; Casaletto, M. P.; Horn, K.; Piancastelli, M. N.

    2005-09-01

    The study of chiral adsorbed molecules is important for an analysis of enantioselectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Here we show that such molecules can be identified through circular dichroism in core-level photoemission arising from the chiral carbon atoms in stereoisomers of 2,3-butanediol molecules adsorbed on Si(100), using circularly polarized x rays. The asymmetry in the carbon 1s intensity excited by right and left circularly polarized light is readily observed, and changes sign with the helicity of the radiation or handedness of the enantiomers; it is absent in the achiral form of the molecule. This observation demonstrates the possibility of determining molecular chirality in the adsorbed phase.

  1. [Study on LDL adsorbent modified by lauric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haixia; Du, Longbing; Fang, Bo; You, Chao

    2010-06-01

    A hydrophobic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) adsorbent was synthesized with lauric acid and chitosan. The condition for adsorption was obtained by investigating the influence of adsorbent amount and adsorption time. The results of adsorption in vitro showed that the average adsorption rates for total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP) were 47.7%, 84.7%, 18.1% and 5.9% respectively. The adsorbent possesses good selectivity in removing LDL-C.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Impurely Irrigated Soil Adsorbent from Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]We aimed to study the preparation methods of impurely irrigated soil adsorbent from beaches,as well as its ability to absorb phenol.[Method]Using hydrochloric acid as activator,we compared the influences of various soil adsorbents on the adsorption of phenol through the desired orthogonal tests where the usage of saw dust,concentration of hydrochloric acid,liquid-solid ratio and carbonization temperature varied.Afterwards,we characterized this soil adsorbent.[Result]The optimal conditions for pre...

  3. Natural insertions within the N-terminal region of the coat protein of Maize dwarf mosaic potyvirus (MDMV) have an effect on the RNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Kathrin; Sebestyén, Endre; Gell, Gyöngyvér; Balázs, Ervin

    2010-02-01

    A 13 amino acid residue insertion was found in the N-terminal region of the coat protein of several Maize dwarf mosaic virus isolates (MDMV). These insertions seem to be the result of a direct duplication event, but differ in some positions. In order to evaluate the influence of the insertion on the RNA secondary structure and stability, the RNA secondary structures and minimum free energies (MFE) of all existing MDMV coat protein sequences were estimated using three different softwares, the Vienna RNA Package, NUPACK, and UNAFold, and compared to the secondary structure and MFE of various random sequence collections preserving the nucleotide distribution of MDMV. The bioinformatic analysis showed that the insertion stabilizes the RNA structure of the coat protein gene.

  4. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  5. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  6. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Ivo HLAVATÝ; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  7. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  8. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  9. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing. The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees. The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. T-tube insertion for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Taichiro; Kato, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    T-tube insertion is effective treatment for subglottic stenosis, but it is generally difficult due to bending of the T-tube. In a 52-year-old woman with relapsing polychondritis, a T-tube was inserted after predilatation using Hegar dilators. We describe the details of our T-tube insertion methods for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.

  11. First installation of DT and RPC packages into the CMS iron yoke

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2004-01-01

    These pictures illustrate the installation process of muon barrel packages (DT + RPC) into the pockets of the CMS iron yoke at SX5. The chambers are first transported in groups of four from the ISR area (where they are certified and coupled together) to the construction hall in Cessy (neighbouring France), called Point 5 (or SX5). Once there, they pass through a fast high voltage and electronic certification test, before being slid into the insertion cradle. This cradle is attached to the yoke and aligned to the chamber rails, allowing an easy insertion. A rate of 3 chambers per day can be achieved. This set of pictures was taken during the first final insertion round at Point 5, where most chambers for the lower part of YB+2 were installed.

  12. Defining cosQ, the site required for termination of bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, D J; Feiss, M

    2001-06-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is a double-stranded DNA virus that processes concatemeric DNA into virion chromosomes by cutting at specific recognition sites termed cos. A cos is composed of three subsites: cosN, the nicking site; cosB, required for packaging initiation; and cosQ, required for termination of chromosome packaging. During packaging termination, nicking of the bottom strand of cosN depends on cosQ, suggesting that cosQ is needed to deliver terminase to the bottom strand of cosN to carry out nicking. In the present work, saturation mutagenesis showed that a 7-bp segment comprises cosQ. A proposal that cosQ function requires an optimal sequence match between cosQ and cosNR, the right cosN half-site, was tested by constructing double cosQ mutants; the behavior of the double mutants was inconsistent with the proposal. Substitutions in the 17-bp region between cosQ and cosN resulted in no major defects in chromosome packaging. Insertional mutagenesis indicated that proper spacing between cosQ and cosN is required. The lethality of integral helical insertions eliminated a model in which DNA looping enables cosQ to deliver a gpA protomer for nicking at cosN. The 7 bp of cosQ coincide exactly with the recognition sequence for the Escherichia coli restriction endonuclease, EcoO109I.

  13. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 2. Insights Into Adsorbent Design

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2012-11-21

    Packed bed breakthrough experiments are reported for commercial zeolite 13X and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica materials with three different amine loadings. Mass and heat transfer dynamics for all four materials are modeled successfully. Amine adsorbents with open pores are found to exhibit faster mass diffusion rates compared to zeolite 13X. When amine loading is increased by coupling aminopropyl groups, premature breakthrough combined with a long tail is observed. Contrary to conventional physisorbants, finite heat losses to the column wall do not explain the long breakthrough tail. A rate model that accounts for heterogeneity in diffusion was found to accurately capture the breakthrough shape of the high loading material. Batch uptake measurements support the hypothesis that slow diffusion through the polymer phase is what hampers adsorption kinetics in the high amine loading adsorbent. The results emphasize the importance of designing materials that are not overloaded with amine sites, as excessive amine loadings can lead to depressed adsorption kinetics and premature column breakthrough. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Automated packaging employing real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Existing packaging systems rely on human operation to position a box in the packaging device perform do the packaging task. Current facilities are not capable of handling boxes with different sizes in a flexible way. In order to improve the above-mentioned problems, an eye-to-hand visual servo automated packaging approach is proposed in this paper. The system employs two cameras to observe the box and the gripper mounted on the robotic manipulator to precisely control the manipulator to complete the packaging task. The system first employs two-camera vision to determine the box pose. With appropriate task encoding, a closed-loop visual servoing controller is designed to drive a manipulator to accomplish packaging tasks. The proposed approach can be used to complete automated packaging tasks in the case of uncertain location and size of the box. The system has been successfully validated by experimenting with an industrial robotic manipulator for postal box packaging.

  15. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  16. Transposon insertion mapping with PIMMS – Pragmatic Insertional Mutation Mapping System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eBlanchard

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The PIMMS (Pragmatic Insertional Mutation Mapping System pipeline has been developed for simple conditionally essential genome discovery experiments in bacteria. Capable of using raw sequence data files alongside a FASTA sequence of the reference genome and GFF file, PIMMS will generate a tabulated output of each coding sequence with corresponding mapped insertions accompanied with normalised results enabling streamlined analysis. This allows for a quick assay of the genome to identify conditionally essential genes on a standard desktop computer prioritising results for further investigation.Availability: The PIMMS script, manual and accompanying test data is freely available at https://github.com/ADAC-UoN/PIMMS

  17. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  18. A NOVEL METAL CHELATE AFFINITY ADSORBENT FOR PROTEIN UPTAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjian; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this article,a spherical chitosan gel crosslinked by epichlorohydrin was prepared.It was then loaded with copper ions to produce a metal chelate affinity adsorbent for protein.The uptake of bovine serum albumin(BSA)by the affinity adsorbent was investigated.and the adsorption capacity for BSA as high as 40mg/g-wet beads was observed.The adsorption equilibrium data was well correlated by the Langmuir equation.The adsorption was considerably affected by pH.In additio.The amount of BSA adsorbed onto the beads decreased with the increasing of aqueous phase ionic strength,so adsorbed BAS can be desorbed by adjusting pH orionic strength of the solution.

  19. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  20. Structure and properties of carbonaceous adsorbents obtained from furanformolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Y.B.; Oleinik, M.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1982-12-10

    We have shown previously (1) that a new copolycondensate based on petroleum residues -- fuaranformolite -- is a valuable carbon-containing raw material by the use of which carbonaceous adsorbents have been obtained. The latter can be used as catalysts and catalyst supports and also for the fine purification and separation of gases. The present paper is devoted to the study of the porous structure and sorption characteristics of the adsorbents obtained. High-strength carbonaceous adsorbents obtained from new copolymers of asphaltite -- fuaranformolites may, depending on the degree of burn-off, be used for the adsorption of poorly sorbed gases, of vapors of organic solvents, and of substances from solution. By varying the composition of the copolymer it is possible to direct the formation of the porous structure of the adsorbents in a desired manner.

  1. Sol-Gel Synthesized Adsorbents for Metal Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of organo-ceramic adsorbents have been synthesized by a sol-gel processing technique for metal ion extraction. These adsorbents generally have significantly high metal uptake capacities, good physical-chemical stabilities, and well-designed pore geometries compared to other pre-existing metalchelating ceramic-based adsorbents. This work describes the synthesis and evaluation of pyrazole and calix[4]arene crown adsorbents for selective separation of platinum, palladium, and gold and cesium ions,respectively, from solutions. These materials exhibit mesoporous properties with high surface areas and pore volumes. The sol-gel synthesis starting with precursor silanes and titania results in gel particles of desired pore characteristics and high capacity and stability. Characterization studies, such as adsorption isotherms, breakthrough curves for fixed bed operation, and material stability, show promising results for applications to metal sepation.

  2. TESTING OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water. Relevant direction for improving of quality of potable water is application of active carbons at various stages of water treatments. This work includes complex research dealing with testing of a broad spectrum of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide and nitrite ions from water. The role of the surface functional groups of carbonaceous adsorbents, their acid-basic properties, and the influence of the type of impregnated heteroatom (N, O, or metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, on removal of hydrogen sulfide species and nitrite ions have been researched. The efficiency of the catalyst obtained from peach stones by impregnation with Cu2+ ions of oxidized active carbon was established, being recommended for practical purposes to remove the hydrogen sulfide species from the sulfurous ground waters. Comparative analysis of carbonaceous adsorbents reveals the importance of surface chemistry for oxidation of nitrite ions.

  3. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  4. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil. The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long. The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  6. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  7. Distribution of adsorbed molecules in electronic nose sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, M.J.; Glidle, A.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2000-01-01

    Neutron reflectivity measurements of thin films of electropolymerised poly(pyrrole) show that swelling of these insoluble polymers does occur following vapour adsorption. The variation in swelling found for different vapours is correlated with corresponding changes in polymer conductivity and mas...... of adsorbed vapour. This correlation suggests that hydrophobic and hydrophilic vapour species adsorb into regions of the membrane with different solvating environments (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Marija D.; Nikolić Ivan R.; Milutinović Milica D.; Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.; Šiler-Marinković Slavica S.; Antonović Dušan G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was mo...

  9. Development of packaging technologies for microsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yu-feng; WANG Zhen-feng; WEI Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that packaging plays a very important role in developing microsystems. Packaging accounts for about 60%~80% of cost and function of a microsystem. Package is required to provide mechanical protection, media separation or coupling, signal conditioning, etc.

  10. 7 CFR 993.22 - Consumer package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 993.22 Section 993.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.22 Consumer package. Consumer package means: (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 65.130 Section 65.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means...

  12. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  13. Disposability Characteristics of Military Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-06

    packaging material but repre- sents only a minor segment of all packaging materials. In terms of U. S. tonnage, wood packaging materials account for...motftontttctl Anotywu of Solid Hoof COMactwn. David H. Markt and Jon C. Uabman (of Jonnt Hopkint Univartity), for tha U.S. Dapartmant of Hoatth, Education

  14. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination packaging. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in...

  15. 7 CFR 58.640 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 58.640 Section 58.640 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.640 Packaging. The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which will...

  16. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with the Food and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or...

  17. 9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or may bear any official identification or any...

  18. EDExpress Packaging Training, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Packaging is the process of finding the best combination of aid to meet a student's financial need for college, given limited resources and the institutional constraints that vary from school to school. This guide to packaging under the EDExpress software system outlines three steps to packaging. The first is determining the student's need for…

  19. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging requirements. 130.21 Section 130.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must...

  20. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging conditions. 355.20 Section 355.20 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 355.20 Packaging... accord with § 355.60. (b) Tight container packaging. To minimize moisture contamination, all...

  1. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  2. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 33.6 Section 33.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container...

  3. Insertion of coherence requests for debugging a multiprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-02-23

    A method and system are disclosed to insert coherence events in a multiprocessor computer system, and to present those coherence events to the processors of the multiprocessor computer system for analysis and debugging purposes. The coherence events are inserted in the computer system by adding one or more special insert registers. By writing into the insert registers, coherence events are inserted in the multiprocessor system as if they were generated by the normal coherence protocol. Once these coherence events are processed, the processing of coherence events can continue in the normal operation mode.

  4. A buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing timing optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2006-01-01

    A path-based timing optimization algorithm for buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing is proposed.Firstly, candidate buffer insertion location and buffer size for each branch in a given routing path were obtained via localized timing optimization. Then, through evaluating each potential insertion against design objectives, potential optimal buffer insertion locations and sizes for the whole routing tree were determined. At last, by removing redundant buffer insertion operations which do not maximize S ( so ), given timing requirements are finally fulfilled through minimum number of buffers.

  5. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  6. Adsorbates effects in H^- - Na/Cu(111) collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrim, Bogdana; Yu, Song

    2008-03-01

    The (111) faces of Cu, Ag and Au present a band gap that extends just below the vacuum level at the γ gpoint [1]. The effect is to forbid electrons with energies in a certain range to be transferred into the metal along the surface normal. Thus, the presence of a band gap should dramatically influence various experiments in ion-surface collisions involving electron capture or loss. In recent years, this topic received a great interest [2 -- 4]. Adsorbates deposition makes the electron dynamics at such surfaces to be even more complex. We analyze some interesting adsorbates effects: (1) projectile energy levels and widths are strongly perturbed when this approaches close to an adsorbate atom; (2) scattering by adsorbates may be used to laterally confine surface state electrons; (3) adsorbates may enhance the band gap effect; (4) adsorbates tend to couple the surface states to the bulk states. Results for the H^- projectile interacting with a Na/Cu(111) surface are reported. [1] E.V. Chulkov, V.M. Silkin and P.M. Echenique 1999 Surf. Sci. 437, 330. [2] A.G. Borisov, A.K. Kazansky and J.P. Gauyacq 1999 Phys. Rev. B. 59, 10935. [3] H.S. Chakraborty, T. Niederhausen and U. Thumm 2004 Phys. Rev. A. 70, 052903. [4] B. Bahrim, B. Makarenko and J.W. Rabalais 2005 Surface Sci. 594, 62.

  7. Cryogenic adsorber design in a helium refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhengyu; Li, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The cryogenic adsorber is specially designed to eliminate impurities in gaseous helium such as O2, and N2 which is normally difficult to remove, based on the reversible cryotrapping of impurities on an activated carbon bed. The coconut shell activated carbon is adopted because of its developed micropore structure and specific surface area. This activated carbon adsorption is mostly determined by the micropore structure, and the adsorption rate of impurities is inversely proportional to the square of the particle sizes. The active carbon absorber's maximum permissible flow velocity is 0.25 m/s. When the gas flow velocity increases, the adsorption diffusion rate of the adsorbent is reduced, because an increase in the magnitude of the velocity resulted in a reduced amount of heat transfer to a unit volume of impure gas. According to the numerical simulation of N2 adsorption dynamics, the appropriate void tower link speed and the saturated adsorption capacity are determined. Then the diameter and height of the adsorber are designed. The mass transfer length should be taken into account in the adsorber height design. The pressure decrease is also calculated. The important factors that influence the adsorber pressure decrease are the void tower speed, the adsorbed layer height, and the active carbon particle shape and size.

  8. Activity of lactoperoxidase when adsorbed on protein layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberska, Karolina; Svensson, Olof; Shleev, Sergey; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2008-09-15

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an enzyme, which is used as an antimicrobial agent in a number of applications, e.g., food technology. In the majority of applications LPO is added to a homogeneous product phase or immobilised on product surface. In the latter case, however, the measurements of LPO activity are seldom reported. In this paper we have assessed LPO enzymatic activity on bare and protein modified gold surfaces by means of electrochemistry. It was found that LPO rapidly adsorbs to bare gold surfaces resulting in an amount of LPO adsorbed of 2.9mg/m(2). A lower amount of adsorbed LPO is obtained if the gold surface is exposed to bovine serum albumin, bovine or human mucin prior to LPO adsorption. The enzymatic activity of the adsorbed enzyme is in general preserved at the experimental conditions and varies only moderately when comparing bare gold and gold surface pretreated with the selected proteins. The measurement of LPO specific activity, however, indicate that it is about 1.5 times higher if LPO is adsorbed on gold surfaces containing a small amount of preadsorbed mucin in comparison to the LPO directly adsorbed on bare gold.

  9. DNA packaging by lambda-like bacteriophages: mutations broadening the packaging specificity of terminase, the lambda-packaging enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, Michael; Reynolds, Erin; Schrock, Morgan; Sippy, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The DNA-packaging specificities of phages lambda and 21 depend on the specific DNA interactions of the small terminase subunits, which have support helix-turn-recognition helix-wing DNA-binding motifs. lambda-Terminase with the recognition helix of 21 preferentially packages 21 DNA. This chimeric terminase's ability to package lambdaDNA is reduced approximately 20-fold. Phage lambda with the chimeric terminase is unable to form plaques, but pseudorevertants are readily obtained. Some pseudorevertants have trans-acting suppressors that change codons of the recognition helix. Some of these codons appear to remove an unfavorable base-pair contact; others appear to create a novel nonspecific DNA contact. Helper-packaging experiments show that these mutant terminases have lost the ability to discriminate between lambda and 21 during DNA packaging. Two cis-acting suppressors affect cosB, the small subunit's DNA-binding site. Each changes a cosB(lambda)-specific base pair to a cosB(21)-specific base pair. These cosB suppressors cause enhanced DNA packaging by 21-specific terminase and reduce packaging by lambda-terminase. Both the cognate support helix and turn are required for strong packaging discrimination. The wing does not contribute to cosB specificity. Evolution of packaging specificity is discussed, including a model in which lambda- and 21-packaging specificities diverged from a common ancestor phage with broad packaging specificity.

  10. DNA Packaging by λ-Like Bacteriophages: Mutations Broadening the Packaging Specificity of Terminase, the λ-Packaging Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, Michael; Reynolds, Erin; Schrock, Morgan; Sippy, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The DNA-packaging specificities of phages λ and 21 depend on the specific DNA interactions of the small terminase subunits, which have support helix-turn-recognition helix-wing DNA-binding motifs. λ-Terminase with the recognition helix of 21 preferentially packages 21 DNA. This chimeric terminase's ability to package λDNA is reduced ∼20-fold. Phage λ with the chimeric terminase is unable to form plaques, but pseudorevertants are readily obtained. Some pseudorevertants have trans-acting suppressors that change codons of the recognition helix. Some of these codons appear to remove an unfavorable base-pair contact; others appear to create a novel nonspecific DNA contact. Helper-packaging experiments show that these mutant terminases have lost the ability to discriminate between λ and 21 during DNA packaging. Two cis-acting suppressors affect cosB, the small subunit's DNA-binding site. Each changes a cosBλ-specific base pair to a cosB21-specific base pair. These cosB suppressors cause enhanced DNA packaging by 21-specific terminase and reduce packaging by λ-terminase. Both the cognate support helix and turn are required for strong packaging discrimination. The wing does not contribute to cosB specificity. Evolution of packaging specificity is discussed, including a model in which λ- and 21-packaging specificities diverged from a common ancestor phage with broad packaging specificity. PMID:19841094

  11. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledresse, Adil

    The development of high capacity adsorbents with uniform porosity denoted 5%MP-HMS (5% Mercaptopropyl-Hexagonal Mesoporous Structure) to extract gold from noncyanide solutions is presented. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported. The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1.9 mmol/g (37% of the adsorbent weight) from gold chloride solutions (potassium tetrachloroaurate) and 2.9 mmol/g (57% of the adsorbent weight) from gold bromide solutions (potassium tetrabromoaurate) at pH = 2, is a noteworthy feature of these materials. This gold loading from [AuC4]- and [AuBr4 ]- solutions corresponds to a relative Au:S molar ratio of 2.5:1 and 3.8:1, respectively. These rates are significantly higher than the usual 1:1 (Au:S) ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material. The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as 99.9% recovery. Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics. The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium (saturation) in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride. The MP-HMS materials adsorption is significantly improved by agitation and the adsorption capacity of Au (III) ions increases with the decrease in pH. The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent (MP-HMS) maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) systems fail. The

  12. The bacteriophage DNA packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, Michael; Rao, Venigalla B

    2012-01-01

    Large dsDNA bacteriophages and herpesviruses encode a powerful ATP-driven DNA-translocating machine that encapsidates a viral genome into a preformed capsid shell or prohead. The key components of the packaging machine are the packaging enzyme (terminase, motor) and the portal protein that forms the unique DNA entrance vertex of prohead. The terminase complex, comprised of a recognition subunit (small terminase) and an endonuclease/translocase subunit (large terminase), cuts viral genome concatemers. The terminase-viral DNA complex docks on the portal vertex, assembling a motor complex containing five large terminase subunits. The pentameric motor processively translocates DNA until the head shell is full with one viral genome. The motor cuts the DNA again and dissociates from the full head, allowing head-finishing proteins to assemble on the portal, sealing the portal, and constructing a platform for tail attachment. A body of evidence from molecular genetics and biochemical, structural, and biophysical approaches suggests that ATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes in the packaging motor (large terminase) power DNA motion. Various parts of the motor subunit, such as the ATPase, arginine finger, transmission domain, hinge, and DNA groove, work in concert to translocate about 2 bp of DNA per ATP hydrolyzed. Powerful single-molecule approaches are providing precise delineation of steps during each translocation event in a motor that has a speed as high as a millisecond/step. The phage packaging machine has emerged as an excellent model for understanding the molecular machines, given the mechanistic parallels between terminases, helicases, and numerous motor proteins.

  13. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  14. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko [Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in `Bag in a Box` and some food containers. The {gamma} ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The {gamma} ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  15. Applications of superconductivity to packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, C.; Koger, H.; Ghoshal, U.; Gibson, D.A.; Smith, L.

    1989-05-01

    The potential applications of high temperature superconductors to packaging - interconnect technology - are reviewed. The authors caution against naive assumptions such as that it is obvious that superconductors will make computers run faster. On the other hand, they present examples in which the use of superconductors can significantly improve digital systems. These examples, however, involve much more than the simple substitution of superconductors for copper. They argue that imaginative uses of superconductors will eventually have a major impact on digital systems.

  16. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  17. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  18. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  19. The bacteriophage DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venigalla B; Feiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    An ATP-powered DNA translocation machine encapsidates the viral genome in the large dsDNA bacteriophages. The essential components include the empty shell, prohead, and the packaging enzyme, terminase. During translocation, terminase is docked on the prohead's portal protein. The translocation ATPase and the concatemer-cutting endonuclease reside in terminase. Remarkably, terminases, portal proteins, and shells of tailed bacteriophages and herpes viruses show conserved features. These DNA viruses may have descended from a common ancestor. Terminase's ATPase consists of a classic nucleotide binding fold, most closely resembling that of monomeric helicases. Intriguing models have been proposed for the mechanism of dsDNA translocation, invoking ATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes of portal or terminase powering DNA motion. Single-molecule studies show that the packaging motor is fast and powerful. Recent advances permit experiments that can critically test the packaging models. The viral genome translocation mechanism is of general interest, given the parallels between terminases, helicases, and other motor proteins.

  20. Examination of SR101 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-01

    Four SR101 shipping packages were removed from service and provided for disassembly and examination of the internal fiberboard assemblies. These packages were 20 years old, and had experienced varying levels of degradation. Two of the packages were successfully disassembled and fiberboard samples were removed from these packages and tested. Mechanical and thermal property values are generally comparable to or higher than baseline values measured on fiberboard from 9975 packages, which differs primarily in the specified density range. While baseline data for the SR101 material is not available, this comparison with 9975 material suggests that the material properties of the SR101 fiberboard have not significantly degraded.

  1. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  2. OPIUM : optimal package install/ uninstall manager

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Christopher James

    2008-01-01

    Linux distributions often include package management tools such as apt-get in Debian or yum in RedHat. Using information about package dependencies and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies on a system of already installed packages. Using off-the-shelf SAT solvers, pseudo-boolean solvers, and Integer Linear Programming solvers, we have developed a new package-management tool, called Opium, that improves on current tools in two ways: (1) Opium i...

  3. ARPREC: An arbitrary precision computation package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Yozo, Hida; Li, Xiaoye S.; Thompson, Brandon

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE floating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. This package is written in C++ code for high performance and broad portability and includes both C++ and Fortran-90 translation modules, so that conventional C++ and Fortran-90 programs can utilize the package with only very minor changes. This paper includes a survey of some of the interesting applications of this package and its predecessors.

  4. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  5. IMS Content Packaging v1.2 public draft specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The IMS Content Packaging Specification provides the functionality to describe and package learning materials, such as an individual course or a collection of courses, into interoperable, distributable packages. Content Packaging addresses the description, structure, and location of online learning

  6. Fabricating electrospun cellulose nanofibre adsorbents for ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Stewart R; Hardick, Oliver; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2015-01-09

    Protein separation is an integral step in biopharmaceutical manufacture with diffusion-limited packed bed chromatography remaining the default choice for industry. Rapid bind-elute separation using convective mass transfer media offers advantages in productivity by operating at high flowrates. Electrospun nanofibre adsorbents are a non-woven fibre matrix of high surface area and porosity previously investigated as a bioseparation medium. The effects of compression and bed layers, and subsequent heat treatment after electrospinning cellulose acetate nanofibres were investigated using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) or carboxylate (COO) functionalisations. Transbed pressures were measured and compared by compression load, COO adsorbents were 30%, 70% and 90% higher than DEAE for compressions 1, 5 and 10MPa, respectively, which was attributed to the swelling effect of hydrophilic COO groups. Dynamic binding capacities (DBCs) at 10% breakthrough were measured between 2000 and 12,000CV/h (2s and 0.3s residence times) under normal binding conditions, and DBCs increased with reactant concentration from 4 to 12mgBSA/mL for DEAE and from 10 to 21mglysozyme/mL for COO adsorbents. Comparing capacities of compression loads applied after electrospinning showed that the lowest load tested, 1MPa, yielded the highest DBCs for DEAE and COO adsorbents at 20mgBSA/mL and 27mglysozyme/mL, respectively. At 1MPa, DBCs were the highest for the lowest flowrate tested but stabilised for flowrates above 2000CV/h. For compression loads of 5MPa and 10MPa, adsorbents recorded lower DBCs than 1MPa as a result of nanofibre packing and reduced surface area. Increasing the number of bed layers from 4 to 12 showed decreasing DBCs for both adsorbents. Tensile strengths were recorded to indicate the mechanical robustness of the adsorbent and be related to packing the nanofibre adsorbents in large scale configurations such as pleated cartridges. Compared with an uncompressed adsorbent, compressions of 1, 5

  7. Perspectives on the Elements of Packaging Design : A Qualitative Study on the Communication of Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alervall, Viktoria; Saied, Juan Sdiq

    2013-01-01

    Background: In today’s markets almost all products we buy come packaged. We use packaging to protect, contain and identify products. Furthermore if this is executed in a skillful way consumers often choose products based on packaging. The work of a designer and marketer is therefore extremely valuable when it comes to the design of a package. Problem: How are packages used to communicate marketing information? Purpose: The focus of this thesis is to identify differences and similarities of a ...

  8. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing. Nowadays, packaging is proved to be one of the significant factors in the success of promoting product sale. However, there is a perceived gap with respect to the different aspects of packaging, in particular the graphics, design, and color of packaging. The current study provides...

  9. Elution by Le Chatelier's principle for maximum recyclability of adsorbents: applied to polyacrylamidoxime adsorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Vukovic, Sinisa; Dai, Sheng

    2016-05-28

    Amidoxime-based polymer adsorbents have attracted interest within the last decade due to their high adsorption capacities for uranium and other rare earth metals from seawater. The ocean contains an approximated 4-5 billion tons of uranium and even though amidoxime-based adsorbents have demonstrated the highest uranium adsorption capacities to date, they are still economically impractical because of their limited recyclability. Typically, the adsorbed metals are eluted with a dilute acid solution that not only damages the amidoxime groups (metal adsorption sites), but is also not strong enough to remove the strongly bound vanadium, which decreases the adsorption capacity with each cycle. We resolved this challenge by incorporating Le Chatelier's principle to recycle adsorbents indefinitely. We used a solution with a high concentration of amidoxime-like chelating agents, such as hydroxylamine, to desorb nearly a 100% of adsorbed metals, including vanadium, without damaging the metal adsorption sites and preserving the high adsorption capacity. The method takes advantage of knowing the binding mode between the amidoxime ligand and the metal and mimics it with chelating agents that then in a Le Chatelier's manner removes metals by shifting to a new chemical equilibrium. For this reason the method is applicable to any ligand-metal adsorbent and it will make an impact on other extraction technologies.

  10. Polymorphic Alu insertions among Mayan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, R J; Rojas, D P; Terreros, M C

    2007-01-01

    The Mayan homeland within Mesoamerica spans five countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. There are indications that the people we call the Maya migrated from the north to the highlands of Guatemala as early as 4000 B.C. Their existence was village-based and agricultural. The culture of these Preclassic Mayans owes much to the earlier Olmec civilization, which flourished in the southern portion of North America. In this study, four different Mayan groups were examined to assess their genetic variability. Ten polymorphic Alu insertion (PAI) loci were employed to ascertain the genetic affinities among these Mayan groups. North American, African, European and Asian populations were also examined as reference populations. Our results suggest that the Mayan groups examined in this study are not genetically homogeneous.

  11. Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, M. M.

    1998-09-03

    This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.

  12. Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pinto Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies.

  13. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008). The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.' The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water. The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  15. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  16. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  17. Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jun; Xie Ping; Xue Xiao-Guang; Wang Peng-Ye

    2009-01-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage φ29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the φ29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  18. EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-05050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-06

    Shipping package 9975-05050 was examined in K-Area following its identification as a high wattage package. Elevated temperature and fiberboard moisture content are key parameters that impact the degradation rate of fiberboard within 9975 packages in a storage environment. The high wattage of this package contributes significantly to component temperatures. After examination in K-Area, the package was provided to SRNL for further examination of the fiberboard assembly. The moisture content of the fiberboard was relatively low (compared to packages examined previously), but the moisture gradient (between fiberboard ID and OD surfaces) was relatively high, as would be expected for the high heat load. The cane fiberboard appeared intact and displayed no apparent change in integrity relative to a new package.

  19. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  20. Theory of the Golden Packaging Design Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玮

    2012-01-01

      Color as a design language, in the packaging design field with a strong visual impact, is not only the ele-ments of commodity packaging, is the soul of the sales package, has become an important means of advertising goods image one. And the golden packaging and packaging the most popular the most brilliant. Golden art design to use in packing, we must request in the system designer can grasp the basic theory on the basis of the color, pay attention to the market and adapt to the colour is applied law, gift packaging spirituality and attractive charm, so as to create a good packaging, arouse consumers' desire to buy, in order to meet the increasing material and cultural and spiritual needs.

  1. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  2. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AF Series Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Chris J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new family of high-surface-area polyethylene fiber adsorbents named the AF series was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series adsorbents were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/comonomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154-354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with sodium-based synthetic aqueous solution, spiked with 8 ppm uranium. The uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170 to 200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/comonomer molar ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through column experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning times at 80 °C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1 and 3 h of KOH conditioning at 80 °C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 1 to 3 h at 80 °C resulted in a 22-27% decrease in uranium adsorption capacity in seawater.

  3. Posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions: topographic anatomy and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide anatomical and morphometric basis of the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions in order to assist the creation of anatomical tibial tunnels, in the ligament surgical reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The topographic anatomy and morphometry of the posterior cruciate ligament's anterolateral and posteromedial bundles' tibial insertions were analyzed in 24 anatomical knee pieces. The pieces were photographed by a digital camera and the images obtained were studied by the software ImageJ, where the bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: In 54.2% of the knees the insertion' shape was concave; in most pieces (41.6% the form of insertion was oval. The average posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion total area was 88.33 ± 21.66 mm2; the average anterolateral bundle's tibial insertion area was 46.79 ± 14.10 mm2 and it was 41.54 ± 9.75 mm2 for the posteromedial bundle. CONCLUSIONS: The anterolateral bundle has a tibial insertion area larger than the posteromedial bundle; the insertion areas of those bundles in our study, were smaller than the ones found in the literature. The variations in the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion area suggest that there should be an indication for anatomical reconstructions of this ligament using single or double tibial tunnels according to individual characteristics.

  4. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large Packaging standards. (a) Each Large Packaging.... Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant. (b)...

  5. Analytical phase diagrams for colloids and non-adsorbing polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Gerard J; Tuinier, Remco

    2008-11-04

    We review the free-volume theory (FVT) of Lekkerkerker et al. [Europhys. Lett. 20 (1992) 559] for the phase behavior of colloids in the presence of non-adsorbing polymer and we extend this theory in several aspects: (i) We take the solvent into account as a separate component and show that the natural thermodynamic parameter for the polymer properties is the insertion work Pi(v), where Pi is the osmotic pressure of the (external) polymer solution and v the volume of a colloid particle. (ii) Curvature effects are included along the lines of Aarts et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matt. 14 (2002) 7551] but we find accurate simple power laws which simplify the mathematical procedure considerably. (iii) We find analytical forms for the first, second, and third derivatives of the grand potential, needed for the calculation of the colloid chemical potential, the pressure, gas-liquid critical points and the critical endpoint (cep), where the (stable) critical line ends and then coincides with the triple point. This cep determines the boundary condition for a stable liquid. We first apply these modifications to the so-called colloid limit, where the size ratio q(R)=R/a between the radius of gyration R of the polymer and the particle radius a is small. In this limit the binodal polymer concentrations are below overlap: the depletion thickness delta is nearly equal to R, and Pi can be approximated by the ideal (van't Hoff) law Pi=Pi(0)=phi/N, where phi is the polymer volume fraction and N the number of segments per chain. The results are close to those of the original Lekkerkerker theory. However, our analysis enables very simple analytical expressions for the polymer and colloid concentrations in the critical and triple points and along the binodals as a function of q(R). Also the position of the cep is found analytically. In order to make the model applicable to higher size ratio's q(R) (including the so-called protein limit where q(R)>1) further extensions are needed. We

  6. Lipid monolayers and adsorbed polyelectrolytes with different degrees of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Thomas; Ahrens, Heiko; Lawrenz, Frank; Gröning, Andreas; Nestler, Peter; Günther, Jens-Uwe; Helm, Christiane A

    2014-06-17

    Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) of different molecular weight M(w) is adsorbed to oppositely charged DODAB monolayers from dilute solutions (0.01 mmol/L). PSS adsorbs flatly in a lamellar manner, as is shown by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction (exception: PSS with M(w) below 7 kDa adsorbs flatly disordered to the liquid expanded phase). The surface coverage and the separation of the PSS chains are independent of PSS M(w). On monolayer compression, the surface charge density increases by a factor of 2, and the separation of the PSS chains decreases by the same factor. Isotherms show that on increase of PSS M(w) the transition pressure of the LE/LC (liquid expanded/liquid condensed) phase transition decreases. When the contour length exceeds the persistence length (21 nm), the transition pressure is low and constant. For low-M(w) PSS (<7 kDa) the LE/LC transition of the lipids and the disordered/ordered transition of adsorbed PSS occur simultaneously, leading to a maximum in the contour length dependence of the transition enthalpy. These findings show that lipid monolayers at the air/water interface are a suitable model substrate with adjustable surface charge density to study the equilibrium conformation of adsorbed polyelectrolytes as well as their interactions with a model membrane.

  7. The Effect of Windings on ADSL Transformer Insertion Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-na; LAN Zhong-wen; CHEN Sheng-ming; ZHANG Huai-wu; SU Hua

    2007-01-01

    Insertion loss (IL) is one of the important parameters of asymmetrical digital subscriber loop (ADSL) transformers. In different frequency bands, the factors that affect insertion loss are different. Windings mainly affect insertion loss in mid and high frequency bands.The effects of winding ways, winding wire diameter and winding turns on insertion loss were discussed. The presented experiment shows that the insertion loss of an ADSL transformer could be under 0.4 dB in mid frequency band when the winding is 30 turns, in which the ADSL transformer satisfies the requirement of total harmonic distortion (THD). Our experiments also show that the sandwich winding structure is better than the side by side winding structure and the twisted-pair winding structure, and the increase of winding diameter is one means to reduce insertion losses of an ADSL transformer in mid frequency band.

  8. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  9. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O' NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  10. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  11. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  12. Comparison of large-insert, small-insert and pyrosequencing libraries for metagenomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The development of DNA sequencing methods for characterizing microbial communities has evolved rapidly over the past decades. To evaluate more traditional, as well as newer methodologies for DNA library preparation and sequencing, we compared fosmid, short-insert shotgun and 454 pyrosequencing libraries prepared from the same metagenomic DNA samples. GC content was elevated in all fosmid libraries, compared with shotgun and 454 libraries. Taxonomic composition of the different libraries sugge...

  13. Effect of zinc and cerium addition on property of copper-based adsorbents for phosphine adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁平; 易红宏; 余琼粉; 唐晓龙; 杨丽萍; 叶智青

    2010-01-01

    A series of copper-based activated carbon (AC) adsorbents were prepared in order to investigate the effect of Zn, Ce addition on Cu-based AC adsorbent for phosphine (PH3) adsorption removal from yellow phosphorous tail gas. N2 adsorption isotherm and X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD) results suggested that the addition of Zn could increase the adsorbent ultramicropores, decrease the adsorbent supermicropores and the adsorbent average pore diameter. Therefore it enhanced the PH3 adsorption capacity. Appropriate amoun...

  14. Studies on The Adsorption Capacity for Bilirubin of The Adsorbent Chitosan-β-Cyclodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The adsorbent crosslinked chitosan-β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was prepared by the reaction of glutaraldehyde with chitosan and β-cyclodextrin. This type of adsorbent has high adsorption capacity for unconjugated bilirubin. The adsorption capacity was related to the β-CD content of the adsorbent; phosphate buffer concentration; temperature; pH value; ionic strength and the adsorbent beads. The results indicated that the chitosan-β-CD was a good adsorbent for unconjugated bilirubin with high capacity.

  15. Insertion torque versus mechanical resistance of mini-implants inserted in different cortical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata de Faria; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to measure insertion torque, tip mechanical resistance to fracture and transmucosal neck of mini-implants (MI) (Conexão Sistemas de PróteseT), as well as to analyze surface morphology. Methods Mechanical tests were carried out to measure the insertion torque of MIs in different cortical thicknesses, and tip mechanical resistance to fracture as well as transmucosal neck of MIs. Surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the mechanical tests. Results Values of mechanical resistance to fracture (22.14 N.cm and 54.95 N.cm) were higher and statistically different (P 0.05) to torsional fracture in the tip of MI (22.14 N.cm) when 3 mm cortical thickness (16.11 N.cm) and dense bone (23.95 N.cm) were used. Torsional fracture of the transmucosal neck (54.95 N.cm) was higher and statistically different (P implants tested presented adequate surface morphology. The resistance of mini-implants to fracture safely allows placement in 1 and 2-mm cortical thickness. However, in 3-mm cortical thickness and dense bones, pre-drilling with a bur is recommended before insertion. PMID:25162571

  16. Modeling of Porous Insertion Electrodes with Liquid Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Jacobsen, Torben; Atlung, Sven

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of porous insertion electrodes during charge or discharge is described by a simplified mathematicalmodel, accounting for the coupled transport in electrode and electrolyte phases. A numerical method to evaluate theresponse of this model to either controlled potential or controlled cu...... is a consequence of the mobility of the ions not inserted, hence the performance of this type of electrode isoptimized by choosing electrolytes with transport number as close to unity as possible for the inserted ion....

  17. Risk factors for development of complication following peripherally inserted central

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Aydın; Gülsen Korfalı; Suna Gören; Esra Mercanoğlu Efe; Bachri Ramadan Moustafa; Tolga Yazıcı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are inserted into central veins through the upper extremity veins. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate PICC procedures, related complications, their causes and factors influencing the success of the procedure during anaesthesia Methods: ‘Central Venous Catheterization Forms’ filled out for 850 patients in whom a PICC was inserted by residents during general anaesthesia between November 2009 and March 2013 in t...

  18. Development of Multifunctional Active Film and Its Application in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Shiitake Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Jiang; An, Duck Soon; Lee, Dong Sun

    2016-09-01

    Agar-based films with multiple functions (CO2 absorption, water vapor absorption, and antimicrobial activity) were developed, tested for their properties, and then applied to the packaging of fresh shiitake mushrooms as an insert label. The films were cast from an agar-based aqueous solution containing a dissolving plasticizer (glycerol), a CO2 absorbent (sodium carbonate [SC] alone or a combination of SC and sodium glycinate [SC-SG]), and a volatile antimicrobial agent (carvacrol [CRV]). The agar of the film matrix is designed to serve as a water vapor absorbent. The multifunctional films tended to have poor mechanical properties, with a hard texture and an opaque and yellowish color. The CO2 absorbent, either SC alone or SC-SG, affected CRV retention and release along with the CO2 and water vapor absorption behavior. Both films (SC-CRV and SC-SG-CRV films) showed good inhibitory effects against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . SC-CRV film had a higher and faster CO2 absorption property, higher retention and extended release of CRV, and lower and slower water vapor absorption and was assessed to be better suited for use in shiitake mushroom packaging. The packaging in which the SC-CRV film with an appropriate amount of CRV was used as an insert label was able to generate the desired atmosphere and less moisture condensation inside the package, producing the best preservation of quality in terms of mushroom color, firmness, flavor score, and microbial counts after 6 days of storage at 10°C. A tailored modified atmosphere packaging system using multifunctional film would be useful in the preservation of CO2-sensitive fresh commodities.

  19. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  20. Electronic and electrochemical doping of graphene by surface adsorbates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many potential applications of graphene require its precise and controllable doping with charge carriers. Being a two-dimensional material graphene is extremely sensitive to surface adsorbates, so its electronic properties can be effectively modified by deposition of different atoms and molecules. In this paper, we review two mechanisms of graphene doping by surface adsorbates, namely electronic and electrochemical doping. Although, electronic doping has been extensively studied and discussed in the literature, much less attention has been paid to electrochemical doping. This mechanism can, however, explain the doping of graphene by adsorbates for which no charge transfer is expected within the electronic doping model. In addition, electrochemical doping is in the origin of the hysteresis effects often observed in graphene-based field effect transistors when operating in the atmospheric environment.

  1. ADSORPTION OF DINITROPHENOLS ONTO POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS AND ITS MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIZuoqing; XUMancai; 等

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,6-dinitrophenol on non-polar and polar adsorbents was studied.The results showed that the equilibrium adsorption did not comply with the Langmuir equation and was not mono-layer adsorption .It is of interest to notice that the effect of pH on the adsorption of 2,4-or 2,6-dinitrophenol onto ADS-7 and ADS-21 was very small,The result is explained by hydrogen bonding interaction between 2,4-or 2,6-dinitrophenol and the adsorbent ADS-21.The large adsorption capacity of dinitrophenol onto ADS-21,which was about 500mg/g at an equilibrium concentration of 400mg/L,and the small dinitrophenol leakage in the effluent from ADS-21 column presented a good prospect for treatment of wastewater containing dinitrophenol with adsorbent ADS-21.

  2. Synthesis of silica adsorbent and its selective separation for flavone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqing ZHANG; Yahui ZHANG; Zhen QIN; Zhenrong MA

    2008-01-01

    One kind of built,in silica adsorbent, which has high adsorption selectivity to rutin, was synthesized using molecular imprinting technology by the following steps:synthesis of precursor from the reaction between water soluble rutin (as template molecule) and the functional monomer chloropropyltriethoxysilane, co,hydrolysis of the precursor and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), sol,gel aging process, and removal of template molecules. The results of adsorption experiment show that this adsorbent has a high adsorption capacity for rutin, and good adsorptionselectivity towards rutin even under the interference of a flavone with a similar structure. TEM photos suggest that nanocaves corresponding to rutin were formed inside the adsorbent while FTIR spectra indicate that new bond was generated during the recognition process.

  3. A Review of Adsorbents Used for Storm Water Runoff Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Agintas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, petroleum products, sediments and other pollutants get in the environment with insufficiently cleaned storm water runoff. Contaminated storm water runoff is one of the most significant sources for pollution in rivers, lakes and estuaries. Storm water runoff must be treated using not only simple methods but also using adsorption processes. Adsorbents can be natural organic, natural nonorganic and synthetic. Main adsorption characteristic, way of utilization and storm water runoff inflow rate, quantity and pollution need to be investigated when trying to use adsorbents in reasonably way. It is very important to treat storm water properly during the primary mechanical treatment otherwise adsorbents will act as mechanical filters.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  5. Insertional protein engineering for analytical molecular sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arís Anna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quantitative detection of low analyte concentrations in complex samples is becoming an urgent need in biomedical, food and environmental fields. Biosensors, being hybrid devices composed by a biological receptor and a signal transducer, represent valuable alternatives to non biological analytical instruments because of the high specificity of the biomolecular recognition. The vast range of existing protein ligands enable those macromolecules to be used as efficient receptors to cover a diversity of applications. In addition, appropriate protein engineering approaches enable further improvement of the receptor functioning such as enhancing affinity or specificity in the ligand binding. Recently, several protein-only sensors are being developed, in which either both the receptor and signal transducer are parts of the same protein, or that use the whole cell where the protein is produced as transducer. In both cases, as no further chemical coupling is required, the production process is very convenient. However, protein platforms, being rather rigid, restrict the proper signal transduction that necessarily occurs through ligand-induced conformational changes. In this context, insertional protein engineering offers the possibility to develop new devices, efficiently responding to ligand interaction by dramatic conformational changes, in which the specificity and magnitude of the sensing response can be adjusted up to a convenient level for specific analyte species. In this report we will discuss the major engineering approaches taken for the designing of such instruments as well as the relevant examples of resulting protein-only biosensors.

  6. Best practices and recommendations on policy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fearnley, Nils; Longva, Frode; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2011-01-01

    This report, which is the final deliverable of the Optic project (Optimal Policies for Transport In Combination), summarises two years of collaborative research into the policy process of combining individual measures into policy packages. Six stages of the policy process are identified. This rep...... remedial actions In addition, this report explores in further detail indicators and tools for the assessment of policy packages; the management of barriers; and issues of transferability.......This report, which is the final deliverable of the Optic project (Optimal Policies for Transport In Combination), summarises two years of collaborative research into the policy process of combining individual measures into policy packages. Six stages of the policy process are identified....... This report gives practical and general advice for each of these stages: 1. Define objectives and targets 2. Create an inventory of measures, identify potential primary measures and detect causal relationships 3. Assess policy package 4. Modify package 5. Package implementation 6. Evaluate effects, introduce...

  7. Grazing incidence ion erosion in the presence of adsorbates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, A; Michely, T [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Y; Urbassek, H M [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)], E-mail: redinger@ph2.uni-koeln.de

    2009-06-15

    The effect of a background pressure of adsorbable species on sputtering and surface damage in grazing incidence ion erosion of Pt(111) is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. The background pressure implies a partial surface coverage with adsorbates, which in turn causes an enhancement of the erosion rate by a factor of up to 40 compared to the clean case. Partial pressures of molecular oxygen and carbon monoxide were maintained during ion erosion with 5 keV Ar{sup +} for various grazing angles between 81 deg. and 87 deg. and temperatures ranging from 400 to 550 K.

  8. AQUATIC PHOTOLYSIS OF OXY-ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ADSORBED ON GOETHITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin C.

    1985-01-01

    Organic materials that will not absorb light at wavelengths longer than 295 nanometers (the solar wavelength cutoff) may nevertheless, undergo electron transfer reactions initiated by light. These reactions occur when the organic materials are adsorbed as ligand complexes to the surface of iron oxy-hydroxide (goethite). The adsorbed materials can be either inner or outer coordination sphere complexes. Goethite was chosen as the iron oxyhydroxide surface because it has the highest thermodynamic stability of any of the oxyhydroxides in water and it can be synthesized easily, with high purity.

  9. Microstructure of sepiolite and its adsorbing properties to dodecanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; LIANG Jin-sheng; TANG Qing-guo; MENG Jun-ping; WU Zi-zhao; LI Guo-sheng

    2006-01-01

    The acid treatment process,testing methods,microstrcture of sepiolite mineral materials and their adsorbing properties to dodecanol were studied respectively. The results show that by acid treatment to raw sepiolite thinner fibre clusters and single fibres turn up,the pore volume and the number of micropore and mesopore in sepiolite all increase,and adsorbing properties of modified sepiolite to dodecanol are improved significantly. In the combined materials of dodecanol and sepiolite prepared under the best condition,the proportion of dodecanol is 67.96%,and then it is much higher than the result calculated from traditional BET method.

  10. Electrochemical Studies of Paraquat Adsorbed onto Crystalline Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abderrahim EL MHAMMEDI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The carbon paste electrode (CPE has been used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of paraquat (PQ adsorbed onto synthesized hydroxyapatite phosphocalcique (HAP in K2SO4 (0.1M. The cyclic voltammetry results obtained corrobate with square wave voltammetry. The influence of variables such as the concentration of paraquat adsorbed onto apatite (PQ/HAP, and the potential scan rate was tested.X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP, AES were used for characterization of the apatite.

  11. Preparation of thiophilic paramagnetic adsorbent for separation of antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The micron-sized mierospheres with superparamagnetic property were synthesized with vinyl acetate and divinylbenzene by microsuspension polymerization. After the complete alcoholysis, these hydroxyl-functionalized microspheres were activated by divinylfone and modified with mercaptoethanol to prepare the thiophilic magnetic adsorbent, which was used to specifically isolate immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum. This thiophilic magnetic adsorbent performed an evident salt-dependent adsorption behavior for IgG. Due to their salt-promoted adsorption towards IgG under high salt concentration, the absorbed antibodies could be extracted in low salt concentration with high purity.

  12. Hydrogen molecule on lithium adsorbed graphene: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Gupta, Shuchi; Gaganpreet, Dharamvir, Keya

    2016-05-01

    Electronic structure calculations for the adsorption of molecular hydrogen on lithium (Li) decorated and pristine graphene have been studied systematically using SIESTA code [1] within the framework of the first-principle DFT under the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)[2], including spin polarization. The energy of adsorption of hydrogen molecule on graphene is always enhanced by the presence of co-adsorbed lithium. The most efficient adsorption configuration is when H2 is lying parallel to lithium adsorbed graphene which is in contrast to its adsorption on pristine graphene (PG) where it prefers perpendicular orientation.

  13. High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

  14. micromap: A Package for Linked Micromaps

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn C. Payton; Michael G. McManus; Weber, Marc H.; Anthony R. Olsen; Thomas M. Kincaid

    2015-01-01

    The R package micromap is used to create linked micromaps, which display statistical summaries associated with areal units, or polygons. Linked micromaps provide a means to simultaneously summarize and display both statistical and geographic distributions by linking statistical summaries to a series of small maps. The package contains functions dependent on the ggplot2 package to produce a row-oriented graph composed of different panels, or columns, of information. These panels at a minimum t...

  15. Food Packaging Permeability Behaviour: A Report

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Siracusa

    2012-01-01

    The use of polymer materials in food packaging field is one of the largest growing market area. Actually the optimization behaviour of packaging permeability is of crucial importance, in order to extend the food shelf-life and to reach the best engineering solution. Studying the permeability characterization of the different polymer material (homogeneous and heterogeneous polymer system) to the different packaging gases, in different environmental condition, is crucial to understand if the se...

  16. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry;

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  17. Package Hermeticity Testing with Thermal Transient Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vass-Varnai, Andras

    2008-01-01

    The rapid incursion of new technologies such as MEMS and smart sensor device manufacturing requires new tailor-made packaging designs. In many applications these devices are exposed to humid environments. Since the penetration of moisture into the package may result in internal corrosion or shift of the operating parameters, the reliability testing of hermetically sealed packages has become a crucial question in the semiconductor industry.

  18. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  19. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  20. Best Practice in Policy Package Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Florian; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable focuses on the identification and analysis of best practice examples of policy package design. For this purpose a methodology is developed that allows the systematic analysis of both national and EU policy packages. Eight packages were selected and analysed, highlighting...... the factors which supported the design and implementation process in each case. The results of the analysis show which factors led to these cases to be considered best practice. In addition, factors are identified which are not yet part of the generic policy packaging framework presented in earlier OPTIC...

  1. Simulation and Training Package on Corex Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A software package has been developed for simulation on the Corex process. The simulation and training package on the process of shaft furnace using Corex off gas were introduced. The package consists of three main modules, namely the numerical simulation, the system modeling and optimization, and the training module, which are integrated with graphical interfaces. In addition, the equipment starting and stopping operation and typical trouble-shooting were also included in the package, whereby a practical environment can be established for training of operation and management stuff.

  2. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  3. actuar: An R Package for Actuarial Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dutang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available actuar is a package providing additional Actuarial Science functionality to the R statistical system. The project was launched in 2005 and the package is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network since February 2006. The current version of the package contains functions for use in the fields of loss distributions modeling, risk theory (including ruin theory, simulation of compound hierarchical models and credibility theory. This paper presents in detail but with few technical terms the most recent version of the package.

  4. Hermetic Packages For Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Carpenter, Alain; Wamhof, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Advanced hermetic packages developed to house electronic circuits operating at frequencies from 1 to 100 gigahertz and beyond. Signals coupled into and out of packages electromagnetically. Provides circuit packages small, lightweight, rugged, and inexpensive in mass production. Packages embedded in planar microstrip and coplanar waveguide circuits, in waveguide-to-planar and planar-to-waveguide circuitry, in waveguide-to-waveguide circuitry, between radiating (antenna) elements, and between planar transmission lines and radiating elements. Other applications in automotive, communication, radar, remote sensing, and biomedical electronic systems foreseen.

  5. New Polymer Materials for Microelectronics Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Researchers at the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS) have made breakthrough progress in developing the manufacturing technology of advanced polymer materials for microelectronics packaging applications. The advanced integrated circuit (IC) packaging polymer materials, including photoimageable polyimide resins and liquid epoxy underfills, are a key issue for FC-BGA/CSP(flip chip-ball grill array/chip scale packaging) which is the main stream for the next generation of microelectronics devices. With the down-sizing, thinning and high I/O (input/output) of IC chips, microelectronics packaging is now facing a big technology challenge.

  6. Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/ Packaging Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/Packaging laboratories provide research level semiconductor processing equipment and facilities that do not require a full...

  7. Microbial control by packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2002-03-01

    Since early man first used a variety of natural containers to store and eat foods, significant developments in food packaging materials have provided the means to suppress microbial growth as well as protect foods from external microbial contamination. Throughout this progression, packaging materials have been developed specifically to prevent the deterioration of foods resulting from exposure to air, moisture, or pH changes associated with the food or the surrounding atmosphere. Both flexible and rigid packaging materials, alone or in combination with other preservation methods, have been developed to offer the necessary barrier, inactivation, and containment properties required for successful food packaging. Examples of flexible packaging used to inactivate microorganisms associated with foods include controlled atmosphere, vacuum, modified atmosphere, active, and edible packaging. Additionally, the combination of rigid packaging materials made from metal, glass, or plastic with heat provides the most effective and widely used method for inactivating microorganisms. As with all food products, it is necessary to integrate a HACCP-based program to assure quality throughout the packaging operation. In addition to packaging improvements, other novel technologies include the development of detectors for oxygen levels, bacterial toxins, and microbial growth, or the integration of time-temperature indicators for detection of improper handling or storage.

  8. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  9. Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle insertion into gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Youri R.J.; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion into soft tissue is one of the most common medical interventions. This study provides macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle–gel interactions. A gelatin mixture is used as a soft-tissue simulant. For the macroscopic studies, system parameters, such as insertion velocity,

  11. 17 CFR 240.12b-14 - Riders; inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riders; inserts. 240.12b-14 Section 240.12b-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-14 Riders; inserts. Riders shall not be used. If...

  12. 17 CFR 270.8b-14 - Riders; inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riders; inserts. 270.8b-14 Section 270.8b-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-14 Riders; inserts. Riders shall not be...

  13. 17 CFR 260.7a-20 - Riders; inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riders; inserts. 260.7a-20...) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-20 Riders; inserts. Riders shall not be used. If the application, statement or report is typed on a printed form, and...

  14. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  15. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  16. Assessing Information on Food Packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Smith, Viktor; Zlatev, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents an experimental study which aims at assessing the potentially misleading effect of graphic elements on food packaging. We call these elements potentially misleading elements (PMEs) as they can give customers false expectations. They are either (a) highlighted numerical...... found evidence for a positive influence on a later explicit justification for the specific choice. Research limitations/implications: This study was conducted in a lab environment and solely related to health-related decisions. We still need to know if these findings are transferable to real in......-store decisions and other needs like high quality or low price. This calls for further research. Practical implications: The topic is important for food companies and it might become a priority in managing brand equity, combining consumer preferences, loyalty, and communicative fairness. Originality/value: Using...

  17. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  18. Analysis of the Sherlock II tip location system for inserting peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Valdis; Kumar, Abhishek; Shukla, Pratik A; Contractor, Sohail; Rutan, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently placed at the bedside. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Sherlock II tip location system (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT), which offers electromagnetic detection of the PICC tip to assist the operator in guiding the tip to a desired location. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had a bedside PICC using the Sherlock II tip location system. Three hundred seventy-five of 384 patients (97.7%) had the catheter tip positioned appropriately. Our results suggest that the Sherlock II tip location system is an efficacious system for bedside PICC placement.

  19. 49 CFR 173.24a - Additional general requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter. (b) Non-bulk packaging filling limits. (1) A single or composite non-bulk packaging may be filled... material may remain on the outside of a package after filling. (c) Mixed contents. (1) An outer non-bulk... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  20. PREPARATION AND ADSORBABILITY OF DEXTRAN MICROSPHERES WITH UNIFORM DIAMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-sheng Yao; Wen-xia Gao; Jing Sun; Ya-hua You

    2005-01-01

    The method of preparing uniform dextran microspheres with a narrow diameter distribution was introduced and the adsorbability of these microspheres was evaluated. The microspheres were prepared in W/O microemulsion using 0.5% dextran solution as the aqueous phase and n-hexane as the oil phase. Characteristics of the prepared dextran microspheres were examined with laser light blocking technique, optical microscope and ultraviolet spectrometer. The results show that the prepared dextran microspheres have uniform morphology and narrow diameter distribution, nearly 92% of them having a diameter of 56.6 μm. In vitro evaluation of adsorbability, wet dextran microspheres have good adsorption of 98.32 mg/g of model drug methylene blue in 20.86 mg/L methylene blue solution at 25℃. The adsorption of dried dextran microspheres under the same condition is 132.15 mg/g, which is even higher. And the adsorbability of dextran microspheres has significant relationship with the concentration of methylene blue and temperature. The adsorbability is better at lower temperature and higher concentration of methylene blue.

  1. High-capacity hydrogen storage in Al-adsorbed graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Z. M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2010-05-01

    A high-capacity hydrogen storage medium—Al-adsorbed graphene—is proposed based on density-functional theory calculations. We find that a graphene layer with Al adsorbed on both sides can store hydrogen up to 13.79wt% with average adsorption energy -0.193eV/H2 . Its hydrogen storage capacity is in excess of 6wt% , surpassing U. S. Department of Energy (DOE’s) target. Based on the binding-energy criterion and molecular-dynamics calculations, we find that hydrogen storage can be recycled at near ambient conditions. This high-capacity hydrogen storage is due to the adsorbed Al atoms that act as bridges to link the electron clouds of the H2 molecules and the graphene layer. As a consequence, a two-layer arrangement of H2 molecules is formed on each side of the Al-adsorbed graphene layer. The H2 concentration in the hydrogen storage medium can be measured by the change in the conductivity of the graphene layer.

  2. Analytical phase diagrams for colloids and non-adsorbing polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, G.J.; Tuinier, R.

    2008-01-01

    We review the free-volume theory (FVT) of Lekkerkerker et al. [Europhys. Lett. 20 (1992) 5591 for the phase behavior of colloids in the presence of non-adsorbing polymer and we extend this theory in several aspects: (i) We take the solvent into account as a separate component and show that the natur

  3. HYDROGEN BONDING IN POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS BASED ADSORPTION AND SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMancai; SHIZuoqing; 等

    2000-01-01

    After a concise introduction of hydrogen bonding effects in solute-solute and solute-solvent bonding,the design of polymeric adsorbents based on hydrogen bonding ,selectivity in adsorption through hydrogen bonding,and characterization of hydrogen bonding in adsorption and separation were reviewed with 28 references.

  4. Gelation of polymers adsorbed at a water-air interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Bonekamp, B.C.; Fraaye, J.G.E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Rheological data on air—water interfaces with adsorbed water-soluble polymer layers are presented which prove the existence of a surface gel. The gel is found to behave thixotropically and its yield stress is determined under various conditions. The gelation seems to be related to the lack of relaxa

  5. Chiral switching by spontaneous conformational change in adsorbed organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Sigrid; Busse, Carsten; Petersen, Lars; Rauls, Eva; Hammer, Bjørk; Gothelf, Kurt V; Besenbacher, Flemming; Linderoth, Trolle R

    2006-02-01

    Self-assembly of adsorbed organic molecules is a promising route towards functional surface nano-architectures, and our understanding of associated dynamic processes has been significantly advanced by several scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigations. Intramolecular degrees of freedom are widely accepted to influence ordering of complex adsorbates, but although molecular conformation has been identified and even manipulated by STM, the detailed dynamics of spontaneous conformational change in adsorbed molecules has hitherto not been addressed. Molecular surface structures often show important stereochemical effects as, aside from truly chiral molecules, a large class of so-called prochiral molecules become chiral once confined on a surface with an associated loss of symmetry. Here, we investigate a model system in which adsorbed molecules surprisingly switch between enantiomeric forms as they undergo thermally induced conformational changes. The associated kinetic parameters are quantified from time-resolved STM data whereas mechanistic insight is obtained from theoretical modelling. The chiral switching is demonstrated to enable an efficient channel towards formation of extended homochiral surface domains. Our results imply that appropriate prochiral molecules may be induced (for example, by seeding) to assume only one enantiomeric form in surface assemblies, which is of relevance for chiral amplification and asymmetric heterogenous catalysis.

  6. Enhanced encapsulation of metoprolol tartrate with carbon nanotubes as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garala, Kevin; Patel, Jaydeep; Patel, Anjali; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-12-01

    A highly water-soluble antihypertensive drug, metoprolol tartrate (MT), was selected as a model drug for preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-impregnated ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres. The present investigation was aimed to increase encapsulation efficiency of MT with excellent adsorbent properties of MWCNTs. The unique surface area, stiffness, strength and resilience of MWCNTs have drawn much anticipation as carrier for highly water-soluble drugs. Carbon nanotubes drug adsorbate (MWCNTs:MT)-loaded EC microspheres were further optimized by the central composite design of the experiment. The effects of independent variables (MWCNTs:MT and EC:adsorbate) were evaluated on responses like entrapment efficiency (EE) and t 50 (time required for 50% drug release). The optimized batch was compared with drug alone EC microspheres. The results revealed high degree of improvement in encapsulation efficiency for MWCNTs:MT-loaded EC microspheres. In vitro drug release study exhibited complete release form drug alone microspheres within 15 h, while by the same time only 50-60% drug was released for MWCNTs-impregnated EC microspheres. The optimized batch was further characterized by various instrumental analyses such as scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results endorse encapsulation of MWCNTs:MT adsorbate inside the matrix of EC microspheres, which might have resulted in enhanced encapsulation and sustained effect of MT. Hence, MWCNTs can be utilized as novel carriers for extended drug release and enhanced encapsulation of highly water-soluble drug, MT.

  7. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  8. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AI Series Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, R. T.; Janke, C. J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new series of adsorbents (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole to mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with high degrees of grafting (DOG) varying from 110 to 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 5 wt % hydroxylamine at 80 °C for 72 h. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with prescreening brine spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacities in prescreening ranged from 171 to 187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of percent DOG. The performance of the adsorbents with respect to uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also investigated using flow-throughcolumn testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Three hours of KOH conditioning led to higher uranium uptake than 1 h of conditioning. The adsorbent AI11, containing AN and VPA at the mole ratio of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for the highest uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in seawater flow-through-columns. The rate of vanadium adsorption over uranium linearly increased throughout the 56 days of exposure. The total mass of vanadium uptake was ~5 times greater than uranium after 56 days.

  9. Organobentonites as multifunctional adsorbents of organic and inorganic water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović-Jovičić Natаša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a low cost, easy to synthesize and efficient adsorbent for the simultaneous adsorption of both organic and inorganic pollutants (including textile dyes, toxic metals etc.. The starting material, domestic bentonite clay from Bogovina was modified with amounts of hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0 times of the value of the cation exchange capacity value. The organobentonites were tested as adsorbents in a three-dye-containing solution, a three-component solution of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ and a hexa- component solution containing all investigated dyes and toxic metal cations. The used adsorbents showed the highest affinity toward Acid Yellow 99 and Ni2+ ions. Dye adsorption was enhanced in the presence of toxic metal cations, while the adsorption of all toxic cations from the hexa-component solution was lower than from the three-component solution containing only toxic cations. The synthesized hexadecyltrimethylammonium bentonite could be regarded as an efficient multifunctional adsorbent for the investigated type of water pollutants.

  10. Interactions between adsorbed macromolecules : measurements on emulsions and liquid films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the factors, determining the inter- and intramolecular interactions between adsorbed macromolecules. To that end several experimental and theoretical approaches were followed, using well-defined systems. It was shown that these interactions could c

  11. The use of molecular adsorbers for spacecraft contamination control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.; Chen, P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Triolo, J.; Carosso, N. [Swales and Associates, Inc., 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In recent years, the technologies associated with contamination control in space environments have grown increasingly more sophisticated, due to the ever expanding need for improving and enhancing optical and thermal control systems for spacecraft. The presence of contaminants in optical and thermal control systems can cause serious degradation of performance and/or impact the lifetime of a spacecraft. It has been a goal of the global contamination community to develop new and more effective means for controlling contamination for spacecraft. This paper describes an innovative method for controlling molecular contaminants in space environments, via the utilization of Molecular Adsorbers. It has been found that the incorporation of appropriate molecular adsorbing materials within spacecraft volumes will decrease the overall contamination level within the cavity, thereby decreasing the potential for contaminants to migrate to more critical areas. In addition, it has been found that the placement of a Molecular Adsorber at a vent location actually serves as a molecular {open_quote}{open_quote}trap{close_quote}{close_quote} for the contaminants that would have otherwise been vented into the external spacecraft environment. This paper summarizes the theory, basic design, planned applications and significant results already obtained during the investigation of using Molecular Adsorbers for spacecraft contamination control purposes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Activity of alkaline phosphatase adsorbed and grafted on "polydopamine" films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    The oxidation of dopamine in slightly basic solutions and in the presence of oxygen as an oxidant allows for the deposition of dopamine-eumelanin ("polydopamine") films on almost all kinds of materials allowing for an easy secondary functionalization. Molecules carrying nucleophilic groups like thiols and amines can be easily grafted on those films. Herein we show that alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as a model enzyme, adsorbs to "polydopamine" films and part of the adsorbed enzyme is rapidly desorbed in contact with Tris buffer. However a significant part of the enzyme remains irreversibly adsorbed and keeps some enzymatic activity for at least 2 weeks whereas ALP adsorbed on quartz slides is rapidly and quantitatively deactivated. In addition we estimated the Michaelis constant Km of the enzyme irreversibly bound to the "polydopamine" film. The Michaelis constant, and hence the affinity constant between paranitrophenol phosphate and ALP are almost identical between the enzyme bound on the film and the free enzyme in solution. Complementarily, it was found that "polydopamine" films display some phosphatase like catalytic activity.

  13. Laboratory retention of vapor-phase PAHs using XAD adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Yu, Yaochien Y.; Chen, Minsung S.

    This investigation focuses on the retention of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on XAD (-2, -4, and -16) resins, which is crucial for estimating PAH gas/particle partition coefficients. The XAD resins were found to exhibit higher specific retention volumes ( Vg, net gas-phase retention volume per unit weight (gram) of sorbent) than PUF for some 3-ring PAHs at 20 oC. The 3-ring compounds broke through the XAD adsorbents more easily than the 4-ring compounds at constant temperature. For the equation, Log Vg= m log PL+ b ( PL: subcooled liquid vapor pressure) the average m values were approximately -0.2 and -0.3 at 20 and 40 oC, respectively. Moreover, the Vg values were lower at 40 oC than at 20 oC for each PAH compound. The XAD-4 appeared to have a greater Vg value (adsorbent weight based) for each compound among the adsorbents at 40 oC. It was possible that PAH micropore adsorption dominated on XAD-4, different from the predominance of the PAH surface adsorption on the other two adsorbents.

  14. Comparison of natural adsorbents for metal removal from acidic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J F; Shen, S; Meunier, N; Tyagi, R D

    2003-02-01

    Adsorption tests were carried out in acidic synthetic solutions (pH 2.0) using 20 g l(-1) of various natural adsorbents and 0.25 mM of 11 different metals. In decreasing order, the most efficient adsorbents tested were: oyster shells, cedar bark, vermiculite, cocoa shells and peanut shells. In contrast, weak metal adsorption was demonstrated by: red cedar wood, peat moss, pine wood, corn cobs and perlite. Metal adsorption capacities in acidic synthetic solution followed the order: Pb2+> Cr3+> Cu2+> Fe2+> Al3+> Ni2+> Cd2+ > Mn2+ > Zn2+ > Ca2+, Mg2+. Alkaline treatment (0.75 M NaOH) increased the effectiveness of metal removal for the majority of adsorbents. In contrast, acid treatment (0.75 M H2SO4) either reduced or did not affect the adsorption capacity of the materials tested. Finally, oyster shells, red cedar wood, vermiculite, cocoa shells and peanut shells, were effective natural adsorbents for the selective recovery of lead and trivalent chromium from acidic effluent.

  15. Welding of titanium and stainless steel using the composite insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Mali, V. I.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Drozdov, V. O.; Malyutina, Y. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper concerns the possibility of obtaining a lasting permanent joint of dissimilar metals: technically pure titanium and stainless steel using laser welding and an intermediate composite insert. The insert was a four-layer composition of plates of steel, copper, niobium, and titanium welded by explosion. The material layers used in the insert prevented the molten steel and titanium from mixing, which excluded the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds, such as FeTi and Fe2Ti. The optimization of explosion welding parameters provided a high quality of the four-layer composition and the absence of defects in the area of the joint of insert plates. The results of strength tests showed that values of the ultimate strength and yield of the permanent joint with the composite insert welded by explosion are comparable to the strength characteristics of titanium.

  16. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  17. Results of testing various natural gas desulfurization adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Gordon

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the results of testing many commercially available and some experimental sulfur adsorbents. The desired result of our testing was to find an effective method to reduce the quantity of sulfur in natural gas to less than 100 ppb volume (0.1 ppm volume). An amount of 100 ppb sulfur is the maximum limit permitted for Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The tested adsorbents include some that rely only on physical adsorption such as activated carbon, some that rely on chemisorption such as heated zinc oxide, and some that may use both processes. The testing was performed on an engineering scale with beds larger than those used for typical laboratory tests. All tests were done at about 3.45 barg (50 psig). The natural gas used for testing was from the local pipeline in Pittsburgh and averaged 6 ppm volume total sulfur. The primary sulfur species were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isopropyl mercaptan, tertiary butyl mercaptan, and tetrahydrothiophene. Some tests required several months to achieve a sulfur breakthrough of the bed. It was found that DMS always came through a desulfurizer bed first, independent of adsorption process. Since the breakthrough of DMS always exceeds the 100 ppb SOFC sulfur limit before other sulfurs were detected, an index was created to rate the adsorbents in units of ppm DMS × absorbent bed volume. This index is useful for calculating the expected adsorbent bed lifetime before sulfur breakthrough when the inlet natural gas DMS content is known. The adsorbents that are included in these reports were obtained from suppliers in the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, and England. Three activated carbons from different suppliers were found to have identical performance in removing DMS. One of these activated carbons was operated at four different space velocities and again showed the same performance. When using activated carbon as the basis of comparison for other adsorbents, three high-performance adsorbents

  18. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  19. Health Instruction Packages: Specific Nursing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Clarice; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in a set of five learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in a variety of clinical skills. The first module, "Down the Tube: Insertion of a Nasogastric Tube" by Clarice Bates, describes materials and procedures used to insert a nasogastric tube through the nose and esophagus and into…

  20. Natural material adsorbed onto a polymer to enhance immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaque AP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula Barcelos Reinaque,1 Eduardo Luzía França,2 Edson Fredulin Scherer,3 Mayra Aparecida Côrtes,1 Francisco José Dutra Souto,4 Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França51Post Graduate Program in Material Science, 2Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, 3Post Graduate Program in Material Science, Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, 4Faculty of Medical Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, 5Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, MT, BrazilBackground: In this study, we produced poly(ethylene glycol (PEG microspheres of different sizes and adsorbing a medicinal plant mixture, and verified their effect in vitro on the viability, superoxide production, and bactericidal activity of phagocytes in the blood.Methods: The medicinal plant mixture was adsorbed onto PEG microspheres and its effects were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.Results: Adsorption of the herbal mixture onto the PEG microspheres was achieved and the particles were internalized by phagocytes. PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture stimulated superoxide release, and activated scavenging and microbicidal activity in phagocytes. No differences in functional activity were observed when the phagocytes were not incubated with PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture.Conclusion: This system may be useful for the delivery of a variety of medicinal plants and can confer additional protection against infection. The data reported here suggest that a polymer adsorbed with a natural product is a treatment alternative for enhancing immune function.Keywords: natural product, polymer, adsorption, immune function, phagocytes

  1. Microporous carbonaceous adsorbents for CO2 separation via selective adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Selective adsorption of CO2 has important implications for many energy and environment-related processes, which require the separation of CO2 from other gases (e.g. N2 and CH4) with high uptakes and selectivity. The development of high-performance adsorbents is one of the most promising solutions to the success of these processes. The present review is focused on the state-of-the-art of carbon-based (carbonaceous) adsorbents, covering microporous inorganic carbons and microporous organic polymers, with emphasis on the correlation between their textural and compositional properties and their CO2 adsorption/separation performance. Special attention is given to the most recently developed materials that were not covered in previous reviews. We summarize various effective strategies (N-doping, surface functionalization, extra-framework ions, molecular design, and pore size engineering) for enhancing the CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity of carbonaceous adsorbents. Our discussion focuses on CO2/N2 separation and CO2/CH4 separation, while including an introduction to the methods and criteria used for evaluating the performance of the adsorbents. Critical issues and challenges regarding the development of high-performance adsorbents as well as some overlooked facts and misconceptions are also discussed, with the aim of providing important insights into the design of novel carbonaceous porous materials for various selective adsorption based applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  3. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  4. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  5. 7 CFR 29.6030 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 29.6030 Section 29.6030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6030 Package. A hogshead, tierce, case, bale, or other...

  6. 7 CFR 29.30 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 29.30 Section 29.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.30 Package. A hogshead, tierce, case, bale, or other...

  7. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  8. Performing Remarkable Feats with Presentation Graphics Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1994-01-01

    Describes easy-to-use, easy-to-learn dedicated graphics packages for developing slide presentations shown directly from computers. A general description of the features of five packages and suggestions for software selection are provided. A sidebar provides graphics tips, such as the use of color, typefaces, and formatting, for developing…

  9. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7.13) will be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging...

  10. 40 CFR 262.30 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under 49 CFR parts 173, 178, and 179. ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packaging. 262.30 Section 262.30... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.30 Packaging....

  11. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  12. The power of symbolic packaging cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Packaging can be considered as an element of communication in the marketplace. By communicating through packaging, marketers are able to appeal to consumers at the most crucial moment in the consumer decision journey: the point of sale. At the point of sale, consumers are able to consider the purcha

  13. Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the development of technology-assisted problem solving (TAPS) packages at University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). The project is the further work of the development of interactive multimedia based packages targeted for students having problems in understanding the subject of engineering mechanics dynamics.…

  14. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  15. Reliability of industrial packaging for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Christensen, Carsten; Weichel, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Packaging concepts for silicon-based micromachined sensors exposed to harsh environments are explored. By exposing the sensors directly to the media and applying protection at the wafer level the packaging and assembly will be simplified as compared to conventional methods of fabrication. Protect...

  16. Long-term value of packaging design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中琼

    2014-01-01

    In science and technology more and more developed today, all the things around us are changing with each passing day. Now as the packaging design is a comprehensive discipline, for example, is to give new meaning. How to make its value is permanent? We raise these issues reflects the development trend of packaging design.

  17. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  18. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  19. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. A. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  20. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  1. Modeling of adsorber/desorber/catalytic reactor system for ethylene oxide removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELJKO B. GRBAVCIC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of ethylene oxide (EtO in a combined system adsorber/desorber/catalytic reactor has been investigated. The combined system was a modified draft tube spouted bed reactor loaded with Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The annular region was divided into two sectons, the “hot” section contained about 7 % of catalyst and it behaved as a desorber and catalytic incinerator, while the “cold” section, with the rest of the catalyst, behaved as a sorber. The catalyst particles were circulated between the two sections by use of a draft tube riser. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD program package FLUENT was used for simulations of the operation of the combined system. In addition, a one-dimensional numerical model for the operation of the packed bed reactor was compared with the corresponding FLUENT calculations. The results of the FLUENT simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental observations, as well as with the results of the one-dimensional numerical simulations.

  2. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  3. Optimization of Train Trip Package Operation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Train trip package transportation is an advanced form of railway freight transportation, realized by a specialized train which has fixed stations, fixed time, and fixed path. Train trip package transportation has lots of advantages, such as large volume, long distance, high speed, simple forms of organization, and high margin, so it has become the main way of railway freight transportation. This paper firstly analyzes the related factors of train trip package transportation from its organizational forms and characteristics. Then an optimization model for train trip package transportation is established to provide optimum operation schemes. The proposed model is solved by the genetic algorithm. At last, the paper tests the model on the basis of the data of 8 regions. The results show that the proposed method is feasible for solving operation scheme issues of train trip package.

  4. Service Packages – Attractiveness Has Many Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bondos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to identify the impact of the customer age (especially the Baby boomers generation and the X and the Y generation on the assessment of incentives to buy service package. Belonging to different age generations seems to be important for the effectiveness of service packages sales – the entrance by the consumers in subsequent phases of the life cycle is related to their perception of the market offer. The starting point for the empirical part of the article was to analyze the different average scores attractiveness of the ten packages service features (incentives to purchase. Then, using multidimensional scaling authors determined the similarity or dissimilarity data on a set of applied incentives to use service packages. Visible differences indicate a different perception of the attractiveness of packages representatives of the Baby boomer generation and Y generation. Managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. FITSH -- a software package for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the main features of the software package named FITSH, intended to provide a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package provides utilities both for the full pipeline of subsequent related data processing steps (incl. image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations, etc.) and for aiding the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. This set of utilities found in the package are built on the top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package), therefore both frequently us...

  6. Preparation of Urea Nitrogen Adsorbent of Complex Type and Adsorption Capacity of Urea Nitrogen onto the Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The urea nitroge n adsorbent of complex type, which consists of chitosan coated dialdehyde cellulose (CDAC) and immobilized urease in gelatin membrane (IE), was prepared. The cellulose, the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) and the CDAC were characterized by scanning electronic microscope. The results indicate that the cellulose C2-C3 bond was broken under the oxidation of periodate and it was oxidated to DAC. The DAC was coated with chitosan and the CDAC was obtained. The adsorption of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent in Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 buffer solution was studied in batch system. The effects of the experiment parameters, including degree of oxidation of CDAC, initial urea nitrogen concentration, pH and temperature, on the adsorption capacity of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent at CDAC/IE weight ratio 10:1 were investigated. The results indicate that these parameters affected significantly the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent was 36.7 mg/g at the degree of oxidation of CDAC 88%, initial urea nitrogen concentration 600 mg/L, pH 7.4 and temperature 37 ℃.

  7. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  8. Nano porous alkaline earth metal silicates as free fatty acid adsorbents from Crude Palm Oil (CPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmur, Indra; Sembiring, Seri Bima; Bangun, Nimpan; Kaban, Jamaran; Putri, Nabila Karina

    2017-01-01

    Free fatty acids(FFA) from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) have been adsorbed by alkaline earth metal silicate (M-silicate : M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) adsorbents in ethanol using batch method. The adsorbents were prepared from the chloride salts of alkaline metals and Na2SiO3. The resulting white solid of the alkaline earth metal silicates were then heated at 800°C for 3 hours to enlarge their porosities. All adsorbents were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and BET. The EDX spectrum of SEM-EDX showed the appearance of all elements in the adsorbents, and the XRD spectrum of all adsorbents showed that they have crystobalite structure. The porosity of the adsorbents calculated by BET method showed that the porosities of the adsorbents range from 2.0884 - 2.0969 nm. All the adsorbents were used to adsorb the FFA from CPO containing 4.79%, 7.3%, 10.37% and 13.34% of FFA. The ratio of adsorbent to CPO to be used in adsorption of FFA from CPO were made 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, with adsorption time of 1 hour. We found that the maximum adsorption of FFA from CPO was given by Ca-Silicate adsorbent which was between 69.86 - 94.78%, while the lowest adsorption was shown by Mg-silicate adsorbent which was 49.32 -74.53%.

  9. MEMS Direct Chip Attach Packaging Methodologies and Apparatuses for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods of bulk manufacturing high temperature sensor subassembly packages are disclosed and claimed. Sensors are sandwiched between a top cover and a bottom cover so as to enable the peripheries of the top covers, sensors and bottom covers to be sealed and bound securely together are disclosed and claimed. Sensors are placed on the bottom covers leaving the periphery of the bottom cover exposed. Likewise, top covers are placed on the sensors leaving the periphery of the sensor exposed. Individual sensor sub-assemblies are inserted into final packaging elements which are also disclosed and claimed. Methods of directly attaching wires or pins to contact pads on the sensors are disclosed and claimed. Sensors, such as pressure sensors and accelerometers, and headers made out of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride are disclosed and claimed. Reference cavities are formed in some embodiments disclosed and claimed herein where top covers are not employed.

  10. In-package P/G planes analysis and optimization based on transmission matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-jun WANG; Cheng ZHUO; Jun-yong DENG; Jin-fang ZHOU; Kang-sheng CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Power integrity (PI) has become a limiting factor for the chip's overall performance, and how to place in-package decoupling capacitors to improve a chip's PI performance has become a hot issue. In this paper, we propose an improved transmission matrix method (TMM) for fast decoupling capacitance allocation. An irregular grid partition mechanism is proposed, which helps speed up the impedance computation and complies better with the irregular power/ground (P/G) plane or planes with many vias and decoupling capacitors. Furthermore, we also ameliorate the computation procedure of the impedance matrix whenever decoupling capacitors are inserted or removed at specific ports. With the fast computation of impedance change, in-package decoupling capacitor allocation is done with an efficient change based method in the frequency domain. Experimental results show that our approach can gain about 5× speedup compared with a general TMM, and is efficient in restraining the noise on the P/G plane.

  11. pH measuring of the interstitial water in high-density bentonite (2). Resin insertion method under controlled atmosphere (Progress report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H.; Sato, K; Shibata, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Isogai, T.

    1999-03-01

    To measure the pH value of the interstitial water in the bentonite under the saturated pressure, a resin (adsorbent particles impregnated with pH indicator) was put between semi-permeable cellulose protection sheets and inserted into the bentonite and pH was measured using its color reaction. pH values (7-9) thus measured were found to depend on the pressure, the density at dried conditions and also on chemical constituents. The method was found to be applicable to rough estimate of elemental composition. (S. Ohno)

  12. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  13. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A.M. O’ Callaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  14. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  15. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  16. Nanofiber adsorbents for high productivity continuous downstream processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardick, Oliver; Dods, Stewart; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2015-11-10

    An ever increasing focus is being placed on the manufacturing costs of biotherapeutics. The drive towards continuous processing offers one opportunity to address these costs through the advantages it offers. Continuous operation presents opportunities for real-time process monitoring and automated control with potential benefits including predictable product specification, reduced labour costs, and integration with other continuous processes. Specifically to chromatographic operations continuous processing presents an opportunity to use expensive media more efficiently while reducing their size and therefore cost. Here for the first time we show how a new adsorbent material (cellulosic nanofibers) having advantageous convective mass transfer properties can be combined with a high frequency simulated moving bed (SMB) design to provide superior productivity in a simple bioseparation. Electrospun polymeric nanofiber adsorbents offer an alternative ligand support surface for bioseparations. Their non-woven fiber structure with diameters in the sub-micron range creates a remarkably high surface area material that allows for rapid convective flow operations. A proof of concept study demonstrated the performance of an anion exchange nanofiber adsorbent based on criteria including flow and mass transfer properties, binding capacity, reproducibility and life-cycle performance. Binding capacities of the DEAE adsorbents were demonstrated to be 10mg/mL, this is indeed only a fraction of what is achievable from porous bead resins but in combination with a very high flowrate, the productivity of the nanofiber system is shown to be significant. Suitable packing into a flow distribution device has allowed for reproducible bind-elute operations at flowrates of 2,400 cm/h, many times greater than those used in typical beaded systems. These characteristics make them ideal candidates for operation in continuous chromatography systems. A SMB system was developed and optimised to

  17. Study on Visually Design of Indexable Insert Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ji-quan; ZHAO Shu-qiang; ZHANG Shen-hou; CHEN Xin; GUO Xian-yang

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the development efficiency of the indexable insert tip, three-dimensional parametric and visualization applications program of indexable insert tip was developed in AutoCAD VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). The software could significantly improve the modeling efficiency of indexable insert tip and the model could also be used to static analysis, dynamic analysis and thermodynamic analysis. All aspects of performance could be fully understood by the finite element analysis. The ref-erence for the blade parameters preferred is also provided.

  18. Insertion of short transmembrane helices by the Sec61 translocon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaud, Simon; Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Nilsson, Ingmarie; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M; Hübner, Nadja C; Tobias, Douglas J; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H

    2009-07-14

    The insertion efficiency of transmembrane (TM) helices by the Sec61 translocon depends on helix amino acid composition, the positions of the amino acids within the helix, and helix length. We have used an in vitro expression system to examine systematically the insertion efficiency of short polyleucine segments (L(n), n = 4 ... 12) flanked at either end by 4-residue sequences of the form XXPX-L(n)-XPXX with X = G, N, D, or K. Except for X = K, insertion efficiency (p) is snorkeling) and by partial unfolding.

  19. Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L

    2013-08-06

    A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

  20. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...