WorldWideScience

Sample records for adsorbed package insert

  1. Patients Comprehension of Pharmaceutical Package Inserts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2015; 14 (12): ... Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... patients/consumers about PPI. ... the perception of outpatients of Karachi about ... Do you store the medication at the temperature specified in the package insert ... drugs available in local market of Pakistan was.

  2. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkar Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  3. pyIAST: Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) Python package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory M.; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) is a widely-used thermodynamic framework to readily predict mixed-gas adsorption isotherms from a set of pure-component adsorption isotherms. We present an open-source, user-friendly Python package, pyIAST, to perform IAST calculations for an arbitrary number of components. pyIAST supports several common analytical models to characterize the pure-component isotherms from experimental or simulated data. Alternatively, pyIAST can use numerical quadrature to compute the spreading pressure for IAST calculations by interpolating the pure-component isotherm data. pyIAST can also perform reverse IAST calculations, where one seeks the required gas phase composition to yield a desired adsorbed phase composition.

  4. Public judgments of information in a diazepam patient package insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S; Mansbridge, B; Lankford, D A

    1982-06-01

    As part of a larger study of the effects of giving patients written take-home information with prescription medications, a "patient package insert" (PPI) for diazepam was prepared based on content determined by "experts." This report compares the experts' judgments of what information should be included with judgments obtained from the public. Information judged to be most important for inclusion in a PPI was identified by having subjects sort cards containing facts about diazepam. Subjects who had previously used diazepam were no different in their judgments than inexperienced subjects. In general, there was a high degree of concordance between public and expert judgments and also a remarkably strong consensus across very different demographic samples. In those few instances of disagreement, the public attached even greater importance to warnings and "bad news" about diazepam than to information providing reassurances, benign general education, and "good news." To what extent patients would effectively use this information--whether conveyed by PPIs or alternative educational routes--must await empirical evaluation.

  5. Readability assessment of package inserts of biological medicinal products from the European medicines agency website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero-López, Ma Ángeles; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2014-07-01

    Package inserts that accompany medicines are a common source of information aimed at patients and should match patient abilities in terms of readability. Our objective was to determine the degree of readability of the package inserts for biological medicinal products commercially available in 2007 and compare them with the readability of the same package inserts in 2010. A total of 33 package inserts were selected and classified into five groups according to the type of medicine: monoclonal antibody-based products, cytokines, therapeutic enzymes, recombinant blood factors and other blood-related products, and recombinant hormones. The package inserts were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in 2007 and 2010. Readability was evaluated for the entire text of five of the six sections of the package inserts and for the 'Annex' when there was one. Three readability formulas were used: SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) grade, Flesh-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt's perspicuity index. No significant differences were found between the readability results for the 2007 package inserts and those from 2010 according to any of the three readability indices studied (p>0.05). However, there were significant differences (preadability scores of the sections of the package inserts in both 2007 and 2010. The readability of the package inserts was above the recommended sixth grade reading level (ages 11-12) and may lead to difficulties of understanding for people with limited literacy. All the sections should be easy to read and, therefore, the readability of the medicine package inserts studied should be improved.

  6. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuya R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Okuya,1 Masaomi Kimura,2 Michiko Ohkura,2 Fumito Tsuchiya3 1Graduate School of Engineering and Science, 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could

  7. Analysis on descriptions of precautionary statements in package inserts of medicines

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    Tsuchiya F

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Keita Nabeta1, Masaomi Kimura2, Michiko Ohkura2, Fumito Tsuchiya31Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Minami-Aoyama 1-24-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 JapanBackground: To prevent medical accidents, users must be informed of the cautions written in medical package inserts. To realize countermeasures by utilizing information systems, we must also implement a drug information database. However, this is not easy to develop, since the descriptions in package inserts are too complex and their information poorly structured. It is necessary to analyze package insert information and propose a data structure.Methods: We analyzed the descriptions of 'precautions for application' in package inserts via text mining methods. In order to summarize statements, we applied dependency analysis to statements and visualized their relations between predicate words and other words. Furthermore, we extracted words representing timing to execute the order.Results: We found that there are four types of statements: direct orders such as "使用する" (use, causative orders such as "使用させる" (make someone use, direct interdictions such as "使用しない" (do not use, and causative interdictions such as "使用させない" (do not make user use. As for words representing timing, we extracted six groups: "at the time of delivery," "at the time of preparation," "in use," "after use," and "at the time of storage." From these results, we obtained points of consideration concerning the subjects of orders in the statements and timing of their execution.Conclusion: From the obtained knowledge, we can define the information structure used to describe the precautionary statement. It should contain information such

  8. BAHAN PENYERAP KMnO4 DAN ASAM L-ASKORBAT DALAM PENGEMASAN AKTIF (ACTIVE PACKAGING UNTUK MEMPERPANJANG MASA SIMPAN DAN MEMPERTAHANKAN MUTU BUAH DUKU (Lansium domesticum Corr. [Adsorbers for KMnO4 and L-Ascorbic Acid in the Active Packaging to Prolong the Shelve-Life and Maintain the Quality of Lanzone (Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soesiladi E Widodo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop an active packaging of lanzone (Lansium domisticum Corr. Fruits, KmnO4 as an ethylene scavenger and L-ascorbic acid as an oxygent scavenger were inserted into packaging. As direct contact of KmnO4 with agricultural product was not recommended and due to the liquid characteristic of both scavenger was carried out. This research was aimed at finding out the best adsorbers for KmnO4, L-ascorbic acid, and their combination in an active packaging to prolog the shelve-life and to maintain the quality of lanzone fruits. The result showed that 1 among the four adsorbers tested, pumice could was the best alternative as a KmnO4 or L-ascorbic acid adsorbers, and 2 spon and pumice were the best alternative adsorber for the combination of KmnO4 or L-ascorbic acid. Both adsorber were effective in prolonging the shelve-live (8-11 days longer than with out packaging and as good as using silica gel and vermiculite and maintaining the quality of lanzone fruits.

  9. Testing Cessation Messages for Cigarette Package Inserts: Findings from a Best/Worst Discrete Choice Experiment

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    James F. Thrasher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed smokers’ responses to different smoking cessation topics and imagery for cigarette package inserts. Adult smokers from Canada (n = 1000 participated in three discrete choice experiments (DCEs: DCE 1 assessed five cessation benefit topics and five imagery types; DCE 2 assessed five messages with tips to improve cessation success and five imagery types; DCE 3 assessed four reproductive health benefits of cessation topics and four imagery types. In each DCE, participants evaluated four or five sets of four inserts, selecting the most and least motivating (DCEs 1 & 3 or helpful (DCE 2 for quitting. Linear mixed models regressed choices on insert and smoker characteristics. For DCE 1, the most motivating messages involved novel disease topics and imagery of younger women. For DCE 2, topics of social support, stress reduction and nicotine replacement therapy were selected as most helpful, with no differences by imagery type. For DCE 3, imagery influenced choices more than topic, with imagery of a family or a mom and baby selected as most motivating. Statistically significant interactions for all three experiments indicated that the influence of imagery type on choices depended on the message topic. Messages to promote smoking cessation through cigarette pack inserts should consider specific combinations of message topic and imagery.

  10. Oil adsorbing package, also procedure to remove oil from a water surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-05-01

    A method is given to remove oil from water to prevent water pollution. Use is made of an oil-adsorbing packet having a specific gravity which is lower than the specific gravity of water. The hull is manufactured from any material which is not a water-insoluble nonpolar material. The hull is partly permeable to water and encloses a solid oil-adsorbing compound having a large adsorbing surface. (10 claims)

  11. A novel adsorbent obtained by inserting carbon nanotubes into cavities of diatomite and applications for organic dye elimination from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwen; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2010-05-15

    A novel approach is described for establishing adsorbents for elimination of water-soluble organic dyes by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the adsorptive sites. Agglomerates of MWCNTs were dispersed into individual tubes (dispersed-MWCNTs) using sodium n-dodecyl itaconate mixed with 3-(N,N-dimethylmyristylammonio)-propanesulfonate as the dispersants. The resultant dispersed-MWCNTs were inserted into cavities of diatomite to form composites of diatomite/MWCNTs. These composites were finally immobilized onto the cell walls of flexible polyurethane foams (PUF) through an in situ PUF formation process to produce the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. Ethidium bromide, acridine orange, methylene blue, eosin B, and eosin Y were chosen to represent typical water-soluble organic dyes for studying the adsorptive capabilities of the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. For comparisons, adsorptive experiments were also carried out by using agglomerates of the sole MWCNTs as adsorbents. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents were found to have higher adsorptive capacities than the CNT agglomerates for all five dyes; in addition, they are macro-sized, durable, flexible, hydrophilic and easy to use. Adsorption isotherms plotted based on the Langmuir equation gave linear results, suggesting that the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent functioned in the Langmuir adsorption manner. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents are reusable after regeneration with aqueous ethanol solution. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Attitudes of consumers and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts - a study in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ramahi R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading the patient package inserts (PPIs is a key source of information about medications for patients. They should be clear and understandable to the general population. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain base-line data on the extent of reading PPIs by consumers and possible factors that might affect this; to explore the attitude of the Palestinian public and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts (PPIs; and to review a random sample of PPIs for the availability of different information.Methods: The first part of the study was a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire for consumers included 15 items. The questionnaire for healthcare professionals included 10 items and it was very similar to that of consumers with some modifications. In the second part, a random sample of PPIs was reviewed. In our community pharmacies, where medications are arranged according to their producing company, a researcher was asked to choose randomly 10-15 medications for every company to check for the availability of pharmacological, pharmaceutical and clinical information. Results: A total of 304 healthcare professionals out of 320 (95.0% and 223 consumers out of 240 (92.9% accepted to answer the survey. Forty five percent consumers reported that they always read the PPIs, and 29.3% said that they read the PPIs most of the times. Increased rate of reading the leaflet was found among females (P = 0.047. The preferred language for the PPIs was Arabic for most of the consumers (89.6% while it was English for most of the healthcare professionals (80.8%. 35.9% of the consumers and 43.6% of the healthcare professionals found the font size suitable. 42.3% of the consumers and 25.5% of the healthcare professionals said that they found the information in the PPIs useful and enough. The PPIs of 135 randomly sampled medications were reviewed. Many important sections were not found in the PPIs' sample. Conclusion

  13. Evaluation of package inserts of Ayurveda drug formulations from Mumbai city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirolkar, Sudatta; Tripathi, Raakhi K; Potey, Anirudha V

    2015-01-01

    Package insert (PI) is a vital document accompanying a prescribed medication to provide information to the prescriber and end-user at a glance. Studies regarding PIs of Ayurvedic medicines in accordance with standard guidelines are lacking. Present study was undertaken to evaluate PI of Ayurveda drugs. PIs of Ayurveda drugs were obtained from five randomly selected Ayurveda medical shops located in three main zones of Mumbai. From each medical shop, a range of 15-20 PI was planned to be collected for different formulations. It was decided to collect a minimum fifty PIs/group for equitable distribution of various formulations in period of January-June2013. Checklist was prepared, and content validity was achieved. Final validated checklist contained a total of 13 items, and the presence or absence of information pertaining to these items on the PI was evaluated. Any other additional information present on PI was also noted. Each item was analyzed and expressed as percentages. The information on 258 PIs included: Name of ingredients (67%), quantity of ingredients (47.27%), route of administration (86.8%), dosage form (86.8%), indications (18%), dose (18%), contraindications (18%), side effects (9%), shelf life (5.81%), storage conditions (11%), and manufacturers name with contact details (34%). PIs accompanying Ayurveda medicinal products in India are deficient in information required to be furnished by them.

  14. Qualidade das bulas de fitoterápicos no Brasil | Quality of the package inserts of phytomedicines in Brazil

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    Marcia Maria Barros dos Passos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se as bulas de medicamentos fitoterápicos industrializados estão de acordo com a legislação nacional vigente. Foram analisadas 41 bulas dos medicamentos fitoterápicos compostos por alcachofra, castanha da Índia, ginkgo e sene, adquiridas nos sites das empresas titulares dos registros. A análise foi feita quanto à presença de itens segundo a RDC nº 47 de 2009 e ao conteúdo de indicação de uso, posologia e reações adversas comparada às bulas padrão e à literatura científica. A análise quantitativa provou que as bulas têm cumprido o que é exigido pela legislação vigente. No entanto, quanto à análise qualitativa, todos os fitoterápicos analisados neste trabalho possuíam pelo menos uma bula com erro relacionado à posologia, indicações de uso e reações adversas. Houve uma melhora gradativa das bulas dos medicamentos fitoterápicos, porém mesmo com as bulas padrão ainda existem erros, que podem induzir o paciente ao uso incorreto do medicamento. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The objective of this study was to assess whether the package inserts of industrialized phytomedicines are in line with current Brazilian legislation or not. Forty-one package inserts of phytomedicines containing artichoke, horse chestnut, ginkgo and senna were accessed in the respective proprietary websites and then analyzed. The analysis aimed to verify the presence of items required by the normative RDC 47/2009 and the usage indication, dosage and side effects compared to standard package inserts and to the scientific literature. Quantitative analysis proved that the package inserts are in accordance with the current legislation. However, in qualitative analysis, all phytomedicines analyzed in this study had at least one error related to dosage, posology or adverse reactions. A gradual improvement of the package inserts of phytomedicines has

  15. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dispenser may provide the insert to the parent or legal guardian of a legally incompetent patient (or to the... the effectiveness of oral contraceptives in preventing pregnancy, the contraindications to the drug's... concerning the increased risks associated with cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive use. (5) A discussion...

  16. Evaluation of strategies to communicate harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) information through cigarette package inserts: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Louviere, Jordan J; Getz, Kayla R; Islam, Farahnaz; Anshari, Dien; Cho, Yoojin; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-13

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a 'no difference' option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. 1212 participants were recruited from an online consumer panel (725 18-29-year-old smokers and susceptible non-smokers and 487 30-64-year-old smokers). Participants were more likely to endorse high-tar products as more harmful than low-tar products, with a greater effect when numeric HPHC information was present. Compared with a simple warning statement, the statement linking HPHCs with disease encouraged quit motivation. Numeric HPHC information on inserts appears to produce misunderstandings that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Furthermore, brief narratives that link HPHCs to smoking-related disease may promote cessation versus communications that do not explicitly link HPHCs to disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Comprehensive Die Shear Test of Silicon Packages Bonded by Thermocompression of Al Layers with Thin Sn Capping or Insertions

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    Shiro Satoh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermocompression bonding for wafer-level hermetic packaging was demonstrated at the lowest temperature of 370 to 390 °C ever reported using Al films with thin Sn capping or insertions as bonding layer. For shrinking the chip size of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems, a smaller size of wafer-level packaging and MEMS–ASIC (application specific integrated circuit integration are of great importance. Metal-based bonding under the temperature of CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor backend process is a key technology, and Al is one of the best candidates for bonding metal in terms of CMOS compatibility. In this study, after the thermocompression bonding of two substrates, the shear fracture strength of dies was measured by a bonding tester, and the shear-fractured surfaces were observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and a surface profiler to clarify where the shear fracture took place. We confirmed two kinds of fracture mode. One mode is Si bulk fracture mode, where the die shear strength is 41.6 to 209 MPa, proportionally depending on the area of Si fracture. The other mode is bonding interface fracture mode, where the die shear strength is 32.8 to 97.4 MPa. Regardless of the fracture modes, the minimum die shear strength is practical for wafer-level MEMS packaging.

  18. Conformity of package inserts information to regulatory requirements among selected branded and generic medicinal products circulating on the East African market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillo, Hiiti B; Masota, Nelson E; Kisoma, Sunday; Rago, Lembit; Mgoyela, Veronica; Kaale, Eliangiringa A

    2018-01-01

    Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines. A total of 99 package inserts from six (6) types of medicines namely Albendazole, Artemether/Lumefantrine (ALu), Ciprofloxacin, Paracetamol, Amoxicillin and Metronidazole were purposefully collected from three EAC Partner States: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The medicines were selected based on their indications as first line treatments, high rates of utilization within the medicines supply system and their positions in treatment of diseases of public importance across EAC Partner States. The inserts were evaluated on the availability of information regarding fifteen (15) parameters as extracted from the EAC harmonized guidelines for registration of medicines. Moreover, comparisons were made between the percentage conformity of the branded versus generic products, markets from which the samples were collected, origin of the manufacturer and type of medicine. Majority (93.9-100%) of the medicines' package inserts highly conformed to the inclusion of the information regarding the description and composition of the medications, indications, dosage and methods of administration, warnings and precautions, contraindications and storage conditions. However, the information on handling and disposal, container package description, excipients used, clinical pharmacology of

  19. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  20. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts

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    Bruggeman Cathrien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Methods Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC, relevant World Health Organization (WHO documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level were assessed. Results Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers. Shortcomings in devices were (i insufficient place for writing sample identification (n = 40 and (ii ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n = 6. Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n = 24 or were of poor quality (n = 16. Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1 - 12.9 and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5 - 10. Inadequacies included (i no referral to biosafety (n = 18, (ii critical differences between depicted and real devices (n = 8, (iii figures with unrealistic colours (n = 4, (iv incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n = 31 and no data on test characteristics (n = 8. Other problems included (i kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n = 4, (ii not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n = 2 and (iii slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC

  1. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Philippe; Maltha, Jessica; Hermans, Veerle; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Jacobs, Jan

    2011-02-13

    The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed. Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n=40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n=6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n=24) or were of poor quality (n=16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1-12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5-10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n=4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n=2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC. Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better

  2. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Do package inserts reflect symptoms experienced in practice?: assessment using an automated phone pharmacovigilance system with varenicline and zolpidem in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jennifer S; Amato, Mary; Marinacci, Lucas; Orav, E John; Schiff, Gordon D; Bates, David W

    2012-08-01

    While the US FDA maintains a voluntary reporting system, postmarketing adverse drug events (ADEs) are underreported, and this case report-based system does not allow accurate determination of incidence. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of an automated phone pharmacovigilance system for ambulatory patients by comparing systematically collected, patient-reported symptoms to reflect possible ADEs with those reported on the package inserts of two drugs with postmarketing safety concerns, varenicline and zolpidem. English-speaking adults who received a prescription for zolpidem (n = 370) or varenicline (n = 107) from a primary care physician at one of 11 participating clinics, and who participated in the pharmacovigilance system during 2008-2010, were included in the study. Patients were called approximately 4 weeks following their visit and asked to complete a standard script that asked about adherence and pre-specified symptoms. The main outcome measures were elicited rates of pre-specified symptoms or possible ADEs. Compared with the package insert, patients taking zolpidem were significantly (p zolpidem were not detected. These data highlight the potential value of, and innovative ways of collecting, information about possible ADEs directly from patients.

  4. Análise comparativa de embalagens secundárias e bulas de medicamentos contendo Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer A comparative analysis of inner wrapping and package inserts for medicines containing Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Tirico Auricchio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As informações contidas nas bulas e embalagem de medicamentos de diferentes fabricantes contendo Panax ginseng foram analisadas comparativamente com os dados encontrados na literatura científica. Observaram-se bulas longas, com várias informações em relação às indicações de uso, muitas das quais sem comprovação em humanos, e todas foram deficitárias em relação aos .efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas. Foi observada falta de padronização quanto às posologias, em relação tanto ao extrato seco, quanto ao teor dos ginsenosídeos presentes. Constatou-se a falta de homogeneidade nas informações aos usuários sobre indicações de uso, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas entre as oito amostras estudadas.The information provided on package inserts and inner wrapping of eight products containing Panax ginseng from different manufacturers was compared internally and checked against data from the scientific literature. The inserts included extensive text, containing abundant information on indications for use, but no scientific evidence in humans. All the inserts lacked information on potential adverse effects and drug interaction. There was no standardization as to dose regimens, particularly in relation to the dried extract and ginsenoside concentration. The eight inserts thus showed no concern over standardization, indication for usage, or possible side effects and drug interactions.

  5. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  6. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  7. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  8. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  9. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  10. Lattice insertions for POPAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.A.; Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.; Ohnuma, S.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Teng, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Four types of insertions are described for the six 200-m straight sections of POPAE. All have dispersion matched to zero. (1) Injection-ejection insertion--This has proper high-β values and phase advances for horizontal injection and vertical ejection. (2) Phase-adjust insertion--The phase advance in this insertion is adjustable over a range of approximately 100 0 . (3) General-purpose insertion--The β* is adjustable from 2.5. to 200 m and the crossing angle is adjustable from 0 to 11 mrad. (4) High-luminosity insertion--This gives an even lower β + of meter

  11. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  12. Transporting method for adsorbing tower and the adsorbing tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Nobuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    A cylindrical plastic bag is disposed to the upper surface of an adsorbing tower so as to surround a suspending piece. One opening of the bag is sealed, and other opening is secured in a sealed state to a bag holding portion disposed to glove box at a gate for the adsorbing tower box. The adsorbing tower is transported into the glove box, and after the completion of the operation of the adsorbing tower, the adsorbing tower is taken out in a state that the bag is restricted and sealed at a portion below the adsorbing tower. The bag may be made of a vinyl plastic, the bag holding portion may be a short-cylindrical protrusion, and may have an O-ring groove at the outer surface. Even if the adsorbing tower is heavy, the adsorbing tower can be carried out easily in a state where it is sealed gas tightly. (N.H.)

  13. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  14. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  15. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  16. The state of physically adsorbed substances in microporous adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomkin, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Xe, Kr, Ar, CF 3 Cl, CH 4 adsorption in NaX microporous zeolite of 0.98 Na 2 OxAl 2 O 3 x2.36SiO 2 x0.02H 2 O is studied. Some properties of adsorbates (density, coefficients of expansion, enthalpy, heat capacity) are determined and discussed. The adsorbate in the microporous adsorbent is shown to be a particular state of a substance. Liniarity of adsorption isosteres and sharp changes during isosteric heat capacity of the adsorbate points to the fact that in microporous adsorbents phase transformations of the second type are possible

  17. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  18. Orientational epitaxy in adsorbed monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaco, A.D.; McTague, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The ground state for adsorbed monolayers on crystalline substrates is shown to involve a definite relative orientation of the substrate and adsorbate crystal axes, even when the relative lattice parameters are incommensurate. The rotation angle which defines the structure of the monolayer-substrate system is determined by the competition between adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate energy terms, and is generally not a symmetry angle. Numerical predictions are presented for the rare gas-graphite systems, whose interaction potentials are rather well known. Recent LEED data for some of these systems appear to corroborate these predictions

  19. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  20. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  1. Positronium chemistry in porous adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foti, G.; Nagy, L.G.; Moravcsik, G.; Schay, G.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic studies on the annihilation of orthopositronium in porous adsorbents have been performed using lifetime spectroscopy. The positron source applied was 22 Na with 0.2 MBq activity. The adsorbents investigated were silica gels of different particle size and pore structure. The appearance of the long-lived component in the lifetime spectra can be explained by the diffusion of the orthopositronium into the pores affected by the particle size and the pore size of the adsorbent, the coverage on it and the chemical nature of the adsorbate. The long-term aim of the work is to determine and to explain these effects. (author)

  2. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  3. Insertion Modeling and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Letichevsky; Oleksandr Letychevskyi; Vladimir Peschanenko

    2016-01-01

    The paper relates to the theoretical and practical aspects of insertion modeling. Insertion modeling is a theory of agents and environments interaction where an environment is considered as agent with a special insertion function. The main notions of insertion modeling are presented. Insertion Modeling System is described as a tool for development of different kinds of insertion machines. The research and industrial applications of Insertion Modeling System are presented.

  4. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  5. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  7. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  8. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  9. Method of inserting fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  10. Insertion in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  11. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  12. RASPLAV package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  13. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive krypton-85 is released to the atmosphere in the off-gas from nuclear reprocessing plants. Three main methods have been suggested for removal of krypton from off-gas streams: cryogenic distillation; fluorocarbon absorption; and adsorption on solid sorbents. Use of solid adsorbents is the least developed of these methods, but offers the potential advantages of enhanced safety and lower operating costs. An experimental laboratory program was developed that will be used to investigate systematically many solid adsorbents (such as zeolites, i.e., mordenites) for trapping krypton in air. The objective of this investigation is to find an adsorbent that is more economical than silver-exchanged mordenite. Various physical and chemical characteristics such as adsorption isotherms, decontamination factors, co-adsorption, regeneration, and the mechanism and kinetics of noble gas adsorption were used to characterize the adsorbents. In the experimental program, a gas chromatograph using a helium ionization detector was used to measure the krypton in air before and after the adsorbent bed. This method can determine directly decontamination factors greater than 100

  15. Fuel insert shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.; Colley, R.; Gaiser, J.; Brookmire, T.; Engle, S.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of time required to perform certain functions and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. As the potential benefits are more and more demonstrated and realized, the development of expert systems becomes a necessary part of the nuclear power industry. The development of the fuel insert shuffle expert system is used as a case study. In fact, it shows that the potential benefits are realizable. Currently, the development of the insert shuffle plan requires three to four man-weeks of effort. Further modifications to this plan are sometimes required dur to either changes in the desired core load pattern or damaged fuel assemblies or inserts. These changes generally require two to four man-days of effort and could be stressful if they are critical path items on the outage schedule

  16. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental laboratory program was conducted to develop economical solid adsorbents for the retention of krypton from a dissolver off-gas stream. The study indicates that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems which utilize fluorocarbon absorption nd cryogenic distillation. This technology may have potential applications not only in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, but also in nuclear reactors and in environmental monitoring. Of the 13 prospective adsorbents evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost, the commercially available hydrogen mordenite was the most cost-effective material at subambient temperatures (-40 0 to -80 0 C). Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite

  17. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  18. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  19. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Over a dozen prospective adsorbents for krypton were studied and evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost for dissolver off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. Results show that, at subambient temperature (-40 0 to -80 0 C), the commercially available hydrogen mordenite has sufficient adsorptive capacity to be the most cost-effective material studied. Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite. The results indicate that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems whih utilize fluorocarbon absorption and cryogenic distillation

  20. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  1. Fuel assembly insertion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhurst, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor facility having fuel bundles: a system for the insertion of a fuel bundle into a position where vertically arranged fuel bundles surround and are adjacent the system comprising, in combination, separate and individual centering devices secured to and disposed on top of each fuel bundle adjacent the position. Each such centering device has a generally box-like cap configuration on the upper end of each fuel bundle and includes: a top wall; first and second side walls, each secured along and upper edge to the top wall; a rear plate attached along opposite vertical edges to the first and second side walls; a front inclined wall joined along an upper edge to the top to the wall and attached along opposite vertical edges first and second side walls; pad means secured to the lower edge of the first and second side walls, the front inclined wall and the rear plate for mounting each centering device on top of an associated fuel bundle; pin means carried by at least two of the pad means engageable with an associated aperature for locating and laterally fixing each centering device on top of its respective fuel bundle. Each front inclined wall of each of the centering devices is orientated on top of its respective fuel bundle to slope upwardly and away from the position where upon downward insertion of a fuel bundle any contact between the lower end of the fuel bundle inserted with a front inclined wall of a centering device will laterally deflect the fuel bundle. Each centering device further includes a central socket means secured to the top wall, and an elongated handling pole pivotally attached to the socket

  2. Data Insertion in Bitcoin's Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin’s blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.

  3. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  4. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  5. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEPT 2005) (a) The Contractor shall...

  6. Iodine removal adsorbent histories, aging and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Rankovic, L.; Lubbers, R.; Kovach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The experience of efficiency changes with life under various test conditions is described. The adsorbents were periodically removed from both standby and continuously operating systems and tested under various test methods for residual iodine adsorption efficiency. Adsorbent from several conventional ''sampler'' cartridges versus the bulk adsorbent was also tested showing deficiency in the use of cartridge type sampling. Currently required test conditions were found inadequate to follow the aging of the adsorbent because pre-equilibration of the sample acts as a regenerant and the sample is not tested in the ''as is'' condition. The most stringent test was found to be the ambient temperature, high humidity test to follow the aging of the adsorbent. Several methods were evaluated to regenerate used adsorbents; of these high temperature steaming and partial reimpregnation were found to produce adsorbents with near identical properties of freshly prepared adsorbents

  7. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  8. Using PATIMDB to create bacterial transposon insertion mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Jonathan M; Wei, Tao; Liberati, Nicole; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wu, Gang; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2009-04-01

    PATIMDB is a software package for facilitating the generation of transposon mutant insertion libraries. The software has two main functions: process tracking and automated sequence analysis. The process tracking function specifically includes recording the status and fates of multiwell plates and samples in various stages of library construction. Automated sequence analysis refers specifically to the pipeline of sequence analysis starting with ABI files from a sequencing facility and ending with insertion location identifications. The protocols in this unit describe installation and use of PATIMDB software.

  9. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  10. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  11. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  12. Lithium insertion in nanostructured titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghols, W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Upon nano-sizing of insertion compounds several significant changes in Li-insertion behavior have been observed for sizes below approximately 50 nm. Although the origins of the phenomena are interrelated, the changes can be divided in three main observations. (1) The formation of new phases, leading

  13. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  14. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.A. [Chemica Technologies, Inc., Bend, OR (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  15. Neutron scattering from adsorbed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuwang An

    1998-01-01

    Neutron reflection has been used to investigate the structure of layers of water-soluble diblock copolymers poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-block-methyl methacrylate (poly(DMAEMA-b-MMA)) (70 mol% DMAEMA, M n = 10k, 80 mol% DMAEMA, M n = 10k, and 70 mol% DMAEMA, M n = 20k) adsorbed at the air-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces. The surface tension behaviour of these copolymers at the air-liquid interface has also been investigated. The study of the structure of layers of poly(DMAEMA-b-MMA) adsorbed at the air-water interface forms the main part of the thesis. The surface structure, the effects of pH and ionic strength, and the effects of composition and molecular weight of the copolymers have been studied systematically. For the 70%-10k copolymer at pH 7.5, the adsorption isotherm shows that there is a surface phase transition. The concentration of copolymer at which the phase transition occurs is close to that at which micellar aggregation in the bulk solution also occurs. At low concentrations (below the CMC), the two blocks of the copolymer are approximately uniformly distributed in the direction normal to the interface and the layer is partially immersed in water. At high concentrations (above the CMC), the adsorbed layer has a cross-sectional structure resembling that expected for a micelle with the majority of the MMA blocks forming the core. The outer layers, comprising predominantly DMAEMA blocks, are not equivalent, being more highly extended on the aqueous side of the interface. The effects of pH and added electrolyte on the structure of layers of the 70%-10k copolymer show that the layered structure is promoted by any changes in the bulk solution that enhance the surface coverage but is inhibited by an increase in the fractional charge on the polyelectrolyte part of the copolymer. The effect of lowering the pH is to increase the positive charge on the weak polyelectrolyte block. Addition of electrolyte generally enhances the amount adsorbed and

  16. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  17. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereau, Tristan, E-mail: bereau@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bennett, W. F. Drew [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pfaendtner, Jim [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Deserno, Markus [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Karttunen, Mikko [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science & Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, MetaForum, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  18. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA) n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence

  19. Ecological applications of the irradiated adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusseyev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In our previous works it was shown that after irradiation some adsorbents gain new interesting properties such as increasing (or decreasing) of their adsorption capacity, selectivity in relation to some gases, change of chemical bounds of gas molecules with adsorbent surface as well as other properties. We investigated a lot of adsorbents with semiconducting and dielectric properties. A high temperature superconductor was investigated also. Adsorbents were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) and gamma - radiation, reactor (n.γ) - radiation, α-particles (E=40-50 MeV), protons ( E=30 MeV), and also He-3 ions (E-29-60 MeV). The following techniques were used: volumetric (manometrical), mass-spectrometer and IR spectroscopic methods, and also method of electronic - paramagnetic resonance (spin paramagnetic resonance) The obtained results allow to speak about creation of new adsorbents for gas purification (clearing) from harmful impurities, gas selection into components, an increasing of adsorbing surface. Thus one more advantage of the irradiated adsorbents is that they have 'memory effect', i.e. they can be used enough long time after irradiation. In laboratory conditions we built the small-sized adsorptive pump on the basis of the irradiated zeolites which are capable to work in autonomous conditions. It was found, that some of adsorbents after irradiation gain (or lose) selectivity in relation to definite gases. So, silica gel, which one in initial state does not adsorb hydrogen, after gamma irradiation it becomes active in relation to hydrogen. Some of rare earths oxides also show selectivity in relation to hydrogen and oxygen depending on a type of irradiation. Thus, it is possible to create different absorbents, depending on a solved problem, using a way or selection of adsorbents, either of radiation type and energy, as a result obtained adsorbents can be used for various ecological purposes

  20. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Chris [ORNL; Yatsandra, Oyola [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL; none,; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Li-Jung, Kuo [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  1. Thermodynamics of gas adsorption on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrugeac, P.

    1979-01-01

    Starting with several hypotheses about the adsorbtion system and the adsorption phenomenon, a thermodynamic treatment of gas adsorption on solid adsorbants is presented. The relationships for determination from isotherms and calorimetric data of thermodynamic functions are derived. The problem of the phase changes in adsorbed layer is discussed. (author)

  2. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  3. Analysis of Adsorbate-Adsorbate and Adsorbate-Adsorbent Interactions to Decode Isosteric Heats of Gas Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, S Hadi; Sedghi, Saeid; Biggs, Mark J; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-12-21

    A qualitative interpretation is proposed to interpret isosteric heats of adsorption by considering contributions from three general classes of interaction energy: fluid-fluid heat, fluid-solid heat, and fluid-high-energy site (HES) heat. Multiple temperature adsorption isotherms are defined for nitrogen, T=(75, 77, 79) K, argon at T=(85, 87, 89) K, and for water and methanol at T=(278, 288, 298) K on a well-characterized polymer-based, activated carbon. Nitrogen and argon are subjected to isosteric heat analyses; their zero filling isosteric heats of adsorption are consistent with slit-pore, adsorption energy enhancement modelling. Water adsorbs entirely via specific interactions, offering decreasing isosteric heat at low pore filling followed by a constant heat slightly in excess of water condensation enthalpy, demonstrating the effects of micropores. Methanol offers both specific adsorption via the alcohol group and non-specific interactions via its methyl group; the isosteric heat increases at low pore filling, indicating the predominance of non-specific interactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  5. Development of packagings for 'MONJU' blanket fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kan; Ouchi, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Masaaki; Okuda, Yoshihisa

    1995-01-01

    Blanket assemblies for prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'MONJU' are made at commercial fuel fabrication plants capable of handling deplete Uranium in Japan. For the purpose of transport the assemblies are inserted into a packaging that is set horizontally at the fabrication plants because of compatibility with equipment installed at the plants. On the other hand, the assemblies must be taken out from the packaging set vertically at 'MONJU' due to compatibility. For this reason development of a new packaging, which makes it possible to take assemblies in and out both horizontally and vertically, is needed to carry out transport of assemblies for reload. The development and fabrication of the packagings, taking about two years, were completed in March 1995. The packagings were used in transport of assemblies in June 1995 for the first change. This report introduces the outline of the packaging and confirmation tests done in the process of development. (author)

  6. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  7. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  8. Interplay of adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions in self-assembled molecular surface nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnadt, Joachim; Xu, Wei; Vang, Ronnie Thorbjørn

    2010-01-01

    a large tolerance to monatomic surface steps on the Ag(110) surface. The observed behaviour is explained in terms of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding and a strong surface-mediated directionality, assisted by a sufficient degree of molecular backbone flexibility. In contrast, the same kind of step......-edge crossing is not observed when the molecules are adsorbed on the isotropic Ag(111) or more reactive Cu(110) surfaces. On Ag(111), similar 1-D assemblies are formed to those on Ag(110), but they are oriented along the step edges. On Cu(110), the carboxylic groups of NDCA are deprotonated and form covalent...... bonds to the surface, a situation which is also achieved on Ag(110) by annealing to 200 degrees C. These results show that the formation of particular self-assembled molecular nanostructures depends significantly on a subtle balance between the adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions...

  9. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  10. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  11. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  12. Transport of significant metals recovered in real sea experiment of adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hayato; Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Katakai, Akio; Hasegawa, Shin; Seko, Noriaki; Sugo, Takanobu; Kawabata, Yukiya

    2001-10-01

    Real sea experiment for the recovery of significant metals such as uranium and vanadium which dissolved in seawater with extremely low concentration has been carried out at the offing of Mutsu establishment to evaluate the adsorption performance of adsorbent synthesized by radiation-induced graft-polymerization. The significant metals of uranium and vanadium eluted from the adsorbent which was soaked in the real sea were adsorbed onto the conventional chelate resin. The chelate resin which adsorbed the metals was packed in a plastic (PVC) column and further put in a cylindrical stainless transport container. This container was transported to the facility for separation and purification by a truck for the exclusive loading. Then the recovers metals were purified there. The recovered metals contained the uranium of 150g (1.92 MBq) and less in one recovery experiment. The maximum concentration is 60 Bq/g when the uranium is adsorbed on the chelate resin. Transport of recovered metals can be treated as general substance since these amount and concentration are out of legal control. However, the recovered metals were transported in conformity to L type Transport as a voluntary regulation. Though there is no requirements of structural strength for L type package legally, the structural strength of container was designed on that of IP-2 type which is higher transport grade than L type to take its safety measure. Its strength analysis proved the safety under general transport process. The transport was based on the plan made in advance. (author)

  13. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  14. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  15. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  16. Alkali metal adsorbate sputtering by molecular impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.P.; Wachman, H.Y.; Trilling, L.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory study of the sputtering by a krypton molecular beam of rubidium adsorbed at low coverage on a tungsten substrate has been described in a previous paper. An extension of this work is reported now

  17. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  18. Chitin Adsorbents for Toxic Metals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Anastopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is still a critical issue all over the world. Among examined methods for the decontamination of wastewaters, adsorption is a promising, cheap, environmentally friendly and efficient procedure. There are various types of adsorbents that have been used to remove different pollutants such as agricultural waste, compost, nanomaterials, algae, etc., Chitin (poly-β-(1,4-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine is the second most abundant natural biopolymer and it has attracted scientific attention as an inexpensive adsorbent for toxic metals. This review article provides information about the use of chitin as an adsorbent. A list of chitin adsorbents with maximum adsorption capacity and the best isotherm and kinetic fitting models are provided. Moreover, thermodynamic studies, regeneration studies, the mechanism of adsorption and the experimental conditions are also discussed in depth.

  19. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  20. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    An ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven August 16--20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop are outlined, and a few general remarks about the results are presented

  1. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Methyl iodide tests on used adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the history of events leading to the current problems in radioiodine test conditions. These radioiodine tests are performed in the adsorbent media from both safety and non-safety related Nuclear Air Treatment Systems (NATS). The main problem addressed is that currently there are still numerous plant technical specifications for NATS which reference outdated test protocols for the surveillance testing of the radioactive methyl iodide performance of the adsorbents. Recommendations for correcting the test condition problems are presented. 7 refs

  3. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Santander Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic poly-acrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  4. Properties and selection criteria for adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper gives a survey of the most important industrial adsorbents and of their suitability for different purposes. With special consideration of activated carbon, the properties and characteristic data are discussed which are used for assessing adsorbents. These, among other things, are as follows: specific surface area, pore size distribution, adsorption isotherms, hydrophobic properties, catalytic properties, chemical resistance, heat resistance, particle size and hardness. (orig.) [de

  5. Protein purification using magnetic adsorbent particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzreb, M; Siemann-Herzberg, M.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2006-01-01

    The application of functionalised magnetic adsorbent particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques has received considerable attention in recent years. The magnetically responsive nature of such adsorbent particles permits their selective manipulation and separation in the presence...... separations are fast, gentle, scaleable, easily automated, can achieve separations that would be impossible or impractical to achieve by other techniques, and have demonstrated credibility in a wide range of disciplines, including minerals processing, wastewater treatment, molecular biology, cell sorting...

  6. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahzadeh-Ghom Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices.

  7. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  8. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Packaging of microwave integrated circuits operating beyond 100 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, L.; Daniel, E.; Sokolov, V.; Sommerfeldt, S.; Bublitz, J.; Olson, K.; Gilbert, B.; Chow, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods of packaging high speed (75-330 GHz) InP HEMT MMIC devices are discussed. Coplanar wirebonding is presented with measured insertion loss of less than 0.5dB and return loss better than -17 dB from DC to 110 GHz. A motherboard/daughterboard packaging scheme is presented which supports minimum loss chains of MMICs using this coplanar wirebonding method. Split waveguide block packaging approaches are presented in G-band (140-220 GHz) with two types of MMIC-waveguide transitions: E-plane probe andantipodal finline.

  10. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  11. Novel Fiber-Based Adsorbent Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, P.G.; Tsukamoto, T.; Brose, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The overall of this Department of Energy (DOE) Phase II SBIR program was to develop a new class of highly robust fiber-based adsorbents for recovery of heavy metals from aqueous waste-streams. The fiber-based adsorbents,when commercialized,will be used for clean up metals in aqueous waste-streams emanating from DOE facilities,industry,mining,and groundwater-cleanup operations.The amount of toxic waste released by these streams is of great significance.The U.S.Environment Protection Agency (EPA) reports that in 1990 alone,4.8 billion pounds of toxic chemicals were released into the environment.Of this waste,the metals-containing waste was the second largest contributor,representing 569 million pounds. This report presents the results of the Phase II program,which successfully synthesized noval fiber-based adsorbents for the removal of Group 12 metals(i.e.mercury),Group 14 metals (lead),and Group 10 metals(platinum and palladium) from contaminated groundwater and industrial waste streams.These fiber-based adsorbents are ideally suited for the recovery of metal ions from aqueous waste streams presently not treatable due to the degrading nature of corrosive chemicals or radioactive components in the feed stream. The adsorbents developed in this program rely on chemically resistant and robust carbon fibers and fabrics as supports for metal-ion selective ligands.These adsorbents demonstrate loading capacities and selectivities for metal ions exceeding those of conventional ion-exchange resins.The adsorbents were also used to construct filter modules that demonstrate minimal fouling,minimal compaction,chemical and physical robustness,and regeneration of metal loading capacity without loss of performance

  12. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  13. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  14. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  15. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  16. Inserts for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An insert for a nuclear fuel pin which comprises a strip. The strip carries notches, which enable a coding arrangement to be carried on the strip. The notches may be of differing sizes and the coding on the strip includes identification and identification checking data. Each notch on the strip may give rise to a signal pulse which is counted by a detector to avoid errors. (author)

  17. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225" ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  18. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...

  19. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  20. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  1. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  2. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  3. Process for producing zeolite adsorbent and process for treating radioactive liquid waste with the zeolite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, K.; Kawamura, F.

    1984-01-01

    Zeolite is contacted with an aqueous solution containing at least one of copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and zinc salts, preferably copper and nickel salts, particularly preferably copper salt, in such a form as sulfate, nitrate, or chloride, thereby adsorbing the metal on the zeolite in its pores by ion exchange, then the zeolite is treated with a water-soluble ferrocyanide compound, for example, potassium ferrocyanide, thereby forming metal ferrocyanide on the zeolite in its pores. Then, the zeolite is subjected to ageing treatment, thereby producing a zeolite adsorbent impregnated with metal ferrocyanide in the pores of zeolite. The adsorbent can selectively recover cesium with a high percent cesium removal from a radioactive liquid waste containing at least radioactive cesium, for example, a radioactive liquid waste containing cesium and such coexisting ions as sodium, magnesium, calcium and carbonate ions at the same time at a high concentration. The zeolite adsorbent has a stable adsorbability for a prolonged time

  4. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  5. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  6. MARS software package status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  7. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  8. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  9. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  10. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  11. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed

  12. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  13. The Dynamics and Structures of Adsorbed Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Ellenson, W. D.; McTague, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    . Elastic neutron diffraction measurements, determining the two-dimensional structural ordering of the adsorbed films, have been performed on layers of N2, Ar, H2, D2, O2, Kr, and He. Measurements on layers of larger molecules such as CD4 and ND3 have also been reported. Inelastic neutron scattering...... measurements, studying the dynamics of the adsorbed films are only possible in a few especially favourable cases such as 36Ar and D2 films, where the coherent phonon scattering cross-sections are very large. In other cases incoherent scattering from hydrogen can give information about e.g. the mobility...

  14. Direct comparison of the electronic coupling efficiency of sulfur and selenium alligator clips for molecules adsorbed onto gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrone, L.; Palacin, S.; Bourgoin, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have been performed to compare the electronic coupling provided by S and by Se used as alligator clips for bisthiol- and biselenol-terthiophene molecules adsorbed onto gold. The molecules were inserted in a dodecanethiol (DT) self-assembled monolayer. Their apparent height above the dodecanethiol matrix was used as a measure of the electronic coupling strength corresponding to S and Se, respectively. We show that the insertion behaviors of the two molecules are qualitatively the same, and that Se provides systematically a better coupling link than S, whatever the tunneling conditions

  15. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, M.T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P. do

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  16. Recent advances in insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskin, E.; Moog, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Demand for more and better insertion devices (IDs) at new third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities has led to significant advances in ID technology at different laboratories around the world. In this overview of this progress, focus is on those results that apply to IDs in general rather than one specific ID or laboratory. The advances fall into two general categories: those that reduce the net effect that the ID has on the particle beam, and those that enhance the quality of the emitted light spectrum. The need for these advances, factors that are most important inaachieving them, and the current state of the art are discussed

  17. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    The last ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven, August 16-20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop, which were somewhat more general than might be suggested by the title, are: (1) review the ISABELLE proposal from the point of view of experimental use; (2) contribute useful information on the ''open questions'' in the ISABELLE design; (3) develop data for experimental equipment and operating cost estimates; and (4) project a first approximation to ISABELLE operating modes

  18. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-07-07

    The Henry coefficients of a single component adsorbent + adsorbate system are calculated from experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data, from which the heat of adsorption at zero coverage is evaluated. The first part of the papers relates to the development of thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system1 (Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B. B.; Ng, K. C.; Koyama, S.; Srinivasan, K. Langmuir 2009, 25, 2204). A thermodynamic framework is presented to capture the relationship between the specific surface area (Ai) and the energy factor, and the surface structural and the surface energy heterogeneity distribution factors are analyzed. Using the outlined approach, the maximum possible amount of adsorbate uptake has been evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH° for (i) carbonaceous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), carbon nanotubes, zeolites + hydrogen, and (ii) activated carbons + methane systems. The proposed theoretical framework of At and AH0 provides valuable guides for researchers in developing advanced porous adsorbents for methane and hydrogen uptake. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  20. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  1. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  2. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  3. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  4. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  5. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described

  6. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  7. Volatile organic compounds adsorption using different types of adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimanmes Chanayotha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbents were synthesized from coconut shell, coal and coke by pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process. These synthesized materials were used as adsorbents in adsorption test to determine the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs namely, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and Alkanes standard solution (C8-C20. The adsorption capacities of both synthesized adsorbents and commercial grade adsorbents (Carbotrap™ B and Carbotrap™ C were also compared. It was found that adsorbent A402, which was produced from coconut shell, activated with 40% (wt. potassium hydroxide and at activating temperature of 800°C for 1 hr, could adsorb higher amount of both HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane than other synthesized adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent A402 in adsorbing HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane were 77.87% and 50.82% respectively. These adsorption capabilities were 79.73% and 70.07% of the adsorption capacity of the commercial adsorbent Carbotrap™ B respectively. All three types of the synthesized adsorbent (A402, C302, C402 showed the capability to adsorb alkanes standard solution through the range of C8-C20 . However, their adsorption capacities were high in a specific range of C10-C11. The result from the isotherm plot was indicated that surface adsorption of synthesized adsorbent was isotherm type I while the surface adsorption of commercial adsorbent was isotherm type III.

  8. Insertion and crossing region design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Beloshitsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article is the summary of the 5-afternoon tutorial on insertions for circular machines. Roughly half the course (Part 1) was spent discussing interaction regions, We start by recapitulating basic beam optics including building blocks. This provides the tools to analyze the basic structure of interaction regions and explore the parameter space. This simple example is then successively refined and made more realistic. Examples of realized interaction regions for both hadron and electron machines are shown and their salient features and differences explained. A brief discussion of solenoid-decoupling brings Part 1 to a close. In Part 2 we discussed various utility sections. Dispersion suppressors are presented in detail discussing the principles as well as the practical implementation of flexible suppressors using LEP as an example. Injection schemes, both single-turn and multi-turn stacking, are presented in depth. The matching of wiggler and undulator insertions and a discussion of the impact of these devices on beam parameters closes out Part 2

  9. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  10. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  11. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  12. Photoemission spectroscopy of surfaces and adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.C.; Kaindl, G.; Himpsel, F.J.; Eastman, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Core level photoelectron spectroscopy is providing new information concerning the electronic properties of adsorbates and surfaces. Several examples will be discussed, including studies of adsorbed rare gas submonolayers and multilayers as well as clean metal surfaces. For rare gas multilayers adsorbed on metal surfaces, the photoelectrons and Auger electrons exhibit well-resolved increases in kinetic energy with decreasing distance between the excited atom and the substrate, allowing a direct labeling of the layers. These energy shifts are mainly due to the substrate screening effects, and can be described well by an image-charge model. For a Kr/Xe bilayer system prepared by first coating a Pd substrate with a monolayer of Kr and then overcoating with a layer of Xe, a thermally activated layer inversion process is observed when the temperature is raised, with Xe coming in direct contact with the substrate. For rare gas submonolayers adsorbed on the Al(111) surface, coverage-dependent core level shift and work function measurements provide information about the adatom spatial distributions, polarizabilities, and dipole moments for the ground and excited states. We have also studied the 2p core level shifts for a clean Al(001) surface relative to the bulk. The shifts have a large contribution from the initial-state effects

  13. Heterogeneous membranes filled with hypercrosslinked microparticle adsorbent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, Jiří; Krystl, V.; Hrabánek, P.; Bernauer, B.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 65, 1-2 (2005), s. 57-68 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0680 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous membranes * hypercrosslinked adsorbent * microparticle s Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2005

  14. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  15. Packaging development needs to support environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, J.H.; Kuklinski, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is bringing its facilities into compliance with present environmental protection regulations. At the Hanford Site, this includes cleanup of its vast nuclear and chemical wastes. Cleanup will involve extensive collecting, consolidating, and processing of radioactive and other hazardous wastes. The Hanford Site was established by the Federal government in 1943 to produce plutonium. Natural uranium was fabricated into fuel slugs, inserted into nuclear reactors, and converted into plutonium. The irradiated slugs were then sent through plutonium extraction facilities. Process waste was discharged to the ground, stored on-site, or shipped off-site for disposal. Activities grew to include nine production reactors, five coal-fired power plants, nuclear fuel fabrication, other support facilities including underground waste storage tanks, and numerous chemical and waste processing plants. Cleanup activities will require extensive transport of radioactive and other hazardous materials. Packaging developments and research are required in the following areas to enhance environmental cleanup; (1) Packaging for Large Contaminated and Activated Components. (2) Bulk Packaging for Contaminated Solids. (3) Bulk Packaging for Contaminated Liquids. (4) Environmental Samples. (J.P.N.)

  16. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  17. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  18. The adsorber loop concept for the contact between seawater and adsorber granulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Ohlrogge, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper deals with the so-called ''adsorber loop concept'' in which the adsorber granulate is carried along with the seawater to be processed in a loop-like configuration and is separated again from the depleted water before this is leaving the adsorption unit. This concept enables high seawater velocities thus reducing the required bed area. Theoretical considerations are presented together with experimental results from field tests. (orig.) [de

  19. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  20. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  1. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  2. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  3. Electronic spectral properties of surfaces and adsorbates and atom-adsorbate van der Waals interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovric, D.; Gumhalter, B.

    1988-01-01

    The relevance of van der Waals interactions in the scattering of neutral atoms from adsorbates has been recently confirmed by highly sensitive molecular-beam techniques. The theoretical descriptions of the collision dynamics which followed the experimental studies have necessitated very careful qualitative and quantitative examinations and evaluations of the properties of atom-adsorbate van der Waals interactions for specific systems. In this work we present a microscopic calculation of the strengths and reference-plane positions for van der Waals potentials relevant for scattering of He atoms from CO adsorbed on various metallic substrates. In order to take into account the specificities of the polarization properties of real metals (noble and transition metals) and of chemisorbed CO, we first calculate the spectra of the electronic excitations characteristic of the respective electronic subsystems by using various data sources available and combine them with the existing theoretical models. The reliability of the calculated spectra is then verified in each particular case by universal sum rules which may be established for the electronic excitations of surfaces and adsorbates. The substrate and adsorbate polarization properties which derive from these calculations serve as input data for the evaluation of the strengths and reference-plane positions of van der Waals potentials whose computed values are tabulated for a number of real chemisorption systems. The implications of the obtained results are discussed in regard to the atom-adsorbate scattering cross sections pertinent to molecular-beam scattering experiments

  4. Microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Akiko; Oie, Shigeharu; Kamiya, Akira

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use only which mandate that residual solution be discarded such as albumin and globulin preparations as blood products, preparations containing albumin (such as urokinase and interferon), fat emulsions, and a preparation containing fat emulsions (propofol). In most preparations, Serratia marcescens and Burkholderia cepacia proliferated rapidly at 30 degrees C. However, in globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine to prevent protein degradation (Gamma-Venin P, Venilon-I, Globulin Injection, and Ahlbulin), no growth of S. marcescens and B. cepacia was detected over 24 h at 30 degrees C. For globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine, the injunction to "Discard residual solution after the package has been used" in the package inserts can be revised to "It is possible to use residual solution within 24 h after the package has been used with storage in a cool place."

  5. A Wrapping Method for Inserting Titanium Micro-Mesh Implants in the Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Joon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium micro-mesh implants are widely used in orbital wall reconstructions because they have several advantageous characteristics. However, the rough and irregular marginal spurs of the cut edges of the titanium mesh sheet impede the efficacious and minimally traumatic insertion of the implant, because these spurs may catch or hook the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva during the insertion procedure. In order to prevent this problem, we developed an easy method of inserting a titanium micro-mesh, in which it is wrapped with the aseptic transparent plastic film that is used to pack surgical instruments or is attached to one side of the inner suture package. Fifty-four patients underwent orbital wall reconstruction using a transconjunctival or transcutaneous approach. The wrapped implant was easily inserted without catching or injuring the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva. In most cases, the implant was inserted in one attempt. Postoperative computed tomographic scans showed excellent placement of the titanium micro-mesh and adequate anatomic reconstruction of the orbital walls. This wrapping insertion method may be useful for making the insertion of titanium micro-mesh implants in the reconstruction of orbital wall fractures easier and less traumatic.

  6. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  7. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  8. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  9. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  10. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  11. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  12. BCRA R Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCRA is an R package that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  13. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  14. Energy and packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustead, I; Hancock, G F

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on the energy and raw materials required in the production and use of containers used to package beer, cider, and carbonated soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Topics covered include: methodology of energy analysis, primary and secondary fuels, transport, packaging materials, including glass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tinplate, container production, including plastic bottles, distribution of empty containers, filling and packing, distribution, and disposal. (LEW)

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  17. Adsorbents for radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shigeo; Kiribayashi, Takehiko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to settle radioactive solvents such as tributyl phosphate (TBP) and n-dodecane as they are without using hydrophobicizing agent such as quaternary ammonium salts. Constitution: The adsorbents are prepared by replacing interlaminer ions of swelling-type synthetic mica with alkaline earth metals or metal ions. For instance, synthetic micas introduced with Zr 4+ or Ca 2+ between the layers provide quite different functions from those of starting materials due to the properties of ions introduced between the layers. That is, they provide an intense affinity to organic phosphates such as TBP and transform into material showing a property of adsorbing and absorbing them. Particularly, the fixing nature to the phosphor content constituting TBP is significantly increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  19. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  20. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  1. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  2. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  3. Generating Atomistic Slab Surfaces with Adsorbates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    slabs of various thickness and with various vacuum spacing need be calculated. This can occur in serial or simultaneously . If performed in serial, the...the user. Although the optimization of the slab thickness and vacuum padding can be done simultaneously , it is more computationally conservative to...monolayer is a slab (True if slab), the type of mesh desired (adsorbates.py was written for “Gamma”), how detailed the mesh should be (in units of inverse

  4. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z.; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i) dyes; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) phenols; (iv) pesticides and (v) pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i) agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods); (ii) agricultural residues and wastes; (iii) low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources). These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity) to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc.), but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful) topics such as: (i) adsorption capacity; (ii) kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes) and (iii) critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry) with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents. PMID:28788460

  5. Adsorbate Diffusion on Transition Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    correlation is a Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi ( BEP )- type of correlation, similar to other BEP correlations established earlier for surface-catalyzed bond- breaking...bond-making reactions.6-9 The universal BEP -type correlation is independent of the nature of the adsorbed species and that of the metal surface. For...a certain class of surface-catalyzed reactions, the existence of a BEP -type correlation reflects a similarity between the geometry of the transition

  6. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations

  7. Biological adsorbent for water decontamination from uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, R [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia); Fuska, J; Nemec, P [Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta

    1978-01-01

    A study was made into the capacity of native and heat-denaturated mycelium to adsorb uranium salts from solutions and into the effect of uranium on the growth of the microorganism biomass. The presence of uranium did not inhibit the growth of Penicillium and Aspergillus strains used at a concentration of up to 5x10/sup -4/ M/dm/sup 3/. Uranium added to a nutrient medium produced complexes with phosphorus ions which were adsorbed on the surface of growing hyphae, thus the removal of the mycelium also removed uranium. The results of the experiments with denaturated mycelium of the same strains suggested that uranium was also bound to the biomass with chemical bonds so that mycelium acted as a ''multifunction ion exchanger'' from which adsorbed uranium can be removed step by step by elution. A sorbent of a three-dimensional structure could be prepared from a dried native mycelium using reinforcing resins, which prevented leakage of the biomass. Uranium sorption by biosorbents is a function of the concentration of the cation sorbed and of the pH of the solution.

  8. Biological adsorbent for water decontamination from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, R.; Fuska, J.; Nemec, P.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made into the capacity of native and heat-denaturated mycelium to adsorb uranium salts from solutions and into the effect of uranium on the growth of the microorganism biomass. The presence of uranium did not inhibit the growth of Penicillium and Aspergillus strains used at a concentration of up to 5x10 -4 M/dm 3 . Uranium added to a nutrient medium produced complexes with phosphorus ions which were adsorbed on the surface of growing hyphae, thus the removal of the mycelium also removed uranium. The results of the experiments with denaturated mycelium of the same strains suggested that uranium was also bound to the biomass with chemical bonds so that mycelium acted as a ''multifunction ion exchanger'' from which adsorbed uranium can be removed step by step by elution. A sorbent of a three-dimensional structure could be prepared from a dried native mycelium using reinforcing resins, which prevented leakage of the biomass. Uranium sorption by biosorbents is a function of the concentration of the cation sorbed and of the pH of the solution. (author)

  9. Characterisation of lignite as an industrial adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Qi; Andrew F.A. Hoadley; Alan L. Chaffee; Gil Garnier [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    An alternative use of the abundant and inexpensive lignite (also known as brown coal) as an industrial adsorbent has been characterised. The adsorptive properties of two Victorian lignite without any pre-treatment were investigated using the cationic methylene blue dye as a model compound in aqueous solutions. Two commercial activated carbon products were also studied for comparison. The adsorption equilibrium of the four adsorbents was better described by the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacities of the two untreated lignite adsorbents, Loy Yang and Yallourn, calculated using Langmuir isotherms were 286 and 370 mg/g, respectively, higher than a coconut shell-based activated carbon (167 mg/g), but lower than a coal-based activated carbon (435 mg/g). Surface area results suggested that larger micropores and mesopores were important for achieving good methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbons. However, FTIR and cation exchange capacity analyses revealed that, for the lignite, chemical interactions between lignite surface functional groups and methylene blue molecules occurred, thereby augmenting its adsorption capacity. 63 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics

  11. Node insertion in Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2013-01-01

    The Iterated Function System (IFS) used in the construction of Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Function (CHFIF) depends on the interpolation data. The insertion of a new point in a given set of interpolation data is called the problem of node insertion. In this paper, the effect of insertion of new point on the related IFS and the Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function is studied. Smoothness and Fractal Dimension of a CHFIF obtained with a node are also discussed

  12. Dual Use of Packaging on the Moon: Logistics-2-Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a modular packaging system for logistics that can be reconfigured into internal outfitting for a lunar outpost, including desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. Logistics include clothes, equipment, food, and other consumables needed to sustain the crew for the duration of the mission. A significant mass penalty is required for the packaging and handling of logistics for re-supply of short to long-term space missions that must be brought out of the gravity well on a launch vehicle. Once the supplies have been exhausted, the packaging material is typically of no further use and is discarded. If a scheme can be developed that reuses the logistics packaging, the mass penalty can be reduced. In this research, a modular packaging system has been devised as a kit-of-parts that can be used for both handling logistics supplies, and then reconfigured into desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. The system is derived from a standard International Space Station (ISS)-type Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), using soft, unfoldable box-like containers with stiff metal inserts. The empty hydrogen-impregnated CTBs can be used as-is for cabinets, opened up for use as partitions, or draped over the habitat as layers of radiation shielding. Stiff metal inserts can be reconfigured into desks and other useful outfitting.

  13. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  14. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  16. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  18. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  20. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  1. The adsorber loop concept for the contact between seawater and adsorber granulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Ohlrogge, K.

    1984-01-01

    For the production of 1 kg uranium from seawater about 10 9 kg seawater - depending on the extraction efficiency - have to be processed in a production plant. Such high seawater flows have to be put through adsorber beds the area of which depends on the flow velocity of the water in the bed. For a typical polyamidoxim (PAO) adsorber granulate with a grain size distribution of 0.3 to 1.2 mm the velocity in a fluidized bed is limited to about 1 cm/s in order to prevent carry out of the adsorber material. The consequences of this rather low bed velocity are large and expensive bed areas for technical production plants. The present paper deals with the so-called ''adsorber loop concept'' in which the adsorber granulate is carried along with the seawater to be processed in a loop-like configuration and is separated again from the water before this is leaving the adsorption unit. This concept enables considerably higher seawater velocities thus reducing the bed area. Theoretical considerations are presented together with experimental results from field tests. (author)

  2. A Review of Patents for the Smart Packaging of Meat and Muscle-based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin; Kerry, Joseph P; Hopkins, David L

    2017-10-31

    Meat packaging once acted primarily as an inert barrier to protect its contents against contamination and this function has shifted. Packaging now includes complementary functions that improve product quality, longevity and customer/retail appeal. The devices and methods applied to achieve these functions may be categorised as smart packaging, which includes intelligent packaging, devised to monitor and communicate packaged content status, and active packaging, to provide passive adjustment of in-pack conditions from its interactions with the packaged meat. Smart packaging examples already available from recent patents include antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging coatings and inserts; sensors or indicators that identify spoilage and freshness; functional engineering customisations; improvements to packaging integrity; leak or tamper detectors; and, environmentally sustainable options. Together, these inventions respond to industry and customer demands for meat packaging and are therefore the focus of this review, in which we discuss their applications and limitations in meat packaging. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  6. Removal of adsorbent particles od copper ions by Jet flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santander, M.; Tapia, P.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study shows the results obtained on the removal of copper ions from synthetic effluents by using the adsorbent particles flotation technique (APF) in a Jet flotation cell (Jameson type). In a typical experimental run, a mineral with high quartz content was used as adsorbent particles in the adsorption and flotation experiments, to determine optimal pH conditions, adsorbent particles concentration; flotation reagents dosage and air/effluent flow ratio for applying in the Jet cell to maximize the efficiency of copper ions adsorptions and the removal of particles adsorbents containing the absorbed copper ions. The results indicate the at pH>7 and at adsorbent particles concentration of 2 kg.m - 3, 99% of copper ions is adsorbed and, when the air/effluent flow ratio applied in the Jet cell is 0,2, 98% of absorbent particles containing the adsorbed copper ions is removed. (Author) 39 refs.

  7. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  8. A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Roopal, Dr.; Bisht, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    Background: A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 100 women at tertiary care centre, Haldwani, Nainital. Patients were divided in to two groups. Group A (n=50)-post placental insertion within 10 minutes of delivery of placenta. Group B (n=50)-Interval insertion after 6 weeks of delivery. Both groups were compared in terms of pain abdomen, bleeding, missing thread, expulsion,...

  9. Waste package characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented.

  10. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  11. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  12. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  13. Nirex - The complete package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, N.A.; Rarok, M.

    2002-01-01

    Through continuous interaction with its customers, Nirex had identified the need for a comprehensive range of waste containers, reflecting the variety of wastes and operational undertakings. The current range consists of five standard containers. Standardisation is introduced across all waste packages to enable the safe and efficient operation of future waste management facilities. The practical lessons learned during the development of standard containers are in turn reflected in the container design work that Nirex has undertaken. They are also fed into the advice given to customers during evaluation of waste packaging proposals. (author)

  14. Ada Namelist Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  15. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  16. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  17. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  18. Assessment of the insertion of reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium in a PWR core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Victor F.; Monteiro, Fabiana B.A.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: victorfc@fis.grad.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Reprocessed fuel by UREX+ technique and spiked with thorium was inserted in a PWR core and neutronic parameters have been analyzed. Based on the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the Angra-2 reactor, the core was modeled and simulated with SCALE6.0 package. The neutronic data evaluation was carried out by the analysis of the effective and infinite multiplication factors, and the fuel evolution during the burnup. The conversion ratio (CR) was also evaluated. The results show that, when inserting reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium, the insertion of burnable poison rods is not necessary, due to the amount of absorber isotopes present in the fuel. Besides, the conversion ratio obtained was greater than the presented by standard UO{sub 2} fuel, indicating the possibility of extending the burnup. (author)

  19. Development of adsorbents for recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Hiroaki; Furusaki, Shintaro.

    1987-01-01

    The largest subject for putting the extraction of uranium from seawater in practical use is the development of high performance adsorbents for uranium. In this paper, the way of thinking about the development of adsorbents for extracting uranium from seawater and the recent reports on this subject are described. Next, the research on the adsorbing capacity and adsorbing rate of the adsorbents developed so far is summarized, and the way of thinking about the evaluation of adsorbent performance which is the base of the design of a system for extracting uranium from seawater is explained, taking amidoxime type adsorbent as the example. For Japan where energy resources are scant, the uranium contained in seawater, which is estimated to be about 4.2 billion t, is the most luring important element. Uranium is contained in seawater is very low concentration of 3 ppb, and exists as anion complex salt. In 1960s, the Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment in UK found out that titanium oxide hydrate is the most promising as the adsorbent. Also a number of organic absorbents have been developed. In order to bring adsorbents in contact with seawater, pumping, ocean current and wave force are utilized. Adsorbents are in spherical, fiber and film forms, and held as fixed beds and fluidized beds. (Kako, I.) 48 refs

  20. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  1. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  2. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  3. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  4. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  5. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  6. Packaging LLW and ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.; Owen, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Low level waste (LLW) accounts for 70-80% by volume of all radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. It has low specific activity, negligible actinide content and requires little, if any, shielding to protect workers. Volume reduction for LLW of high volume but low density may be achieved by incineration and compaction as appropriate, before packaging for disposal by near surface burial. Intermediate level waste (ILW) is treated and packed to convert it into a stable form to minimize any release of activity and make handling easier. The matrix chosen for immobilization, usually cement, polymers or bitumen, depends on the nature of the waste and the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. The special case of LLW and ILW which will arise from reactor decommissioning is discussed. Packaging methods adopted by individual countries are reviewed. The range of costs involved for packaging ILW is indicated. There is no international consensus on the performance required from packaged waste to ensure its suitability both for interim storage and final disposal. (UK)

  7. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  8. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  9. Printer Graphics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  10. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  11. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2009-01-01

    evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH

  13. Natural adsorbents of dyes from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Meryem; El Hajjaji, souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El M'Rabet, Mohammadine

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of natural waters is a current environmental problem and lot of work has been done to find methods for its, prevention and remediation such as ionic exchange, adsorption on active carbon, filtration, electrolysis, biodegradation …etc. Adsorption is one of the most applied methods according to its effectiveness and easy management. Some adsorbents with good properties such as active alumina, zeolites, crop residues … etc, are suitable to substitute usual active carbon. This study aimed at the removal of dyes using oil shale as natural support, and its optimization by factorial experiment. Three factors were considered namly:pollutant concentration, pH and weight of the adsorbent. Tests have been performed with cationic and anionic dyes. Experimental results show that pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data for the adsorption by the oil shale. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were tested to fit experimental data, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by Freundlich isotherm for methylorange and Temkin for methyl blue. Analysis were completed by oil shale characterization educing XRD, IR, XRF techniques, and cationic exchange capacity.

  14. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  15. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.

  16. Insertion profiles of 4 headless compression screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of -3.1 mm, -2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of -2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of -2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws, and enable the surgeon to optimize compression. Copyright

  17. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  18. New type of amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent for the recovery of uranium from seawater. III. Recycle use of adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Katakai, A.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1986-01-01

    An amidoxime-group adsorbent for recovering uranium from seawater was made by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polymeric fiber, followed by amidoximation. Uranium adsorption of the adsorbent contacted with seawater in a column increased with the increase in flow rate, then leveled off. The relationship between uranium adsorption in a batch process and the ratio of the amount of seawater to that of adsorbent was found to be effective in evaluating adsorbent contacted with any amount of seawater. The conditioning of the adsorbent with an alkaline solution at higher temperature (∼80 0 C) after the acid desorption recovered the adsorption ability to the original level. This made it possible to apply the adsorbent to recycle use. On the other hand, the adsorbent conditioned at room temperature or that without conditioning lost adsorption ability during recycle use. The increase in water uptake was observed as one of the physical changes produced during recycle use of the alkaline-conditioned adsorbent, while the decrease in water uptake was observed with the unconditioned adsorbent. The IR spectra of the adsorbent showed a probability of reactions of amidoxime groups with acid and alkaline solutions, which can explain the change in uranium adsorption during the adsorption-desorption cycle

  19. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  20. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Dai, Sheng; Das, S.; Liao, W.P.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana; Gill, Gary; Byers, Maggie Flicker; Schneider, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  1. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  2. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  3. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  4. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  5. Creation of the technical adsorbent from local raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobaev, M.D.; Davlatnazarova, M.D.; Abdullaev, T.H.

    2016-01-01

    The results showed the possibility of obtaining effective adsorbents of walnut shell and the sunflower for environmental purposes, in particular for the purification of polluted waters from heavy metals. It has been shown, that 1 g of walnut shell adsorbent can adsorb on its surface ions of lead in amount of 47% by weight. The dependence of the adsorption activity of the semi-coke received from walnut shell from particle size and concentration of the solution. (author)

  6. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  7. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  8. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  9. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  10. Dual Use Packaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  11. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  12. WGS-Adsorbent Reaction Studies at Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, M.; Torreiro, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document reports the most significant results obtained during the experimental work performed under task WGS adsorbent experimental studies within CAPHIGAS project (National Research Plan 2008-2011, ref: ENE2009-08002). The behavior of the binary adsorbent-catalyst system which will be used in the hybrid system is described in this document. Main results reported here were used during the design and development of the hybrid system adsorbent catalyst- membrane proposed in the CAPHIGAS project. The influence of main operating parameters and the optimized volume ratio adsorbent-catalyst are also presented in this report. (Author)

  13. Neutralization of Rubidium Adsorbate Electric Fields by Electron Attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, J. A. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Kim, E. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rittenhouse, S. T. [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Weck, Philippe F [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sadeghpour, H. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shaffer, J. P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric elds resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the Rb induces a negative electron affnity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows for low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric eld from the Rb adsorbates. Our results have implications for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems and the fundamental study of atom-surface interactions, as well as applications for electrons bound to a 2D surface.

  14. Chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: surgical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Yael; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron Shagra; Karpf, Ronen; Massarwe, Sabri; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition among athletes and joggers. One fifth of the injuries involves the insertion of the tendon. The etiology is either due to mechanical overuse related to sports activity, or a systemic inflammatory disease. The clinical appearance includes pain and movement restriction. The primary treatment is conservative. The surgery referred to in this study (Calcaneal Osteotomy) is performed by decompression of the posterior ...

  15. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-02-17

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations. They enable us to compute the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed phase, the isosteric heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, and the adsorbed phase volume thoroughly. These equations are very simple and easy to handle for calculating the energetic performances of any adsorption system. We have shown here that the derived thermodynamic formulations fill up the information gap with respect to the state of adsorbed phase to dispel the confusion as to what is the actual state of the adsorbed phase. We have also discussed and established the temperature-entropy diagrams of (i) CaCl 2-in-silica gel + water system for cooling applications, and (ii) activated carbon (Maxsorb III) + methane system for gas storage. © Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  17. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  18. Ion exchange/adsorbent pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A decontamination of greater than 99% of the actinides and fission products contained in radioactive waste water can be obtained using ion exchange resins. A system for achieving this result is described in this paper. This ion exchange pilot-plant design is the culmination of five years of study of the decontamination of radioactive waste streams by ion exchange resins and other adsorbents at Mound. In order to maintain maximum flexibility of treatments, this pilot-plant design is a conceptual design with specific flows, resins, and column specifications, but with many optional features and no rigid equipment specifications. This flexibility allows the system to be amenable to almost any radioactive waste stream. Very specific designs can be constructed from this conceptual design for the treatment of any specific waste stream. Operating and capital costs are also discussed. 1 figure, 5 tables

  19. Canyon solvent cleaning with solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent with a solid adsorbent removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  20. Arsenic Remediation by Synthetic and Natural Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contagion of toxic metals in water is a serious environmental and health concern and threatening problem worldwide. Particularly arsenic contamination in ground water has became great dilemma in the earlier decades. With advent in research for arsenic remediation, standard of drinking water is improving and now reduced to few parts per million (ppm level of arsenic in drinking water sources. However, due to continuous enhancement in environmental pollution, remediation techniques are still needed to achieve the drinking water quality standard. Development of novel and economically feasible removal techniques or materials for selective separation of this toxic specie has been the main focus of research. Several arsenic removal techniques, including membrane separation, coagulation, precipitation, anion exchange have been developed. The aim of this article is to review briefly arsenic chemistry and previous and current available technologies that have been reported various low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal.

  1. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  2. Applications of core level spectroscopy to adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    In the following review different applications of core-level spectroscopy to atomic and molecular adsorbates will be shown. Core-holes are created through core-level ionization and X-ray absorption processes and the core-hole decays by radiant and non-radiant processes. This forms the basis for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy. We will demonstrate how we can use the different methods to obtain information about the chemical state, local geometric structure, nature of chemical bonding and dynamics in electron transfer processes. The adsorption of N 2 and CO on Ni(100) will be used as prototype systems for chemisorption while N 2 on graphite and Ar on Pt for physisorption

  3. In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Rui; Lobo, Maria Joao C.; Duarte, Jose; Ferrer-Correia, Antonio J.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Dubin, Joshua R.; Domingues, Pedro M.; Amado, Francisco M.L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

  4. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  5. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  6. Package materials, waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  7. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR (section) 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  8. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  9. Technology transfer packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  10. Biodegradation of bacterial polysaccharides adsorbed on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckert, A.; Tok, H.H.; Jacquin, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this research, by means of a model, a study was made of the biodegradation of microbial organic compounds adsorbed on clays, with a parallel experiment on Fontainebleau sand serving as the control. During incubation the three classes of organic matter ( 14 C-labelled glucose, 14 C-labelled polysaccharides and 14 C-labelled microbial cells) mineralize more actively in the presence of sand than in the presence of clay, since the latter provides protection against biodegradation. Mineralization of the adsorbed organic compounds, however, is marked by clear-cut differences after three weeks - glucose (55%)>polysaccharides (43%)>microbial organisms (7.3%). After incubation, chemical extraction of the organo-mineral complexes by alkaline solvents shows only water-soluble and alkali-soluble products in the case of sand; conversely, in that of montmorillonite the bulk of the 14 C was found in the non-extractable fraction or humin (18.1% of the initial 14 C for glucose, 27.3% for the polysaccharides, and 67.6% for the microbial organisms). A second incubation carried out after a phase in which there was drying and remoistening of the organo-mineral complexes, brings to light the important part played by climatic alternations during the biodegradation process. A new mineralization phase is observed, affecting more the bacterial organisms (14.1%) than the polysaccharides (6.3%), with the glucose-base complexes occupying an intermediate position (11.2%). The chemical fractioning of the organo-mineral complexes following re-incubation shows the stability of 14 C in humin very clearly, especially in the case of polysaccharides, where the mineralization phase relates primarily to the products extractable with alkalis. (author)

  11. Preparation of theoretical scanning tunneling microscope images of adsorbed molecules: a theoretical study of benzene on the Cu(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapter, J.G.; Rogers, B.L.; Ford, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Since its development in 1982, the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) has developed into a powerful tool for the study of surfaces and adsorbates. However, the utility of the technique can be further enhanced through the development of techniques for generating theoretical STM images. This is particularly true when studying molecules adsorbed on a substrate, as the results are often interpreted superficially due to an inadequate understanding of the orbital overlap probed in the experiment. A method of preparing theoretical scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images using comparatively inexpensive desktop computers and the commercially available CRYSTAL98 package is presented through a study of benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods are used to model clean Cu(110) slabs of various thicknesses and to simulate the adsorption of benzene onto these slabs. Eight possible orientations of benzene on the Cu(110) surface are proposed, and the optimum orientation according to the calculations is presented. Theoretical STM images of the Cu(110) surface and benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface are compared with experimental STM images of the system from a published study. Significant differences are observed and are examined in detail

  12. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  13. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  14. The CASA Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    CASA is the standard science data analysis package for ALMA and VLA but it can also be used for the analysis of data from other observatories. In this talk, I will give an overview of the structure and features of CASA, who develops it, and the present status and plans, and then show typical analysis workflows for ALMA data with special emphasis on the handling of single dish data and its combination with interferometric data.

  15. The Ettention software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  16. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  17. Understanding Trends in Catalytic Activity: The Effect of Adsorbate-Adsorbate Interactions for CO Oxidation Over Transition Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2010-01-01

    Using high temperature CO oxidation as the example, trends in the reactivity of transition metals are discussed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Volcano type relations between the catalytic rate and adsorption energies of important intermediates are introduced...... and the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on the trends is discussed. We find that adsorbate-adsorbate interactions significantly increase the activity of strong binding metals (left side of the volcano) but the interactions do not change the relative activity of different metals and have a very small...... influence on the position of the top of the volcano, that is, on which metal is the best catalyst....

  18. "Doctor, are you trying to kill me?": ambivalence about the patient package insert for estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2002-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed new requirements for patient labeling for estrogens prescribed for menopausal and postmenopausal women. This paper explores the variety of responses to this proposal from women and their husbands, feminist and consumer activists, physicians, pharmacists, and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as represented in letters written to the FDA. The drug industry and the medical profession opposed patient labeling on the grounds of cost and a resentment of governmental intrusion. Feminists and consumer advocates were in favor of the idea, but the response from current estrogen users was mixed: most women wished to be better informed, but many expressed concern that estrogen would be removed from the market. This ambivalence suggests unresolved tensions regarding conceptions of female aging, the medical management of menopause and aging, informed consent in medicine, and governmental regulation of medical practice. The debate thus represents an important moment in the history of women's health care.

  19. Design and ergonomics of package inserts of drugs in Brazil: a reality in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Charles Ricardo Leite; Soares, Marcelo Marcio

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the design of leaflets of medicines, evidencing the problems resulting from the lack of Brazilian normalization to promote the use of the graphical representation of instructional texts warnings. It approaches studies related to the effectiveness and efficiency of information systems, highlighting the semiotics and the cultural and informational ergonomics. The analysis of the context uses as method, an analytical study on selected warnings of thirty leaflets of medicines, followed by interviews lead with the public managers involved with the regulation of the pharmaceutical companies, and two experiments with users performed in city of Recife, in State of Pernambuco: one aiming at to identify how they interact with the leaflets of medicines, and the second one testing their understanding concerning standardized illustrations in the United States and the South Africa. The results show the need for improvements in presentation and graphic representation of leaflets of medicines, powering them to the role of communication, to ensure the consumption of medicine safely by its users. The conclusion congregates parameters and recommendations for the graphic representation of warnings in leaflets of medicines in Brazil.

  20. 21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discussion of the symptoms suggestive of pinworm infestation, including a statement that pinworms must be... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in which pinworms may be spread from person to person and hygienic procedures to follow to avoid such spreading. (e...

  1. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...... for the production of containers with different venting area and location of the venting holes and the use of different membrane thicknesses by using the same mould. Mould design and material selection are presented....

  2. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  3. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  4. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  5. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  6. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  7. Comparative evaluation of selected starches as adsorbent for Thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most commonly used is silica gel which is an inorganic adsorbent. Organic substances like cellulose, polyethylene are also used. All these are imported into Nigeria and are unhealthy for economic policies. Most commonly used adsorbent may not be easy to produce locally, but starch, which is a very common product, ...

  8. Synthesis and properties of porous zeolite aluminosilicate adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilina, A.S.; Milinchuk, V.K.; Burukhin, S.B.; Gordienko, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally safe non-energy-intensive methods of the synthesis have been developed and the properties of solid inorganic nanostructured zeolite-like adsorbents of a broad spectrum have been studied. The sorption capacities of the adsorbents with respect to various components of water pollution have been determined [ru

  9. Development of ultrafiltration and inorganic adsorbents: January--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultrafiltration media with and without the assistance of bone char filters were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing radionuclides from contaminated solutions. Precipitants, resin, adsorbents, and inorganic adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in decontaminating solutions. A study of the effects of radiation on ultrafiltration media was initiated. An ultrafiltration media pilot plant was ordered and is being installed

  10. Friction and diffusion dynamics of adsorbates at surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusco, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical study of the motion of adsorbates (e. g. atoms, molecules or clusters) on solid surfaces is presented, with a focus on surface diffusion and atomic-scale friction. These two phenomena are inextricably linked, because when an atomic or molecular adsorbate diffuses, or is pulled, it

  11. Mixed-matrix membrane adsorbers for protein separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, M.E.; Borneman, Z.; Wessling, M.

    2003-01-01

    The separation of two similarly sized proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was carried out using a new type of ion-exchange mixed-matrix adsorber membranes. The adsorber membranes were prepared by incorporation of various types of Lewatit ion-exchange resins into an

  12. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  13. Test manufacture of the canister insert 135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.

    2005-10-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy, in June 2004 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the second trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the third test manufacture of insert by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties of the cast material. The measured ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified in the upper part of the cast. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The cast contained slag (dross). Avoiding the dross formation will be the most demanding challenge of the forthcoming development of the cast procedure. (orig.)

  14. Test manufacture of a canister insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.

    2004-11-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Paper Oy, Jyvaeskylae Foundry, in 2003 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the first trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the second test manufacture of insert by Metso Paper. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties and metallurgical structure of the cast material. The measured tensile strength, ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The nodulizing of the graphite was not occurred during the casting process according to the requirements. (orig.)

  15. Ionogenic adsorbents based on local raw materials for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobaev, M.D.; Davlatnazarova, M.; Turdialiev, M.Z.; Abdullayev, T.H.; Pulatov, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The successful management of uranium wastes and creating the conditions for effective rehabilitation activities require special adsorbents capable of holding on the surface complexes, including radioactive elements. Currently tested and have shown promising synthetic adsorbents based pitted apricot fruits and other fruit plants. This report presents data for the establishment of ionic type available adsorbents based on Tajikistan coal. As the base for the creation of this type of adsorbent were taken the coal of the 'Ziddi' deposits. As follows from our data on the chemical composition, the studied coals contain more than 20% of the ash. According to the available literature theses ashes contains various minerals compositions that can form the adsorbent's active surface. Thus, the model for this type of activated carbon can serve as a mixture of zeolite, ion exchange resins and activated carbon itself.

  16. Processing method and device for iodine adsorbing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Shiga, Reiko.

    1997-01-01

    An iodine adsorbing material adsorbing silver compounds is reacted with a reducing gas, so that the silver compounds are converted to metal silver and stored. Then, the silver compounds are not melted or recrystallized even under a highly humid condition, accordingly, peeling of the adsorbed materials from a carrier can be prevented, and the iodine adsorbing material can be stored stably. Since the device is disposed in an off gas line for discharging off gases from a nuclear power facility, the iodine adsorbing material formed by depositing silver halides to the carrier is contained, and a reducing or oxidizing gas is supplied to the vessel as required, and silver halides can be converted to metal silver or the metal silver can be returned to silver halide. (T.M.)

  17. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  18. Noble gas separation with the use of inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.; Christian, J.D.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A noble gas separation process is proposed for application to airborne nuclear fuel reprocessing plant effluents. The process involves the use of inorganic adsorbents for the removal of contaminant gases and noble gas separation through selective adsorption. Water and carbon dioxide are removed with selected zeolites that do not appreciably adsorb the noble gases. Xenon is essentially quantitatively removed with a specially developed adsorbent using conventional adsorption-desorption techniques. Oxygen is removed to low ppM levels by the use of a rapid cycle adsorption technique on a special adsorbent leaving a krypton-nitrogen mixture. Krypton is separated from nitrogen with a special adsorbent operated at about -80 0 C. Because the separation process does not require high pressures and oxygen is readily removed to sufficiently limit ozone formation to insignificant levels, appreciable capital and operating cost savings with this process are possible compared with other proposed processes. In addition, the proposed process is safer to operate

  19. Flow boundary conditions for chain-end adsorbing polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Andrienko, Denis; Delle Site, Luigi; Kremer, Kurt

    2005-09-08

    Using the phenol-terminated polycarbonate blend as an example, we demonstrate that the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for a flow of an adsorbing polymer melt are extremely sensitive to the structure of the epitaxial layer. Under shear, the adsorbed parts (chain ends) of the polymer melt move along the equipotential lines of the surface potential whereas the adsorbed additives serve as the surface defects. In response to the increase of the number of the adsorbed additives the surface layer becomes thinner and solidifies. This results in a gradual transition from the slip to the no-slip boundary condition for the melt flow, with a nonmonotonic dependence of the slip length on the surface concentration of the adsorbed ends.

  20. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  1. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  2. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  3. Bioavailability of Carbon Nanomaterial-Adsorbed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Pimphales promelas: Influence of Adsorbate Molecular Size and Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Erica N; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; van den Hurk, Peter; Klaine, Stephen J

    2017-08-15

    Despite carbon nanomaterials' (CNMs) potential to alter the bioavailability of adsorbed contaminants, information characterizing the relationship between adsorption behavior and bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed contaminants is still limited. To investigate the influence of CNM morphology and organic contaminant (OC) physicochemical properties on this relationship, adsorption isotherms were generated for a suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and exfoliated graphene (GN) in conjunction with determining the bioavailability of the adsorbed PAHs to Pimphales promelas using bile analysis via fluorescence spectroscopy. Although it appeared that GN adsorbed PAHs indiscriminately compared to MWCNTs, the subsequent bioavailability of GN-adsorbed PAHs was more sensitive to PAH morphology than MWCNTs. GN was effective at reducing bioavailability of linear PAHs by ∼70%, but had little impact on angular PAHs. MWCNTs were sensitive to molecular size, where bioavailability of two-ringed naphthalene was reduced by ∼80%, while bioavailability of the larger PAHs was reduced by less than 50%. Furthermore, the reduction in bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed PAHs was negatively correlated with the amount of CNM surface area covered by the adsorbed-PAHs. This study shows that the variability in bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed PAHs is largely driven by PAH size, configuration and surface area coverage.

  4. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  5. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  6. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  7. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.; Cruse, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    To provide uniform packaging of hazardous materials on an international level, the United Nations has developed packaging recommendations that have been implemented worldwide. The United Nations packaging recommendations are performance oriented, allowing for a wide variety of package materials and systems. As a result of this international standard, efforts in the United States are being directed toward use of performance-oriented packaging and elimination of specification (designed) packaging. This presentation will focus on trends, design evaluation, and performance testing of radioactive material packaging. The impacts of US Department of Transportation Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A on specification and low-specific activity radioactive material packaging requirements are briefly discussed. The US Department of Energy's program for evaluating radioactive material packings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A requirements, is used as the basis for discussing low-activity packaging performance test requirements. High-activity package testing requirements are presented with examples of testing performed at the Hanford Site that is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  10. RERTR-12 Insertion 1 Irradiation Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.M.; Lillo, M.A.; Chang, G.S.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.; Roth, G.A.; Wachs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications. RERTR-12 insertion 1 includes the capsules irradiated during the first two irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, X1, X2 and X3 capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  11. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.M.; Chang, G.S.; Wachs, D.M.; Roth, G.A.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  12. Installation of the LHC experimental insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the low-beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  13. INSTALLATION OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTAL INSERTIONS

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the Low-Beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  14. Compact insert design for cryogenic pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias Rigoberto; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Petitpas, Guillaume; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2017-06-14

    A pressure vessel apparatus for cryogenic capable storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure includes an insert with a parallel inlet duct, a perpendicular inlet duct connected to the parallel inlet. The perpendicular inlet duct and the parallel inlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components. The insert also includes a parallel outlet duct and a perpendicular outlet duct connected to the parallel outlet duct. The perpendicular outlet duct and the parallel outlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components.

  15. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  16. Surface characterization of Ag/Titania adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Nair, Sachin; Duin, Evert C.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ag/Titania adsorbent for selective removal of the desulfurization-refractive polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) from liquid hydrocarbon fuels was prepared, its total and the Ag specific surface area were determined and the surface reaction sites in the sorbent that may be active in the adsorptive selective desulfurization were characterized by several spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The sorbent contains Ag, Ti, O and spurious C on its surface, as by the XPS measurements. Silver is present as an oxide, as judged by the XPS Auger parameter (AP). The complementary electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy confirms that the majority of Ag is present in the diamagnetic Ag 1+ form, with the minor concentration (∼0.1% of total Ag) present as Ag 2+ . The findings by XPS and ESR are confirmed by the XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and thermodynamic considerations. The supported Ag is highly dispersed on the surface of the titania support, with the particle size of ∼30-60 A depending on Ag content, with an Ag specific surface area of ∼7-14 m 2 /g, vs. the total surface area of ∼114-58 m 2 /g.

  17. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, H.

    1978-01-01

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  18. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  20. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  1. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  2. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  4. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  5. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-ell bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-ell bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was < 6 g fissile/ell, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that would

  6. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of nisin adsorbed to surfaces commonly used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nelson P; Araujo, Ana Belén; Barrera, Ana M; Agrasar, Ana Torrado; Macías, Cristina López; Carballo, Julia; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption isotherms of nisin to three food contact surfaces, stainless steel, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), and rubber at 8, 25, 40, and 60 degrees C, were calculated. For all surfaces, the increase in temperature led to a decrease in the affinity between nisin and the surface. The rubber adsorbed a higher amount of nisin (0.697 microg/cm2) in comparison with PET (0.665 microg/cm2) and stainless steel (0.396 microg/cm2). Adsorption of nisin to the stainless steel surface described L-2 type curves for all temperatures assayed. However, for PET and rubber surfaces, the isotherms were L-2 type (at 40 and 60 degrees C) and L-4 type curves (at 8 and 25 degrees C). Nisin retained its antibacterial activity once adsorbed to the food contact surfaces and was able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus hirae CECT 279 on Rothe agar medium. The attachment of three Listeria monocytogenes strains to the three surfaces was found to be dependent on the surface, the strain, and the initial bacterial suspension in contact with the surface. The adsorption of Nisaplin on surfaces reduced the attachment of all L. monocytogenes strains tested. The effect of PET-based bioactive packaging in food was very encouraging. When applied to a food system, nisin-adsorbed PET bottles reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the levels of the total aerobic plate counts in skim milk by approximately 1.4 log units after 24 days of refrigerated storage (4 degrees C), thus extending its shelf life.

  8. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in 3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a k eff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  9. System issues for multichip packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Maurice G.; Hartley, Neil

    1991-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that the performance of an electronic system is governed by the choice of packaging technology. Never before have the technical and financial implications of a packaging technology choice been more critical and never before has technology interdependence or industry globalisation made the choice more difficult. This paper is aimed at examining the choices available and the system issues resulting from the move from single chip to multichip packaging.

  10. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  11. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  12. A theoretical study of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    the barrier for dissociation, whereas S will increase it. The interaction with alkali atoms is mainly of an electrostatic nature. The poisoning by S is due to two kinds of repulsive interactions: a Pauli repulsion and a reduced covalent bond strength between the adsorbate and the surface d-electrons. In order...... to investigate these different interactions in more detail, we look at three different species (N atoms, and terminally bonded N(2) and CO) and use them as probes to study their interaction with two modifier atoms (Na and S). The two modifier atoms have very different properties, which allows us to decouple...

  13. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Bakker, D.; Vliet, van AH; Kuipers, E.J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  14. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Ramon; Bakker, Dennis; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  15. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism: An Observational Study among Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects in Malaysia. ... Methods: The pharmacological effect of ACE inhibition on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were observed among a total of 62 subjects for ...

  16. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  17. Aspects of insertion in random trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We

  18. Packaging of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  19. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository

  20. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Co adsorbates on superconducting Pb nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Regis; Caminale, Michael; Oka, Hirofumi; Stepniak, Agnieszka; Leon Vanegas, Augusto A.; Sander, Dirk; Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconductivity in low-dimensional structures has become an active research area. In order to understand the superconducting pairing, long-standing work has been devoted to the pair breaking effect, where magnetic impurities break Cooper pair singlets. We performed scanning tunneling spectroscopy at low temperature on Co adsorbates on superconducting Pb nanoislands. On the Co adsorbates, we observe spectral features in the superconductor's energy gap, which we attribute to magnetic impurity induced bound states, a hallmark of the pair breaking effect. We discuss the response of the superconducting islands to the presence of Co adsorbates.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EARLY POSTPARTUM IUCD INSERTION TO INTERVAL IUCD INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to National Family Health Survey-3, Indian women have 13% unmet need for contraception and according to District Level Household & Facility Survey-3, it is 21.3% in the postpartum period. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion - both immediately post-placental delivery and somewhat later, but within 48 hours after delivery are options which merit consideration as the woman is likely to have a high motivation for accepting contraception and the healthcare centre provides a convenient setting for insertion of IUCD. AIM Comparison of efficacy and complications of IUCD insertions in post-placental with interval period: 6-month followup. METHOD This perspective study was conducted among 100 women: - 50 women had IUCD inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery and 50 had insertion more than 6 weeks after delivery. They were followed till 6 months post insertion and were compared regarding early and late complications, continuation rates and expulsion rates. RESULT At the end of six months, we found higher occurrence of lower abdominal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding in case of interval insertion as compared to post-placental insertion which was statistically significant (p value-0.04 & 0.007 respectively. However, the expulsion rates of post-placental IUCD were somewhat elevated (14% compared to interval insertions (2%. Continuation rates at the end of 6 months in both the groups were 82% and 86% respectively which is comparable. CONCLUSION Post-placental IUCD is thus found to be an ideal method to meet the unmet need of postpartum women as it is easily accessible and convenient for both women and their health care providers, is associated with less discomfort and fewer side effects and allow women to obtain safe, long acting, highly effective contraception while still in the health care system.

  2. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  3. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents

  4. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  5. ORNL's DCAL software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has released its Dose and Risk Calculation software, DCAL. DCAL, developed with the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, consists of a series of computational modules, driven in either an interactive or a batch mode for computation of dose and risk coefficients from intakes of radionuclides or exposure to radionuclides in environmental media. The software package includes extensive libraries of biokinetic and dosimetric data that represent the current state of the art. The software has unique capability for addressing intakes of radionuclides by non-adults. DCAL runs as 32-bit extended DOS and console applications under Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. It is intended for users familiar with the basic elements of computational radiation dosimetry. Components of DCAL have been used to prepare U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Reports 12 and 13 and several publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  6. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 2. Insights Into Adsorbent Design

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2012-11-21

    Packed bed breakthrough experiments are reported for commercial zeolite 13X and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica materials with three different amine loadings. Mass and heat transfer dynamics for all four materials are modeled successfully. Amine adsorbents with open pores are found to exhibit faster mass diffusion rates compared to zeolite 13X. When amine loading is increased by coupling aminopropyl groups, premature breakthrough combined with a long tail is observed. Contrary to conventional physisorbants, finite heat losses to the column wall do not explain the long breakthrough tail. A rate model that accounts for heterogeneity in diffusion was found to accurately capture the breakthrough shape of the high loading material. Batch uptake measurements support the hypothesis that slow diffusion through the polymer phase is what hampers adsorption kinetics in the high amine loading adsorbent. The results emphasize the importance of designing materials that are not overloaded with amine sites, as excessive amine loadings can lead to depressed adsorption kinetics and premature column breakthrough. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  8. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Song, Lifu; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Zhaobin; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen to adsorb vanillin in situ during the bioconversion. Resin DM11 was found to be the best, which adsorbed the most vanillin and the least ferulic acid. When 8% resin DM11 (wet w/v) was added to the biotransformation system, 45 g l(-1) ferulic acid could be added continually and 19.2 g l(-1) vanillin was obtained within 55 h, which was the highest vanillin yield by bioconversion until now. This yield was remarkable for exceeding the crystallization concentration of vanillin and therefore had far-reaching consequence in its downstream processing.

  9. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiachuan; Eraghi Kazzaz, Armin; AlipoorMazandarani, Niloofar; Hosseinpour Feizi, Zahra; Fatehi, Pedram

    2018-04-10

    Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  10. Order-disorder transitions in adsorbed systems on magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Granja, F.; Moran-Lopez, J.L.; Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City. Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados); Falicov, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is investigated the effect of adsorbed atoms on the magnetic properties of ferromagnets. The Ising model is employed considering nearest neigbours with antiferromagnetic coupling between atoms. (M.W.O.) [pt

  11. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachuan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  12. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    tanning, metallurgical operation and manufacturing have led to the release ... pulmonary fibrosis and inhibit many enzymatic functions. (Liphadzi ... sector is a low cost adsorbent for heavy metal but has ... as its economic value is less. The aim ...

  13. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  14. Selectivity of β-Sitosterol Imprinted Polymers as Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, St.; Hariani Soekamto, Nunuk; Taba, Paulina; Bachri Amran, Muh

    2018-03-01

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are smart materials that have been used as adsorbents in separation processes of compounds because they have a memorial effect to a certain compound. In this research, MIP synthesized was used as adsorbent for β-sitosterol. The objective of the research was to know the selectivity of MIP in adsorbing β-sitosterol. The concentrations of β-sitosterol after adsorption and desorption were analyzed by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the selectivity test was analyzed by HPLC. Result showed that the MIP had high adsorption ability ( qe ). The recovery of β-sitosterol from MIP for the adsorption-desorption process was 68.48%. The MIP was very selective to β-sitosterol compared to cholesterol because it can adsorb β-sitosterol as many as 100%, whereas the adsorption of cholesterol was only 30.27 %.

  15. TESTING OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water. Relevant direction for improving of quality of potable water is application of active carbons at various stages of water treatments. This work includes complex research dealing with testing of a broad spectrum of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide and nitrite ions from water. The role of the surface functional groups of carbonaceous adsorbents, their acid-basic properties, and the influence of the type of impregnated heteroatom (N, O, or metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, on removal of hydrogen sulfide species and nitrite ions have been researched. The efficiency of the catalyst obtained from peach stones by impregnation with Cu2+ ions of oxidized active carbon was established, being recommended for practical purposes to remove the hydrogen sulfide species from the sulfurous ground waters. Comparative analysis of carbonaceous adsorbents reveals the importance of surface chemistry for oxidation of nitrite ions.

  16. Characterization of novel adsorbents for radiostrontium reduction in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puziy, A.M.; Bengtsson, G.B.; Hansen, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution coefficients, pH dependence, isotherms, kinetics and breakthrough curves of Sr binding have been measured on several types of adsorbents (carbons modified with titanium silicate, crystalline titanium silicate, mixed titanium-manganese oxide, and synthetic zeolites A4 and P) from different water solutions. It is concluded that acid-base properties of the adsorbent is very important for Sr binding. Titanium silicate based adsorbents had reduced chemical stability in an artificial food fluid below pH 2, the mixed titanium manganese oxide below pH 6, zeolite A4 below pH 5 and zeolite P below pH 7. Consideration is given to the feasibility of the adsorbents for food decontamination. (author)

  17. Adsorption of β-galactosidase on silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Dobryakova, I. V.; Pilipenko, O. S.

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that adsorption of β-galactosidase of Aspergillus oryzae fungi on mesoporous and biporous silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents and the rate of the process grow along with the diameter of the pores of the adsorbent. It is found that the shape of the adsorption isotherms changes as well, depending on the texture of the adsorbent: the Michaelis constant rises from 0.3 mM for the enzyme in solution to 0.4-0.5 mM for the enzyme on a surface in the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. It is concluded that β-galactosidase displays its maximum activity on the surface of biporous adsorbents.

  18. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  19. Role of adsorbates on current fluctuations in DC field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.; Bonin, B.; Long, H.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    Field emission experiments in DC regime usually show important current fluctuations for a fixed electric field. These fluctuations are attributed to adsorbed layers (molecules or atoms), liable to affect the work function, height and shape of the potential barrier binding the electron in the metal. The role of these adsorbed species is investigated by showing that the field emission from a well desorbed sample is stable and reproducible and by comparing the emission from the same sample before and after desorption. (author)

  20. Simulations of the Static Friction Due to Adsorbed Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    He, Gang; Robbins, Mark O.

    2001-01-01

    The static friction between crystalline surfaces separated by a molecularly thin layer of adsorbed molecules is calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. These molecules naturally lead to a finite static friction that is consistent with macroscopic friction laws. Crystalline alignment, sliding direction, and the number of adsorbed molecules are not controlled in most experiments and are shown to have little effect on the friction. Temperature, molecular geometry and interaction potenti...

  1. Vanadium (4) complexing in phase of adsorbent with benzimidazole groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvoeva, O P; Kuchava, G P; Evtikova, G A; Belyaeva, V K; Myasoedova, G V; Marov, I N [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii

    1989-04-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of V{sup 4+} sorption by POLYORGS XI-H adsorbent with benzimidazole groups (BIm) are investigated. Using ESR method it is stated that (VO{sup 2+}):(BIm)1:2 complex, where VO{sup 2+} is combined with nitrogen atoms of two imidazole groups, is formed in adsorbent phase. The highest distribution factor of 4.7x10{sup 3} is attained at pH6.

  2. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  3. Vanadium (4) complexing in phase of adsorbent with benzimidazole groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvoeva, O.P.; Kuchava, G.P.; Evtikova, G.A.; Belyaeva, V.K.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Marov, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of V 4+ sorption by POLYORGS XI-H adsorbent with benzimidazole groups (BIm) are investigated. Using ESR method it is stated that [VO 2+ ]:[BIm]1:2 complex, where VO 2+ is combined with nitrogen atoms of two imidazole groups, is formed in adsorbent phase. The highest distribution factor of 4.7x10 3 is attained at pH6

  4. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  5. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  6. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  7. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  8. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  9. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  10. Irradiation Degradation of Adsorbents for Minor Actinides Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Sano, Y.; Kofuji, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Koizumi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is one of the promising technologies for minor actinides (MA: Am and Cm) recovery from high-level liquid waste. The degradation behaviour of the organic species in the adsorbents under radiation exposure is important to discuss the safety and durability of the adsorbent in the extraction chromatography process. In this study, gamma-ray irradiation experiments on TODGA/SiO 2 -P adsorbent were carried out to investigate the degradation products from radiolysis of the adsorbent. The degraded organic species eluted from the adsorbent and those remaining inside the adsorbent were thoroughly identified by GC/MS, FT-IR and NMR analyses. The species suspected as hydrolysis products of TODGA were mainly detected from the analyses. Since some radicals such as.H or.OH are generated by the gamma-ray irradiation on water molecules, it was discussed that the radicals products from radiolysis of HNO 3 solution are related to the degradation reaction of the extractants. (authors)

  11. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  12. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions. (a) Package size limitation. Due to the toxicity associated with fluoride active ingredients, the... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package size...

  13. A Pre- and Post-Evaluation of Integrating Sustainability Curriculum by Inserting Okala Modules into an Interior Design Materials and Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the integration of Okala curriculum into Interior Design coursework. Okala, as a teaching package, is utilized extensively in industrial design education. However, this study examines the expansion and insertion of Okala modules in an existing interior design curriculum. The Okala modules included…

  14. Symplectic models for general insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Forest, E.; Robin, D. S.; Nishimura, H.; Wolski, A.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of insertion devices (IDs), wigglers and undulators, linearly or elliptically polarized,are widely used as high brightness radiation sources at the modern light source rings. Long and high-field wigglers have also been proposed as the main source of radiation damping at next generation damping rings. As a result, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of IDs on the charged particle dynamics in the storage ring. In this paper, we report our recent development of a general explicit symplectic model for IDs with the paraxial ray approximation. High-order explicit symplectic integrators are developed to study real-world insertion devices with a number of wiggler harmonics and arbitrary polarizations

  15. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  16. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  17. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  18. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledresse, Adil

    The development of high capacity adsorbents with uniform porosity denoted 5%MP-HMS (5% Mercaptopropyl-Hexagonal Mesoporous Structure) to extract gold from noncyanide solutions is presented. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported. The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1.9 mmol/g (37% of the adsorbent weight) from gold chloride solutions (potassium tetrachloroaurate) and 2.9 mmol/g (57% of the adsorbent weight) from gold bromide solutions (potassium tetrabromoaurate) at pH = 2, is a noteworthy feature of these materials. This gold loading from [AuC4]- and [AuBr4 ]- solutions corresponds to a relative Au:S molar ratio of 2.5:1 and 3.8:1, respectively. These rates are significantly higher than the usual 1:1 (Au:S) ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material. The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as 99.9% recovery. Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics. The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium (saturation) in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride. The MP-HMS materials adsorption is significantly improved by agitation and the adsorption capacity of Au (III) ions increases with the decrease in pH. The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent (MP-HMS) maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) systems fail. The

  19. Agitation within Mk-42 insert caused by air sparge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Dissolution of Rocky Flats Pu alloys and Pu metal using a ''nested insert'' configuration (One Well Insert (S-3352) inside the Mk-42 Insert) will require a Nuclear Safety Study, a major assumption of which will be that the annular dissolver is well-mixed. The ''well-mixed'' assumption was theoretically and experimentally supported for alloy dissolution using the Three Well Insert, but the present situation differs significantly. In the former case, the insert was directly exposed to the agitation induced by air sparging; in the case under consideration, the One Well Insert would be shielded by the Mk-42 Insert. In an effort to determine if the ''nested insert'' approach should be pursued, the past studies and technical literature have been surveyed and an attempt made to predict the extent of mixing and bulk circulation for a ''nested insert'' configuration in the presence of air sparging

  20. Cell for studying electron-adsorbed gas interactions; Cellule d'etudes des interactions electron-gaz adsorbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golowacz, H; Degras, D A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Deptartement de Physique des Plasmas et de la Fusion Controlee, Service de Physique Appliquee, Service de Physique des Interractions Electroniques, Section d' Etude des Interactions Gaz-Solides

    1967-07-01

    The geometry and the technology of a cell used for investigations on electron-adsorbed gas interactions are described. The resonance frequencies of the surface ions which are created by the electron impact on the adsorbed gas are predicted by simplified calculations. The experimental data relative to carbon monoxide and neon are in good agreement with these predictions. (authors) [French] Les caracteristiques geometriques et technologiques generales d'une cellule d'etude des interactions entre un faisceau d'electrons et un gaz adsorbe sont donnees. Un calcul simplifie permet de prevoir les frequences de resonance des ions de surface crees par l'impact des electrons sur le gaz adsorbe. Les donnees experimentales sur l'oxyde de carbone et le neon confirment les previsions du calcul. (auteurs)

  1. Layered packaging: A synergistic method of transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The DOE certification for a transportation cask used to ship radioactive Krypton 85 from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was allowed to expire in 1987. The Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) was charged by DOE with modifying this cask to meet all current NRC requirements and preparing an updated Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, which would be submitted by DOE to the NRC for certification. However, an urgent need arose for ORNL to receive Krypton 85 which was in storage at the ICPP, which would not allow time to obtain certification of the modified shipping cask. WINCO elected to use a layered shipping configuration in which the gaseous Krypton 85 was placed in the uncertified, modified shipping cask to make use of its shielding and thermal insulation properties. This cask was then inserted into the Model No. 6400 (Super Tiger) packaging using a specially constructed plywood box and polyurethane foam dunnage. Structural evaluations were completed to assure the Super Tiger would provide the necessary impact, puncture, and thermal protection during maximum credible accidents. Analyses were also completed to determine the uncertified Krypton shipping cask would provide the necessary containment and shielding for up to 3.7 E+14 Bq of Krypton 85 when packaged inside the Super Tiger. The resulting reports, based upon this layered packaging concept, were adequate to first obtain DOE certification for several restricted shipments of Krypton 85 and then NRC certification for unrestricted shipments

  2. Live insertion method used for main renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solkowitz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Baltimore Gas and Electric's pilot project using the live insertion method to replace a cast iron main provided excellent results. Its use on Eastern Avenue, a major state highway, was cost effective, provided gas service to customers during the work, required relatively short construction time and resulted in only minor traffic disruptions. Gas service transfers to the new main were done at customer convenience and resulted in outages of only a few hours per customer. This paper reports that the project involved inserting a 6-in. plastic line inside an existing 10-in. cast iron main. Miller Pipeline Corp., Indianapolis, supplier of the Insertec left-angle R right-angle live insertion method was contracted for the job. Miller technicians assisted BG and E forces by providing a load analysis of the main, a pushing machine and related supplies, foaming equipment and pipe cutting tools. Company forces were responsible for all preparatory work, including opening all excavations, installing bypasses, and fusing and testing the plastic pipe. Service transfers and renewals were also completed by company employees

  3. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  4. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  5. Study on the adsorption performance of composite adsorbent of CaCl2 and expanded graphite with ammonia as adsorbate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.L.; Wu, J.Y.; Xia, Z.Z.; Wang, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A novel constant volume test unit was built to study the adsorption performance of a new type composite adsorbent. This test unit can measure the adsorption isosteres of the working pairs. The adsorption isosteres are the curves of the adsorption pressure variation with the adsorption temperatures at constant adsorption quantities. Compared to the former test results of isothermals and isobars, the isosteres are better for the calculation of the adsorption heat, desorption heat and the selection the adsorption working pairs. Three experimental results were obtained: the first result was that the expanded graphite powders were superior to the expandable graphite powders to facilitate the transportation of working fluid in the composite adsorbent. The second one was that the composite adsorbent treated by solution is more homogeneous than the simple mixed composite adsorbent and the treated composite adsorbent has a better mass transfer performance. The last one was that the adsorption isosteres was the same one not only in the heating process but also in the cooling process and this performance was not relevant to the homogeneity of the composite adsorbent

  6. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  7. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  8. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  9. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages

  10. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  12. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  13. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  14. Packaging the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newson, Roy; Lewis, Meriel

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Traditionally, when the nuclear industry produces a brochure or video programme, the platform of our arguments is reasoned, factual, abstract, far-sighted and convoluted. It is all about things and processes: energy plants, machinery, numbers and percentages. Yet we know that people are interested only in people, in emotions, in reality, and in basic values about next week or next month. And this is probably the biggest incongruity. Our painstaking, in-depth research backed by technical evidence and statistics is no match for the other side's anecdotal speech making. Our perfectly designed graphics cannot compete against those visual cliches that can give instant life to an abstract idea. In the UK, pioneering work for the British Nuclear Forum's, the Nuclear Industry Education Programme (NIEP) breaks through the traditional approach, allowing passion and feeling to stimulate debate. Material about nuclear power produced for young people often promotes knowledge acquisition about particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle without conceptual or value change. NIEP materials build on the experience of developing packages that fully meet curriculum objectives, follow educational best practice, and place nuclear power in a real energy context. But they also make a positive contribution to the meaning a young person attaches to a concept such as radiation. Essentially, the materials are in tune with the way young people make sense of their experience of the real world and the issues in it. For further information about AEA Technology's public acceptance programmes, contact: Roy Newson or Meriel Lewis on +44 235 433650, fax +44 235 432123. (author)

  15. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  16. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  17. Analytical phase diagrams for colloids and non-adsorbing polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Gerard J; Tuinier, Remco

    2008-11-04

    We review the free-volume theory (FVT) of Lekkerkerker et al. [Europhys. Lett. 20 (1992) 559] for the phase behavior of colloids in the presence of non-adsorbing polymer and we extend this theory in several aspects: (i) We take the solvent into account as a separate component and show that the natural thermodynamic parameter for the polymer properties is the insertion work Pi(v), where Pi is the osmotic pressure of the (external) polymer solution and v the volume of a colloid particle. (ii) Curvature effects are included along the lines of Aarts et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matt. 14 (2002) 7551] but we find accurate simple power laws which simplify the mathematical procedure considerably. (iii) We find analytical forms for the first, second, and third derivatives of the grand potential, needed for the calculation of the colloid chemical potential, the pressure, gas-liquid critical points and the critical endpoint (cep), where the (stable) critical line ends and then coincides with the triple point. This cep determines the boundary condition for a stable liquid. We first apply these modifications to the so-called colloid limit, where the size ratio q(R)=R/a between the radius of gyration R of the polymer and the particle radius a is small. In this limit the binodal polymer concentrations are below overlap: the depletion thickness delta is nearly equal to R, and Pi can be approximated by the ideal (van't Hoff) law Pi=Pi(0)=phi/N, where phi is the polymer volume fraction and N the number of segments per chain. The results are close to those of the original Lekkerkerker theory. However, our analysis enables very simple analytical expressions for the polymer and colloid concentrations in the critical and triple points and along the binodals as a function of q(R). Also the position of the cep is found analytically. In order to make the model applicable to higher size ratio's q(R) (including the so-called protein limit where q(R)>1) further extensions are needed. We

  18. Microporous carbonaceous adsorbents for CO2 separation via selective adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Selective adsorption of CO2 has important implications for many energy and environment-related processes, which require the separation of CO2 from other gases (e.g. N2 and CH4) with high uptakes and selectivity. The development of high-performance adsorbents is one of the most promising solutions to the success of these processes. The present review is focused on the state-of-the-art of carbon-based (carbonaceous) adsorbents, covering microporous inorganic carbons and microporous organic polymers, with emphasis on the correlation between their textural and compositional properties and their CO2 adsorption/separation performance. Special attention is given to the most recently developed materials that were not covered in previous reviews. We summarize various effective strategies (N-doping, surface functionalization, extra-framework ions, molecular design, and pore size engineering) for enhancing the CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity of carbonaceous adsorbents. Our discussion focuses on CO2/N2 separation and CO2/CH4 separation, while including an introduction to the methods and criteria used for evaluating the performance of the adsorbents. Critical issues and challenges regarding the development of high-performance adsorbents as well as some overlooked facts and misconceptions are also discussed, with the aim of providing important insights into the design of novel carbonaceous porous materials for various selective adsorption based applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Adsorption behavior of lithium from seawater using manganese oxide adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor system is expected to provide the main source of electricity in the future. Large amounts of lithium will be required, dependent on the reactor design concept, and alternative resources should be found to provide lithium inventories for nuclear fusion plants. Seawater has recently become an attractive source of this element and the separation and recovery of lithium from seawater by co-precipitation, solvent extraction and adsorption have been investigated. Amongst these techniques, the adsorption method is suitable for recovery of lithium from seawater, because certain inorganic ion-exchange materials, especially spinel-type manganese oxides, show extremely high selectivity for the lithium ion. In this study, we prepared a lithium adsorbent (HMn 2 O 4 ) by elution of spinel-type lithium di-manganese-tetra-oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) and examined the kinetics of the adsorbent for lithium ions in seawater using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intermediate, LiMn 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from LiOH·H 2 O and Mn 3 O 4 , from which the lithium adsorbent can subsequently be prepared via acid treatment., The adsorption kinetics become faster and the amount of lithium adsorbed on the adsorbent increases with increasing solution temperature. The thermodynamic values, ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 , indicate that adsorption is an endothermic and spontaneous process. (author)

  20. Kinetics of conformational changes of fibronectin adsorbed onto model surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baujard-Lamotte, L; Noinville, S; Goubard, F; Marque, P; Pauthe, E

    2008-05-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a large glycoprotein found in body fluids and in the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in numerous cellular behaviours. We investigate FN adsorption onto hydrophilic bare silica and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) surfaces using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) in aqueous medium. Adsorption kinetics using different bulk concentrations of FN were followed for 2h and the surface density of adsorbed FN and its time-dependent conformational changes were determined. When adsorption occurs onto the hydrophilic surface, FN molecules keep their native conformation independent of the adsorption conditions, but the amount of adsorbed FN increases with time and the bulk concentration. Although the protein surface density is the same on the hydrophobic PS surface, this has a strong impact on the average conformation of the adsorbed FN layer. Indeed, interfacial hydration changes induced by adsorption onto the hydrophobic surface lead to a decrease in unhydrated beta-sheet content and cause an increase in hydrated beta-strand and hydrated random domain content of adsorbed FN. This conformational change is mainly dependent on the bulk concentration. Indeed, at low bulk concentrations, the secondary structures of adsorbed FN molecules undergo strong unfolding, allowing an extended and hydrated conformation of the protein. At high bulk concentrations, the molecular packing reduces the unfolding of the stereoregular structures of the FN molecules, preventing stronger spreading of the protein.

  1. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  2. Dual Use Packaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  3. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  4. CompareTests-R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    CompareTests is an R package to estimate agreement and diagnostic accuracy statistics for two diagnostic tests when one is conducted on only a subsample of specimens. A standard test is observed on all specimens.

  5. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. de.

    1983-01-01

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  7. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  8. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  9. Atomistic Galois insertions for flow sensitive integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2017-01-01

    Several program verification techniques assist in showing that software adheres to the required security policies. Such policies may be sensitive to the flow of execution and the verification may be supported by combinations of type systems and Hoare logics. However, this requires user assistance...... and to obtain full automation we shall explore the over-approximating nature of static analysis. We demonstrate that the use of atomistic Galois insertions constitutes a stable framework in which to obtain sound and fully automatic enforcement of flow sensitive integrity. The framework is illustrated...

  10. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  11. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  12. TRU waste transportation package development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakes, R.G.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures

  13. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  14. Packagings in the silicon era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Mione, A.; Orsini, A.; Forasassi, G.

    1993-01-01

    ENEA is studying, with the collaboration of the DCMN of the Pisa University, a new packaging to collect wastes in various facilities while proceeding to find a final disposal. Following a survey on the wastes that could be transported in the future, it was agreed to design a packaging able to contain an industrial drum, with a maximum capacity of 220 litres and a total weight less than 4000 N, previously filled with solid wastes in bulk or in a solid binding material. The packaging, to be approved as a Type B in agreement with the IAEA Regulations, will be useful to transport not only radioactive wastes but any kind of dangerous goods and also those not in agreement with the UNO Regulations. The 1/2 scale model of the packaging is formed by two concentric vessels of mild steel obtained by welding commercial shells to cylindrical walls and joined through a flange. The new packaging under development presents features that seem to be proper for its envisaged waste collection main use such as construction simplicity, relatively low cost, time and use endurance, low maintenance requirements. The design analysis and testing program ongoing at present allowed for the preliminary definition of the packaging geometry and confirmed the necessity of further investigations in some key areas as the determination of actual behaviour of the silicon foam, used as energy absorbing/thermal insulating material, in the specific conditions of interest. (J.P.N.)

  15. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.

  16. Quantitative relationship between adsorbed amount of solute and solvent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Geng Xindu; Zebolsky, Don M.

    2003-01-01

    A new adsorption isotherm that relates the amount of solute adsorbed to the solvent concentration is proposed. The new equation is derived from Geng and Shi's stoichiometric displacement model for adsorption (SDM-A). The obtained equation may be simplified to an expression containing two parameters. The equation with two parameters, valid for low concentrations of solute, is a logarithmically linear relationship. The intercept contains a thermodynamic equilibrium constant of the solute displacing solvent from the adsorbent. The slope is the negative value of the stoichiometric displacement parameter (Z), the average total number of solvent molecules displaced from an active site on the adsorbent and from the solute. Tests with a homologous series of aromatic alcohols by frontal analysis in reversed phase liquid chromatography demonstrate that experimental results fit the equation well

  17. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  18. Solid adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulphide from hot gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Yumura, Motoo

    1986-04-01

    A wide range of solids have been tested as potential adsorbents for H/sub 2/S removal from hot gas. These solids can be divided into two main groups, i.e., the adsorbents containing alkaline earth metals and those containing transition metals. Among the former, calcium oxide and naturally occurring materials such as limestone, dolomite and calcium silicate have attracted a great deal of attention. The adsorbents of the second group include iron oxide alone or in combination with some supports, zinc oxide, zinc ferrite and manganese oxide. The materials containing both the alkaline earth metals and transition metals, e.g., manganese nodules, fly ash and the reject from the aluminium industry (red mud) have been evaluated as well.

  19. Radioactive diffusion gaseous probe technique for study adsorbent structure inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyuzin, A.Yu.; Korobkov, V.I.; Bekman, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    One of the versions of the method of diffusion gaseous probe - method of longitudinal shear in combination with autoradiography (ARG) - was used for characterising sorbents and catalysts, which are considered to be promising for reprocessing of sulfur-containing natural gases. Hydrogen sulfide, labelled with 35 S was used as diffusion radioactive probe. Zeolite granules of 4A type and granulated adsorbents on the basis of CR and AM aluminium oxides, which are industrial catalysts of Clauss reaction developed at SNEA company, were used as objects under investigation. It is shown that technique for fabrication of 4A zeolite granules leads to asymmetrical pore distribution over the granule diameter. Technique for AM granule fabrication leads to occuRrence of local inhomogeneities of the structure in the form of narrow coaxial rings with decreased or increased local adsorption ability. Granules of adsorbent of CR type are characterized by rather homogeneous structure. It is recommended to use the mentioned method for industrial adsorbent diagnosis

  20. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  1. Targeted gene insertion for molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Katrin; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2008-11-01

    Genomic insertion of a functional gene together with suitable transcriptional regulatory elements is often required for long-term therapeutical benefit in gene therapy for several genetic diseases. A variety of integrating vectors for gene delivery exist. Some of them exhibit random genomic integration, whereas others have integration preferences based on attributes of the targeted site, such as primary DNA sequence and physical structure of the DNA, or through tethering to certain DNA sequences by host-encoded cellular factors. Uncontrolled genomic insertion bears the risk of the transgene being silenced due to chromosomal position effects, and can lead to genotoxic effects due to mutagenesis of cellular genes. None of the vector systems currently used in either preclinical experiments or clinical trials displays sufficient preferences for target DNA sequences that would ensure appropriate and reliable expression of the transgene and simultaneously prevent hazardous side effects. We review in this paper the advantages and disadvantages of both viral and non-viral gene delivery technologies, discuss mechanisms of target site selection of integrating genetic elements (viruses and transposons), and suggest distinct molecular strategies for targeted gene delivery.

  2. Cigarette Mouth Insertion Depths Among Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vent blocking - where filter ventilation holes are intentionally or unintentionally, partly or completely covered by smokers’ lips during smoking - is an aspect of smoking behavior which can alter mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent ventilation holes were blocked by smokers’ lips in two cohorts of Chinese smokers. In this study, two groups of samples were collected. One group (1742 butts was collected randomly from public places in six chosen cities. Another (1037 butts was obtained by collecting the butts from identified smokers in Kunming. In this paper, the mouth insertion depth among Chinese smokers was studied for the first time by a staining method employing ninhydrin in ethanol. The results indicate that Chinese smokers exhibit a mouth insertion depth ranging from 1 to 17 mm with an average value of 7.5 AA± 2 mm. In this study, 95% of the ventilated filters examined showed that the vent zone was neither completely nor partially covered by smokers’ lips.

  3. Safety analysis for reactivity insertion on ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia S.; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, an accelerator driven system (ADS) has been studied to fuel regeneration, partitioning and transmutation using fuel removed from LWR-spent fuel. This spent fuel was reprocessed by GANEX and then spiked with thorium. Monteburns 2.0 (MCNP5/ORIGEN 2.1) code was used to simulate burnup and neutronic parameters of the systems. However, these systems might be interrupted for some technical problems during few days or long periods to perform maintenance of accelerator systems without shutdown the fission system. Therefore, in this work, the aim was to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution in three different cases with reactivity insertions and variations in the functionality of the ADS. The evaluation has been performed for a burnup of 3 years, which are the most dangerous years in case of reactivity insertions. Therefore, in the first case the ADS during its burnup the external source (spallation source) is cutting off from the system several times during the first year of burnup. In the second case, it is simulated the reactor at different power from 0 (shutdown) to 1.5 times the 515MWt. The results shows the safety limits of the ADS for different situation. (author)

  4. Heat transfer between adsorbate and laser-heated hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueba, H; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    Strong short laser pulses can give rise to a strong increase in the electronic temperature at metal surfaces. Energy transfer from the hot electrons to adsorbed molecules may result in adsorbate reactions, e.g. desorption or diffusion. We point out the limitations of an often used equation to describe the heat transfer process in terms of a friction coupling. We propose a simple theory for the energy transfer between the adsorbate and hot electrons using a newly introduced heat transfer coefficient, which depends on the adsorbate temperature. We calculate the transient adsorbate temperature and the reaction yield for a Morse potential as a function of the laser fluency. The results are compared to those obtained using a conventional heat transfer equation with temperature-independent friction. It is found that our equation of energy (heat) transfer gives a significantly lower adsorbate peak temperature, which results in a large modification of the reaction yield. We also consider the heat transfer between different vibrational modes excited by hot electrons. This mode coupling provides indirect heating of the vibrational temperature in addition to the direct heating by hot electrons. The formula of heat transfer through linear mode-mode coupling of two harmonic oscillators is applied to the recent time-resolved study of carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen hopping on an ultrafast laser-heated Pt(111) surface. It is found that the maximum temperature of the frustrated translation mode can reach high temperatures for hopping, even when direct friction coupling to the hot electrons is not strong enough

  5. SAPO-34 coated adsorbent heat exchanger for adsorption chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freni, Angelo; Bonaccorsi, Lucio; Calabrese, Luigi; Caprì, Angela; Frazzica, Andrea; Sapienza, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, adsorbent coatings on aluminum surfaces were prepared by dip-coating method starting from a water suspension of SAPO-34 zeolite and a silane-based binder. Silane-zeolite coatings morphology and surface coverage grade were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Adhesive and mechanical properties were evaluated by peel, pull-off, impact and micro-hardness tests, confirming the good interaction between metal substrate, binder and zeolite. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of water vapour adsorption on the adsorbent coating were studied in the range T = 30–150 °C and pH 2 O = 11 mbar using a CAHN 2000 thermo-balance. It was found that, in the investigated conditions, the organic binder doesn't affect the water adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics of the original SAPO-34 zeolite. Subsequently, the zeolite coating was applied on a finned flat-tubes aluminum heat exchanger realizing a full-scale AdHEx with an uniform adsorbent coating 0.1 mm thick and a metal/adsorbent mass ratio = 6. The cooling capacity of the realized coated AdHEx was measured by a lab-scale adsorption chiller under realistic operating conditions for air conditioning applications. The coated AdHEx produced up to 675 W/kg ads specific cooling power with a cycle time of 5 min. Adsorption stability of the coated adsorber subjected to 600 sorption cycles was successfully verified. - Highlights: • Adsorbent coatings on aluminum surfaces were prepared by dip-coating method. • Silane-zeolite coatings morphology, and mechanical properties were studied. • The zeolite coating was applied on a finned flat-tubes aluminum heat exchanger. • The coated AdHEx was tested in a lab scale adsorption chiller

  6. Hydrogen molecule on lithium adsorbed graphene: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Gupta, Shuchi; Gaganpreet; Dharamvir, Keya

    2016-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations for the adsorption of molecular hydrogen on lithium (Li) decorated and pristine graphene have been studied systematically using SIESTA code [1] within the framework of the first-principle DFT under the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)[2], including spin polarization. The energy of adsorption of hydrogen molecule on graphene is always enhanced by the presence of co-adsorbed lithium. The most efficient adsorption configuration is when H 2 is lying parallel to lithium adsorbed graphene which is in contrast to its adsorption on pristine graphene (PG) where it prefers perpendicular orientation.

  7. Surface characterization of adsorbed asphaltene on a stainless steel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, W.A.; Taylor, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize a single layer of adsorbed asphaltene on a metallic surface. The deposits were created by immersing a stainless steel disc into a dilute asphaltene solution with either toluene or dichloromethane as the solvent, although the toluene solution allowed for better control of the adsorbed asphaltene layer and less atmospheric oxygen contamination. The analyses for C 1s, S 2p 3/2 , N 1s and O 1s photoemission peaks indicated that different functional groups are present in the asphaltene layer including carboxylic, pyrrolic, pyridininc, thiophenic and sulfite, with slight differences in their binding energies

  8. Adsorbates in a Box: Titration of Substrate Electronic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhihai; Wyrick, Jonathan; Luo, Miaomiao; Sun, Dezheng; Kim, Daeho; Zhu, Yeming; Lu, Wenhao; Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2010-08-01

    Nanoscale confinement of adsorbed CO molecules in an anthraquinone network on Cu(111) with a pore size of ≈4nm arranges the CO molecules in a shell structure that coincides with the distribution of substrate confined electronic states. Molecules occupy the states approximately in the sequence of rising electron energy. Despite the sixfold symmetry of the pore boundary itself, the adsorbate distribution adopts the threefold symmetry of the network-substrate system, highlighting the importance of the substrate even for such quasi-free-electron systems.

  9. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the...

  11. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products...

  12. 76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... design qualification test and each periodic retest on a packaging, a test report must be prepared. The... where the design qualification tests are conducted, for as long as the packaging is produced and for at... report; (5) Manufacturer of the packaging; (6) Description of the packaging design type (e.g. dimensions...

  13. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 711 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition2. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of energy (DOE) Order 5480.33 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.94 and 7.10.5

  14. Safety analysis report - packages 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1997-10-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B( ), 9968 B( ), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B(), 9968 B(), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.3 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.9 and 7.10

  15. Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L; Stabel, Gerald R; Lawrence, Robert Anthony

    2005-02-08

    A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

  16. Reference waste package environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of ∼230 0 C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment

  17. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory philosophies, one based on 'specification' packaging standards and the other based on 'performance' packaging standards, currently define the hazmat packaging certification process. A main concern when setting performance standards is determining the appropriate standards necessary to assure adequate public protection. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration. In this project, the current bulk packagings (larger than 2000 gallons) for transporting Materials Extremely Toxic By Inhalation (METBI) are being evaluated and performance standards will be recommended. A computer software system, HazCon, has been developed which can calculate the dispersion of dense, neutral, and buoyant gases. HazCon also has a database of thermodynamic and toxicity data for the METBI materials, a user-friendly menu-driven format for creating input data sets for calculating dispersion of the METBI in the event of an accidental release, and a link between the METBI database and the dense gas dispersion code (which requires thermodynamic properties). The primary output of HazCon is a listing of mass concentrations of the released material at distances downwind from the release point. (J.P.N.)

  18. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  19. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  20. Function Package for Computing Quantum Resource Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a function package for to calculate quantum resource measures and dynamics of open systems. Our package includes common operators and operator lists, frequently-used functions for computing quantum entanglement, quantum correlation, quantum coherence, quantum Fisher information and dynamics in noisy environments. We briefly explain the functions of the package and illustrate how to use the package with several typical examples. We expect that this package is a useful tool for future research and education.

  1. Hand-actuated spring clip insertion tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    A hand-actuated insertion tool includes a handle assembly, an elongated hollow tubular outer support tube, an elongated inner pull rod, and a coupling arrangement. The handle assembly has a first handle member and a second handle member pivoted to a member for movement between unactuated and actuated positions. The tube is attached in a fixed relation to a handle member. The rod is mounted within the tube for sliding movement relative thereto between home and retracted positions. The coupling arrangement pivotally connects the rod to the second handle member such that the rod will undergo sliding movement from the home position to the retracted positions relative to the tube as the second handle member is moved from the unactuated position to the actuated position adjacent to the first handle member. (author)

  2. MORPH INSERTION AND ALLOMORPHY IN OPTIMALITY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Bonet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare two different hypotheses about the insertion of morphs and allomorphy in Optimality Theory. One of them, the Morphs through Constraifits Hypothesis (MCH claims that the phonological realization of morphemes (morphs is introduced through language-particular constraints. The other hypothesis, the Morphs in the Input Hypothesis (MIH claims that the inputs to GEN contain al1 the relevant phonological information. It is shown that the MIH is clearly superior to the MCH in accounting for voicing neutralization in languages like Catalan. The two hypotheses seem to fare even in dealing with other phenomena, such as phonologically-conditioned allomorphy or OCP-triggered epenthesis vs. haplology in English possessives and plurals. Finally, although the MCH seems to be a simpler hypothesis for lexical exceptions, it is shown that, when certain aspects are taken into account, it runs into problems.

  3. An update on insertable cardiac monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krieger, Derk W

    2015-01-01

    Continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring has undergone compelling progress over the past decades. Cardiac monitoring has emerged from 12-lead electrocardiograms being performed at the discretion of the treating physician to in-hospital telemetry, Holter monitoring, prolonged external event monitoring...... turning point in the field of arrhythmia management. However, their role in the detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after cryptogenic strokes has yet to evolve. This will be the main focus of this review. Issues surrounding patient selection, clinical relevance and determination of cost......-effectiveness for prolonged cardiac monitoring require further studies. Furthermore, insertable cardiac monitoring has not only the potential to augment diagnostic capabilities but also to improve the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation....

  4. Cassini-Huygens Nears Saturn Orbit Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-06-01

    After nearly 7 years and a 3.5-billion-km, circuitous journey from Earth, the $3-billion Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan-an international effort by NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency-now is just days away from its critical Saturn orbit insertion. Scheduled for 30 June, this will begin the 4-years part of the mission to study the Saturnian system. At a 3 June briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C., Robert Mitchell, the Cassini program manager with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, said that scientists involved with the program are feeling excited, relieved, and also a bit anxious as the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft draws near to the ringed planet and its system.

  5. Insertion Device Upgrade Plans at the NSLS

    CERN Document Server

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Harder, David; Lehecka, Michael; Rakowsky, George; Skaritka, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W80) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-18) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, in-vacuum undulator (MGU-13.5), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both MGU’s will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement methods in low temperature will be discussed.

  6. Quench Performance of the LHC Insertion Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lasheras, N C; Siemko, A; Ostojic, R; Kirby, G

    2009-01-01

    After final installation in the LHC tunnel, the MQM and MQY quadrupole magnets of the LHC insertions are now being commissioned to their nominal currents. These two types of magnets operate at 1.9 K and 4.5 K and with nominal currents ranging from 3600 A to 5390 A. From the very first acceptance tests of the bare magnets coming from the manufacturers, they have been powered using different cycles, in different configurations, at different temperatures and in different tests facilities. In this paper we present the global results of these powering tests. We aim at separating common from individual features of these groups of magnets. Temperature dependence of the training, temperature margin, and ultimate current can be extracted from these tests. As these magnets are used to match the optics and the dispersion in the machine, the projected ultimate current at which they can be operated is critical in view of operation of LHC.

  7. Low-temperature, low-loss zero level packaging techniques for RF applications by using a photopatternable dry film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Seok, S; Rolland, N; Rolland, P-A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low-temperature zero-level packaging technique using a dry film type of PerMX polymer for RF devices. Silicon cap packaging with PerMX sealing ring and PerMX cap packaging through multilayer lamination have been implemented. All of the fabrication process has been performed at temperature less than 150 °C. The influence of each packaging cap on the packaged coplanar waveguide was first investigated using the HFSS electromagnetic simulation. The RF measurement results showed that both packaging caps did not have significant influence on the performance of transmission lines. The insertion loss changes before and after packaging were almost negligible up to 30 GHz, and the return losses were better than 20 dB. Also, the deformation of PerMX structures concerning the packaging processes has been studied. For silicon capping, the volumetric compression of PerMX sealing ring by the bonding process has been observed. For PerMX cap packaging, the deflection of the polymer cap has been investigated as a function of sealing ring width for the different cap size. Measured results had good agreement with the ANSYS simulated ones. (paper)

  8. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

  9. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste

  10. Mercury chemisorption by sulfur adsorbed in porous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijns, M.; Peppelenbos, A.; Mars, P.

    1976-01-01

    The sorption of mercury vapor by adsorbed sulfur in the zeolites CaA (= 5A) and NaX (=13X) and two types of active carbon has been measured at a temperature of 50°C. With increasing degree of micropore filling by sulfur the fraction of sulfur accessible to mercury atoms decreased for CaA and NaX.

  11. Electrospun chitosan/baker's yeast nanofibre adsorbent: preparation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    poration, complexation, reverse osmosis and membrane pro- cesses [2–4]. ... activities and some human activities such as exploitation of uranium and ... bre adsorbent for U(VI) and Th(IV) removal from aqueous solutions. 2. Experimental ..... Adsorption capacity of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) in binary systems. where. H.

  12. Substrate induced ordering of molecular adsorbates on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, J.H.; White, H.S.; Arana, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy in dimethylformate, [Ru(bpy) 2 (bpy-(CH 2 ) x -bpy) 2+ ] (x = 4 and 5) monolayers adsorbed on the unreconstructed and √3 x 22 reconstructed surfaces of Au(111) were imaged in this paper. The substrate had a highly ordered pattern on the reconstructed surface, but random spatial distribution on the unreconstructed surface. 17 refs., 3 figs

  13. Removal of nickel from wastewater using an agricultural adsorbent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-26

    Nov 26, 2009 ... qmax is the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent (mg/g). KL is the Langmuir affinity constant (ℓ/mg). Ce is the supernatant equilibrium concentration of the system (mg/ℓ) (Febrianto et al., 2009). The Freundlich isotherm model can also be expressed in the linearised logarithmic form (Eq.

  14. Magnetic-supported cucurbituril: A recyclable adsorbent for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    removal of humic acid from simulated water. QIN YANG* ... The commonly used adsorbents are activated carbon. (Deng and Bai ... Q[n] is practically insoluble in all common organic solvents. ... Q[n] has other advantages such as its strong rigid structure .... and it does not result in the phase change of Fe3O4. In addition ...

  15. Interactions between adsorbed macromolecules : measurements on emulsions and liquid films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the factors, determining the inter- and intramolecular interactions between adsorbed macromolecules. To that end several experimental and theoretical approaches were followed, using well-defined systems. It was shown that these

  16. Analytical phase diagrams for colloids and non-adsorbing polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, G.J.; Tuinier, R.

    2008-01-01

    We review the free-volume theory (FVT) of Lekkerkerker et al. [Europhys. Lett. 20 (1992) 5591 for the phase behavior of colloids in the presence of non-adsorbing polymer and we extend this theory in several aspects: (i) We take the solvent into account as a separate component and show that the

  17. Application of adsorbent as a novel technique during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... hydrophilic compound (carbon), thermally activated at temperatures of 300, 500, 700 and ... carbon in microbial degradation of anthracene, elicits an enhanced disappearance rate of the ... persistence, toxicity and their tendency to bioaccumulate ... paper therefore, investigates the use of adsorbent (acti-.

  18. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  19. Radiation sterilization and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beams offers a number of benefits to be consumer and to the food industry. Low doses can delay fruit ripening while higher doses can reduce or eliminate pathrogenic microorganisms and control insect infestation. However, ionizing radiations are known to have an effect on the plastics used for food packaging, especially PVC and polyethylene. This chapter looks at food irradiation generally, including legislation on the irradiation of food packaging materials. The effect on specific polymers (PVC, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamides and flexible laminates) is then considered. It is concluded that few of the plastics used for food packaging are significantly affected by an overall average dose of 10KGy, the maximum likely for the irradiation of prepackaged food in the United Kingdom. (UK)

  20. Packaging Aspects of Photodetector Modules for 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Mekonnen, G.G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    Packaging is a major problem at millimetre-wave frequencies approaching 100 GHz. In this paper we present that insertion losses in a multi-chip module (MCM) can be less IL ...-backed coplanar waveguides (CBCPWs) with vias is accurately analyzed using 3D electromagnetic (EM) simulation over a wide frequency range. Patch antenna mode resonances are identified as a major origin of resonances in simulated and measured transmission characteristics of the CBCPW with vias. Based on EM...

  1. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  2. Natural material adsorbed onto a polymer to enhance immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaque AP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula Barcelos Reinaque,1 Eduardo Luzía França,2 Edson Fredulin Scherer,3 Mayra Aparecida Côrtes,1 Francisco José Dutra Souto,4 Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França51Post Graduate Program in Material Science, 2Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, 3Post Graduate Program in Material Science, Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, 4Faculty of Medical Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, 5Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, MT, BrazilBackground: In this study, we produced poly(ethylene glycol (PEG microspheres of different sizes and adsorbing a medicinal plant mixture, and verified their effect in vitro on the viability, superoxide production, and bactericidal activity of phagocytes in the blood.Methods: The medicinal plant mixture was adsorbed onto PEG microspheres and its effects were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.Results: Adsorption of the herbal mixture onto the PEG microspheres was achieved and the particles were internalized by phagocytes. PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture stimulated superoxide release, and activated scavenging and microbicidal activity in phagocytes. No differences in functional activity were observed when the phagocytes were not incubated with PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture.Conclusion: This system may be useful for the delivery of a variety of medicinal plants and can confer additional protection against infection. The data reported here suggest that a polymer adsorbed with a natural product is a treatment alternative for enhancing immune function.Keywords: natural product, polymer, adsorption, immune function, phagocytes

  3. CRRES microelectronics test package (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package

  4. Project monitoring package (PMP) : A package for project activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Kannan, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1987-01-01

    A package for preparing PERT/CPM network diagrams has been written for PDP-11/34. The program uses PLOT-10 library calls for device interfacing. The package is essentially non-interactive in nature, and reads input data in the form of activity description and duration. It calculates the critical path time and performs time scaling of the events. The report gives a brief outline of the logic used, a sample plot and tabular output for reference. An additional facility for performing project activity monitoring has also been implemented. Activity monitoring generally requires various reports such as feed back reports from various group co-ordinators, information report for project co-ordinator and brief periodical reports for management. A package 'DATATRIEVE' (DTR) on PDP-11/34 system is utilized for generating the above mentioned reports. As DTR can also use normal sequential files, an interfacing program has been written which reformats the files accepted by PERT program acceptable to DTR. Various types of reports as generated by DTR are included. However this part of the package is not transportable and can be implemented only on systems having DTR. 6 figures. (author)

  5. WASTE PACKAGE CORROSION STUDIES USING SMALL MOCKUP EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Anderson; K.B. Helean; C.R. Bryan; P.V. Brady; R.C. Ewing

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion of spent nuclear fuel and subsequent mobilization of radionuclides is of great concern in a geologic repository, particularly if conditions are oxidizing. Corroding A516 steel may offset these transport processes within the proposed waste packages at the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) by retaining radionuclides, creating locally reducing conditions, and reducing porosity. Ferrous iron, Fe 2+ , has been shown to reduce UO 2 2+ to UO 2(s) [1], and some ferrous iron-bearing ion-exchange materials adsorb radionuclides and heavy metals [2]. Of particular interest is magnetite, a potential corrosion product that has been shown to remove TcO 4 - from solution [3]. Furthermore, if Fe 2+ minerals, rather than fully oxidized minerals such as goethite, are produced during corrosion, then locally reducing conditions may be present. High electron availability leads to the reduction and subsequent immobilization of problematic dissolved species such as TcO 4 - , NpO 2 + , and UO 2 2+ and can also inhibit corrosion of spent nuclear fuel. Finally, because the molar volume of iron material increases during corrosion due to oxygen and water incorporation, pore space may be significantly reduced over long time periods. The more water is occluded, the bulkier the corrosion products, and the less porosity is available for water and radionuclide transport. The focus of this paper is on the nature of Yucca Mountain waste package steel corrosion products and their effects on local redox state, radionuclide transport, and porosity

  6. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  7. First installation of DT and RPC packages into the CMS iron yoke

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2004-01-01

    These pictures illustrate the installation process of muon barrel packages (DT + RPC) into the pockets of the CMS iron yoke at SX5. The chambers are first transported in groups of four from the ISR area (where they are certified and coupled together) to the construction hall in Cessy (neighbouring France), called Point 5 (or SX5). Once there, they pass through a fast high voltage and electronic certification test, before being slid into the insertion cradle. This cradle is attached to the yoke and aligned to the chamber rails, allowing an easy insertion. A rate of 3 chambers per day can be achieved. This set of pictures was taken during the first final insertion round at Point 5, where most chambers for the lower part of YB+2 were installed.

  8. [Effects of slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion at Neiguan (PC 6) on cardiovascular function: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shaoli; Zhao, Lihua; Xu, Lingjun; Huang, Yu; Pang, Yong; Huang, Dingjian

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects between slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion. With cross-over design, 100 healthy young subjects (half male and half female) aged from 19 to 23 years were randomly divided into two groups by random digital table, 50 cases in each one. At the first stage, subjects in the group A were treated with slow twisting needle insertion while, subjects in,the group B were treated with tubing needle insertion. One week later, the procedure of second stage was performed alternately. The needle was inserted into Neiguan (PC 6) with two methods by one acupuncturist. The needle was retained for 5 min before removal. Five min before needle insertion as well as needle withdrawal and 30 min after needle withdrawal, ZXG-E automatic cardiovascular diagnostic apparatus was used to test cardiovascular function. At the tim of needle withdrawal, slow twisting needle insertion could improve effect work of kinetics (EWK), effective blood volume (BV) and reduce elastic expansion coefficient of blood vessel (FEK) and left ventricular spray blood impedance (VER), which was significantly different from tubing needle insertion (all P 0.05). The slow twisting needle insertion is significantly superior to tubing needle insertion on lowering vascular tension and VER, improving EWK and BV.

  9. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  10. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  11. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  12. A nurse led peripherally inserted central catheter line insertion service is effective with radiological support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Jonathan M.; Booth, Doris M.; King, Julia A.; Chakraverty, Sam

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are increasingly used as a route of chemotherapy administration. Our aims were to assess a collaborative approach to PICC placement, with radiological support for a nurse led line insertion service in a minority of cases, and to determine whether PICC provided a safe and reliable method of chemotherapy administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data on 100 consecutive patients undergoing PICC placement for chemotherapy were collected. Lines were inserted by ward based nurses or under ultrasound guidance by radiologists. End points were successful completion of treatment or patient death. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four lines were placed for 118 courses of chemotherapy. 107 (74%) were placed by nurses and 37 (26%) by radiologists. Ninety-five percent of patients completed therapy with either one or two lines. Seventy percent of lines were removed on achieving the primary end points. In two additional patients PICC could not be placed radiologically. Twelve patients were unable to complete treatment with PICC alone, nine of these required an alternative administration route. The catheter related sepsis rate was 4.9%. CONCLUSION: The majority of PICC can be successfully placed by trained nurses, reserving image guidance only for more difficult cases. PICC have an acceptable complication profile, and decrease the need for tunnelled central lines. Barber, J.M. et al. (2002)

  13. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  14. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  15. The taste of desserts' packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeeke, C J; Peters, M E

    1991-10-01

    This article reports an experiment on expressing the behavioural meaning of designed objects. Can a designer express the taste of a desert in the form of its packaging and can consumers match these forms when tasting the desserts? Analysis of responses of 12 adults indicates positive answers to these questions.

  16. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  17. Improved switch-resistor packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  18. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test. (paper)

  19. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  20. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  1. Condition of granulating titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent and its adsorption for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Yoshitaka; Kitamura, Takao; Katoh, Shunsaku; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi

    1979-01-01

    The powdery titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent was granulated, and the strength and uranium adsorptivity of the granulated adsorbent were studied in relation to its granulating condition. By use of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) with degree of polymerization above 2,000 as binder, the granular adsorbent with as much the same strength as commercial granular activated carbon was obtained. Addition of PVA did not affect the amount of adsorbed uranium in equilibrium, but decreased the adsorption rate. Effect of granule size between 2-5 mm on the uranium adsorption rate was that the uranium adsorption rate changed proportionally to surface area of assumed sphere. As a test for practical use, 5 times repetitions of adsorption and desorption were carried out on the same granular adsorbent. During this repetition the adsorbent containing formalized PVA revealed smaller weight loss than non-treated adsorbent. The amount of adsorbed uranium decreased with increasing repetition times, and reason of this was discussed. (author)

  2. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  3. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  4. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  5. Insertion mechanics of bioinspired needles into soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Seyedvahid; Jezler, Kyle; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2017-12-22

    Most studies to date confirm that any increase in the needle insertion force increases the damage to the tissue. When it comes to brain tissue, even minor damage can cause a long-lasting traumatic brain injury. Thus there is a great demand for innovative minimally invasive needles among the medical community. In our previous studies a novel bioinspired needle design with specially designed barbs was used to perform insertion tests into Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tissue-mimicking gels, in which it decreased the insertion force by as much as 25%. In this work, bioinspired needles were designed using a CAD software, and were then manufactured using a 3 D printer. The insertion tests into bovine brain and liver were then performed to further investigate the performance of our bioinspired needles in real tissues. Our results show that there was a 10-25% decrease in the insertion force for insertions into bovine brain, and a 35-45% reduction in the insertion force for insertions into bovine liver using the proposed bioinspired needles. The reduction in the insertion force is due to the decrease in the friction force of the bioinspired needle with the bovine tissues, and its results are consistent with our previous results.

  6. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double-strand break in noncoding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DNA from an extrachromosomal template into the chromosomal site. Homozygous single-copy insertions can...... be obtained in less than 2 weeks by injecting approximately 20 worms. We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single-copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines....

  7. Development of collimator insert for linac based stereotactic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.R.R.; Brindha, S.; Ravindran, B.P.; Rajshekhar, V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop collimator inserts of various sizes which are either not commercially available or are expensive to import. The dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and output factor of the developed collimator insert are compared with that of the commercial collimator insert (Radionics). In order to check the suitability of the collimator insert developed locally for clinical use and to standardize the method of development, a collimator insert of 15 mm identical to the one supplied by Radionics is developed with low-melting alloy (Cerrobend). Moreover for the clinical use of the developed collimator insert, certain acceptance tests are performed which include a collimator concentricity test, beam size check and radiation leakage test. The dose verification is carried out with a thermoluminescent dosimeter ( 7 LiF rods) and an FBX chemical dosimeter in a human-head-shaped Perspex phantom filled with water. The variation between the calculated and measured dose is found to be within +2.4% for 7 LiF rods and -2.0% for the FBX chemical dosimeter thus ensuring the suitability of the developed collimator insert for clinical use. This has encouraged us to standardize the method adapted to develop the collimator insert and to develop collimator inserts of different field sizes. (author)

  8. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  9. Adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas. IV. Characteristics of adsorbents for the adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boki, K

    1974-10-25

    The amount of hydrogen sulfide gas adsorbed was affected by the surface properties (surface pH, acid strength, acid amount, and basic amount), the surface structure (pore volume), and the surface form (scanning electron microscopic observation) of 32 tested adsorbents. In general, the amount adsorption increased in the following order, amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate adsorbents, on the active carbon adsorbents, and on the zeolite adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on magnesium silicate and silica gel adsorbents was mainly affected by the surface structure, and the amount adsorbed on the aluminum silicate adsorbents was affected by the distinctions on the surface forms of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on 10 kinds of active carbon was determined by the surface properties and the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount adsorbed on 12 kinds of zeolites was determined by either the surface properties or by the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate, active carbon, and zeolite adsorbents interacted with the heat of adsorption, and among the same kinds of adsorbents, the amount adsorbed was linearly related to the heat of adsorption.

  10. Competitive Adsorption of a Two-Component Gas on a Deformable Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Usenko, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary in adsorption due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas taking into account variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption is obtained. We establi...

  11. Adsorbed radioactivity and radiographic imaging of surfaces of stainless steel and titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haijo

    1997-11-01

    Type 304 stainless steel used for typical surface materials of spent fuel shipping casks and titanium were exposed in the spent fuel storage pool of a typical PWR power plant. Adsorption characteristics, effectiveness of decontamination by water cleaning and by electrocleaning, and swipe effectiveness on the metal surfaces were studied. A variety of environmental conditions had been manipulated to stimulate the potential 'weeping' phenomenon that often occurs with spent fuel shipping casks during transit. In a previous study, few heterogeneous effects of adsorbed contamination onto metal surfaces were observed. Radiographic images of cask surfaces were made in this study and showed clearly heterogeneous activity distributions. Acquired radiographic images were digitized and further analyzed with an image analysis computer package and compared to calibrated images by using standard sources. The measurements of activity distribution by using the radiographic image method were consistent with that using a HPGe detector. This radiographic image method was used to study the effects of electrocleaning for total and specified areas. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of a film-screen system in contact with a radioactive metal surface was studied with neutron activated gold foils and showed more broad resolution properties than general diagnostic x-ray film-screen systems. Microstructure between normal areas and hot spots showed significant differences, and one hot spot appearing as a dot on the film image consisted of several small hot spots (about 10 μm in diameter). These hot spots were observed as structural defects of the metal surfaces.

  12. Determination of Cr and Cd concentration adsorbed by chicken feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, A.; Cuapio O, L.A.; Cardenas P, S.; Balcazar, M.; Jauregui, V.; Bonilla P, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the results of the samples analysis of chicken feathers are presented, used as adsorber of the heavy metals Cd and Cr present in water solutions with well-known concentrations of these metals. It was used the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (AAN), using the TRIGA Mark-III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The obtained results they show the advantages of having a versatile installation for the analysis of this type of samples. By means of the analysis of the results, it was determined the feasibility of using chicken feathers like adsorber of these metals present in polluted waters, additionally, it was detected the presence of others polluting elements in the inputs to prepare the reference solutions as well as in the processes, so much of preparation of the feathers like of the metals adsorption. (Author)

  13. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  14. Topological features of engineered arrays of adsorbates in honeycomb lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A., E-mail: ludovici83@gmail.com [IMDEA Nanociencia, Calle de Faraday, 9, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lado, J.L. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Av. Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Guinea, Francisco [IMDEA Nanociencia, Calle de Faraday, 9, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen adatoms are one of the most the promising proposals for the functionalization of graphene. The adatoms induce narrow resonances near the Dirac energy, which lead to the formation of magnetic moments. Furthermore, they also create local lattice distortions which enhance the spin–orbit coupling. The combination of magnetism and spin–orbit coupling allows for a rich variety of phases, some of which have non-trivial topological features. We analyze the interplay between magnetism and spin–orbit coupling in ordered arrays of adsorbates on honeycomb lattice monolayers, and classify the different phases that may arise. We extend our model to consider arrays of adsorbates in graphene-like crystals with stronger intrinsic spin–orbit couplings. We also consider a regime away from half-filling in which the Fermi level is at the bottom of the conduction band, we find a Berry curvature distribution corresponding to a Valley–Hall effect.

  15. New apparatus for measuring radon adsorption on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Hines, A.L.; Ghosh, T.K.; Loyalka, S.K.; Ketring, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    A new experimental system was designed to measure radon uptake by solid adsorbents from air or other carrier gases/vapors. The total amount of radon adsorbed corresponding to a specific gas-phase concentration was determined by simultaneously measuring the solid-phase and gas-phase concentrations. The system was used to measure radon adsorption isotherms on BPL activated carbon at 288, 298, and 308 K and on silica gel and molecular sieve 13X at 298 K. The isotherms were of type III according to Brunauer's classification. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the BPL activated carbon provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data were correlated by the Freundlich equation. In this paper the possible adsorption mechanism and the use of the adsorption isotherms to measure indoor radon concentrations are discussed

  16. Ozonation of isoproturon adsorbed on silica particles under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Maryline; Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    The results on heterogeneous ozonation of a phenylurea pesticide, isoproturon, under atmospheric conditions are presented for the first time in the present study. The study was carried out using an experimental device previously adopted and validated for the heterogeneous reactivity of organics toward ozone (Pflieger et al., 2011). Isoproturon was adsorbed on silica particles via a liquid-to-solid equilibrium with a load far below a monolayer (0.02% by weight/surface coverage of 0.5%). The rate constants were estimated by measuring the consumption of the organic (dark, T = 26 °C, RH isoproturon on the aerosol surface does not affect the kinetics of ozonation, indicating that both compounds are adsorbed on different surface sites of silica particles.

  17. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-543, Deleg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

  18. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically γ-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine

  19. A Method for Field Calibration of the PA260 Phosphorus Analyzer Using Solid Adsorbent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    plant environment. The solid adsorbent approach has two major advantages over other traditional air sampling devices such as bubblers or impingers...GC (60/80 mesh) or Chromosorb 106 (80/100 mesh). Both adsorbents were supplied by Alltech Associates (Deerfield, IL). The adsorbents were packed in

  20. Performance of adsorbent-embedded heat exchangers using binder-coating method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ang; Thu, Kyaw; Ismail, Azhar Bin; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    The performance of adsorption (AD) chillers or desalination cycles is dictated by the rates of heat and mass transfer of adsorbate in adsorbent-packed beds. Conventional granular-adsorbent, packed in fin-tube heat exchangers, suffered from poor heat