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Sample records for adriatic sea

  1. Mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Ogrinc, Nives; Fajon, Vesna; Žagar, Dušan; Cossa, Daniel; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-07-15

    Mercury and its speciation were studied in surface and deep waters of the Adriatic Sea. Several mercury species (i.e. DGM – dissolved gaseous Hg, RHg – reactive Hg, THg – total Hg, MeHg – monomethyl Hg and DMeHg – dimethylmercury) together with other water parameters were measured in coastal and open sea deep water profiles. THg concentrations in the water column, as well as in sediments and pore waters, were the highest in the northern, most polluted part of the Adriatic Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and the heavy industry of northern Italy. Certain profiles in the South Adriatic Pit exhibit an increase of DGM just over the bottom due to its diffusion from sediment as a consequence of microbial and/or tectonic activity. Furthermore, a Hg mass balance for the Adriatic Sea was calculated based on measurements and literature data. PMID:26013591

  2. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  3. Poisonous and venomous organisms of the Northern Adriatic Sea:

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Several poisonous (toxic) and venomous species are known to live or sporadically occur in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea. Despite the fact that they generally do not represent a major health a major health hazard, they certainly deserve our attention and knowledge about their biology, ecology and hramful substances they possess. The majority of toxic organisms that could be found in the northern Adriatic belong to a large group of single cell planktonic algae (Dinophyta). A vast number...

  4. The current status of the Adriatic sea fish biodiversity

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    Jakov Dulčić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The marine biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is nowadays facing substantial structural changes in flora and fauna. Such changes were observed in the Adriatic Sea as well. During the last few decades, various factors including climate change, anthropogenic activity and lessepsian migration have altered the composition of Adriatic ichthyofauna. Furthermore, extensive investigations carried out in the last decades allowed us to recognize species previously not recorded or reported in this area. These changes are reflected in the number of species quoted in the checklist of Adriatic fishes, from 407 in 1996 (sensu Jardas, 1996 to 440 in 2010 (Agnatha 1, Elasmobranchii 52, Holocephali 1 and Actinopterygii 386 (sensu Lipej and Dulčić, 2010. The present updates for the period 2010-2014, were compiled from survey of relevant scientific papers and doctoral theses. Only those species which were reported and appropriately documented in scientific literature were taken into consideration. In the period of 2010-2014, twelve new fish species have been recorded in the Adriatic Sea such as Lobotes surinamensis, Siganus luridus, Paranthias furcifer, Holacanthus ciliaris, Elates ransonnetti, Enchelycore anatina, Caranx rhonchus, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Chrysiptera cyanea, Notoscopelus kroeyerii, Notoscopelus bolini and Dipturus nidaroniensis. These findings increase the number of fish species recorded in the Adriatic Sea to 452 (Elasmobranchii 53, Actinopterygii 397. Certain fish species were probably related to recent processes in the Adriatic Sea, such as bioinvasion and tropicalisation. Of the 14 Lessepsian migrants that were recorded in the Adriatic Sea, Fistularia commersonii and Siganus luridus proved to be successful invaders in its southern part. Some fish species were recorded for the very first time due to new research approaches and techniques in the area (e.g. cryptobenthic fish fauna.

  5. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests. PMID:27074008

  6. Introduced marine species in Croatian waters (Eastern Adriatic Sea

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    M. PECAREVIC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea covers more than 35% of the total Croatian territory, which means that monitoring changes in marine ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity are of great importance. Following global changes, Croatia is experiencing increasing problems due to the introduction of new species that include aliens (due to aquaculture activities and shipping and species from other Mediterranean subregions that are extending their geographic range. This work provides a checklist of introduced species in Croatian waters. A total of 113 species (15 phytoplankton, 16 zooplankton, 16 macroalgae, 44 zoobenthic and 22 fish species have been recorded in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea, of which 61 species are alien and 52 introduced, due to climate change.

  7. Natural radionuclides in sediments and rocks from Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the International Scientific Cruise to Adriatic and Ionian Seas organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, sediment and rock samples were collected. Sediments were sampled with grab corer at six locations in the Southeast Adriatic Sea. Rocks were collected on three islets in the Adriatic Sea. In the samples, natural radionuclides 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 226Ra and 210Pb were determined. After sampling and sample preparation, radiochemical separation procedures were applied. Then the samples were measured by alpha spectrometry system equipped with passivated implanted planar silicon detectors or by low background gas-flow proportional counter. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in samples were from 6.2 to 27.0 Bq/kg for 238U, from 7.9 to 28.1 Bq/kg for 234U, from 1.6 to 31.9 Bq/kg for 232Th, from 9.7 to 42.0 Bq/kg for 230Th, from 8.3 to 45.7 Bq/kg for 226Ra and from 3.0 to 113.4 for 210Pb. The obtained values are discussed in detail and compared with results of similar investigations carried out elsewhere. (author)

  8. Assessment of the Adriatic sea-water mean residence time using fallout 90Sr as radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In physical oceanography 90Sr can be used as radioactive tracer to study circulation of sea water. As a part of an extended monitoring programme, 90Sr has been analysed in sea water samples and fallout on the Adriatic since 1963. Samples of surface sea water have been collected on four locations of the Adriatic Sea: towns of Rovinj and Rijeka in North Adriatic, town of Split in Mid-Adriatic and town of Dubrovnik in South Adriatic. Fallout samples have been collected monthly in the city of Zadar (Mid-Adriatic)

  9. 90Sr levels in water samples of Adriatic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tirana, performs systematic measurements of the radioactivity in different samples for the national network. Hundreds of samples of air, fallout, surface water food and vegetation collected in various regions of the country were measured. Water samples of the Adriatic Sea are measured for the determination of 90Sr, 137Cs, since 1992 as presented in this paper. The radiochemical separation of 90Sr from Barium and Calcium are described in this paper. The oxalic acid C2H2O4*2H20 (as oxalate, carbonate and oxide) method for the determination of the chemical separation ratio was used. The activity concentration of 90Sr in water sea is evaluated by its daughter 90Y in equilibrium with it. The collective dose assessment by 90Sr is done

  10. Links between Sea Level in the northern Adriatic sea and large scale patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, L.; Lionello, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study analyzes the link between Northern Adriatic sea level (SL) and three variables: sea level pressure over European and North-Atlantic area (SLP), Mediterranean sea surface temperature (SST) and Mediterranean sea surface salinity (SSS). Sea level data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges stations distributed along the north-Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). SLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean SST and SSS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual sea level variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent so that the northern Adriatic sea level can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste, whose data cover almost the entire 20th century (whereas Croatian data cover only the second half of the century). The inverse barometric, thermosteric and halosteric effects provide the physical basis for a local relation of SL with SLP, SST, SSS implying, if other effects are absent, a sea level increase for increasing temperature and decreasing atmospheric pressure and salinity. However, the statistical model used to quantify the link between SL and these three forcings shows that they have produced no important trend and they cannot explain the observed trend of Northern Adriatic Sea level during the second half of the 20th century. The observed trend can therefore be interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause. Using SLP, SST and SSS from climate model simulations, no trend is obtained during the 20th century, as well. The same model simulations, considering their continuations for the 21st century show that local effects (mainly warming of water masses) are likely to produce an increase of about 10cm (with a large uncertainty) at the end of the century. The global signal and the regional land movements have to be added to this result to obtain the actual

  11. Numerical modelling of sediment transport in the Adriatic Sea

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    A. Guarnieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new sediment transport model, considering currents, tides and waves is presented for the Adriatic Sea basin. The simulations concentrate on the winter of 2002–2003 because of field data availability and interesting intermittent processes occurrence. A process oriented analysis is performed to investigate the impact that Sirocco and Bora wind regimes have on sediment transport. The comparisons of the simulations with the observed data show that the model is capable to capture the main dynamics of sediment transport along the Italian coasts and the sediment concentration within the water column. This latter can reach values up to several g L−1, especially within the first centimetres above the bottom. The sediments are transported mainly southwards along the Italian coasts, consistently with the known literature results, except during Sirocco wind events, which can be responsible for reversing the coastal circulation in the northern area of the basin, and consequently the sediment transport. The resuspension of sediments is also related to the specific wave regimes induced by Bora and Sirocco, the former inducing resuspension events near the coasts while the latter causing a more diffused resuspension regime in the Northern Adriatic basin. Beside the realistic representation of short timescales resuspension/deposition events due to storms, the model was also used to investigate persistent erosion or deposition areas in the Adriatic Sea. Two main depocenters were identified: one, very pronounced, in the surroundings of the Po river delta, and another one a few kilometres off the coast in front of the Ancona promontory. A third region of accumulation, even if less intense, was found to be offshore the southernmost limit of the Gargano region. On the contrary the whole western coast within a distance of a few kilometres from the shore was found to be subject to prevailing erosion. The comparison with observed accumulation and erosion data shows

  12. Total mercury content in fish und molluscs from Adriatic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In regard to a long known and still persisting problem of the ecosystem loaded with mercury, total mercury contents in different species of fish and molluscs in the Adriatic Sea have been followed in an interval of 12 years. Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic adsorption spectrometry (CVAAS) at 253. 7 nm after digestion of the edible of fish tissues. The results of analysis reveal positive shifts and unlike the samples in a previous study all the investigated samples meet the conditions of the Public Health Regulations on the quantity of pesticides, mycotoxins, metals, histamine and similar substances that may occur in foodstuff and on other conditions as to the standards of foodstuff and objects of general use, which fixed the total Hg content at maximum of 0.5 mg/kg on the basis of fresh mass. (orig.)

  13. Total mercury content in fish und molluscs from Adriatic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrina-Dragojevic, I. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Food Chemistry; Dragojevic, D. [Water Quality Dept., Waterworks, Zagreb (Croatia); Bujan, M. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    In regard to a long known and still persisting problem of the ecosystem loaded with mercury, total mercury contents in different species of fish and molluscs in the Adriatic Sea have been followed in an interval of 12 years. Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic adsorption spectrometry (CVAAS) at 253. 7 nm after digestion of the edible of fish tissues. The results of analysis reveal positive shifts and unlike the samples in a previous study all the investigated samples meet the conditions of the Public Health Regulations on the quantity of pesticides, mycotoxins, metals, histamine and similar substances that may occur in foodstuff and on other conditions as to the standards of foodstuff and objects of general use, which fixed the total Hg content at maximum of 0.5 mg/kg on the basis of fresh mass. (orig.)

  14. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

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    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea is its most northern part which occupies approximately 200 km2 and is a part of the wider Gulf of Trieste. Slovenian coast consists of 47 kilometers of mostly steep, abrasive marl and sandstone coast. Low accumulation coast is located only at the mouths of the watercourses and represents but a smaller portion, whereas the smallest part is occupied by the limestone abrasion coast. Mainland coastal region is mostly hillside and has a very diverse relief, while plains, in smaller numbers, are located only in the lower parts of the river valleys. Slovenian sea indents the mainland by two larger gulfs: the Gulf of Koper and of Piran and is predominately very shallow. The average depth is around 18 m and the largest depth is 38 m at the Madona cape near Piran. Sea bottom is mostly covered by the thick layer of sediments deposited after the abrasion of the steep cliff coast and by the accumulation of the river alluvium. Due to its shallowness the sea is exposed to high temperature fluctuations and due to the fresh water influx also to the changes of its salinity. The circulation of the sea water is mainly induced by the tide and wind activities, mostly the Bora (strong north-easterly wind which significantly influences the vertical circulation of the water. Water current is weak and unstable. There is a large influx of nutrients into the Slovenian sea, resulting from the soil erosion, surface water influx, watercourses and direct emissions of waste waters into the sea. The consequence of the mentioned sea characteristics is a great landscape sensitivity of the coastal sea ecosystem. During summer the sea warms intensely and when accompanied by the weak water circulation, we are often witnessing the lack of oxygen in the deeper layers of the water, intensive algae growth and sea blooming, which points to exceeded self-cleaning (assimilation capacities of the marine ecosystem. The major polluters are the coastal towns

  15. On the occurrence of Neorossia caroli (Jouben, 1902 in the central Adriatic Sea (Croatian waters

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    Nedo VRGOČ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens of Neorossia caroli have been recorded for the first time in the central Adriatic Sea. They were caught in summer 2004 with a bottom-trawl net during a single tow at depths between 449 and 594 m in Croatian waters. Up to now N. caroli has never been found in the central Adriatic area. This finding represents a northernmost extension in the known range of the species N. caroli in the Adriatic Sea. Recorded specimens were both adult and mature males with mantle lengths of 42 and 37 mm. They counted 21 and 16 spermatophores, respectively. The measurements from both individuals are reported, including beak standard dimensions.

  16. Environmental security of the Adriatic coastal sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal sea floor is littered with many of man made objects and materials including a variety of ammunition. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas have increased concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in anti-fouling paints. This report presents locations within the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean as a whole, that are found to be contaminated by different ammunition. In order to be able to establish if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical agent), a system using a neutron sensor installed within an unmanned underwater vessel has been developed and tested. When positioned above an object such a system can inspect the object for the presence of a threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from a sealed tube d+t neutron generator and a gamma detector. The same system can also be used to inspect ship hulls, either to detect potential anomalies attached to the hull, or to determine the nature of materials within the hull, especially of sunken ships. (authors)

  17. Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Seawater of the Middle and Southern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few decades, the most studied radioisotopes in the Adriatic Sea have been Cs137 and Sr90, especially after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. On the contrary, the distribution of transuranic radionuclides in general in seawater of the Adriatic Sea is insufficiently explored due to low concentrations, absence of significant local sources and cumbersome radiochemical procedures for their determination. As a part of TC Project (RER/7/003) ''Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Sea'' carried out by the IAEA, the International Scientific Cruise to the Adriatic and Ionian Seas was conducted in 2007. Samples of seawater collected during the scientific cruise were analyzed in the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories in Monaco in 2009. The anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239,240Pu were chosen as the most representative of anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment, comprising beta-, gamma- and alpha-emitters which have the highest potential contribution to radiation doses to humans via seafood consumption. This paper presents the results of the radionuclides distribution and behavior in the water column in the Jabuka Pit and South Adriatic Pit, and in the surface water of the inflowing and outflowing vein of the Otranto Strait. The vertical radionuclide profiles are different in the Jabuka Pit and South Adriatic Pit due to the different origin of dense water formation. In this report the first measured data for 239,240Pu and 241Am activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea are presented. From the Adriatic cruise the average concentrations of the radionuclides in seawater are comparable to the literature data for the values of the Mediterranean Sea. The knowledge of radioactive contamination could be used for estimation of the environment condition and protection of the Adriatic Sea. (author)

  18. ENEA fluorosensor system used in monitoring the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbini, Roberto; Colao, Francesco; Fantoni, Roberta; Palucci, Antonio; Ribezzo, Sergio

    1997-01-01

    The lidar fluorosensor equipment has ben used in an extensive marine campaign over the northern Adriatic sea. The apparatus, consisting of an UV lidar fluorosensor together with a laser fluorometer, has been installed on board of a small ship. The lidar fluorosensor was directly pointed to the marine surface, while the laser fluorometer was monitoring the water inside a cell continuously filed by a pump from one meter sea depth. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals at selected wavelengths have been recorded by the two apparata to monitor the distribution of the different species. DOM and chlorophyll signals were detected upon excitation at (lambda) equals 355 nm, while organic pollutants and oils were excited at (lambda) #EQ 266 nm. In both cases, the corresponding water Raman signal was used for normalization. Absolute concentrations of different species were obtained, when possible, after calibrating LIF data against analytical chemical results on a number of water samples. The distribution of several substances, such as industrial pollutants, anthropogenic releases and chlorophyll from phytoplankton were obtained along the ship route. A differential GPS instrument installed on board of the ship has been used to precisely georeference the data, in order to produce thematic maps of the investigated areas containing the distribution of the different monitored species.

  19. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mira Morović

    2002-09-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of pigments was studied from the CZCS satellite data and from in situ chlorophyll and transparency for the period 1979-1985. The three Adriatic sites, Northern, Middle, and Southern Adriatic are differently in oceanographic parameters. The differences between seasonal in situ chlorophyll and remotely sensed pigment concentrations (from CZCS satellite data) from the Adriatic are large in winter. Through the correlation analysis, pigments were compared to meteo-oceanographic and hydrological parameters from different Adriatic sites. The PCA (principal component analysis) was applied to the pigment data series and significant components were compared. Different correlations are obtained for warm and cold periods of the year pointing to seasonal differences in the underlying mechanism of pigment variability. The first PC is in more parameters seem to in field, than in the cold period. The pigments in the Adriatic are in good correlation to a number of hydrologic and meteo-oceanographic factors.

  20. Nematofauna in the Adriatic Sea: review and check-list of free-living nematode species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travizi, Ana; Vidaković, Jasna

    1998-02-01

    The present paper presents a collection and synthesis of data found in numerous publications on Adriatic Sea nematofauna, as well as unpublished, data mentioned in annotations. For this purpose, a chronological order of investigations and a general survey of the species that occurred in the Adriatic Sea are given. In all, 281 free-living nematode species comprised in 133 genera and 34 families were discerned and listed in a taxonomic review, according to their spatial distribution. In special cases, descriptions of habitat features were noted. The position of species characterized by high population densities, their importance, and contribution to the faunistic composition of certain parts of the Adriatic were also discussed. The summary of the results, of prevailing research on free-living marine nematodes serves as a tool for making distinctions concerning the research level and state of nematofauna knowledge in different parts of the Adriatic Sea. Northern Adriatic nematofauna has been considerably more intensively investigated than that of the Central and South Adriatic.

  1. Decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef (Adriatic Sea

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    A. SANTELLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge on the distribution of decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef positioned on sandy-mud bottoms in the central Adriatic Sea. The reef is constituted of concrete modules assembled in pyramids and concrete poles. Hard and soft bottom samples were collected from 2001, just after reef construction, to 2005 (4 surveys per year. Regarding the soft seabed, three sites close to a pyramid, three inside the reef area at a distance of 10-15 m from the structures, and three 200 m outside the reef (control sites were randomly sampled during each survey. At the same time, three pyramids (vertical and horizontal walls and three poles were also investigated. After taxonomical analysis, decapod crustaceans were analysed using abundance and species richness. Sites and years were compared using a balanced, fixed effect, 2-way ANOVA and PERMANOVA. In addition, SIMPER analysis was performed to identify those species typifying each community inhabiting both the soft bottom and the artificial substrates. The results showed that the artificial reef induced an increase in both abundance and diversity of the decapods of the natural habitat. In fact, man-made substrates may offer new available space for biological colonization and allow the settlement of new species usually living on hard bottoms, thus increasing the complexity of the original benthic communities.

  2. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

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    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  3. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON FEEDING HABITS OF GARFISH BELONE BELONE (L., 1761) IN THE ADRIATIC SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Čikeš Keč; Barbara Zorica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present feeding habits of garfish population inhabiting Adriatic Sea. Gut contents of 211 Belone belone specimens caught with seine net in the Adriatic Sea (Croatian fishing ground) were analysed. Although animal and plant prey items were present in analysed guts, the preferred prey group was animal one (94%). The most frequent prey items were copepods (56.9 %) and decapods (44.4 %), while the most abundant were euphausiids (59.9 %) and copepods (20.7 %).

  4. Response of the Adriatic Sea to the atmospheric anomaly in 2003

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    B. Grbec

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Unusual weather conditions over the southern Europe and the Mediterranean area in 2003 significantly impacted the oceanographic properties of the Adriatic Sea. To document these changes, both in the atmosphere and the sea, anomalies from the normal climate were calculated. The winter 2003 was extremely cold, whereas the spring/summer period was extremely warm. The air temperature in June was more than 3 standard deviations above the average. On the other hand, precipitation and river runoff were extremely low between February and August. The response of the sea was remarkable, especially in surface salinity during spring and summer, with values at least one standard deviation above the average. Analysis of thermohaline properties in the middle Adriatic showed the importance of two phenomena responsible for the occurrence of exceptionally high salinity: (1 enhanced inflow of saline Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW in the Adriatic, and (2 extremely low precipitation and river runoff, accompanied with strong evaporation. Two large-scale atmospheric indices: NAOI (North Atlantic Oscillation Index and MOI (Mediterranean Oscillation Index, although generally correlated to the Adriatic climate, failed to describe anomalies in 2003. The air pressure gradients used for the definition of both indices significantly decreased in 2003 due to the presence of the high pressure areas over most of Europe and the northern Atlantic, and were actually responsible for the observed anomalies above and in the Adriatic.

  5. Microbial respiration and trophic regimes in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Maimone, Giovanna

    2006-08-01

    Remineralization in the Northern Adriatic Sea has been examined by studying the respiratory rates, through electron transport system activity, in four systems identified on the basis of different salinities, caused by riverine outflows, and different productivity regimes measured by apparent oxygen utilization. The sea waters influenced by river discharges were characterized by high respiratory activity while in fully marine waters respiration fell close to the typical value for the surface pelagic Mediterranean waters. A speculative approach to quantify the trophic balance in the examined sub-systems was adopted and the following ratios were computed: Primary Production/Respiration (PP/R); Primary Production/(Bacterial Production + Respiration) [PP/(BP + R)]; (Dissolved Organic Carbon + Particulate Organic Carbon)/Respiration [(DOC + POC)/R], using the data generated at the same time from the same multidisciplinary cruises. High variability of these metabolic ratios in the described subsystems occurred, so that shifting autotrophy and heterotrophy patterns through summer-winter and cross-productivity front trends occurred. Episodic heterotrophy has been found to happen in the North Adriatic Sea, although this is normally considered a productive ecosystem.

  6. Tephrostratigraphy of the last 170 ka in sedimentary successions from the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanchi, Natale; Dinelli, Enrico

    2008-10-01

    In this study are discussed new SEM-EDS analyses performed on glass shards from five cores collected in the Central Adriatic Sea and two cores recovered from the South Adriatic Sea. A total of 26 tephra layers have been characterized and compared with the geochemical features of terrestrial deposits and other tephra archives in the area (South Adriatic Sea and Lago Grande di Monticchio, Vulture volcano). The compositions are compatible with either a Campanian or a Roman provenance. The cores, located on the Central Adriatic inner and outer shelf, recorded tephra referred to explosive events described in the literature: AP3 (sub-Plinian activity of the Somma-Vesuvius, 2710 ± 60 14C years BP); Avellino eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 3548 ± 129 14C years BP); Agnano Monte Spina (Phlegrean Fields, 4100 ± 400 years BP); Mercato eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 8010 ± 35 14C years BP; Agnano Pomici Principali eruption (Phlegrean Fields, 10,320 ± 50 14C years BP); Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Phlegrean Fields, 12,100 ± 170 14C years BP). Some of these layers were also observed in the South Adriatic core IN68-9 in addition to younger ( AP2, sub-Plinian eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 3225 ± 140 14C years BP), and older layers ( Pomici di Base eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 18,300 ± 150 14C years BP). Significant is the tephra record of core RF95-7 that, for the first time in the Adriatic Sea, reports the occurrence of tephra layers older than 60 ka: the well known Mediterranean tephra layers X2 (ca. 70 ka), W1 (ca. 140 ka) and V2 (Roman origin, ca. 170 ka) as well as other tephra layers attributed, on the basis of geochemistry and biostratigraphy, to explosive eruptions occurred at Vico (138 ± 2 and 151 ± 3 ka BP) and Ischia (147-140 ka BP). Previous tephra correlations performed on other cores in the Central Adriatic Sea were also critically revised according to new available data, and integrated with the results of this study for a correlation at a regional scale. The most important key

  7. Gelatinous zooplankton assemblages in temperate coastal waters - seasonal variations (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea):

    OpenAIRE

    Malej, Alenka; Miloš, Čarna

    2005-01-01

    Gelatinous plankton composition, abundance, biomass and their seasonality was studied in the Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea) over a yearly cycle. The most diversive gelatinous groups were Hydromedusae with 14 species, followed by Siphonophora (six species), Appendicularia (five species), Chaetognatha (two species), and Thaliacea (one species)....

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from sediment cores and between 0.1 and 2.2ngg(-1) in recent sediments. Chronological records of PCB concentrations displayed a common pattern with historical PCB production and use, with the maximum peak values detected between the 1960s and the 1980s. Sediments deposited within the last two decades presented a ~40% to ~80% PCB reduction in comparison to the peak levels, reflecting the ban on PCB production and use since the late 1970s. PCB levels along with the presence of high-chlorinated congeners decreased southwards, indicating the Po River as the major source of PCBs in the western Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  9. Estimation of the Adriatic sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2004-01-01

    Systematic, long term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 +/- 2.4 Bq/m3 in 1963 to 2.0 +/- 0.3 Bq/m3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq/m2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq/m2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental d...

  10. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  11. Global and regional factors contributing to the past and future sea level rise in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2013-07-01

    This study aims at discussing evolution of Sea Level (SL) in the Northern Adriatic Sea for the 20th and 21st century. A Linear Regression Model (LRM) which aims at describing the effect of regional processes, is built and validated. This LRM computes the North Adriatic mean SL variations using three predictors: the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) in the Gulf of Venice, the mean Sea Temperature (ST) of the water column in the South Adriatic and the Upper Level Salinity (ULS) in the central part of the basin. SL data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges distributed along the Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL, Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). MSLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean ST and ULS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual SL variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent, so that the Northern Adriatic SL can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste. The LRM is found to be robust, very successful at explaining interannual SL variations and consistent with the physical mechanisms responsible for SL evolution. Results show that observed SL in the 20th century has a large trend, which cannot be explained by this LRM, and it is interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause (such as polar ice melting). When the LRM is used with the MSLP, ST and ULS from climate model projections for the end of the 21st century (A1B scenario), it produces an SL rise in the range from 2.3 to 14.1 cm, with a best estimate of 8.9 cm. However, results show that the behavior of the remotely forced SL rise is the main source of future SL uncertainty and extrapolating its present trend to the future would expand the range of SL uncertainty from 14 to 49 cm.

  12. The carbon budget in the northern Adriatic Sea, a winter case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, G.; Azzaro, M.; Bastianini, M.; Bellucci, L. G.; Bernardi Aubry, F.; Bianchi, F.; Burca, M.; Cantoni, C.; Caruso, G.; Casotti, R.; Cozzi, S.; Del Negro, P.; Fonda Umani, S.; Giani, M.; Giuliani, S.; Kovacevic, V.; La Ferla, R.; Langone, L.; Luchetta, A.; Monticelli, L. S.; Piacentino, S.; Pugnetti, A.; Ravaioli, M.; Socal, G.; Spagnoli, F.; Ursella, L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a winter carbon budget for the northern Adriatic Sea, obtained through direct measurements during two multidisciplinary cruises and literature data. A box model approach was adopted to integrate estimates of stocks and fluxes of carbon species over the total area. The oligotrophy at the basin scale and the start of primary productivity well before the onset of spring stratification were observed. In winter, the system underwent a complete reset, as the mixing of water masses erased any signal of previous hypoxia or anoxia episodes. The northern Adriatic Sea was phosphorus depleted with respect to C and N availability. This fact confirms the importance of mixing with deep-sea water for P supply to biological processes on the whole. Despite the abundant prokaryotic biomass, the microbial food web was less efficient in organic C production than phytoplankton. In the upper layer, the carbon produced by primary production exceeded the fraction respired by planktonic community smaller than 200 µm. On the contrary, respiration processes prevailed in the water column below the pycnocline. The carbon budget also proved that the northern Adriatic Sea can be an effective sink for atmospheric CO2 throughout the entire winter season.

  13. POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE (IMTA IN THE ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Kanski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, scientific interest for investigating ecological, economical and social effects of Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA has increased worldwide. Its development in the Mediterranean, including the Adriatic Sea, is still in the early stages. The main obstacle preventing IMTA to be commercially adopted is the lack of scientific information on choosing compatible species, knowing the carrying capacity of a production area and interactions between species feeding at different trophic levels, as well as its socio–economic impacts. Current experience in the area is based on smaller experimental studies of local importance but they generally give a good insight into potential of IMTA and its interactions with the environment. The aim of this paper was to overview current literature and experiences worldwide and to review the potential for adopting IMTA principles in the Adriatic Sea.

  14. Element content in cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvab Rožič P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the levels of potentially toxic elements in cultured and wild fish tissues and to assess their risk for human health. For this purpose, sea bass specimens (Dicentrarchus labrax were sampled in selected fish farm and three other locations along the eastern Adriatic coast. Ranges of element concentrations in sea bass muscles were 1.60-4.46 ppm for As, 0.001-0.079 ppm for Cd, 0.14-49.10 ppm for Cr, 1.38-4.85 ppm for Cu, 0.11-1.31 ppm for Hg, 0.01-0.65 ppm for Pb and 21.9-136.0 ppm for Zn. Mean Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn concentrations in commercially interesting cultured fish samples were below the permissible levels, while mean As values slightly exceed those limits. In wild fishes mean Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were below the recommended limits, for As, Cr and Hg the mean values were higher. The smallest cultured sea bass samples showed As, Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations exceeding the recommended limits but values decreased with fish size. Therefore, the metal concentrations in commercial fishes showed no threat for human consumption.

  15. First observations on marine subaqueous soils in "Torre del Cerrano" marine protected area, Adriatic sea (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Cocco; Valeria Cardelli; Silvia Pedicini; Rogeiro Borguete Alves Rafael; Alberto Agnelli; Flavio Fornasier; Fabio Vallarola; Giuseppe Corti

    2015-01-01

    Subaqueous soils have to be studied with proper methodologies, according to a pedological approach and considering the key role of animal bioturbation. Morphological and chemical characteristics of submerged soils found in the MPA of "Torre del Cerrano", Adriatic sea (Italy), have been studied in this way, and we conclude that submarine soils of the MPA are important examples of pedogenesis promoted by animals. Soils from the highly protected marine area hosted a major biodiversity than those...

  16. Operational ocean models in the Adriatic Sea: a skill assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chiggiato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System project (MFS sub-regional and regional numerical ocean forecasting systems performance are assessed by mean of model-model and model-data comparison. Three different operational systems have been considered in this study: the Adriatic REGional Model (AREG; the AdriaROMS and the Mediterranean Forecasting System general circulation model (MFS model. AREG and AdriaROMS are regional implementations (with some dedicated variations of POM (Blumberg and Mellor, 1987 and ROMS (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005 respectively, while MFS model is based on OPA (Madec et al., 1998 code. The assessment has been done by means of standard scores. The data used for operational systems assessment derive from in-situ and remote sensing measurements. In particular a set of CTDs covering the whole western Adriatic, collected in January 2006, one year of SST from space born sensors and six months of buoy data. This allowed to have a full three-dimensional picture of the operational forecasting systems quality during January 2006 and some preliminary considerations on the temporal fluctuation of scores estimated on surface (or near surface quantities between summer 2005 and summer 2006. In general, the regional models are found to be colder and fresher than observations. They eventually outperform the large scale model in the shallowest locations, as expected. Results on amplitude and phase errors are also much better in locations shallower than 50 m, while degraded in deeper locations, where the models tend to have a higher homogeneity along the vertical column compared to observations. In a basin-wide overview, the two regional models show some dissimilarities in the local displacement of errors, something suggested by the full three-dimensional picture depicted using CTDs, but also confirmed by the comparison with SSTs. In locations where the regional models are mutually correlated, the aggregated mean

  17. Border Dispute in the Adriatic Sea between Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fabijaniæ GAGRO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This Article represents an overview of long-running border dispute between two neighboring states – Republic of Croatia and Republic of Slovenia in the maritime area of the Northern Adriatic. Despite more than two decades of unsuccessful efforts, including several documents controversial on one or both sides, there are still some disputable points waiting for the final settlement. It is expected to be reached by the Arbitration Tribunal established by the Arbitration Agreement between Croatia and Slovenia, signed in 2009. Without any doubt, this Agreement represents a step forward in their mutual efforts toward peaceful solution, but also contains few open questions to be resolved by the Arbitration Tribunal. In this Article the author presents brief overview of long-time efforts that led to the conclusion of the Arbitration Agreement, as well as the main components that has to be considered – strong political demands in relation to preserve territorial integrities of both states and – at the end – to accomplish a peaceful solution in accordance to the rules of international law.

  18. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea) using different tools

    OpenAIRE

    G. D'ONGHIA; F. Capezzuto; F. CARDONE; Carlucci, R.; Carluccio, A.; G. CHIMIENTI; G. CORRIERO; C. LONGO; Maiorano, P.; F Mastrototaro; P. PANETTA; Rosso, A; R. SANFILIPPO; Sion, L.; A. TURSI

    2015-01-01

    Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea) during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longlin...

  19. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  20. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-01-01

    Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consist...

  1. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  2. Modeling the influence of climate change on the mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Lara; MacLeod, Matthew; Marcomini, Antonio; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Climate forcing is forecasted to influence the Adriatic Sea region in a variety of ways, including increasing temperature, and affecting wind speeds, marine currents, precipitation and water salinity. The Adriatic Sea is intensively developed with agriculture, industry, and port activities that introduce pollutants to the environment. Here, we developed and applied a Level III fugacity model for the Adriatic Sea to estimate the current mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Sea, and to examine the effects of a climate change scenario on the distribution of these pollutants. The model's performance was evaluated for three PCB congeners against measured concentrations in the region using environmental parameters estimated from the 20th century climate scenario described in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) by the IPCC, and using Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. We find that modeled fugacities of PCBs in air, water and sediment of the Adriatic are in good agreement with observations. The model indicates that PCBs in the Adriatic Sea are closely coupled with the atmosphere, which acts as a net source to the water column. We used model experiments to assess the influence of changes in temperature, wind speed, precipitation, marine currents, particulate organic carbon and air inflow concentrations forecast in the IPCC A1B climate change scenario on the mass balance of PCBs in the Sea. Assuming an identical PCBs' emission profile (e.g. use pattern, treatment/disposal of stockpiles, mode of entry), modeled fugacities of PCBs in the Adriatic Sea under the A1B climate scenario are higher because higher temperatures reduce the fugacity capacity of air, water and sediments, and because diffusive sources to the air are stronger. PMID:22410625

  3. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  4. A high resolution Adriatic-Ionian Sea circulation model for operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Vukicevic, Tomislava; Lecci, Rita; Verri, Giorgia; Kumkar, Yogesh; Creti', Sergio

    2015-04-01

    A new numerical regional ocean model for the Italian Seas, with focus on the Adriatic-Ionian basin, has been implemented within the framework of Technologies for Situational Sea Awareness (TESSA) Project. The Adriatic-Ionian regional model (AIREG) represents the core of the new Adriatic-Ionian Forecasting System (AIFS), maintained operational by CMCC since November 2014. The spatial domain covers the Adriatic and the Ionian Seas, extending eastward until the Peloponnesus until the Libyan coasts; it includes also the Tyrrhenian Sea and extends westward, including the Ligurian Sea, the Sardinia Sea and part of the Algerian basin. The model is based on the NEMO-OPA (Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean - Ocean PArallelise), version 3.4 (Madec et al. 2008). NEMO has been implemented for AIREG at 1/45° resolution model in horizontal using 121 vertical levels with partial steps. It solves the primitive equations using the time-splitting technique for solving explicitly the external gravity waves. The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using the 6h-0.25° horizontal-resolution operational analysis and forecast fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) (Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009). The atmospheric pressure effect is included as surface forcing for the model hydrodynamics. The evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux, while the precipitation is provided by the Climate Prediction Centre Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Concerning the runoff contribution, the model considers the estimate of the inflow discharge of 75 rivers that flow into the Adriatic-Ionian basin, collected by using monthly means datasets. Because of its importance as freshwater input in the Adriatic basin, the Po River contribution is provided using daily average observations from ARPA Emilia Romagna observational network. AIREG is one-way nested into the Mediterranean Forecasting

  5. Towards integrated assessment of the northern Adriatic Sea sediment budget using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramelli, A.; Filipponi, F.; Valentini, E.; Zucca, F.; Gutierrez, O. Q.; Liberti, L.; Cordella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sediment fluxes is a key issue to interpret the evolution of coastal sedimentation under natural and human impact and relevant for the natural resources management. Despite river plumes represent one of the major gain in sedimentary budget of littoral cells, knowledge of factors influencing complex behavior of coastal plumes, like river discharge characteristics, wind stress and hydro-climatic variables, has not been yet fully investigated. Use of Earth Observation data allows the identification of spatial and temporal variations of suspended sediments related to river runoff, seafloor erosion, sediment transport and deposition processes. Objective of the study is to investigate sediment fluxes in northern Adriatic Sea by linking suspended sediment patterns of coastal plumes to hydrologic and climatic forcing regulating the sedimentary cell budget and geomorphological evolution in coastal systems and continental shelf waters. Analysis of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product, derived from 2002-2012 MERIS time series, was done to map changes in spatial and temporal dimension of suspended sediments, focusing on turbid plume waters and intense wind stress conditions. From the generated multi temporal TSM maps, dispersal patterns of major freshwater runoff plumes in northern Adriatic Sea were evaluated through spatial variability of coastal plumes shape and extent. Additionally, sediment supply from river distributary mouths was estimated from TSM and correlated with river discharge rates, wind field and wave field through time. Spatial based methodology has been developed to identify events of wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity, occurring during intense wind stress and extreme metocean conditions, especially in the winter period. The identified resuspension events were qualitatively described and compared with to hydro-climatic variables. The identification of spatial and

  6. Self-Organizing Maps method in recent Adriatic Sea environmental studies: applications and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihanovic, H.; Vilibic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Herein we present three recent oceanographic studies performed in the Adriatic Sea (the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea), where Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, an unsupervised neural network method capable of recognizing patterns in various types of datasets, was applied to environmental data. The first study applied the SOM method to a long (50 years) series of thermohaline, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data measured over a deep (1200 m) Southern Adriatic Pit, in order to extract characteristic deep water mass patterns and their temporal variability. Low-dimensional SOM solutions revealed that the patterns were not sensitive to nutrients but were determined mostly by temperature, salinity and DO content; therefore, the water masses in the region can be traced by using no nutrient data. The second study encompassed the classification of surface current patterns measured by HF radars over the northernmost part of the Adriatic, by applying the SOM method to the HF radar data and operational mesoscale meteorological model surface wind fields. The major output from this study was a high correlation found between characteristic ocean current distribution patterns with and without wind data introduced to the SOM, implying the dominant wind driven dynamics over a local scale. That nominates the SOM method as a basis for generating very fast real-time forecast models over limited domains, based on the existing atmospheric forecasts and basin-oriented ocean experiments. The last study classified the sea ambient noise distributions in a habitat area of bottlenose dolphin, connecting it to the man-made noise generated by different types of vessels. Altogether, the usefulness of the SOM method has been recognized in different aspects of basin-scale ocean environmental studies, and may be a useful tool in future investigations of understanding of the multi-disciplinary dynamics over a basin, including the creation of operational environmental forecasting systems.

  7. Sea level variability at Adriatic coast and its relationship to atmospheric forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergant, K. [Centre for Atmospheric Research, Nova Gorica Polytechnic, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Susnik, M.; Strojan, I. [Dept. of Hydrology, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Shaw, A.G.P. [James Rennel Div., National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Sea level (SLH) variability at the Adriatic coast was investigated for the period 1872-2001 using monthly average values of observations at 13 tide gauge stations. Linear trends and seasonal cycles were investigated first and removed afterwards from the data. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis was used further on remaining anomalies (SLA) to extract the regional intermonthly variability of SLH. It was found that the leading EOF and its principal component (PC) explain a major part of SLA variability (92%). The correlation between the reconstructed SLA, based on leading EOF and its PC, and overlapping observed SLA values for selected tide gauge stations is between 0.93 and 0.99. Actual SLH values at tide gauge stations can be reconstructed and some gaps in the data can be filled in on the basis of estimated SLA values if reasonable estimates of long-term trends and seasonal cycles are also available. A strong, seasonally dependent relationship between SLA at the Adriatic coast and atmospheric forcing, represented by sea level pressure (SLP) fields, was also found. Comparing the time series of leading PC and gridded SLP data for the period 1948-2001, the highest correlation coefficients (r) of -0.92 in winter, -0.84 in spring, -0.66 in summer, and -0.91 in autumn were estimated for a SLP grid point located in northern Italy. The SLP variability on this grid point contains information about the isostatic response of the sea level at the Adriatic coast, but can also be treated as a sort of teleconnection index representing the large-scale SLP variability across central and southern Europe. To some extent the large-scale SLP variability that affects the SLA at the Adriatic coast can be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), because significant correlations were found between the NAO index and the first PC of SLA (r{sub winter}=-0.56, r{sub spring}=-0.45, r{sub summer}=-0.48, and r{sub autumn}=-0.43) for the period 1872-2001. The use of partial least

  8. First observations on marine subaqueous soils in "Torre del Cerrano" marine protected area, Adriatic sea (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cocco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subaqueous soils have to be studied with proper methodologies, according to a pedological approach and considering the key role of animal bioturbation. Morphological and chemical characteristics of submerged soils found in the MPA of "Torre del Cerrano", Adriatic sea (Italy, have been studied in this way, and we conclude that submarine soils of the MPA are important examples of pedogenesis promoted by animals. Soils from the highly protected marine area hosted a major biodiversity than those from the sub- and non-protected areas, while no striking differences in terms of soil physical and chemical characteristics among protected, sub-protected and non-protected areas occurred.

  9. Trichoptera biodiversity of the Aegean and Adriatic sea basins in the republic of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2014-01-01

    We present the first preliminary inventory of Trichoptera taxa in the Aegean and Adriatic Sea basins in Kosovo that have previously received poor and fragmentary attention. Adult caddisflies were collected using ultraviolet (UV) light traps in 13 stations in areas of the Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea drainage basins in Kosovo. Nineteen species out of 82, reported in this article, are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. Five genera are recorded for the first time in Kosovo: Brachycentrus, Ecclisopteryx, Psilopteryx, Thremma, and Oecetis. During this investigation, we found several Southeastern European endemic and rare species whose previous known distribution was limited to particular areas of this region, as well as other species whose distribution is considerably enlarged by this investigation: Polycentropus ierapetra, Polycentropus irroratus, Chaetopteryx stankovici, Drusus schmidi, Drusus tenellus, Potamophylax goulandriourum, Oecetis notata, and Notidobia melanoptera. Even though this article is a result of a limited sampling effort, it increases the number of Trichoptera taxa recorded for the Republic of Kosovo to 131. PMID:25434031

  10. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices. PMID:26774440

  11. A review of modeling applications using ROMS model and COAWST system in the Adriatic sea region

    CERN Document Server

    Carniel, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    From the first implementation in its purely hydrodynamic configuration, to the last configuration under the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system, several specific modelling applications of the Regional Ocean Modelling Systems (ROMS, www.myroms.org) have been put forward within the Adriatic Sea (Italy) region. Covering now a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, they developed in a growing number of fields supporting Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) activities in this semi-enclosed sea of paramount importance including the Gulf of Venice. Presently, a ROMS operational implementation provides every day hydrodynamic and sea level 3-days forecasts, while a second one models the most relevant biogeochemical properties, and a third one (two-way coupled with the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model) deals with extreme waves forecast. Such operational models provide support to civil and environmental protection activities (e.g., driving su...

  12. Oil spill hazard from dispersal of oil along shipping lanes in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, S; De Dominicis, M; Oddo, P; Coppini, G; Pinardi, N; Greggio, N

    2015-01-15

    An assessment of hazard stemming from operational oil ship discharges in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian (SANI) Seas is presented. The methodology integrates ship traffic data, the fate and transport oil spill model MEDSLIK-II, coupled with the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) ocean currents, sea surface temperature analyses and ECMWF surface winds. Monthly and climatological hazard maps were calculated for February 2009 through April 2013. Monthly hazard distributions of oil show that the zones of highest sea surface hazard are located in the southwestern Adriatic Sea and eastern Ionian Sea. Distinctive "hot spots" appear in front of the Taranto Port and the sea area between Corfu Island and the Greek coastlines. Beached oil hazard maps indicate the highest values in the Taranto Port area, on the eastern Greek coastline, as well as in the Bari Port area and near Brindisi Port area. PMID:25455790

  13. Some biological parameters of Pagellus acarne (Risso, 1827 from the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Dragičević

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pagellus acarne (Risso, 1827, although considered a common species, has never been a subject of biological research in the eastern Adriatic Sea. The aim of this study, conducted on 1188 specimens of this species in the period from 2007 – 2008 was to fill that gap. Here we present growth parameters, describe reproductive cycle and feeding habits of this species originating from the eastern Adriatic Sea. Age of the specimens was determined by direct reading of otoliths; the oldest male was 6 yerars old, and the oldest female 11 years old. Growth was described with von Bertalanffy model with following parameters: L ∞ = 27.0 cm, K = 0.29, t0 = -1.52, R2 = 0.902. This species is characterized by protandric hermaphroditism and its spawning period lasts from August to December. Hermaphroditic specimens were found in length classes from 16,1 to 25,5 cm. Females are characterized by relatively low fecundity. Length of the first maturity was 16,1 cm for males and 17,7 cm for females. Investigation of its feeding habits revealed that it feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates and its prey constitutes mainly of crustaceans and polychaetes. Feeding activity was highest in spring and lowest in winter.

  14. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century - a contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tinti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  15. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century – a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maramai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  16. Multi-Meteotsunami Event in the Adriatic Sea Generated by Atmospheric Disturbances of 25-26 June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Međugorac, Iva; Janeković, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    A series of meteotsunamis hit a few locations in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during 22-27 June 2014. Meteotsunamis were particularly numerous on 25 and 26 June in the Adriatic Sea, where at least six harbours and bays were stricken by powerful waves: strongest events occurred in Vela Luka (Korčula Island), a known meteotsunami hot-spot, where waves reached height of ~3 m, and in Rijeka dubrovačka Bay, where strong ~5 m/s currents accompanied ~2.5 m high waves. Intensification of high-frequency sea level activity was observed at both the eastern and western Adriatic tide gauge stations, with maximum recorded wave heights reaching ~68 cm (Ortona, Italy). A series of individual air pressure disturbances characterized by pronounced rates of air pressure change (up to 2.4 hPa/5 min), limited spatial extent (~50 km) and high temporal variability, propagated over the Adriatic on 2 days in question. Numerical hydrodynamic model SCHISM forced by measured and idealised air pressure disturbances was utilised to reproduce the observed Adriatic sea level response. Several important conclusions were reached: (1) meteotsunamis occurring at various parts of the coast were generated by different atmospheric air pressure disturbances; (2) topographic influence can be removed from sea level spectra by computing spectral signal-to-background ratios; the result, being related to the external forcing, resembles atmospheric pressure spectra; (3) sea response is strongly dependant on details of atmospheric forcing; and (4) over complex bathymetries, like the middle and south Adriatic ones, numerous effects, including Proudman resonance, edge waves, strong topographical enhancement and refractions on the islands placed on the pathway of atmospheric disturbances should be taken into account to fully understand meteotsunami generation and dynamics. An in-depth numerical study is planned to supplement the latter conclusion and to quantify contribution of each process.

  17. Response of the Adriatic Sea to an intense cold air outbreak: Dense water dynamics and wave-induced transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, A.; Bergamasco, A.; Bonaldo, D.; Falcieri, F. M.; Sclavo, M.; Langone, L.; Carniel, S.

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes formation and spreading of dense shelf waters in the Adriatic Sea (North Adriatic Dense Water, NAdDW) during the winter of 2012 as a consequence of an intense and long cold air outbreak of northeasterly Bora winds. As a result, during February 2012 northern Adriatic Sea water temperature dropped to about 6 °C and density exceeded 1030 kg/m3, most likely the maximum value since 1929. NAdDW dynamics has been investigated by means of a 3-D ocean-wave coupled model running on a high resolution and eddy-permitting grid. The numerical experiments have relied on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment-Transport (COAWST) system forced one-way with atmospheric forcings provided by the model COSMO-I7. A suite of observational data has been used to characterize the Bora event and evaluate numerical model performance. At sub-basin scales, the newly formed waters flowing southerly have produced a water renewal of the northern Adriatic, as more than 50% of water volumes have left the basin. Dense waters volume transports, evaluated through different Adriatic cross-sections, have been modulated by tides (damped for the densest water masses) and reached about 1 Sv. The contribution of wave-induced forcings has been quantified and examined, indicating that these represent a major driving mechanism during NAdDW production and spreading phases. This work provides evidence that NAdDW is spread accordingly with two different mechanisms: at early stages of its formation, the wind-driven ocean circulation pushes newly formed waters to leave the northern basin with relatively high speeds (about 0.30 m/s). Later on, remaining NAdDW leaks slowly out (0.09 m/s as average) from the production site. Residence times of dense waters in the north, middle, and south Adriatic Sea are also documented.

  18. Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Holocene paleohydrology reconstruction is derived combining planktonic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, sea surface temperatures (SSTs and oxygen isotope composition of seawater (δ18Ow from a high sedimentation core collected in the South Adriatic Sea (SAS. Core chronology is based on 10 AMS 14C measures on planktonic foraminifera and tephra layers. Results reveal two contrasted paleohydrological periods that reflect (i a marked lowering of δ18Ow/salinity during the early to mid-Holocene (11.5 ka to 6.3 ka, including the two-step sapropel S1 deposition, followed during the mid- to upper Holocene by (ii a prevailing period of increased salinity and enhanced arid conditions in the South Adriatic Basin. Superimposed on these trends, short-term centennial-scale hydrological events punctuated the Holocene period in the SAS. During the early to mid-Holocene, two main SST coolings together with prominent δ18Ow/salinity lowering delineate the sapropel S1 interruption and the post-sapropel phase between 7.3 to 6.3 ka. After 6 ka, centennial-scale δ18Ow and G. bulloides δ13C lowering, mostly centered between 3 to 0.6 ka, reflect short-term hydrological changes related to more intensive runoff of the Po and/or Apennine rivers. These short-term events, even of lesser amplitude compared to the early to mid-Holocene period, may have induced a lowering of sea surface density and consequently reduced and/or inhibited the formation of deep bottom waters in the SAS. Comparison of the emerging centennial- to millennial-scale hydrological record with previous climatic records from the central Mediterranean area and north of the Alps reveal possible synchronicities (within the radiocarbon-dating uncertainty between phases of lower salinity in the SAS and periods of wetter climatic conditions around the north-central Adriatic Sea. Finally, wavelet analyses provide new clues about the potential origin of climate variability in the SAS, confirming

  19. Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Holocene paleohydrology reconstruction was derived combining planktic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, sea surface temperatures (SSTs and oxygen isotope composition of seawater (δ18Ow from a high sedimentation core collected in the south Adriatic sea (SAS. Chronology of core is based on 10 AMS 14C measures on planktic foraminifera and tephra markers. Results reveal two contrasted paleohydrological periods that reflect (i a marked lowering of δ 18Ow/salinity during the early to middle Holocene (11.5 ka to 6.3 ka, including the two-steps sapropel S1 deposition, followed during the middle to upper Holocene by (ii a prevailed period of increased salinity and enhanced arid conditions in the south Adriatic basin. Superimposed on these trends, short-term centennial-scale hydrological events punctuated the Holocene period in the SAS. During the Early to Middle Holocene, a short-term SST cooling together with a prominent δ 18Ow/salinity lowering, more pronounced than during the sapropel S1 phase, delineates the sapropel S1 interruption. This short interval, coeval to the 8.2 ka event, is also distinguished by a resumption of deep-water convection in the SAS as indicated by stable isotope reconstruction on benthic forminifera.

    After 6 ka, centennial-scale δ18Ow and G. bulloides δ13C lowering, mostly centered between 3 to 0.6 ka, reflect short term hydrological changes related to a more intensive Po river runoff. These short-term events, even of lesser amplitude compared to the early to middle Holocene period, may have induced a lowering of sea surface density and consequently reduced and/or inhibited the formation of deep bottom waters in the SAS. Comparison of the emerging centennial to millennial-scale hydrological record with previous climatic records from the central Mediterranean area and north of the Alps

  20. Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, G.; Magny, M.; Paterne, M.; Debret, M.; Fontugne, M.

    2013-02-01

    Holocene paleohydrology reconstruction is derived combining planktonic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and oxygen isotope composition of seawater (δ18Ow) from a high sedimentation core collected in the South Adriatic Sea (SAS). Core chronology is based on 10 AMS 14C measures on planktonic foraminifera and tephra layers. Results reveal two contrasted paleohydrological periods that reflect (i) a marked lowering of δ18Ow/salinity during the early to mid-Holocene (11.5 ka to 6.3 ka), including the two-step sapropel S1 deposition, followed during the mid- to upper Holocene by (ii) a prevailing period of increased salinity and enhanced arid conditions in the South Adriatic Basin. Superimposed on these trends, short-term centennial-scale hydrological events punctuated the Holocene period in the SAS. During the early to mid-Holocene, two main SST coolings together with prominent δ18Ow/salinity lowering delineate the sapropel S1 interruption and the post-sapropel phase between 7.3 to 6.3 ka. After 6 ka, centennial-scale δ18Ow and G. bulloides δ13C lowering, mostly centered between 3 to 0.6 ka, reflect short-term hydrological changes related to more intensive runoff of the Po and/or Apennine rivers. These short-term events, even of lesser amplitude compared to the early to mid-Holocene period, may have induced a lowering of sea surface density and consequently reduced and/or inhibited the formation of deep bottom waters in the SAS. Comparison of the emerging centennial- to millennial-scale hydrological record with previous climatic records from the central Mediterranean area and north of the Alps reveal possible synchronicities (within the radiocarbon-dating uncertainty) between phases of lower salinity in the SAS and periods of wetter climatic conditions around the north-central Adriatic Sea. Finally, wavelet analyses provide new clues about the potential origin of climate variability in the SAS, confirming the evidence

  1. Humic acids contribution to sedimentary organic matter on a shallow continental shelf (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, M.; Rampazzo, F.; Berto, D.

    2010-12-01

    The shallow northern Adriatic Sea receives large river runoff, predominantly from the Po River, which is the main allochthonous source of nutrients and organic matter. The origin and quality of organic matter deposited in the sediments can influence the degradation processes and oxygen consumption in the bottom waters as well as the fate of many pollutants. Therefore the humic acids (HA) were quantified in surface and sub-surface sediments collected in an area of the north-western Adriatic platform south of Po River. HA showed to have a relevant contribution to sedimentary organic matter. HA content in sediments were positively correlated with the organic carbon concentration and negatively with redox potential and pH, particularly in sub-surface reduced sediments, suggesting their important role in the diagenetic processes taking place in anoxic conditions. Elemental composition of HA extracted from surface and sub-surface sediments showed a wide range of variation of the C org/N ratios which could be due to a mixed (terrestrial and marine) origin and/or an elevated bacteria degradation of nitrogen during diagenesis processes in sediments. The spectroscopic ratios A 2/A 4 and A 4/A 6 of HA confirmed a mixed origin with a high degree of condensation of the HA extracted from sediments.

  2. Thermohaline variability in the Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas observed from the Argo floats during 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Vedrana; Ursella, Laura; Gačić, Miroslav; Notarstefano, Giulio; Menna, Milena; Bensi, Manuel; Civitarese, Giuseppe; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea is the northernmost basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMed). At its southern end, the basin communicates with the adjacent Ionian Sea through the 80 km wide and 850 m deep Strait of Otranto. Due to the river discharge in the north and due to the strong winter cooling, the Adriatic is both a dilution basin and the dense water formation region. The basin-wide circulation is cyclonic. The circulation is however, energetic also at smaller spatial and temporal scales, and several circulation cells and mesoscale features are regularly observed equally along the littoral and in the open sea. The North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) formed during winter is the densest water of the whole Mediterranean Sea (up to 1060 kg/m3). It flows as a density driven bottom current from the northern shelf toward south, filling the deep layers of the middle and southern Adriatic pits. The deep open-sea area of the South Adriatic Pit (SAP, 1200 m) feels the influence of a water mass exchange through the Strait of Otranto. Specifically, it receives salty and warm surface and Levantine Intermediate Waters from the Ionian Sea. Through the open-sea winter convection that homogenizes and ventilates 400-800 m thick upper water column, this salty water contributes to the formation of the Adriatic Deep Water (AdDW, 1029.17-1029.20 kg/m3), which is not as dense as the NAdDW. Both dense waters eventually mix and spill across the sill ventilating the deep and bottom layers of the Ionian Sea, and driving the deep thermohaline cell of the EMed. Thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea vary at wide spatial and temporal scales, and this in turn affects the properties of its dense waters. The long-term scales are of a particular interest, as they are often associated with the biogeochemical and biotic variability such as intrusion of alien species into the Adriatic Sea and interconnection with the adjacent Ionian basin. Due to the extremely variable meteo- and climatic conditions

  3. On the analysis of an extreme Bora wind event over the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Pucillo, A.

    2010-09-01

    On 10th March 2010 a severe Bora wind event affected the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, northeastern Italy, in particular the gulf of Trieste area (northern Adriatic Sea). Such event has been driven by a widespread westward moving cold pool aloft, coming from the Western Asia, that brought an intense potential vorticity anomaly over the western Mediterranean Sea. It determined a deep cyclogenesis involving all the troposphere. The pressure gradient force in the lowest layers forced a northeastern wind to blow with noticeable strength over the gulf of Trieste area and the Karstic region. The mean ground wind velocity has reached values above 27 m/s (about 100 km/h) for several hours, and maximum gusts exceeded 42 m/s (about 150 km/h) over Trieste town. The northeastern sector of the Adriatic Sea is frequently affected by strong Bora events in particular during the winter semester. This is a characteristic local wind mostly influenced by the orography of the Karstic relieves to the east of Trieste town. The target of this work is to assess the climatological relevance of such an event by comparing it with the most representative events of the past. It has been possible thanks to the long term archive of meteorological observations in Trieste site (I.R. Accademia di Commercio e Nautica, Regio Comitato Talassografico Italiano, Ministero dell'Agricoltura e Foreste, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche): we have found out that this is one of the ten strongest Bora event along the 1871-2010 period. Considerations about the trend and frequency of severe Bora events have been proposed.

  4. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  5. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  6. Spatial pattern and weight of seabed marine litter in the northern and central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strafella, P; Fabi, G; Spagnolo, A; Grati, F; Polidori, P; Punzo, E; Fortibuoni, T; Marceta, B; Raicevich, S; Cvitkovic, I; Despalatovic, M; Scarcella, G

    2015-02-15

    The present study analyzes spatial distribution and typology of marine litter on the seabed in the FAO Geographical Sub-Area 17 (northern and central Adriatic Sea). Two surveys were conducted during fall 2011 and 2012 and 67 stations were sampled each year. Litter items were collected using the "rapido" trawl, a modified beam trawl commonly used by the Italian fishermen to catch flat fish and other benthic species. Marine litter in the catches was sorted and classified in 6 major categories (plastic, metal, glass, rubber, wood, other). Plastic litter was further subdivided in 3 sub-categories based on its source: fishing nets, aquaculture nets and other. Plastic was dominant in terms of weight followed by metal and other categories. The highest concentration of litter was found close to the coast likely as a consequence of high coastal urbanization, river inflow and extensive navigation associated with the morphological and hydrological features of the basin. PMID:25560999

  7. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Korcula and Peljesac islands in Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image is of two small islands (Korcula and Peljesac) in the Adriatic Sea, southwest of Sarajevo. The scene was photographed during Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, 33rd orbit with a 300mm lens on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates of this frame are 42.9 degrees north latitude and 17.2 degrees east longitude. The camera was in shutter priority mode with a 1/500-second shutter speed and -2/3 exposure compensation. Digital file name is ESC03036.IMG.

  8. Characteristic carotenoids in some phytobenthos species in the coastal area of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the presence of various carotcnoids in some phytobenthos species (20 species representative of Chlorophytn, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The presence of following carotenoids has been determined 1 in Chlorophyta lycopene, α-, β-, γ- , ε-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein and astaxanthin esier; 2 in Phorophyta: α-, β-, γ- , ε- carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diataxanthin, fucoxanthin, fucoxanthol, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and rhodoxanthin-like: 3 in Rhodophyta α-, β-, γ-carotene,α-, β-,cryptoxanthin, lutein lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, anthcraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, fucoxanthin neoxanthin and violaxanthin The total carotenoid content ranged from 1.197 ( Cystoseira corniculata to 16 748 mg g-1 dry weight (Chaetomorpha aerea.

  9. Relationship between microbial communities and mercury species in the seawater of the Central Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Igor; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Joze; Fajon, Vesna; Solic, Mladen; Kanduc, Tjasa

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the microbial food web and its role in biogeochemical processes in marine ecosystems may vary noticeably and depend on environmental trophic status. Importance of picoplankton makes them an essential component for understanding the food web dynamics in marine systems. These small organisms dominate the photosynthetic biomass and primary production in oligotrophic waters like the Adriatic Sea. One of the hypotheses of research is that the factors that enable scavenging nutrients at low concentrations also promote accumulation of contaminants in the biomass of microorganisms. Biologically mediated reactions can transform mercury species and facilitate their entrance into the marine food web in which it bioaccumulates in the form of methylmercury (MeHg). In order to establish relationship between Hg and microbial species, we performed samplings in the Central Adriatic Sea. Samplings were conducted during oceanographic cruises aboard the research vessel Bios Dva from March 2014 to December 2015. Research was constrained to transect from the island of Vis to the Bay of Kastela. Non-filtered water samples were collected for determination of methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (THg), dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), and microbial species in Adriatic coastal and open waters. In the pristine environment of the island of Vis, THg concentrations are the lowest and range from 0.14-1.10 ng/L. Mercury contamination from chlor-alkali industrial waters in the Bay of Kastela is observed through the highest THg concentrations (up to 5.58 ng/L). DGM always shows higher values in more contaminated areas (31.8-351 pg/L) than in the pristine environment (22.1-245 pg/L). MeHg concentrations vary, but the highest values are usually found in the Bay of Kastela (up to 34.3 pg/L). Number of picoeukaryotes is the highest in the Bay of Kastela (0.44×106-31.8×106/L) which has been affected by industrial and civil effluents from the surrounding cities. The lowest number is

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the model for estimation of the Adriatic sea turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable data on the turnover time of water in the Adriatic Sea (approximately 35000 cubic kilometres) is extremely important for any risk analysis involving various economic activities, tourism, etc. Water exchange through the Strait of Otranto between the Adriatic and the Ionian seas has been the subject of a series of experimental investigations and more recently, of some numerical studies, is extensively presented by Cushman-Roisin et al. [1]. The turnover time of the Adriatic sea water can be easily calculated from the data on water fluxes through the Strait by calculating annual water mass flowing through the Strait and dividing it by the total volume of the Adriatic sea. Literature data on the Adriatic Sea water turnover time range from minimal 0.7 to maximal 5.0 years. Using a model describing the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water by function minimisation to long-term experimental data, the turnover time for 90Sr in the Adriatic was calculated to be 3.3±0.4 years. The uncertainty was estimated by Monte Carlo analysis. As 90Sr is a reliable radiotracer for seawater, this value also reflects the sea water turnover time. Sensitivity analysis of the model, applied by varying critical parameters over their nominal values, showed that ±25% uncertainty in the estimation of the Adriatic sea water activity results in approximately ±10% change in 90Sr mean residence time. On the other hand, a larger input of 90Sr, either by fallout or water influx from the Ionian Sea may lead to a shorter mean residence time.Direct proportionality between 90Sr input into the Adriatic sea and its mean residence time in the sea water suggests that 3.3 years is the upper limit of the Adriatic sea water turnover time. Namely, re-suspension from sediments could affect 90Sr activity concentrations, acting as additional input, especially in the northern, relatively shallow part of the Adriatic.(author)

  11. Heterotrophic bacteria in the northern Adriatic Sea: seasonal changes and ectoenzyme profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, R; Caruso, G; Calì, C

    2002-01-01

    A seasonal study of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of heterotrophic bacterial community was carried out in the Adriatic Sea between April 1995 and January 1996, in order to evaluate its spatial and temporal variability and metabolic potential in the degradation processes of organic matter. The culturable bacteria (CFU) ranged between 0.1 and 22% of total bacterioplankton with a maximum percentage in surface samples of coastal zones. Their distribution was generally affected by the prevailing hydrological conditions. At the coastal stations about 44-75% of CFU variance could be explained by river runoff. The changes in the composition of heterotrophic bacterial community showed a seasonal succession of main bacterial groups, with a prevalence of Gram negative, non fermenting bacteria in the cold period (April-January) and an increase of Vibrionaccae and pigmented bacteria in summer. The seasonal variations were more important at the stations influenced by rivers than offshore. The bacterial community showed a greater versatility for organic polymers hydrolysis in the offshore station than in the coastal areas. Over 60% of all isolated heterotrophic bacteria expressed peptidase, lipase and phosphatase ectoenzymes activities, in all seasons and showed an increasing trend in warm period (in July October). The alpha- and beta-glucosidase potentials of bacteria were lower (20% on average) and showed different pattern during the year. These results suggest different role of the bacterial community in the decomposition of organic matter in the Adriatic Sea. Since only 20% of bacterial strains expressed glucosidase activity, carbohydrate-rich polymers such as mucilage might accumulate. PMID:12148942

  12. Distribution of Ra Concentration and Its Dependence on Sea Currents of Northern Adriatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the assessment of 226Ra levels in the bay of Northern Adriatic where the quality of seawater and the environment of surrounding coastal area may be endangered by the operation of a coal-fired power plant located close to the seaside. The study was conducted by the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb in collaboration with the Institute for Oceanography and Fishery in Split. The aim was to determine vertical and horizontal distribution of radium and its dependence on the seawater currents at different sea depths. The level of 226Ra was assessed in seawater four times a year, at three locations and at two sea depths. According to the results based on the analyses of samples collected at the sea surface and at the depth of 3 m, seasonal variations were not found at any location. Calculated correlations showed high conformity of the values by separate locations and samplings. (author)

  13. Sub-surface and near-bottom thermohaline circulation of a shallow sea during a dense water production event: a case study from the northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Carniel, Sandro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Cold, dry, and intense winds blowing over shallow sea shelves produce favorable conditions for water column cooling and evaporation: the newly formed water is denser than the out-shelf environmental water and thus is forced to move away from the production basin. The semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is a representative domain to investigate the dynamics of this gravity flow. Indeed, such a flow (the so-called Northern Adriatic Dense water, NADW) originates in the northern shallow Adriatic and moves southeastward leant to the Italian coast, in quasi-geostrophic conditions, strongly modulated by ocean circulation (tide and wind driven) and pressure gradients. Along its way southward, NADW partially slide into sea bottom depressions and promote renewal of deeper and older water masses. Production and spreading of dense water in the northern Adriatic Sea were simulated by means of an eddy-resolving high-resolution (1.0 x 1.0 km2) numerical model, which relied on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment-Transport (COAWST) system, based on the 3-D ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating Wave Nearshore). To drive COAWST, the atmosphere forcings provided by the meteorological model COSMO-I7 (an atmospheric mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) were used. Initial and boundary conditions were derived from numerical models operational in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Sea. An observational dataset has been also used with the dual-purpose of describing the NADW formation process and assess numerical model outputs. The selected period for the analysis brackets early February 2012, an exceptionally cold period during which the northern Adriatic Sea experienced a Cold Air Outbreak (CAO) that forced water temperature to drop to about 6° C, with water density exceeding 1030 kg/m3. Results presented reveal some new insights on how NADW generates in the northern Adriatic Sea, triggered by tidal and wave forcing

  14. Technical Note: Medium-term morphodynamics in an unprotected sandy beach of the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacchini, M.; Soldini, L.; Lorenzoni, C.; Mancinelli, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent years attention has been paid to the beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscapes and around 70 % of the Marche-Region coasts (central Adriatic), is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the Region includes the beach of Senigallia, characterized by a multiple barred beach, frequently monitored during the last decades. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show a good adaptation of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short-/medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. This suggests a slight influence of wave forcing on the long-term profiles, which seems to only depend on the sediment size. Further, the medium-term dynamics of the submerged bars and their geometric features have been related to the wave climate collected by a wave buoy located 40 km off Senigallia during the analyzed temporal windows. An overall interpretation of the complete dynamics, i.e. hydrodynamics (buoy data), sediment characteristics (equilibrium-profile A parameter) and morphodynamics (bathymetric surveys), suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term: waves coming from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and induce seaward/shoreward bar migration, as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile suggests a decrease of the sediment size in the submerged beach, this probably due to the presence of both harbor jetty and river mouth North of the investigated area.

  15. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  16. Picoplankton Community Composition by CARD-FISH and Flow Cytometric Techniques: A Preliminary Study in Central Adriatic Sea Water

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Manti; Paola Boi; Federica Semprucci; Rosaria Cataudella; Stefano Papa

    2012-01-01

    Data concerning picoplanktonic community composition and abundance in the Central Adriatic Sea are presented in an effort to improve the knowledge of bacterioplankton and autotrophic picoplankton and their seasonal changes. Flow cytometry analyses revealed the presence of two distinct bacteria populations: HNA and LNA cells. HNA cells showed an explicit correlation with viable and actively respiring cells. The study of viability and activity may increase our knowledge of the part that con...

  17. Studies on phycobiliproteins in Algae. VI. Light-harvesting phycobiliprotein pigments in some Rhodophyta from the Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    The phycobiliprotein content in 5 species of red algae from the coast of the Adriatic Sea' was studied by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The phycobiliproteins, R-phycoerythrin, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were identified. The total content of phycobiliproteins ranged from 0.152 (Phyllophora nervosa) to 1.874 mg•g-1 dry wt. (Plocamium cartilagineum). The dominant phycobiliproteins were found to belong to the phycocyanin group, this resulting from complementary chromatic adaptation.

  18. Studies on phycobiliproteins in Algae. VI. Light-harvesting phycobiliprotein pigments in some Rhodophyta from the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The phycobiliprotein content in 5 species of red algae from the coast of the Adriatic Sea' was studied by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The phycobiliproteins, R-phycoerythrin, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were identified. The total content of phycobiliproteins ranged from 0.152 (Phyllophora nervosa to 1.874 mg•g-1 dry wt. (Plocamium cartilagineum. The dominant phycobiliproteins were found to belong to the phycocyanin group, this resulting from complementary chromatic adaptation.

  19. Changes in the non-crustacean zooplankton community in the middle Adriatic Sea during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    OpenAIRE

    Batistić, Mirna; Garić, Rade; MOROVIĆ, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Here we presented changes in the non-crustacean zooplankton community in the years characterized by the large scale changes in the thermohaline circulation in the East Mediterranean known as the Eastern Mediterranean transient (EMT) and stronger inflow of colder and less saline Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) into the Adriatic Sea. Material and Method: Monthly samplings from February 1995 to February 1996, were performed at fixed station Stončica near the Island of V...

  20. Tenacibaculum adriaticum sp. nov., from a bryozoan in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Herwig; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2008-03-01

    A rod-shaped, translucent yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative bacterium, strain B390(T), was isolated from the bryozoan Schizobrachiella sanguinea collected in the Adriatic Sea, near Rovinj, Croatia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum, with sequence similarity levels of 94.8-97.3 % to type strains of species with validly published names. It grew at 5-34 degrees C, with optimal growth at 18-26 degrees C, and only in the presence of NaCl or sea salts. In contrast to other type strains of the genus, strain B390(T) was able to hydrolyse aesculin. The predominant menaquinone was MK-6 and major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH and iso-C(15 : 1). The DNA G+C content was 31.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization and comparative physiological tests were performed with type strains Tenacibaculum aestuarii JCM 13491(T) and Tenacibaculum lutimaris DSM 16505(T), since they exhibit 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities above 97 %. These data, as well as phylogenetic analyses, suggest that strain B390(T) (=DSM 18961(T) =JCM 14633(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum adriaticum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:18319452

  1. Hydromorphic to subaqueous soils transitions in the central Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittori Antisari, Livia; De Nobili, Maria; Ferronato, Chiara; Natale, Marco; Pellegrini, Elisa; Vianello, Gilmo

    2016-05-01

    The Grado lagoon is among the largest in the Mediterranean sea and is characterized by salt marshes, where tides influenced the development of a complex micromorphology coupled to a micromosaic of vegetation covers. This study represents the first contribution to the understanding of the main processes governing formation, development and spatial transitions between hydromorphic and subaqueous soils in an Adriatic lagoon ecosystem. Physicochemical characteristics and development of soils were investigated in three salt marshes differing for their proximity to the open sea, textural composition and age of formation. Soils of back barrier salt marshes had A/C profiles and were mostly characterized by a sandy coarse texture that allows rapid drainage and subsurface oxygen exchanges. Soil sequences from the inner salt marsh to its submerged border slope or to a brackish waterhole do not simply represent a hydrosequence, but also reflect erosion/sorting/accumulation processes. The soils in the central part of the lagoon have finer texture and in displayed transition or cambic horizons. Silty clay loam textures and low positions allowed the development of more severe anoxic conditions and accumulation of sulphides. The tide oscillation strongly contributed to formation of redoximorphic features, intensity of anaerobic conditions but also colonization by different plant communities. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify physicochemical properties which discriminate the different soils according to geo-morphological position and prevailing plants. It confirmed that differentiation of plant communities occurred according to distinct morphological and physicochemical soil properties, but also acted as a primary affecting factor of pedogenesis.

  2. Fishing management scenarios to rebuild exploited resources and ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouzai, Nadia; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel; Santojanni, Alberto; Arneri, Enrico; Christensen, Villy

    2012-10-01

    We examined various fishing management options to recover exploited marine resources and ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea. Dynamic simulations were based on a spatial ecological model previously calibrated with time series of data. Scenarios regarding spatial management were evaluated with the establishment of two marine protected areas, respectively, in the Pomo pit and the northern region. In addition, three temporal simulations of temporary closures and overall reduction of fishing effort of demersal and pelagic fleets (bottom, mid-water trawls and purse seines) were also considered. Simulations were run for 45 years (1975-2020), including the calibration period (1975-2002), and changes in biomass and catch of marine resources were analyzed. Our results confirm that current fishing management in the Adriatic Sea does not have clear beneficial impacts for the recovery of exploited resources, which will remain depleted in 2020 if "business as usual" continues. Simulations of alternative management suggest that both protected areas could be beneficial for fish population recovery predicting an increase in the biomass of commercial fish and predatory organisms. Simulations of temporary closures and overall reduction of fishing effort also show significant benefits for several commercial resources. We argue that both management measures may be effective tools to recover exploited ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea and halt the decline of marine resources.

  3. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  4. Southern Adriatic Sea as a Potential Area for CO2 Geological Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpi V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7 European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene. In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick caprock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emittor where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions.

  5. Mollusc fauna associated with the Cystoseira algal associations in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. PITACCO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mollusc assemblages associated with Cystoseira associations were sampled in the southern part of the Gulf of Trieste during the summers of 2008 and 2012. Samples were collected by SCUBA diving in the infralittoral belt (from 1 to 4 m depth. The surface within frames of 20 x 20 cm was scraped off with samples were collected by hand or with an air-lift sampler. Four erected algal species were found: Cystoseira barbata, C. compressa, C. corniculata and Halopithys incurva. A total of 69 species of molluscs were identified in those associations. Gastropoda were dominant, with the highest species richness and abundance, followed by Bivalvia and Polyplacophora. A large number of juveniles were found, proving the importance of Cystoseira associations for mollusc recruitment. Differences in composition, structure and abundance of mollusc assemblages were found for sites dominated by different algal species, and correspond to different morphology and degree of development of canopy-forming species. The present study confirms that the dominant algal species within Cystoseira associations strongly influence, although at different levels, abundance and distribution of mollusc assemblages in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

  6. Southern Adriatic sea as a potential area for CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7) European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene). In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick cap-rock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emitter) where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions. (authors)

  7. Annual dynamics of bacterioplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celussi, Mauro; Cataletto, Bruno

    2007-12-30

    Bacterioplankton community diversity was investigated monthly in coastal waters of the Gulf of Trieste (NE Adriatic Sea) throughout 2003. Superficial bacterial assemblages of two differently freshwater influenced stations were studied using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting techniques. Bacterial genetic diversity of the sampled area, as estimates of the number of DGGE bands was high (36-64) compared to that reported in other studies employing this fingerprint technique. The similarity index (Sorensen Index) between assemblages showed a defined operational taxonomic units (OTUs) succession pattern in the more typically marine station with stable winter communities and quickly changing summer ones. On the contrary in the station affected by riverine inputs no clear pattern was detected. In both sites, according to cluster analyses performed on the DGGE banding pattern, three seasonal assemblages were identified: winter-spring, summer and fall. Sequence analysis of fifty-six among the brightest gel bands led to the observation of bacteria affiliated to Gram positive, Cyanobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) lineages and the alpha-, gamma- and delta- subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. Gamma-Proteobacteria constituted the main fraction (60%) of sequences in the more typically marine station, whereas the river-influenced station was characterised by more heterogeneous assemblages (39% alpha-Proteobacteria, 32% Flavobacteria). PMID:17728077

  8. Foraminiferal species responses to in situ experimentally induced anoxia in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Langlet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoxia was successfully induced in four benthic chambers installed at 24 m depth in the northern Adriatic Sea, for periods varying from 9 days to 10 months. During the 10 months period, species richness significantly decreased. Although no significant change in Shannon diversity and Evenness is observed, the composition of the foraminiferal assemblages changes with time. This change is due to interspecific differences in tolerance with respect to anoxia and free sulphides. Leptohalysis scottii, Textularia agglutinans and Quinqueloculina cf. stelligera all showed a significant decrease with time, strongly suggesting they are sensitive to the anoxia and sulphides. Conversely, Eggerella scabra, Bulimina marginata, Lagenammina atlantica, Hopkinsina pacifica and Bolivina pseudoplicata appear to be resistant to the experimental conditions. Quinqueloculina seminula also appears to be sensitive to anoxia but shows a clear standing stock increase during the first month of the experiment, which we interpret as an opportunistic response to increasing organic matter availability due to the degradation of the dead macrofaunal organisms. It appears that none of the anoxia sensitive species is capable to accumulate intracellular nitrates. Such a capacity could be shown for some tested specimens of the dominant anoxia tolerant species E. scabra and B. marginata. However, tests on the denitrification capacity of these taxa yielded negative results, suggesting that their resistance to long-term anoxia is not due to a capacity to denitrify.

  9. Spatial pattern and weight of seabed marine litter in the northern and central Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First assessment of marine litter distribution on the seabed of GSA 17. • The manuscript depicts the status of marine litter on a regional scale. • Maps are produced either for the overall litter and for the main litter categories. • The study identifies the possible sources of some litter items. • The results constitute a starting step for marine litter monitoring in the area. - Abstract: The present study analyzes spatial distribution and typology of marine litter on the seabed in the FAO Geographical Sub-Area 17 (northern and central Adriatic Sea). Two surveys were conducted during fall 2011 and 2012 and 67 stations were sampled each year. Litter items were collected using the “rapido” trawl, a modified beam trawl commonly used by the Italian fishermen to catch flat fish and other benthic species. Marine litter in the catches was sorted and classified in 6 major categories (plastic, metal, glass, rubber, wood, other). Plastic litter was further subdivided in 3 sub-categories based on its source: fishing nets, aquaculture nets and other. Plastic was dominant in terms of weight followed by metal and other categories. The highest concentration of litter was found close to the coast likely as a consequence of high coastal urbanization, river inflow and extensive navigation associated with the morphological and hydrological features of the basin

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2011-04-05 to 2011-04-28 (NODC Accession 0108079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108079 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea,...

  11. {sup 210}Pb dating of sediments from the central and northern Adriatic Sea: deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T. F., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    Lead-210 ({sup 21O}Pb) and organic C depth distribution profiles in sediments from the northern and central Adriatic Sea were measured as part of the EEC funded project on Eutrophic Limits of the Northern Adriatic (ELNA). {sup 210}Pb derived mass-accumulation rates decrease southward from between 0.15 and 0.2 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} close to the Po River outflow (> 24 m, water depth) to less than 0.04 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} in the Jabuka Pit (246 m, water depth) in the central Adriatic Sea. The mass- accumulation rates obtained in the Jabuka Pit correspond to mean sedimentation rates of about 0.03 cm y{sup -1} (ref. porosity = 0.5) and fall between 5 to 20 times lower than rates found for north Adriatic shelf cores. Estimated sedimentation rates are considered as upper limits because of the possible effects of bioturbation and physical disturbance on the {sup 21O}Pb sedimentary record but are consistent with data from previous work. Rates of sediment accumulation and carbon burial appear to be strongly influenced by the transport of fluvial materials from land and transport of fine-grained particles. First-order estimates of organic C burial rates into surface sediment ranged from 1 to 0.028 mMol cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} between the Po delta and the Jabuka Pit regions, respectively. We estimate that a maximum of 50% of organic C preserved in surface sediment may be derived from biological production in the overlying water column.

  12. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  13. Mass mortality events of the coral Balanophyllia europaea (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae) in the Mljet National Park (eastern Adriatic Sea) caused by sea temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kružić, P.; Popijač, A.

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent climate-induced mass mortalities of marine animals have been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea over the past 15 years. These mortality outbreaks have been associated with positive thermal anomalies. In this study, we assessed long-term (from 2003 to 2013) responses of the temperate coral Balanophyllia europaea to increasing seawater temperatures in the Mljet National Park in the Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean Sea) and described the relationship between recurrent mortality events and sea temperature regimes in the southern Adriatic Sea. Our results indicate that polyp bleaching and tissue necrosis caused the observed mortality. The first observations of B. europaea mortality within the study area in the Mljet NP were in early September 2003. The Mediterranean area experienced high temperatures and hydrographic stability over a period of several weeks throughout that summer, which resulted in a mass mortality event. In the Mljet National Park, the highest impact of mass mortality started during the exceptionally hot summer of 2012, representing one of the most severe mass mortality events ever observed in the Adriatic Sea. In 2012, sea temperatures at a 5 m depth during the summer period (from June to September) ranged from 24.44 to 30.16 °C in the Mljet NP. The northern sites in the Mljet NP were highly impacted, with up to 80 % of B. europaea specimens affected by necrosis, while the southern sites displayed the highest impact, with 90-100 % of affected individuals. Without any coral adaptation to warming and under the present climate-warming trend, new mass mortality events may occur in the near future, possibly causing a major coral biodiversity crisis in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Carbonate chemistry dynamics and biological processes along a river-sea gradient (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Cibic, Tamara; Karuza, Ana; Kralj, Martina; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigated, for two years and with a bi-monthly frequency, how physical, chemical, and biological processes affect the marine carbonate system in a coastal area characterized by high alkalinity riverine discharge (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea). By combining synoptic measurements of the carbonate system with in situ determinations of the primary production (14C incorporation technique) and secondary prokaryotic carbon production (3H-leucine incorporation) along a river-sea gradient, we showed that the conservative mixing between river endmember and off-shore waters was the main driver of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) distribution and seasonal variation. However, during spring and summer seasons also the influence of biological uptake and release of DIC was significant. In the surface water of June 2012, the spreading and persistence of nutrient-rich freshwater stimulated the primary production (3.21 μg C L- 1 h- 1) and net biological DIC decrease (- 100 μmol kg- 1), reducing the dissolved CO2 concentration and increasing the pHT. Below the pycnocline of August 2012, instead, an elevated bacterial carbon production rate (0.92 μg C L- 1 h- 1) was related with net DIC increase (92 μmol kg- 1), low dissolved oxygen concentration, and strong pHT reduction, suggesting the predominance of bacterial heterotrophic respiration over primary production. The flux of carbon dioxide estimated at the air-sea interface exerted a low influence on the seasonal variation of the carbonate system. A complex temporal and spatial dynamic of the air-sea CO2 exchange was also detected, due to the combined effects of seawater temperature, river discharge, and water circulation. On annual scale the system was a sink of atmospheric CO2. However, in summer and during elevated riverine discharges, the area close to the river's mouth acted as a source of carbon dioxide. Also the wind speed was crucial in controlling the air-sea CO2

  15. Contribution to the Biology of Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) in the South Ionian and South Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kapiris, Kostas; Markovic, Olivera; Klaoudatos, Dimitris; Djurovic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Experimental trawl sampling was carried out along the South Ionian and South Adriatic Seas between 2006 and 2008 in depths from 71 to 586 m. This study investigates the available information on biology of P. longirostris in both areas. The length frequency distribution of the Greek specimens ranged between 7.08-38 mm CL (2-3 size groups), while between 14-37 mm CL (1-2 size groups) in the Montenegrin samples and was not significantly dependent on depth in both areas. The values of the slo...

  16. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton biomass and environmental conditions in the inner Boka Kotorska Bay (eastern Adriatic Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Krivokapić, Slađana; Stanković, Živko; Vuksanović, Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients and chlorophyll a concentrations were analysed at five sampling stations in the inner part of the Boka Kotorska Bay (southern Adriatic Sea), in the period September 2003 to August 2004. Maximum concentrations of nitrates (14.4 mmol L–1), nitrites (3.5 mmol L–1), phosphates (0.84 mmol L–1), and silicates (4.5 mmol L–1) preceded maximum phytoplankton biomass (5.07 to 6.47 mg m–3 chlorophyll a) in December. Chlorophyll a was positively correlated with oxygen, nitrites and silicates, bu...

  17. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011 and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a

  18. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lanari; Edo D’Agaro

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth) in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C), cages with barriers (B), c...

  19. Oceanographic profile chemical, nutrient, and physical data from CTD and bottle casts aboard the R/V Aegaeo in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas from February 9, 1995 to February 10, 1995 (NODC Accession 0084544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0084544 includes oceanographic profile chemical, nutrient, and physical data collected aboard the AEGAEO in the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea...

  20. Spatial distribution of sardine and anchovy early life stages along the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zorica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term investigations of the Adriatic Sea in general and extensive research on sardine and anchovy as ecologically and economically important fish species, knowledge concerning their spawning ecology, precisely their possible spawning grounds, is still incomplete. Therefore, two scientific surveys (January, July 2012 were performed, as target species spawn during different periods of the year (sardine - October to April (Sinovčić et al., 2007 and anchovy - April to September (Zorica et al., 2013. Throughout these surveys, standard vertical plankton tows were made during the daylight at 72 stations in January and 60 stations in July using a WP2 sampler (mouth opening, 0.255 m2; mesh size, 0.200 mm. WP2 net was put vertically down during the calm sea to a depth of 100 m or to 5 m above the seabed in relatively shallow marine area (less than 100 m. Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formalin and transported to the laboratory where they were analysed. Throughout ichtyoplankton analysis of samples collected during the winter survey a total of 506 sardine eggs and 348 larvae were sorted out. The mean sardine egg and larval abundance in the analysed period at positive stations was 57.8 +/- 77.4 eggs/m2 and 29 +/- 25.85 larvae/m2, with peaks of 396 eggs/m2 and 108 larvae/m2 at positive sampling stations. Concerning the summer survey and anchovy early life stages from obtained samples 1489 anchovy eggs and 1036 larvae were isolated. Average abundance of anchovy eggs and larvae was 145.26 +/- 201.27eggs/m2 and 115.11+/- 162.32 larvae/m2, respectively. The highest values of mentioned parameters at positive stations were 800 eggs/m2 and 952 larvae/m2. According to obtained results and their processing within Ocean Data View (odv.awi.de, revile that both species during 2012 spawn above the whole continental shelf and the areas of higher early life stages abundance overlap.

  1. Picoplankton Community Composition by CARD-FISH and Flow Cytometric Techniques: A Preliminary Study in Central Adriatic Sea Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Manti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning picoplanktonic community composition and abundance in the Central Adriatic Sea are presented in an effort to improve the knowledge of bacterioplankton and autotrophic picoplankton and their seasonal changes. Flow cytometry analyses revealed the presence of two distinct bacteria populations: HNA and LNA cells. HNA cells showed an explicit correlation with viable and actively respiring cells. The study of viability and activity may increase our knowledge of the part that contributes really to the remineralization and bacterial biomass production. Authotrophic picoplankton abundance, especially picocyanobacteria, was strongly influenced by seasonality, indicating that light availability and water temperature are very important regulating factors. In terms of total carbon biomass, the main contribution came from heterotrophic bacteria with a lower contribution from autotrophic picoplankton. CARD-FISH evidenced, within the Eubacteria domain, the dominance of members of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, with a strong contribution from SAR11clade, followed by Cytophaga-Flavobacterium and Gammaproteobacteria. The bacterial groups detected contributed differently depending when the sample was taken, suggesting possible seasonal patterns. This study documents for the first time picoplankton community composition in the Central Adriatic Sea using two different approaches, FCM and CARD-FISH, and could provide preliminary data for future studies.

  2. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  3. Comparative growth and toxin profile of cultured Ostreopsis ovata from the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Feller, Andrea; Riccardi, Manuela; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dello Iacovo, Emma; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Forino, Martino; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2010-01-01

    Massive blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata Fukuyo have recently occurred along the whole Italian coastlines, both Tyrrhenian and Adriatic, resulting sometimes in benthonic biocenosis sufferings and, occasionally, in human health problems. In this work, two strains of O. ovata collected in 2006 along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastlines and grown in culture were studied to characterize their growth and toxin profile. The two strains showed different cell volumes, the Adriatic strain being nearly twice bigger than the Tyrrhenian, but they had similar slow growth rates. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses indicated that both strains produce putative palytoxin (pPLTX) and ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a), a palytoxin-like compound presenting 2 oxygen atoms less than palytoxin. Toxin content was determined at the end of the stationary and exponential growth phases and reached the highest value in the Adriatic strain at the end of the stationary phase, with concentrations of 353.3 microg l(-1) for OVTX-a and 30.4 microg l(-1) for pPLTX. Toxin released in the growth medium was also measured and resulted to be the highest at the end of the stationary phase, suggesting that a long lasting bloom could enhance the toxin content in the water and cause toxic effects in people inhaling the aerosol. PMID:19638281

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton in the offshore waters of the southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, F.; Bernardi Aubry, F.; Coppola, J.; La Ferla, R.; Maimone, G.; Socal, G.; Totti, C.

    2012-08-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton were investigated in the southern Adriatic Sea in the period November 2006-June 2008. Three stations were sampled along the Bari-Dubrovnik transect with a seasonal frequency (except summer 2007 and spring 2008) at four depths (surface, maximum fluorescence depth and two intermediate depths), with the aim of analyzing the structure of phytoplankton community and evaluate the standing stocks of the three size fractions (pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton). Abundances were on average 5.41×107±5.97×106 cells l-1 for picophytoplankton, 1.00×106±6.70×104 cells l-1 for nanophytoplankton and 2.16×104±7.46×103 cells l-1 for microphytoplankton. Total biomass ranged from 8.5 to 80.7 μg C l-1. The highest values were recorded in April 2007 (38.4±5.9 μg C l-1), and the lowest ones in February 2008 (13.8±1.5 μg C l-1). Picophytoplankton was generally the most abundant phototrophic fraction (on average, 96% of the total abundances and 49% of the total biomass), while nano- and microphytoplankton provided a minor contribution (4% and less than 1% of total abundance and 35% and 16% of total biomass for nanophytoplankton and microphytoplankton, respectively). A decreasing gradient from west to east was observed for pico- and nanophytoplankton abundances and for total biomass. The low biomass values and the dominance of the autotrophic picoplankton fraction in the whole area reflected a general oligotrophic condition. The easternmost station (AM9), characterized by the lowest phytoplankton abundances and biomass and low nutrient concentrations, resulted in still more oligotrophic condition and probably influenced by the Ionian Surface Water (ISW), coming from the eastern Mediterranean.

  5. Searching for a stock structure in Sardina pilchardus from the Adriatic and Ionian seas using a microsatellite DNA-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Bonanomi, Sara; Arneri, Enrico; Cingolani, Nando; Santojanni, Alberto; Collella, Sabrina; Donato, Fortunata; Giovannotti, Massimo; Barucchi, Vincenzo Caputo

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the genetic variability of European sardine from Adriatic and Ionian seas was investigated in order to detect the occurrence of genetic structure within and between these basins. In several samples the analysis of genetic variability at eight microsatellite loci showed a number...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and OXYGEN - APPARENT UTILIZATION (AOU) collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1874-10-11 to 2000-04-26 (NODC Accession 0117350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117350 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea,...

  7. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1988-11-17 to 1988-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0144306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144306 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea,...

  8. A radioecological survey of Northern and Middle Adriatic Sea before and after the Chernobyl event (1979-1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations to determine the presence and distribution of some anthropogenic pre- and post-Chernobyl radionuclides and to evaluate their behaviour and transport within different environmental components were conducted between 1979 and 1990 in Northern and Middle Adriatic Sea. Although the Chernobyl accident introduced many radionuclides into this environment, most of them had very short half lives and only Ru-103, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were fully investigated on a long term basis due to their long persistency and abundance. In particular, neutron activation products, such as Ag-110m and Cs-134, not present in the environment before the event, were fully detected for the first time in the ecosystem shortly after the contamination. The results highlight the distribution of the considered gamma emitting radioisotopes in samples of seawater, sediments, mixed plankton, icthyofauna and benthic macrofauna, and allow a complete mapping and assessment of the Adriatic radiocontamination after 10 years of intense and extended monitoring of the ecosystem. (Author)

  9. Core-top calibration of the lipid-based UK'37 and TEX86 temperature proxies on the southern Italian shelf (SW Adriatic Sea, Gulf of Taranto)

    OpenAIRE

    Leider, Arne; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Versteegh, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is at the transition between temperate and tropical air masses and as such of importance for studying climate change. The Gulf of Taranto and adjacent SW Adriatic Sea are at the heart of this region. Their sediments are excellently suited for generating high quality environmental records for the last millennia with a sub-decadal resolution. The quality of these records is dependent on a careful calibration of the transfer functions used to translate the sedim...

  10. Microcystin Contamination in Sea Mussel Farms from the Italian Southern Adriatic Coast following Cyanobacterial Blooms in an Artificial Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Pace Rita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed in 2009-2010 to investigate the polluting effect of eutrophic inland waters communicating with the sea coast. The study was planned after a heavy and long-lasting Planktothrix rubescens bloom occurred in the Lake Occhito, an artificial reservoir. The waters of the reservoir flow into the southern Adriatic Sea, near several marine breeding of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels, a typical seafood from the Apulia region (Southern Italy. A monitoring study of water and mussels from the sea coast of northern Apulia region and on the Occhito reservoir was carried out over twelve months, to get more information regarding the contamination by cyanobacteria and related cyanotoxins. Elisa immunoassay analyses estimated total microcystin amounts from 1.73 to 256 ng/g in mussels, up to 0.61 μg/L in sea water and up to 298.7 μg/L in lake water. Analyses of some samples of free-living marine clams as well as of marine and freshwater fish proved microcystin contamination. Selective confirmatory analyses by LC/ESI-Q-ToF-MS/MS on some mussel samples identified the microcystin desMe-MC-RR as the major toxin; this compound has been reported in the literature as a specific marker toxin of Planktothrix rubescens blooms. Our study describes for the first time the direct relationship between environmental pollution and food safety, caused by seafood contamination from freshwater toxic blooms.

  11. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  12. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the North Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. McKiver

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM and MITgcm, to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the North Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the North Adriatic Sea.

  13. Histological and Morphological Aspects of Reproduction in Male Blackspotted Smooth-Hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Gračan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on reproductive biology of male blackspotted smooth-hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea and first histological examination of gonads at different maturation stages and seasonal cycles for this species. We collected samples from 117 male specimens of M. punctulatus ranging in length from 44.6 to 126.5 cm, caught by commercial bottom trawls in the North-Central Adriatic Sea. Microscopic observation revealed a diametric development of testes, in which round-shaped spermatocysts have zonal arrangement, showing seven different stages of development. Males began to mature when they were between 61 and 88 cm body length, which was indicated by the presence of functional claspers or appearance of the spermatogenic cysts. While the smallest mature shark was only 80 cm long, all animals longer than 89 cm were sexually mature. The seasonal analysis of the testes indicated that mature spermatozoa dominated in testes during the first half of the year with a peak in May and June, after which followed less active period during July and August.

  14. Cadmium, lead and organic matter distribution in coastal sediment from the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution of Cd, and Pb has been studied in surface sediments of the eastern Adriatic coastal region. In addition, Pb concentration has been determined in long sediment cores dating back to pre-industrial time. The results indicate that trace metal concentrations in surface sediment layer depend both on pollution sources, and on local characteristics of the marine and terrestrial environment. Generally, most of the concentrations are not high revealing that the coastal area is not heavily polluted. Granulometric and geochemical data indicate the existence of some differences between sediments formed in the vicinity of fresh water input and sediments from areas without fresh water input. (author)

  15. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, pH, and chlorophyll data collected by bottle and CTD on two cruises in the Adriatic Sea, the North Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea from 3/2/1982 - 4/7/1990 (NODC Accession 0000087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle and CTD casts from DISCOVERY II and another platform in the Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea,and...

  16. Coding early naturalists' accounts into long-term fish community changes in the Adriatic Sea (1800-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso Fortibuoni

    Full Text Available The understanding of fish communities' changes over the past centuries has important implications for conservation policy and marine resource management. However, reconstructing these changes is difficult because information on marine communities before the second half of the 20(th century is, in most cases, anecdotal and merely qualitative. Therefore, historical qualitative records and modern quantitative data are not directly comparable, and their integration for long-term analyses is not straightforward. We developed a methodology that allows the coding of qualitative information provided by early naturalists into semi-quantitative information through an intercalibration with landing proportions. This approach allowed us to reconstruct and quantitatively analyze a 200-year-long time series of fish community structure indicators in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea. Our analysis provides evidence of long-term changes in fish community structure, including the decline of Chondrichthyes, large-sized and late-maturing species. This work highlights the importance of broadening the time-frame through which we look at marine ecosystem changes and provides a methodology to exploit, in a quantitative framework, historical qualitative sources. To the purpose, naturalists' eyewitness accounts proved to be useful for extending the analysis on fish community back in the past, well before the onset of field-based monitoring programs.

  17. On the dense water cascading in the Southern Adriatic Sea during 2012: Setup of a Rapid Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    In the North Adriatic, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) forms during cold and dry winters by cooling and evaporation. DSW spreads southward along the western shelf reaching the southern Adriatic basin (1200 m deep) after 1-2 months, where sinks through cascading events. In February 2012, a large Siberian High caused blocking of the Atlantic flow and a westward flow of dry and cold air masses from eastern Russia toward Europe. The North Adriatic experienced a cold spell with large decrease of surface temperature (3° -6° C) associated to severe cold and dry Bora wind. The result was the formation of extremely dense shelf water, further made possible by the very limited discharge of the Po river in the preceding autumn. As contribution to the Italian research programme RITMARE (Italian Research for the Sea), CNR-ISMAR set up a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiment to study the occurrence, amount, timing and properties of the newly formed DSW. Setting up REA strategies is crucial for several scientific and practical reasons: (i) capturing extreme events to improve our understanding of natural systems in a global-change scenario; (ii) to evaluate their impact on marine systems and the biota; (iii) to address issues related to fluctuating fish stocks as well as (iv) C export and sequestration in the deep sea. The experiment was designed with an integrated approach, including modeling simulations, mooring deployments and quick-response oceanographic cruises. Based on numerical model ensemble, the arrival time of the DSW at the Gargano Cape was forecasted likely starting after March 15, 2012, thus moorings were deployed few days before. Five moorings were deployed in sites selected on the basis of modelling predictions and geology-driven inferences defining areas where the passage of dense shelf water is most likely to occur. Moorings were equipped with down-looking ADCPs, automatic sediment traps, temperature loggers, recorders of temperature, conductivity and

  18. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  19. Sediment transport processes from the topset to the foreset of a crenulated clinoform (Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, P.; Ogston, A. S.; Guillén, J.; Fain, A. M. V.; Palanques, A.

    2007-02-01

    Crenulated clinoforms of complex and uncertain origin characterize large portions of the Late-Holocene prograding mud wedge in the western Adriatic continental shelf. Sediment failure was originally postulated as the most plausible mechanism for the formation of the crenulations. Subsequent work has shown that, although the origin of the crenulations may have been related to deformation processes, their maintenance through time seems to be better explained by different sediment accumulation rates in the flat and steep flanks. In order to establish relationships between active sediment dynamics, across-shelf transport and sediment accumulation in these crenulated clinoforms, two tripods and a mooring were deployed off the Pescara River during autumn and winter 2002-2003 as part of the EuroSTRATAFORM program, and in combination with the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) study. The tripods were placed on the shallow topset region and close to the clinoform roll-over point (i.e., offlap break), at 12 and 20-m water depth, respectively, and the mooring was located at 50-m depth, in the crenulated foreset region. Several sediment-resuspension events were recorded, mainly related to Bora and Sirocco storms, during which wave-orbital and current velocities increased considerably. Sediment transport in the topset region was predominantly towards the SE, following the direction of the coastal current and the bathymetry, but showing a significant offshore component at the roll-over point that was intensified during storm events. Currents at the foreset region were also directed to the SE. In mid-waters they were clearly aligned with the local bathymetry, whereas near the bottom they had an important and persistent offshore component. This current behavior seems to be associated with an intense bottom Ekman transport that causes the near-bottom current to be deflected to the left (i.e., offshore) with respect to the direction of the surface current

  20. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to climate change hazards at the regional scale: the case study of the North Adriatic Sea

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    S. Torresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise, changes in storms and wave climate as a consequence of global climate change are expected to increase the size and magnitude of flooded and eroding coastal areas, thus having profound impacts on coastal communities and ecosystems. River deltas, beaches, estuaries and lagoons are considered particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, which should be studied at the regional/local scale. This paper presents a regional vulnerability assessment (RVA methodology developed to analyse site-specific spatial information on coastal vulnerability to the envisaged effects of global climate change, and assist coastal communities in operational coastal management and conservation. The main aim of the RVA is to identify key vulnerable receptors (i.e. natural and human ecosystems in the considered region and localize vulnerable hot spot areas, which could be considered as homogeneous geographic sites for the definition of adaptation strategies. The application of the RVA methodology is based on a heterogeneous subset of bio-geophysical and socio-economic vulnerability indicators (e.g. coastal topography, geomorphology, presence and distribution of vegetation cover, location of artificial protection, which are a measure of the potential harm from a range of climate-related impacts (e.g. sea level rise inundation, storm surge flooding, coastal erosion. Based on a system of numerical weights and scores, the RVA provides relative vulnerability maps that allow to prioritize more vulnerable areas and targets of different climate-related impacts in the examined region and to support the identification of suitable areas for human settlements, infrastructures and economic activities, providing a basis for coastal zoning and land use planning. The implementation, performance and results of the methodology for the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy are fully described in the paper.

  1. Description of Brooksia lacromae sp. nov. (Tunicata, Thaliacea from the Adriatic Sea

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    Rade GARIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brooksia lacromae sp. nov. is described from zooplankton material collected at a marine monitoring station in the South Adriatic in the autumn of 2014. The description of both solitary and aggregate forms is given along with 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 sequence data that provides strong evidence that both forms belong to the same species. The described species is morphologically markedly different from B. rostrata (Traustedt, 1893 and B. berneri van Soest, 1975, previously the only two species in the genus Brooksia. Genetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene confirmed distinctness of B. lacromae sp. nov. from B. rostrata (1.5% uncorrected pairwise distance. The appendicularian Fritillaria helenae Bückmann, 1924, so far known from the Atlantic only, was found in the same samples as B. lacromae sp. nov. Co-occurrence of B. lacromae sp. nov. with an Atlantic appendicularian suggests an Atlantic or Western Mediterranean origin for this new taxon.

  2. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies. PMID:26152856

  3. Diagenesis and benthic fluxes of nutrients and metals during experimentally induced anoxia in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea

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    N. Koron

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sequential nutrient regeneration and organic matter (OM degradation in surface sediments of the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea were examined using in situ benthic chambers under normoxic, anoxic and reoxic conditions. Intensive NH4+ and PO4− anoxic regeneration was subsequently slower in prolonged anoxia. NH4+ production was probably also a consequence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to NH4+. The presence of anammox and laterally pumping of oxygenated water by benthic infauna explained the presence of NO3− in anoxia. Anoxic phases were characterized by enhanced dissolution of Sibiog, decreasing pore water Ca and Mg concentrations indicating carbonate precipitation and higher Fe and Mn concentrations as a result of reduction/respiration. Reoxygenation was characterized by enhanced bioturbation. Nitrification caused NH4+ decrease and P precipitated quickly as carbonate fluorapatite and FePO4. In addition adsorption of P onto Fe-hydroxides could also occur since Fe (and Mn reoxidized quickly. Increased Ca levels suggested enhanced carbonate dissolution. Diffusive fluxes at the sediment–water interface (SWI, calculated from pore water modelling using diffusion-reaction model, revealed high anoxic NH4+ effluxes and Ca (and Mg influxes. PO4− fluxes were very low and high NH4+/PO4− flux ratios in anoxic and reoxic phases suggested an excess of benthic inorganic N. Nutrient budgets at the SWI showed intensive anoxic recycling of inorganic N but low P and Si cycling in all redox phases.

  4. Distribution and morphological abnormalities of recent foraminifera in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (North Adriatic Sea, Italy

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    R. MELIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Marano and Grado Lagoon, is a northern Adriatic wetland system of relevant naturalistic and economic value, that is constantly under quality control in accordance with the current environmental directives. Benthic foraminifers community with its morphological abnormalities were investigated in the recent sediments (about 10 years old of 21 stations collected in the framework of the “MIRACLE” Project which aimed at testing the coexistence of clam farming with high Hg contamination. Euryhaline foraminifers, well known in Mediterranean brackish-waters, mainly characterizes the total assemblage. A. tepida dominates in areas characterized by low salinity, high clay and Corg content, but also to anthropogenic pressure. E. gunteri and H. germanica are recorded in the western sector of the lagoon, which is more affected by salinity variations and agricultural activities. Slightly higher values of assemblage diversity appear in less restricted areas of the lagoon or, at least, where physical parameters such as temperature and salinity are less variable. The test abnormalities, carried out on total assemblage, shows that the FAI (Foraminiferal Abnormality Index values always exceed 1% of the total assemblage, with clear decreasing gradients from inland to the sea (from N to S and from W to E in the studied area.

  5. Assemblages' structure and activity of bacterioplankton in northern Adriatic Sea surface waters: a 3-year case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celussi, Mauro; Bussani, Andrea; Cataletto, Bruno; Del Negro, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial community, both in terms of community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting) and activity (exoenzymatic hydrolysis of proteins, polysaccharides and phosphorylated molecules and leucine uptake), was investigated seasonally for 3 years (2004-2006) in a large-scale grid in the northern Adriatic Sea. A high variability characterized the spatial structure of bacterial assemblages and a scarce seasonality was found in all the nine studied stations. Bacterial communities were substantially diverse in the same season of the 3 years, in contrast to what was reported previously for oceanic sites. Assemblages were in general strongly affected by river inputs, especially in spring, when freshwater loads were higher. Finally, a close relationship was found between given assemblages and their patterns of degradation/production activities by applying a multivariate analysis (linear discriminant analysis) to the dataset. The high variability of bacterial community structures and patterns of activity may indicate an ecological response to the high dynamism that characterizes the basin both on a physical and on a biological basis. PMID:21091521

  6. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level. PMID:26874197

  7. ASTROCHRONOLOGICAL CALIBRATION OF THE UPPER SERRAVALLIAN/LOWER TORTONIAN SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE AT TREMITI ISLANDS(ADRIATIC SEA, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO LIRER

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution cyclostratigraphic study was carried out on a cyclicaly bedded succession of late Middle Miocene deep marine deposits from the Tremiti Islands, Adriatic sea (Italy. Astronomical calibration of the sedimentary cycles provides absolute ages for different calcareous plankton bioevents, widely used for intra Mediterranean correlation, in the interval between 11.12 and 12.60 Ma. The sedimentary record of the S. nicola composite section consists of an alternation of indurated, withish coloured, CaCo3 rich and grey less indurated, CaCo3 poor marly beds, at times replaced by red coloured CaCo3 poor marls. Results of direct correlation between the La 90 (1,1 solution of the insolation curve and the cyclic lithologic patterns occurring in the studied sections, combined with results of spectral methodologies applied on the climate sensitive data (CaCo3 and Globigerinoides showed that the classic Milankovitch periodicity can be represented through the modulation forcing of the studied sedimentary records. 

  8. Influence of seasonal forcing on habitat use by bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearzi, Giovanni; Azzellino, Arianna; Politi, Elena; Costa, Marina; Bastianini, Mauro

    2008-12-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are the only cetaceans regularly observed in the northern Adriatic Sea, but they survive at low densities and are exposed to significant threats. This study investigates some of the factors that influence habitat use by the animals in a largely homogeneous environment by combining dolphin data with hydrological and physiographical variables sampled from oceanographic ships. Surveys were conducted year-round between 2003 and 2006, totalling 3,397 km of effort. Habitat modelling based on a binary stepwise logistic regression analysis predicted between 81% and 93% of the cells where animals were present. Seven environmental covariates were important predictors: oxygen saturation, water temperature, density anomaly, gradient of density anomaly, turbidity, distance from the nearest coast and bottom depth. The model selected consistent predictors in spring and summer. However, the relationship (inverse or direct) between each predictor and dolphin presence varied among seasons, and different predictors were selected in fall. This suggests that dolphin distribution changed depending on seasonal forcing. As the study area is relatively uniform in terms of bottom topography, habitat use by the animals seems to depend on complex interactions among hydrological variables, caused primarily by seasonal change and likely to determine shifts in prey distribution.

  9. The reproductive cycle, size at maturity and fecundity of garfish ( Belone belone, L. 1761) in the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorica, B.; Sinovčić, G.; Keč, V. Čikeš

    2011-12-01

    A recent study concerning the reproductive biology of the garfish ( Belone belone, L. 1761) has been carried out in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea along the Croatian coastline. Specimens of the fish ( N = 3,393) were collected over a 6-year period (2003-2008). Their length varied between 20.8 and 75.4 cm (mean ± SD = 38.3 ± 7.94). Female garfish were dominant in larger length groups being most apparent during the resting phase of sexual cycle and in the peak of the spawning period, occurring in April and May. The sexual ratio of all specimens was m/f = 0.98. Males were prevalent in March—at the beginning of the highest spawning activities. Fifty percentage of the garfish population sexually matured at 28.5 cm of total length. Males and females reached their sexual maturity at 28.0 and 31.5 cm of total length, respectively. Spawning began in January peaking during March to May. According to their maturity stages, gonad weight and the gonadosomatic index, males began to spawn one month earlier (April) than females (May). The mean batch fecundity of garfish was 1,242.46 ± 843.64 of matured oocytes per ovary. Matured oocyte diameters ranged from 1.223 to 4.283 mm with the mean value of 2.269 ± 0.332 mm.

  10. Down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages at Panzano Bay, an impacted area in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Stachowitsch, Michael; Tomasovych, Adam; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use a historical ecology approach to shed light on the environmental history of the northern Adriatic Sea over the last hundreds to thousands of years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, which serve as proxies for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea is particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure because it is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. We chose a sampling station in Panzano Bay, close the Isonzo River mouth and not far from the major industrial harbours of Trieste (Italy) and Koper (Slovenia), and traced down-core changes in molluscan community structure in correlation to major anthropogenic impacts that occurred here during the last centuries. Five sediment cores (1.5 m in length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm) were taken at a water depth of 12 m. We analysed grain size composition, the concentration of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and radiometrically dated the sediment using 210Pb. Furthermore, we dated shells of the abundant bivalve species Corbula gibba using 14C calibrated amino acid-racemisation (AAR). The whole molluscan community in the cores was analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic conditions of shells. The granulometric analysis shows that silt and clay dominate equally throughout the cores. Radiometric sediment dating revealed an average sedimentation rate of 2.5 mm/yr during the last 120 years. Shell dating points to a comparable overall core age, with only a few shell specimens being older than 500 years in the deepest core layer. In total, 10,452 mollusc individuals were analysed and 104 species identified. The most abundant bivalve species are Kurtiella bidentata, Corbula gibba and Abra nitida. Turritella communis and Nassarius pygmaeus are the most frequent gastropod species. Down-core changes in species composition

  11. The rock magnetic characteristics of last glacial cycle loess from the island of Susak (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Duchoslav, Maguerita; Rolf, Christian; Wacha, Lara; Frechen, Manfred; Galovic, Lidija

    2010-05-01

    palaeosols occur at 3 and 5.5 metre depth and two macroscopically visible volcanic tephra layers are intercalated in the upper part of the section. At present, we assume that the sequence represents the entire last glacial cycle (11-130 kyr). The concentration dependent magnetic parameters (e.g. magnetic low field susceptibility, SIRM) do not at all resemble the lithology. Volume susceptibility in unaltered loess exceeds even 1*10-3 SI which is at least 3 times higher compared to loess from the middle Danube basin only a few hundreds of kilometres to the East (Markovic et al. 2009). Grain size dependent magnetic parameters (e.g. frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, S-ratio, etc.) reveal the relative enhancement of superparamagnetic particles and the formation of high-coercivity minerals in the pedogenetically altered horizons. However, in general the magnetic signal seems to be controlled by the primarily detrital minerals and climatically governed relatively weak alterations occur only in the macroscopically visible pedohorizons. During the last glacial cycle, the sea level of the Adriatic Sea was lowered by several decametres at least. As a consequence, the alluvial plain of the Po River extended far to the Southeast and provided the sand and silt which were blown to the shallow mountain ranges forming today the islands of the Dalmatian archipelago (Cremaschi 1990). Pleistocene and recent floodplain deposits of the Po River in North Italy contain large amounts of heavy minerals from the metamorphic series of the Central Alps. This detritus may control the magnetic properties of the aeolian deposits on the island of Susak. Further petrographical and mineral magnetic studies are necessary to prove our hypothesis.

  12. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas), two interdisciplinary surveys were carried out in April 2013 and April 2014 in the middle Adriatic Sea along the Pescara-Sibenik transect (Jabuka Pits area) and Vieste-Split transect (Palagruza Sill area) with Croatian research vessel "Bios II" and the Italian research vessel "G. Dallaporta", respectively. The main objective of these research cruises was the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in the Adriatic region for collecting physical, chemical and biological data in order to get a better understanding of whole Adriatic ecosystem. The two transects are already recognised as a key areas for the interception and the study of dense water modification (Zore-Armanda, 1963; Marini et al., 2006; Grilli et al., 2013). Due to seasonal circulation patterns, they are characterized by high temporal variability of the thermohaline structure (Grbec and Morović, 1997; Vilibić, et al., 2004) and other oceanographic parameters. Long term oceanographic records from the Middle Adriatic enable better understanding of the ecosystem response to changes of atmospheric and sea conditions through physical, chemical and biological processes (Marasović et al., 1995). Several oceanographic parameters relevant and useful for the ecosystem assessment of the two areas (temperature, salinity, density, fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, phyto- and zoo-plankton as well as selected pollutants , trace metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-PAHs in sediments) were collected. In the present work, the variations of PAHs and trace metals concentration in the marine sediments are presented in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer. A constant influx of metal induces more intense accumulation of anthropogenic metals, especially Cd, in sediment from Jabuka Pit, and the metal content slightly increases

  13. 127I and 129I/127I isotopic ratio in marine alga Fucus virsoides from the North Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only stable iodine isotope is 127I and the natural 129I/127I ratio in the biosphere has increased from 10-15-10-14 to 10-10-10-9, mainly due to emissions from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In Europe they are located at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (England), where the ratio of 129I/127I is up to 10-4. The marine environment, i.e. the oceans, is the major source of iodine with average concentrations of around 60 μg L-1 iodine in seawater. Brown algae accumulate iodine at high levels of up to 1.0% of dry weight, and therefore they are an ideal bioindicator for studying the levels of 127I and 129I in the marine environment. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) method, developed at our laboratory, was used for 129I determination in the brown alga Fucus virsoides (Donati) J. Agardh, and the same technique of RNAA was used for total 127I determination. The samples were collected along the coast of the Gulf of Trieste and the West coast of Istria in the North Adriatic Sea in the period from 2005 to 2006. Values of the 129I/127I ratio up to 10-9 were found, which is in agreement with the present average global distribution of 129I. The levels of stable iodine found were in the range from 235 to 506 μg g-1 and the levels of 129I from 1.7 to 7.3 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (2.6-10.9 x 10-7 μg g-1), on a dry matter basis

  14. Algorithm for Assessing Irrigation Water Use Potential Pertaining Present Water Protection Measures at the Danube and Adriatic Sea River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalija Cvejic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach for developing a sectoral water use demand plan for irrigation sector is represented in this paper. The aim of the research is to inform implementation of the measure DDU26 set out by the River basin management plan for the Danube and Adriatic Sea river basins. The latter is an umbrella operational plan set out to achieve good status of water bodies under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD. The aim of the measure DDU26 is to estimate (a available stocks of surface water and groundwater and (b existing and projected water use for the period until 2021. To achieve this all water use sectors (irrigation, domestic use, cooling in electricity production, process water in industry, tourism, etc. need to establish their own water demand plans reflecting their sectoral development programmes. Projections of future irrigation water use show the current water use for irrigation will increase. However no spatial reference on where this development will happen is defined thus the projection poorly informs the DDU26 implementation. To overpass the sectoral gap and inform spatially weighted irrigation development that relates to water source use potential pertaining current protection aspirations under the River Basin Management Plan (RBMP, we document the development of the irrigation water use potential algorithm (IWUP. IWUP is a decision tree that helps choose best suitable irrigation water source of several available. The water sources use suitability is ranked on a scale from highly suitable for use to least suitable for use. Use priority of water sources for irrigation decreases accordingly: surface water stream, reservoir, and groundwater. The IWUP incorporates the WFD relevant variables such as ecologically acceptable flow of surface water streams, quantitative groundwater body status, and multifunctional reservoir use.

  15. Algorithm for Assessing Irrigation Water Use Potential Pertaining Present Water Protection Measures at the Danube and Adriatic Sea River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalija Cvejic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach for developing a sectoral water use demand plan for irrigation sector is represented in this paper. The aim of the research is to inform implementation of the measure DDU26 set out by the River basin management plan for the Danube and Adriatic Sea river basins. The latter is an umbrella operational plan set out to achieve good status of water bodies under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD. The aim of the measure DDU26 is to estimate (a available stocks of surface water and groundwater and (b existing and projected water use for the period until 2021. To achieve this all water use sectors (irrigation, domestic use, cooling in electricity production, process water in industry, tourism, etc. need to establish their own water demand plans reflecting their sectoral development programmes. Projections of future irrigation water use show the current water use for irrigation will increase. However no spatial reference on where this development will happen is defined thus the projection poorly informs the DDU26 implementation. To overpass the sectoral gap and inform spatially weighted irrigation development that relates to water source use potential pertaining current protection aspirations under the River Basin Management Plan (RBMP, we document the development of the irrigation water use potential algorithm (IWUP. IWUP is a decision tree that helps choose best suitable irrigation water source of several available. The water sources use suitability is ranked on a scale from highly suitable for use to least suitable for use. Use priority of water sources for irrigation decreases accordingly: surface water stream, reservoir, and groundwater. The IWUP incorporates the WFD relevant variables such as ecologically acceptable flow of surface water streams, quantitative groundwater body status, and multifunctional reservoir use.

  16. NW Adriatic Sea variability in relation to chlorophyll-a dynamics in the last 20 years (1986–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Acri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a long-term time series (1986–2005 of hydrological and biogeochemical data, both published and unpublished. Data were collected in the north-western area of the Adriatic Sea, at two stations that are considered hydrodynamically and trophically different. The time series have been statistically and graphically investigated on a monthly scale in order to find not only possible chlorophyll-a trends over time, but also links between the concentrations of chlorophyll-a and the variability in the environment, as well as trophic differences between the two areas. Basically, in both cases the statistical test results show no significant trends in either the average chlorophyll-a values or in dispersion of the data, in contrast with significant trends in temperature and salinity. The two areas have similar hydrological features, yet they present significant differences in the amount of nutrient inputs: these are in fact higher at the coastal site, which is characterized by a prevalence of surface blooms, while they are lower at the offshore station, which is mainly affected by intermediate blooms. Nonetheless, throughout the whole water column, chlorophyll-a concentrations are only slightly different. Both areas are affected by riverine discharge, though in the first case considered chlorophyll-a concentrations are also driven strongly by the seasonal cycle. Finally, the results show that the two stations are not trophically different, although some controlling factors, such as zooplankton grazing in one case and light attenuation in the other, may regulate the growth of phytoplankton.

  17. A multidisciplinary environmental integrated approach to better understand the Tegnue Reefs formation, offshore Chioggia, Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Donnici, Sandra; Tosi, Luigi; Tagliapietra, Davide; Zaggia, Luca; Bonaldo, Davide; Braga, Federica; Da Lio, Cristina; Keppel, Erica; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Franceschini, Gianluca; Giovanardi, Otello; Carol, Eleonora; Fornaro, Elena; Grant, Carley

    2014-05-01

    , and benthic invertebrates like bryozoans, mollusks, serpulids and corals also contribute to the final building of the status of Tegnue's environment, but we want to demonstrate that the in first stage of consolidation abiotic phenomena could have played a major role. In order to prove our thesis a series of ground water sampling as well as rock sampling and sediment cores were carried out. The poster illustrates the overall ongoing program as well as some work in progress and first results from field cruise. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Municipality of Chioggia through the Tegnue Project and partially by the Flagship Project RITMARE - The Italian Research for the Sea - coordinated by the Italian National Research Council and funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research within the National Research Program 2011-2013, and by the Scientific Cooperation Agreement between the CONICET (Argentina) - CNR (Italy), Program 2013-2014, Project 'Fresh-saltwaters in high-value coastlands: from the hydrogeophysical/geochemical characterization of the present interactions to the modeling quantification of the expected effects of climate changes'. References - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L. 2000. Indagini preliminari su alcune formazioni di sabbie cementate nella laguna di Venezia. In: La Ricerca Scientifica Per Venezia. Il Progetto Sistema Lagunare Veneziano, Modellistica del Sistema Lagunare Studio di Impatto Ambientale. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Vol. II, Tomo II, p. 967-974, Venezia, ISBN: 88-86166-82-6. - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L., Rizzetto, F., Brancolini, G., Baradello, L. 2006. Effects of climate changes on the late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39, 279-284. - Casellato S., Stefanon A. 2008. Coralligenous habitat in the northern Adriatic Sea: an overview. Marine Ecology, 29: 321-341. - Gabbianelli, G., Colantoni, P., Degetto, S., Dinelli, E., Lucchini, F. 1997

  18. Coastline lenghts and areas of islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps at the scale of 1 : 25 000

    OpenAIRE

    Tea Duplančić Leder; Tin Ujević

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, modern definition of island established by the IHO has been accepted, and classification of islands, islets, rocks and rocks awash has been proposed according to their areas. The coastline of the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea was digitized from topographic maps produced at the scale of 1 : 25 000 (TM 25). Topographic maps used for digitization are more precise than the maps that were used in earlier works and consequently the data on the number of islands and their coastlin...

  19. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  20. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  1. Radium concentrations in Adriatic coastal area and their dependence on circulation of the sea currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess natural radioactivity in the area of the coal-fired power plant in the Plomin Bay with special emphasis on possible radiation contamination of the seawater caused by plant operation. The purpose was to determine vertical and horizontal distribution of radium and its dependence on the seawater currents at different sea depths. The level of 226Ra in seawater was assessed four times a year, at three locations and at two sea depths. Measurements of physical, chemical and biological parameters were performed in order to provide a tangible basis for a long-term systematic monitoring of the environmental effects of plant operation on the surrounding area

  2. Haemocytic neoplasia in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the Slovene Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Gombac, Mitja; Sitar, Rosvita; Pogacnik, Milan; Arzul, Isabelle; Jencic, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    The health status of cultured and wild Mediterranean mussels in the Slovene Sea has so far been unexplored. Initially, 1280 adult Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), 960 from a shellfish farm and 320 from natural beds, were collected over a one-year period. Water temperature, oxygenation and salinity were measured at each sampling. Mussels were measured and weighted to calculate the condition index and microscopically examined for the presence of haemocytic neoplasia. Haemocyti...

  3. 13C/12C isotope ratios in the organic matter forming the mucilaginous aggregates in the northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of large mucilaginous aggregates is frequent during summer periods in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Their formation is not recurrent every summer but there are cluster of events as in 1988, 1989, 1991 and 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2002. Different aggregate size and morphologies have been described ranging from cm size marine snow to meters long clouds. Kilometers long layers may form at pycnoclines or at surface as a consequence of the accumulation of the aggregates. Riverine inputs produce 13C depleted organic matter in contrast to 13C enriched autochthonous marine organic matter. The δ13C is an indicator of the terrestrial (δ13C from -30 to -25 per mille versus VPDB) or marine (δ13C -23 to -15 per mille versus VPDB) origin of particulate organic matter. Humic substances may form as a consequence of the degradation of terrestrial organic matter or of phytoplankton. The δ13C values of humic substances range from -21.8 per mille to -22.8 per mille for open ocean humic substances and -22.8 per mille to 23.7 per mille for coastal humic substances. In order to establish the origin of the aggregates sampled during summer 2000, 2001 and 2002, the chemical characterization and the isotopic composition of organic carbon in different aggregates, plankton and humic substances were performed. The composition of the aggregates depends on the nature of the matter involved in the aggregation, therefore the δ13C of mucilage and humic fraction can explain the origin of the phenomenon. The mucilaginous aggregates were dialyzed on a CelluSep3500 membrane with a 3500 nominal weight cut off and freeze dried. The δ13C were analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (Delta Plus, Thermo Finnigan). Elemental analysis indicated in the aggregates: 11.1/29.4% of organic carbon, 2.8/5.0% of inorganic carbon and 0.7/3.7% of nitrogen. In order to characterize the nature of organic fraction of the aggregate, humic substance were extracted according to the method of

  4. Numerical Modelling of Oil Spills in the Area of Kvarner and Rijeka Bay (The Northern Adriatic Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Lončar; Gordana Beg Paklar; Ivica Janeković

    2012-01-01

    Several hypothetical cases of oil spills from tankers in the Kvarner and Rijeka Bay were analyzed using three-dimensional circulation models coupled with oil spill model. Two circulation models—local one covering the area of Kvarner Bay, Rijeka Bay, and Vinodol channel along with the basin-wide one covering the whole Adriatic Sea—are connected through the one-way nesting procedure by imposing the results from the Adriatic model to the open boundaries of the local one. Oil sp...

  5. Comparison growth parameters of shellfish from Adriatic Sea in Butrinti Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARJAN DEMIRI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Butrinti lagoon is situated in the southern part of Albania. It is the only lagoon connected with the Ionian Sea and due to the specific rocky shore of this sea. The water temperature varies with depth and season. In depth 8-10m it is nearly stable throughout the year, respectively 15-17°C. Eutrophication and depth influences ecology and fisheries of Butrinti Lagoon. Due to the depth of 21m, the water in the lagoon is stratified in different layers according to different gradients of temperature, salinity and chemical compounds.There are some factors that define these critical issues in the lagoon. Recent assessments founded that, in summer there is a risk of hyper-eutrophication, when bacteria breaking down organic matter become hyperactive in the heat and available oxygen in the process. In anaerobic conditions the sediments release hydrogen sulphide, which is highly toxic for flora and fauna and can kill populations beyond the point of possible recovery. Stratification process makes that in the deep layers when thermocline and chemiocline are created, the oxygen is consumed very rapidly and big amount of H2S are present. The water ecosystem equilibrium in the lagoon is very fragile. In our experiment are transferred samples shellfish from Shengjini to Butrinti. The samples are analyzed in the periods December 2012 - March 2013 and August - September 2013. From analyzes had these results: Growth positive rate from samples mussels at December 2012 and march 2013. During the period of summer August –September 2013 the measurements have shown that there has been no increase in length mussel , argued that the death of her massive of the critical condition. In August analyzes , mussels predominate until 6.7 cm , and is currently fully curb the growth of mussel. Indicators of circles to represent dynamic growth rate of mussel growth in the period from April to June.

  6. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  7. The ADRICOSM Pilot Project: a coastal and river basin prediction system for the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia PINARDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The ADRICOSM project was launched in October 2001, and ended in March 2005, with the main objective of demonstrating the feasibility of a near real time operational marine monitoring and forecasting system at the shelf and coastal scales, with connections to river basin runoff and coastal town sewer systems. The basic system consisted of an efficient network for the collection of marine data such as in situ temperature and salinity profiles and satellite sea surface temperature, a regional (AREG and shelf scale modeling system, a data assimilation system and finally a coastal scale modeling system. Every week AREG releases 7 day marine forecasts at 5 km horizontal scales, which are used to nest other hydrodynamic models toward the coastal scale. Two shelf models (ASHELF-1 and ASHELF-2 at a 1.5 km horizontal scale were nested in AREG in order to simulate (and in the future to forecast shelf scale oceanographic features. Another important aspect of ADRICOSM was the integration of the Cetina river (Croatia and urban sewage monitoring/ modeling (Split, Croatia systems with the shelf marine model. This integrated model system was used to simulate the dispersion of sewer discharges from the urban area in the coastal waters for water management performance studies. ADRICOSM is one of the first integrated land and marine waters operational oceanographic systems able to meet the urgent needs for reliable integrated coastal forecasts for the effective management of marine areas.

  8. ADDED RESISTANCE IN WAVES OF INTACT AND DAMAGED SHIP IN THE ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Martić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the ship added resistance in regular head waves and at different sea states in a certain frequency range at different forward speeds was calculated. Calculations were conducted using hydrodynamic software. Since after a maritime accident a damaged ship often has to be removed from the place where the accident occurred, the seakeeping characteristics of the damaged ship were also calculated. The response of the damaged ship was simulated using two models: damage simulated as an increase in the ship displacement mass and as a flooded tank within the midship area. Calculations are based on the linear potential flow theory and added resistance was determined by the wave drift force as the second order wave load. The quadratic transfer function QTF which describes low-frequency second order wave loads was approximated by its zeroth term only, i.e. by the drift load at incoming wave frequencies. The mean added resistance values of the intact and the damaged ship were compared. The calculation results show that added resistance in waves of the damaged ship with a flooded tank differs slightly from the added resistance in waves of the damaged ship with an increased displacement.

  9. Population dynamics of toxic phytoplankton and bacterial flora in the waters of the low Adriatic sea; Dinamica di popolazione di fitoplancton tossico e flora batterica nel basso Adriatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroppo, C.; Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R.A.; Pastore, M. [CNR, Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico Attlio Cerruti, Taranto (Italy); Marchiori, E. [Rome Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Organica; Bruno, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The coastal areas of the Southern Adriatic Sea, in particular the Apulian ones, may be considered an example of intact ecosystem and represent an ideal term of comparison to other marine ecosystems having higher levels of pollution (Northern Adriatic Sea). In order to evaluate the sanitary levels of this environment, four transect were investigated during two years monitoring (April 1995-March 1997) along the Otranto Channel coasts, by joint research groups of the Environmental Hygiene Laboratory of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' and the Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti of CNR in Taranto. The study underlines the phytoplanktic and bacterial population dynamics, and the detection of the microbiological water quality along the coast tract Brindisi-Lecce-Otranto-S. Maria di Leuca. The results acquired pointed out population dynamics of some potantially toxic species of Dinophysis genus and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. These depended on the winter nutrient loads due to the ASW (Adriatic Superficial Waters) and to the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Waters). The bacterial community was mainly constituted by genera Aeromonas, Photobacterium, Cytophaga and Pseudomonas. Also the presence of Enterobacteriaceae family was relevant. Among the pathogenic vibrios the most frequently isolated species were Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. [Italian] Considerando che le zone del basso Adriatico, in particolare quelle pugliesi, costituiscono un biotopo ancora relativamente inalterato, esse sono state oggetto di un'indagine sperimentale condotta in 24 mesi di attivita' (aprile 1995-marzo 1997) lungo le coste del Canale di Otranto, ad opera di un gruppo congiunto del Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' e dei laboratori dell'Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti del CNR di Taranto, ai fini di valutare lo stato di salute di questo ambiente, che fornisce, con buona probabilita', un

  10. Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

    2012-04-01

    An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic

  11. Drilling predation on molluscs in the northern Adriatic Sea: Spatial variability and temporal trends over the last millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengg, Markus; Wurzer, Sandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Competition and predation are essential ecological factors influencing biodiversity. In a palaeontological context, the rate of predatory interactions between animal species is difficult to reconstruct because traces of predation are rarely incorporated into the fossil record. In the marine environment, the calcareous shells of molluscs, however, have good, long-time preservation potential, and predation in this group is often exerted by carnivorous gastropods that drill holes into mollusc shells. The prey's perforated shells remain in the sediment and can be used to study rates and intensities of predatory interactions in past marine molluscan communities. Differences in drilling frequencies along a sediment core not only reflect changes in local species richness and predation pressure, but may also mirror ecosystem changes through space and time. This makes the analysis of drilling predation an important tool when investigating the historical ecology of marine habitats. We used 1.5-m-long sediment cores from seven shelf locations spread throughout the northern Adriatic Sea basin to investigate regional and down-core variations in drilling frequencies. In total, about 54,000 bivalve and 40,000 gastropod shells were analysed to determine the following parameters: 1) overall drill frequency (DF), the proportion of shells drilled by predators; 2) edge drill frequency (EDF, only in bivalve shells), the proportion of shells with drilling traces at the shell edge; 3) multiple drill frequency (MDF), the percentage of individuals with more than one drill hole, 4) incomplete drill frequency (IDF), the percentage of shells unsuccessfully drilled; 5) prey effectiveness (PE), the proportion of individuals resisting the predator's attacks. Total drill frequency across all cores is 18% for bivalves and 13% for gastropods, but there are marked regional differences, with minima in the Po Delta (5%) and maxima in Panzano Bay (24%). Edge-drilled shells and multiple drill holes on

  12. Comparison of the adjoint and adjoint-free 4dVar assimilation of the hydrographic and velocity observations in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaremchuk, Max; Martin, Paul; Koch, Andrey; Beattie, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the adjoint and adjoint-free 4-dimensional variational (4dVar) data assimilation techniques is compared in application to the hydrographic surveys and velocity observations collected in the Adriatic Sea in 2006. Assimilating the data into the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) has shown that both methods deliver similar reduction of the cost function and demonstrate comparable forecast skill at approximately the same computational expense. The obtained optimal states were, however, significantly different in terms of distance from the background state: application of the adjoint method resulted in a 30-40% larger departure, mostly due to the excessive level of ageostrophic motions in the southern basin of the Sea that was not covered by observations.

  13. Eastern-Mediterranean ventilation variability during sapropel S1 formation, evaluated at two sites influenced by deep-water formation from Adriatic and Aegean Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidi, A.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; De Lange, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Present-day bottom-water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean basin occurs through deep-water convection originating from the two marginal basins, i.e. Adriatic and Aegean Seas. In the paleo record, long periods of enhanced deep-water formation have been alternating with shorter periods of reduced deep-water formation. The latter is related mainly to low-latitude humid climate conditions and the enhanced deposition and preservation of organic-rich sediment units (sapropels). This study focuses on sedimentary archives of the most-recent sapropel S1, retrieved from two sites under the direct influence of the two deep-water formation areas. Restricted oxygen conditions have developed rapidly at the beginning of S1 deposition in the Adriatic site, but bottom-water conditions have not persistently remained anoxic during the full interval of sapropel deposition. In fact, the variability in intensity and persistence of sedimentary redox conditions at the two deep-water formation sites is shown to be related to brief episodes of climate cooling. In the Adriatic site, sapropel deposition appears to have been interrupted twice. The 8.2 ka event, only recovered at the Adria site, is characterized by gradually increasing suboxic to possibly intermittently oxic conditions and decreasing Corg fluxes, followed by an abrupt re-establishment of anoxic conditions. Another important event that disrupted sapropel S1 formation, has taken place at ca. 7.4 cal ka BP. The latter event has been recovered at both sites. In the Adriatic site it is followed by a period of sedimentary conditions that gradually change from suboxic to more permanently oxic, as deduced from the Mn/Al pattern. Using the same proxy for suboxic/oxic sedimentary redox conditions, we observe that conditions in the Aegean Sea site shift to more permanently oxic from the 7.4 ka event onwards. However, at both sites the accumulation and preservation of enhanced amounts of organic matter have continued under these

  14. Review of Development of Adriatic Marine Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a historical overview and some research results of radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea and coastal areas caused by natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, with emphasis on the eastern Adriatic coast. The results of the first known survey of radioactivity of the Adriatic Sea have been published in 1909, by Prof. Dr. Peter Salcher from the Imperial and Royal Naval Academy (k.u.k. Marine Akademie) in the city of Rijeka. These were compared with similar studies conducted in the Atlantic Ocean. Systematic radioecological research of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea that began in 1961 at three locations (Rovinj, Split and Dubrovnik) have been organized by the Directorate for Civil Protection of the State Secretariat for people's defence, targeting the activity concentrations of fission products 90Sr and 137Cs in seawater. Editing and standardization of data has been coordinated by the engineer Velimir Popovic, an associate of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health.Nowadays, contemporary radieocological monitoring in the Republic of Croatia related to the Adriatic Sea today is conducted by Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health within the framework of 'Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in the Republic of Croatia' and the scientific project Radioecology of the Adriatic sea and Coastal Areas, project no. 022-0222882-2823 funded by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia.(author)

  15. Foraminiferal record of anthropogenic environmental changes in the northeastern Adriatic Sea (Panzano Bay, Gulf of Trieste, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Jelena; Cosovic, Vlasta; Kern, Vieana; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is one of the world's largest modern epicontinental seas and a young marine ecosystem that has been subject to various natural and anthropogenic processes during the Holocene: marine transgression, regional climate fluctuations, urbanisation and pollution. The Gulf of Trieste, located in the northeastern part, presents the area of particular interest, as it is a shallow and sheltered embayment, prone to the accumulation of pollutants, populated for at least the last 2000 years and with recent anthropogenic pressure coming from several rivers, ports and industrial zones. The aim of this multidisciplinary study is to provide a high-resolution record of these processes using benthic foraminiferal assemblages, geochemical proxies (trace metals, nutrients and pollutants), sedimentological (sedimentation rates) and time-averaging data (from dated mollusc shells). One core of 1.5 m length was taken at the sampling station Panzano Bay, northernmost part of the Gulf of Trieste, at the water depth of 12.5 m. The sedimentation rate is estimated to be 2.5 mm/year, based on 210Pb sediment dating, while dating of the molluscs shells revealed the age at the bottom of the core to be approximately 500 years. The core was sliced into smaller subsamples, and four sediment fractions of each subsample (63, 125, 250 and 500 μm) were analysed for standard properties of the foraminiferal community (faunal composition, absolute and relative abundances of species, biodiversity indices), in order to make comparison with relevant physical and geochemical properties of the sediment. The results concerning changes in foraminiferal species composition, their abundance and biodiversity, supported by statistical analyses (cluster analysis, NMDS, PCA), allow identification of three major foraminiferal associations: 1) 80-150 cm - the oldest association is dominated by opportunistic genera ans species, characteristic for unstable environments: Valvulineria sp. (25

  16. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; pMediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. PMID:25863507

  17. Tephrochronology of core PRAD 1-2 from the Adriatic Sea: insights into Italian explosive volcanism for the period 200-80 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, A. J.; Albert, P. G.; Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Wulf, S.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Keller, J.; Lowe, J. J.

    2015-05-01

    Core PRAD 1-2, located on the western flank of the Mid-Adriatic Deep, was investigated for tephra content within the part of the sequence assigned on biostratigraphic and sapropel-layer stratigraphy to MIS 5 and 6 (ca. 80-200 ka BP). A total of 11 discrete tephra layers are identified, 8 visible and 3 cryptotephra layers. 235 geochemical measurements obtained from individual glass shards using WDS-EPMA enabled 8 of the 11 tephras to be correlated to known eruption events, 5 of which are represented in the Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGdM) regional tephra archive sequence. Three of these layers are recognised ultra-distally for the first time, extending their known distributions approximately 210 km further north. The results provide an independent basis for establishing an age-depth profile for the MIS 5-6 interval in the PRAD 1-2 marine record. This approach allowed age estimates to be interpolated for the tephra layers that could not be correlated to known events. It also provides an independent test of, and support for, the broad synchroneity of sapropel-equivalent (S-E) events in the Adriatic Sea with the better-developed sapropel layers of the eastern Mediterranean, proposed by Piva et al. (2008a).

  18. New insights on the biological parameters of the exploited cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the northern Adriatic Sea in relation to the main fishing gears employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. BETTOSO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus 1758 represents one of the most important coastal fishery resources of the Mediterranean Sea. For Italy, 45% of cuttlefish landings (2,328 t originates from coastal regions of the northern Adriatic Sea: Veneto, Marche, Emilia Romagna and Friuli Venezia Giulia. In terms of economic value this species represents about 8% (~€ 16.5 million of the production from this basin. From May 2004 to October 2005, cuttlefish were purchased from commercial landings of the Grado fishery fleet. At least 30 specimens were randomly taken each month from each fishing method employed for this species: bottom trawl (cod end mesh size 40 mm, rapido trawl, trammel net (mesh size of inner panel 30 mm and cuttlefish specific trap. The main biological aspects, such as size, sex ratio, reproductive stage and diet in relation to both the season and type of fishing gear were analyzed. 1,495 specimens, ranging from 3.5 to 18.0 cm mantle length, were analyzed. In relation to the observed size and reproductive stage of individuals caught, trammel nets and cuttlefish traps both appeared to target sexually mature individuals, whilst trawling gear were not selective for either recruits or spawners. In total 34 prey taxa were found in the stomachs of S. officinalis: crabs and bony fish species were the most important prey, although the latter appeared mostly in the largest specimens. Finally the fullness index revealed that cuttlefish caught by trawling were more suitable for diet analysis than those caught by static gear. In this way the contribution of the present paper was to give new insights on the biological parameters of this species in relation to the main fishing gears employed in the northern Adriatic Sea.

  19. SURVEY ON V. CHOLERAE, V. VULNIFICUS AND V. PARAHAEMOLYTICUS IN BIVALVE MOLLUSCS OF THE ADRIATIC SEA AND PROPOSAL OF AN ANALYTICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Valeri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs from Adriatic sea were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae e V. vulnificus presence. The isolates on TCBS Agar and m-CPC Agar were selected on the basis of a new biochemical screening, that showed a good performance, because among 2344 strains from primary culture only 237 (10% were presumptively assigned to the species of interest. The PCR analyses was performed for the target genes toxR hlyA, ctxA, tcpI (V. cholerae, toxR, tl, tdh, trh (V. parahaemolyticus, vvhA and viuB (V. vulnificus. Among the 9 strains confirmed to belong to V. parahaemolyticus specie, 6 were sucrose positive. On 215 samples of molluscs only 5 resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus being toxR+, tl+, although non pathogenic (tdh-, trh-, and none for V. cholerae e V. vulnificus.

  20. Classification of Satellite Derived Chlorophyll a Space-Time Series by Means of Quantile Regression: An Application to the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, P.; Pastres, R.; Gaetan, C.; Mangin, A.; Taji, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Adriatic waters, based on spatial time series of remotely sensed Chlorophyll type-a. The study was carried out using a clustering procedure combining quantile smoothing and an agglomerative clustering algorithms. The smoothing function includes a seasonal term, thus allowing one to classify areas according to “similar” seasonal evolution, as well as according to “similar” trends. This methodology, which is here applied for the first time to Ocean Colour data, is more robust with respect to other classical methods, as it does not require any assumption on the probability distribution of the data. This approach was applied to the classification of an eleven year long time series, from January 2002 to December 2012, of monthly values of Chlorophyll type-a concentrations covering the whole Adriatic Sea. The data set was made available by ACRI (http://hermes.acri.fr) in the framework of the Glob-Colour Project (http://www.globcolour.info). Data were obtained by calibrating Ocean Colour data provided by different satellite missions, such as MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS. The results clearly show the presence of North-South and West-East gradient in the level of Chlorophyll, which is consistent with literature findings. This analysis could provide a sound basis for the identification of “water bodies” and of Chlorophyll type-a thresholds which define their Good Ecological Status, in terms of trophic level, as required by the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The forthcoming availability of Sentinel-3 OLCI data, in continuity of the previous missions, and with perspective of more than a 15-year monitoring system, offers a real opportunity of expansion of our study as a strong support to the implementation of both the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the UNEP-MAP Ecosystem Approach in the Mediterranean.

  1. Evidence of butyltin biomagnification along the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean Sea) elucidated by stable isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Noventa, Seta; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Berto, Daniela; Raicevich, Saša

    2013-04-01

    The biomagnification of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), and total butyltins (ΣBT) was analyzed in the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean) considering trophodynamic interactions among species and carbon sources in the food-web. Although it is acknowledged that these contaminants bioaccumulate in marine organisms, it is still controversial whether they biomagnify along food-webs. A wide range of species was considered, from plankton feeders to top predators, whose trophic level (TL) was assessed measuring the biological enrichment of nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N). Carbon isotopic signature (δ(13)C) was used to trace carbon sources in the food-web (terrestrial vs marine). At least one butyltin species was detected in the majority of samples, and TBT was the predominant contaminant. A significant positive relationship was found between TL and butyltin concentrations, implying food-web biomagnification. Coherently, the Trophic Magnification Factor resulted higher than 1, ranging between 3.88 for ΣBT and 4.62 for DBT. A negative but not significant correlation was instead found between δ(13)C and butyltin concentrations, indicating a slight decreasing gradient of contaminants concentrations in species according to the coastal influence as carbon source in their diet. However, trophodynamic mechanisms are likely more important factors in determining butyltin distribution in the Northern Adriatic food-web. PMID:23465397

  2. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Civitarese; M. Gačić; M. Lipizer; G. L. Eusebi Borzelli

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the Southern Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, it is documented that nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that generally the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the ...

  3. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Civitarese; M. Gačić; M. Lipizer; G. L. E. Borzelli

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the South Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that often the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. Hor...

  4. Holocene vegetation and climate changes in central Mediterranean inferred from a high-resolution marine pollen record (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Combourieu-Nebout

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of future climate change on the ecology of the central Mediterranean we can look to the impacts of long-term, millennial to centennial-scale climatic variability on vegetation in the basin. Pollen data from the Adriatic Marine core MD 90-917 allows us to reconstruct vegetation and regional climate changes over the south central Mediterranean during the Holocene. Clay mineral ratios from the same core reflect the relative contributions of riverine (illite and smectite and eolian (kaolinite contributions to the site, and thus act as an additional proxy with which to test precipitation changes in the Holocene. Vegetation reconstruction shows vegetation responses to the late-Glacial Preboreal oscillation, most likely driven by changes in seasonal precipitation. Pollen-inferred temperature declines during the early-mid Holocene, but increases during the mid-late Holocene, similar to southern-western Mediterranean climatic patterns during the Holocene. Several short climatic events appear in the record, indicating the sensitivity of vegetation in the region to millennial-scale variability. Reconstructed summer precipitation shows a regional maximum between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP similar to the general pattern across southern Europe. Two important shifts in vegetation occur at 7700 and between 7500 and 7000 yr. These vegetation shifts are linked to changes in seasonal precipitation and are correlated to increased river inputs respectively from the north (7700 event and from the central Adriatic borderlands (7500–7000 event. These results reinforce the strengths of multi-proxy analysis and provide a deeper understanding of the role of precipitation and particularly the seasonality of precipitation in mediating vegetation change in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene.

  5. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. PMID:21982428

  6. Prokaryotic dynamics and heterotrophic metabolism in a deep convection site of Eastern Mediterranean Sea (the Southern Adriatic Pit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, M.; La Ferla, R.; Maimone, G.; Monticelli, L. S.; Zaccone, R.; Civitarese, G.

    2012-08-01

    We report on investigations of prokaryotic abundance, biomass, extracellular enzymatic activity, prokaryotic heterotrophic production and respiration in the full water column (˜1200 m) of a deep convection site (the Southern Adriatic Pit), carried out on six cruises in 2006-2008. Prokaryotic abundance (PA) varied vertically and temporally and ranged from 1.2 to 20.4×105 cell ml-1. Cell volumes, generally increased with depth; the lowest mean cell volume was observed in a period with no active convective process (Feb-07) and the highest in a period of stratification (Jun-08) following the convection process occurred in Feb-08. Prokaryotic biomass decreased with the depth and was related with both seasonal cycles of organic matter and hydrological processes. The picophytoplankton ranged in the upper layer (UL) from 0.089 to 10.71×104 cell ml-1. Cells were also recorded till 500 m depth in Feb-08 and this finding could be linked to water convection occurred in the Southern Adriatic Pit in that month. In UL the variations of enzymatic activities as well as leucine-aminopeptidase/ß-glucosidase ratio showed a seasonal trend probably linked to the productive processes of the photic layer. An inverse relation between alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and phosphate concentrations was found (APA=0.0003PO4-1.7714, R2=0.333, P<0.05). Generally cell-specific enzymatic activities increased with depth as did cell-specific carbon dioxide production rates, while cell-specific prokaryotic heterotrophic production had an opposite trend. High values of prokaryotic growth efficiency registered in the deep layers in Nov-06 reflected a supply of preformed C transported within the deep water masses. Overall, in 2007 when no convective phenomenon was observed, the variability of prokaryotic metabolism was governed by the seasonal cycle of the organic matter, while in Nov-06 and Jun-08 the dynamics of deep water ventilation influenced the trend along the water column of many microbial

  7. Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zanuttigh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the oceans will be subjected to a massive development of marine infrastructures, including offshore wind, tidal and wave energy farms and constructions for marine aquaculture. The development of these facilities will unavoidably exert environmental pressures on marine ecosystems. It is therefore crucial that the economic costs, the use of marine space and the environmental impacts of these activities remain within acceptable limits. Moreover, the installation of arrays of wave energy devices is still far from being economically feasible due to many combined aspects, such as immature technologies for energy conversion, local energy storage and moorings. Therefore, multi-purpose solutions combining renewable energy from the sea (wind, wave, tide, aquaculture and transportation facilities can be considered as a challenging, yet advantageous, way to boost blue growth. This would be due to the sharing of the costs of installation and using the produced energy locally to feed the different functionalities and optimizing marine spatial planning. This paper focuses on the synergies that may be produced by a multi-purpose offshore installation in a relatively calm sea, i.e., the Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, and specifically offshore Venice. It analyzes the combination of aquaculture, energy production from wind and waves, and energy storage or transfer. Alternative solutions are evaluated based on specific criteria, including the maturity of the technology, the environmental impact, the induced risks and the costs. Based on expert judgment, the alternatives are ranked and a preliminary layout of the selected multi-purpose installation for the case study is proposed, to further allow the exploitation of the synergies among different functionalities.

  8. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and arsenic on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic Sea using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of two years monitoring of heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in soft tissue of Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are presented. Samples were taken at six localities (five exposed to various pollution sources and one control site) on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic in October 2003 and 2004 and in April 2004 and 2005. All measurements were carried out with source excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Method (EDXRF). Measured concentrations were in the following ranges: Pb (2-7 mg/kg); As (4-30 mg/kg); Cr (1-2.9 mg/kg); Mn (2-13 mg/kg); Fe (53.4-719 mg/kg); Ni (0.8-5 mg/kg); Cu (3.7-11.1 mg/kg) and Zn (59.1-273 mg/kg). Maximum values of the most elements were measured in samples from the most polluted Vranjic region. Statistically significant difference among six localities (p = 0.05) was found for As, Fe and Zn while Mn, Fe and Cu showed significantly higher concentrations in spring period. None of the selected elements showed significant difference between the control and exposed regions

  9. Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from farmed populations of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Cable, Joanne; Fioravanti, Maria L; Faria, Patricia J; Di Cave, David; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-03-01

    Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) is described from the skin, fins, eyes and gills of juvenile Sparus aurata L. (gilthead seabream) following two outbreaks of gyrodactylosis amongst stocks held in inshore floating cages on the Adriatic coast of Albania and Croatia. Fish were heavily infected (1000+ gyrodactylids/fish) with G. orecchiae which reportedly resulted in approximately 2-10% mortality amongst the infected stock. Morphologically, the haptoral hooks of G. orecchiae most closely resemble those of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 in the approximate shape of the ventral bar with its pronounced ventral bar processes and marginal hook sickles which possess a square line to the inner edge of the sickle blade and large rounded heels. The marginal hooks are also morphologically similar to those of Gyrodactylus quadratidigitus Longshaw, Pursglove et Shinn, 2003 and Gyrodactylus colemanensis Mizelle et Kritsky, 1967, but G. orecchiae can be readily discriminated from all three species by the characteristic infolding of the hamuli roots and the shape of the marginal hook sickle. Molecular sequencing of the ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 regions (513+157+404 bp, respectively) of G. orecchiae and alignment with other gyrodactylids for which these same genomic regions have been determined, suggests that this is a new species. No similarities were found when the ITS1 region of G. orecchiae was compared with 84 species of Gyrodactylus available on GenBank. PMID:19391328

  10. Geochemistry of the Adige River water from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea (Italy): evidences for distinct hydrological components and water-rock interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, C; Bianchini, G; Marchina, C; Knöller, K

    2016-06-01

    The Adige River flows from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the understanding of its fluvial dynamics can be improved by geochemical and O-H isotopic investigation. The most negative isotopic compositions are recorded close to the source (δ(18)O between -14.1 and -13.8 ‰, δD between -100.3 and -97.0 ‰), and δD and δ(18)O values generally increase downstream through the upper part (UP, the mountainous sector), stabilizing along the lower part (LP, the alluvial plain) of the river with δ(18)O between -12.4 and -11.8 ‰, δD between -86.9 and -83.7 ‰. The isotopic variations along the stream path (δ(18)O-δD vs distance from the source) depict subparallel distributions for all the investigated periods, with less negative values recorded in winter. Total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration shows the lowest value (fundamental for future water management to overcome the vanishing of a significant water end-member of the basin, i.e., the glacio-nival reservoir that is severely affected by the ongoing climatic changes. PMID:26939690

  11. Surface drift prediction in the Adriatic Sea using hyper-ensemble statistics on atmospheric, ocean and wave models: Uncertainties and probability distribution areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72??h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches. ?? 2007 NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).

  12. Developing a robust tephrochronological framework for Late Quaternary marine records in the Southern Adriatic Sea: new data from core station SA03-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Lowe, J. J.; Bourne, A. J.; MacLeod, A.; Abbott, P. M.; Andersen, N.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lane, C. S.; Oh, Y. A.; Satow, C. S.; Staff, R. A.; Wulf, S.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra layers are assuming an increasingly important role in the dating and correlation of Late Quaternary marine sequences. Here we demonstrate their potential by reporting a new study of the sediment sequence of marine core SA03-11, recovered from the Southern Adriatic Sea, which spans the last c. 39 ka. A total of 28 discrete tephra layers are reported from this sequence, 10 of which are visible in the core and a further 18 are non-visible cryptotephra layers. These have been analysed using more than 1400 WDS-EPMA measurements of glass chemistry and results have been compared with published chemical measurements obtained from relevant proximal and distal sites which preserve eruptive material dating to within the same time interval. The data show that a high proportion of the layers originate from the Campi Flegrei volcanic field but more distinctive layers are sourced from Vesuvius, the Aeolian Islands and Vulcano, and these provide key marker horizons. The results show that the sequence extends in time to the Campanian Ignimbrite at the base, that a number of the layers have robust age estimates that permit a better constrained age-depth model to be constructed for the sequence, and that the potential exists for importing terrestrially-based age estimates into marine contexts, thereby circumventing problems of incorporating reservoir uncertainties associated with marine radiocarbon dates. The WDS-EPMA dataset generated here also provides important new data that constrain key Late Quaternary tephra layers in the central Mediterranean region.

  13. Ecological characterization of toxic phytoplankton species (Dinophysis spp., Dinophyceae) in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and the implications for monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events are often registered in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and are related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. The annual dynamic of this genus and succession of the most important species were studied at two shellfish farms during monitoring fieldwork in the period 1995-2003. Results indicate that the Dinophysis genus maintains a relatively stable inter-annual dynamic at both sites. The Dinophysis community is characterized by two surface maxima in June and September, while in the middle layer only the autumn peak is pronounced (peak median 92 cells l-1). Occasional abundance maxima of around 2000 cells l-1 in the surface layer indicate that potential outbursts of toxic species are less predictable than their seasonal dynamic. On the basis of multivariate analysis, Dinophysis sacculus was characterized as a typical late spring-early summer species, and Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis fortii as autumn species. Correlation analysis revealed the influence of stratified conditions only on the most abundant species, D. sacculus. Ecological characteristics of the species were combined with shellfish safety requirements towards a more effective monitoring

  14. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Civitarese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the South Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that often the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. Horizontal distribution of the nitracline depth in the Ionian suggests that nutrient content in the Adriatic is a function of the circulation pattern in the Ionian that wells up or wells down the nitracline: cyclonic circulation causes a downwelling of the nitracline along the borders of the Northern Ionian Gyre (NIG and a decrease in the nutrient content of the water flowing into the Adriatic across the Otranto Strait, and vice versa. The circulation variations are due to the Bimodal Oscillating System, i.e. the feedback mechanism between the Adriatic and Ionian. Inversion of the sense of the NIG results in the advection of Modified Atlantic Water or of the Levantine/Eastern Mediterranean (EMed waters in the Adriatic. Here, we show that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean (WMed and EMed/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concomitant with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations, respectively, of the NIG. As a consequence of the NIG inversions, in the Ionian, this highly oligotrophic zone shows annual blooms in its central area only during cyclonic circulation. On the basis of the results presented, a revision of the theory of Adriatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.

  15. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  16. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Falace

    Full Text Available Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.. Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat

  17. A 25 years-long record of anoxia in a semi-enclosed sea. A case study: the NW Adriatic Shelf, Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca ALVISI; Cozzi, Stefano; Sparnocchia, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia and anoxia have occurred in the Northern Adriatic in both offshore and coastal waters, at least since the beginning of 1900. Despite several specific studies on these events are available, an overall long-term analysis of their recurrence and triggering mechanisms may provide a tool for a better understanding of ecosystem present evolution. A compilation and analysis of historical information on the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia in the North Adriatic was therefore done, focusing on...

  18. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Civitarese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the Southern Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, it is documented that nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that generally the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. As shown earlier, North Ionian Gyre (NIG changes its circulation sense on a decadal scale due to the Bimodal Oscillating System, i.e. the feedback mechanism between the Adriatic and Ionian. Cyclonic circulation causes a downwelling of the nitracline along the borders of the NIG and a decrease in the nutrient content of the water flowing into the Adriatic across the Otranto Strait, and vice versa. In addition, the highly oligotrophic central area of the Ionian shows annual blooms only during cyclonic NIG circulation. Inversion of the sense of the NIG results in the advection of Modified Atlantic Water or of the Levantine/Eastern Mediterranean waters in the Adriatic. Here, we show that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concurrent with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations of the NIG, respectively. On the basis of the results presented, a revision of the theory of Adriatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.

  19. 3D seismic geomorphology of mass transport complexes in a foredeep basin: Examples from the Pleistocene of the Central Adriatic Basin (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Gamberi, Fabiano; Rocchini, Patrizia; Minisini, Daniel; Errera, Alessia; Baglioni, Luca; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data has shed light on the character of a series of mass transport complexes (MTCs) emplaced during the Pleistocene in the Pescara Basin (Central Adriatic Sea, Italy). The Pescara Basin is the Plio-Pleistocene inner foredeep of the Central Apennines orogen, which was filled by a rapidly prograding, margin-scale clinoforms system. Three MTCs punctuate the normal turbiditic and hemipelagic sedimentary succession of the Pescara Basin foredeep. MTC_0 is the oldest one and covers an area of around 74 km2. It is composed of three different mass transport deposits (MTDs) resulting from individual collapses that involved a shelf-edge delta during a period of relative sea level rise. MTC_1, the intermediate age MTC, is the largest one, with an area of 90 km2. It has a 10 km wide cookie-bite headwall region that indents the upper slope and, in places, reaches the continental shelf-break. MTC_1 is made up of four laterally and vertically stacked MTDs which are the result of a composite set of failures that migrated progressively upslope in a sedimentary setting dominated by contourite deposits. MTC_2 is the youngest and the smallest one, with an area of 55 km2. It has a 5 km long headwall confined in correspondence with a sedimentary bulge developed in the upper slope. Its geomorphic setting leads us to consider two different episodes of failure rooted at different depths. The investigation of the MTCs, through the coupling of 3D seismic geomorphology, seismic facies analysis and rollover trajectory analysis, reveals that the type of sedimentary environment, the rate of sediment accumulation, the source region and the depth of rooting of the failure, are the major controlling factors on MTC evolution and emplacement. Each MTC of the Pescara Basin foredeep is generally confined within a discrete clinotheme. Finally, the rollover trajectory analysis has shown that, in the PB foredeep, a sediment failure can possibly occur at any

  20. Short-term post-mortality predation and scavenging and longer-term recovery after anoxia in the northern Adriatic Sea

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    M. Blasnig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean, the northern Adriatic Sea shows most features known to promote late-summer hypoxia and anoxia. These features, along with anthropogenic eutrophication and marine snow events, have led to repeated benthic mortalities here. The present study was designed to document the post-anoxia macrofauna dynamics. We deployed an underwater instrument to induce small-scale anoxia in situ (total area 0.5 m2. Two time-lapse camera deployments examined short-term scavenging of the moribund and dead organisms (multi-species clumps consisting of sponges and ascidians over a 3-day period (August 2008: 71.5 h, September 2008: 67.5 h. Longer-term recovery (2 yr in the same two plots was examined with an independent photo-series. Predators and scavengers arrived in a distinct sequence. The first to arrive were demersal (Gobius niger, Serranus hepatus and benthopelagic fishes (Diplodus vulgaris, Pagellus erythrinus, followed by hermit crabs (Paguristes eremita, showing a clear day/night rhythm in presence and gastropods (Hexaplex trunculus. This sequence of arrival is attributed to the relative speeds of the organisms and their densities. The scavengers remained in dense aggregations (e.g. up to 33 P. eremita individuals at one time as long as the dead organisms were available. The whole sessile fauna was largely removed or consumed within 7 (August plot and 13 (September plot days after anoxia. No macroepibenthic recovery took place in the experimental plots one and two years after anoxia. This study underlines the sensitivity of this soft-bottom community and supports calls for reducing additional anthropogenic disturbances such as damaging commercial fishing practices that impede recolonization and threaten benthic community structure and function over the long-term.

  1. Changes in microbial food web structure in response to changed environmental trophic status: a case study of the Vranjic Basin (Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solić, M; Krstulović, N; Kuspilić, G; Nincević Gladan, Z; Bojanić, N; Sestanović, S; Santić, D; Ordulj, M

    2010-08-01

    Vranjic Basin, in the eastern part of KastelaBay (middle Adriatic Sea), received municipal wastewater until offshore submarine outfalls were finished in November 2004. To identify the responses of the microbial community to changes in the trophic status of the marine environment, two 4-year periods were compared: a eutrophic period (2001-2004) when the sewage waters entered the Basin and an oligotrophic period (2005-2008) after the outfalls were completed. The switch from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions was accompanied by decreases in bacterial abundance, bacterial production and chlorophyll a, and increase in heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF) abundance and bacterial specific growth rate. Qualitative changes in the phytoplankton community manifested through dramatically decreased abundance of the diatom species Skeletonema costatum and Euglenophyta Eutreptiella spp. during the oligotrophic period. Furthermore, the percent contribution of pico-nano phytoplankton chlorophyll to total chlorophyll increased from less than 40% during the eutrophic period to more than 60% during the oligotrophic period. Changes in seasonal patterns of phytoplankton, bacteria and HNF abundance were also observed, with summer maxima during the eutrophic period and spring and autumn maxima during the oligotrophic period. Significant changes in the microbial food web were also identified. During eutrophic conditions, bacteria were dominantly under the phytoplankton-mediated bottom-up control whereas HNF were dominantly controlled by ciliate grazing (top-down control). In contrast, during the oligotrophic period, predominantly top-down control of bacteria by strong HNF grazing was observed. At the same time, HNF were spared from strong ciliate predation pressure because the ciliates apparently switched their dominant prey from HNF to the pico-nano phytoplankton fraction during that period. PMID:20570345

  2. Chemical Profile of the Organic Residue from Ancient Amphora Found in the Adriatic Sea Determined by Direct GC and GC-MS Analysis

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    Marin Roje

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An ancient organic residue was collected from the bottom of a Greco-Italian amphora found in the Adriatic Sea and investigated by direct GC and GC-MS analysis. The headspace composition was determined by HS-SPME using: (1 DVB/CAR/PDMS and (2 PDMS/DVB fibres. Higher percentages of benzene derivatives, monoterpenes and other low-molecular aliphatic compounds were obtained by method (1 in contrast to higher percentage of naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives found by method (2. In comparison with the composition of pine resin, it is more likely that the found low-molecular aliphatic alcohols, acids, esters and carbonyls with 2-phenylethanol were trapped and preserved within the organic residue from stored wine – the amphora’s originally content. Semi-volatile diterpenes methyl dehydroabietate (33.6% and retene (24.1% were dominant in the residue CH2Cl2 solution. Other abundant compounds were 1,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (6.8% as well as other naphthalene and/or phenanthrene derivatives [7-(1-methylethyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydronaphthalene, 7-(1-methylethyl-1,4a-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,9,10-hexahydrophenanthrene, 7-(1-methylethyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-phenanthrene, 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 2,3,5-trimethylphenanthrene]. Possible sources and formation pathways of the major compounds in the residue were discussed.

  3. Benthic fluxes of cadmium, lead, copper and nitrogen species in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, C; Capodaglio, G; Ceradini, S; Ciceri, G; Abelmoschi, L; Soggia, F; Cescon, P; Scarponi, G

    2000-02-10

    Trace heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Cu) and nitrogen species (N-NO3, N-NO2 and N-NH4) fluxes between sediment and water were examined for approximately 4 days, in a coastal marine station located in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow. An in situ benthic chamber, equipped with electronic devices for monitoring and adjustment of oxygen and pH and with a temperature detector, was used. The benthic chamber experiment enabled study of the temporal trend of metals and nutrients when oxygen concentration varied in a controlled environment. Although particular care was devoted to chamber deposition and parameter control, sediment resuspension occurred at the beginning of the experiment and O2 fluctuations were observed during the course of the experiment. Pb concentration was affected by both resuspension and oxic conditions in bottom water, which prevented determination of any reasonable Pb flux value. Cd and Cu, not influenced by oxygen fluctuations, reached an equilibrium phase in a short period with initial positive fluxes from sediment of 0.68 (S.D. = 0.07) and 6.9 (S.D. = 5.6) pmol cm(-2) h(-1), respectively. With regard to nitrogen species, the highest positive flux was that of N-NH4 (10.5, S.D. = 2.4, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) whose concentration increased in the chamber, while nitrate concentration (initial flux of -5.7, S.D. = 1.5, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) immediately decreased after the beginning of the experiment. Nitrite concentration was almost constant throughout the experiment and its flux was generally low (initial flux 0.1, S.D. = 0.9, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)). PMID:10696718

  4. Comparison of growth rates estimated by otolith reading of Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena notata caught on artificial and natural reefs of the northern Adriatic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scarcella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high number of studies on fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs and offshore platforms, little information exists on the growth rates of fish living on artificial and natural substrates. Age and growth was determined throughout otolith reading on two commercial scorpionfishes (Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena notata caught in the surroundings of artificial structures (artificial reefs and gas platforms and natural habitats. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated for each species separately for each site. Age of S. porcus and S. notata ranged from 0 to 8 years and from 0 to 16 years, respectively. Kimura test applied to Von Bertalanffy growth curves indicated that the individuals of both species inhabiting the artificial structures had higher growth parameters than those caught in the natural habitat. The presence of artificial habitats in the northern Adriatic Sea positively affects growth rates and growth performance of both species, likely for the greater prey availability in respect to the natural open sea.Apesar do elevado número de estudos sobre as assembléias de peixes associadas a recifes artificiais e plataformas offshore, existe pouca informação sobre as taxas de crescimento dos peixes que vivem em substratos artificiais e naturais. A idade e crescimento foram determinados pela leitura de otólitos em dois peixes escorpião comerciais (Scorpaena porcus e Scorpaena notata capturados nas imediações de estruturas artificiais (recifes artificiais e plataformas de gás e habitats naturais. Parâmetros de crescimento de von Bertalanffy foram calculadoss separadamente para cada espécie e cada local. A idade de Scorpaena porcus e Scorpaena notata variou entre 0 e 8 anos e 0 e 16 anos, respectivamente. O teste Kimura aplicado às curvas de crescimento de Bertalanffy indicaram que os indivíduos das duas espécies que habitam as estruturas artificiais tinham parâmetros de crescimento mais elevados do que

  5. Sea level changes since the Middle Ages along the coast of the Adriatic Sea: the case of St. Nicholas Basilica, Bari, Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliarulo, R.; Antonioli, F.; Anzidei, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, several papers have been published to estimate the relative sea level change from coastal archaeological indicators of the last 3.4 ka BP in many locations of the Italian coasts and the Mediterranean Sea. The use of the archaeological information has been poorly focused for the Middle Ages, due to the few available coastal installations for this period, thus not allowing precise sea level estimation for the last 1000 years, to complement the instrumental da...

  6. SEA ODC - An Implementation of Web Portal and B2B Services for Managing of Oceanographic Data Sets Collected in South-East Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicic, A.; Castelli, A.; Kljajic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of efforts to standardize oceanographic data sets collected since year 2002 in the area of south-east Adriatic, relational data model suitable for storage of meta-data and in situ measurements was designed and implemented. Using combination of customized tools developed for extraction of meta-data and data records from CTD files as well as standard office applications, data were extracted, transformed, processed and unified by attributes and units of measurement. To make those data available for wider scientific community, we have developed web portal able to be used for data retrieval based on various filters (spatial, temporal, by project and/or by sampling instrument). Selected data model proves to be also very efficient for generating of data-exchange formats required by various projects and initiatives (e.g. SeaDataNet) so extended by particular dictionaries it can allow fast implementation of integration services. As a part of Ecoport 8 project, newly available type of data was recently introduced. Real-time data provided by permanent sensors need to be automatically collected and stored into database. Visualization of such data was also required as well as exchange with project data center. To fulfill those requirements, additional data scheme and appropriate B2B services were developed. Additional care was taken about data transfer security as database was not hosted at the same place as workstation used for remote access to sensor equipment. Third section of portal is "Tide Tables", interactive, graphical application that visualize tide predictions for ports of Bar and Kotor, allowing also correction by atmospheric pressure. Developed in Java, based on well known Mike Foreman's Fortran 77 code it can be used as stand-alone product without Internet connection. Last section of portal is Google Earth file containing position of stations as well as some spatial features that can be useful during planning of future oceanographic cruises in this area

  7. Biochemical and fatty acid composition of Arca noae (Bivalvia: Arcidae from the Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUPCIC RADIC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and fatty acid composition of the bivalve Arca noae were investigated in the Mali Ston Bay in relation to environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out monthly, from December 2001 to November 2002. Wet shellfish meat consists on average of 77.61% water and 22.39% dry matter, while dry shellfish meat consists on average of 89.04% organic and 10.96% inorganic matter. PCA analysis identified temperature, nitrate, silicate, MICRO, Chl a and salinity as the most important environmental factors influencing biochemical composition of A. noae. An increase of dry weight content of A. noae was observed during the spring when both the sea temperature and food supply increased rapidly. Contents of protein (54.39-62.06% of dry weight, carbohydrate (4.13-8.07% of dry weight and lipid (3.46-8.58% of dry weight varied significantly during the year. Protein and lipid level reached the maximum value in June. The fatty acid profiles of total lipids extracted from A. noae showed high level of unsaturation (UNS/SAT 1.9-3.4. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented the majority of total fatty acids (40.3-59.9% of total fatty acids and the most abundant were eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acid. n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio value varied between 2.1 and 5.0 and was the highest during the spring (April to June. Due to their low lipid and high percentages of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids A. noae can be evaluated as a quality seafood product. The most suitable period of the year for its consumption is in the spring when it reaches its highest nutritional values.

  8. High-resolution sub-bottom sonar imaging and 3D modeling of drowned Pleistocene river paleochannel architecture (Strunjan bay, Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    In the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic), the seafloor is covered by up to several 100s of m of continental sediments, characterized predominately by alluvial and aeolian deposits that formed during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry revealed the existence of several meandering river channels. One such channel appears to be vertically offset across a linear, NE-SW striking morphological flexure, which could be an expression of active faulting. Initial sub-bottom sonar profiles showed abrupt terminations of subhorizontal strata of Pleistocene sediments which roughly coincide with the flexure position. To obtain a high-resolution 3D interpretation of this peculiar feature, we investigated the outermost part of the Strunjan bay (southern Slovenian coast). A grid of 25 m spaced sub-bottom profiles covering the area of 1225 x 500 m and comprising a total of 71 orthogonal profiles was acquired with the Innomar parametric sediment echo sounder SES-2000, using a sampling interval of 69 μs and a frequency of 8000 Hz. Data processing included conversion from proprietary to standard SEG-Y data format, deconvolution, elimination of swell movement and Automatic Gain Control. Geopositioned profiles were interpreted and correlated in IHS Kingdom seismic interpretation software, which was used to pick horizons and model 3D geometry of key stratigraphic surfaces. Four distinct acoustic facies were resolved from the sonar profiles to a depth of up to 10 m below the seafloor. The first reflection represents the seafloor, ranging in depth from 20 to 26 m. Acoustic facies A in the immediate subsurface represents Holocene marine sediments that are up to 9 m thick. The paleochannel and associated river deposits are represented in the underlying acoustic facies B. Characteristic for this facies is strong attenuation of signal along the river channel which we interpret as a consequence of lateral channel migration and/or later gas accumulations in this

  9. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships

  10. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein. PMID:26233668

  11. Seasonal changes in physiological responses and evaluation of "well-being" in the Venus clam Chamelea gallina from the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2006-12-01

    Chamelea gallina is an infaunal bivalve, widespread in sandy bottoms along Mediterranean coasts. It is an important economic resource for fisheries in the Adriatic, although in recent years over-fishing, and other concurrent factors, have dramatically decreased clam harvesting. In this context, it is of great interest to gain information on seasonal variations in the physiological performance of clams, for an overall evaluation of their well-being. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to define allometric relationships and effects of temperature on clearance and respiration rates of C. gallina. The mean values of b coefficients were calculated and used to correlate physiological measurements to 'standard' body mass, when seasonally collected clams were analysed. The highest clearance rate (0.42 L h(-1)) was measured in clams collected in July 2000; the highest respiration rate (12.22 micromol O2 h(-1)) was observed in July 2001, leading to a negative scope for growth (-2.8 J h(-1)). The influence of environmental and endogenous factors, mostly reproduction, was discussed. Survival in air and condition indices, showing higher stress conditions in December 2000 and July 2001, were in good agreement with the other physiological measurements. The physiological responses examined in this study appear to be suitable for providing detailed indications on the well-being of C. gallina and may be useful for future studies aimed at eco-sustainable management of the resource. PMID:16959514

  12. A long and winding road: Skeletonema sp transport by Northern Adriatic Dense Waters to the Southern Adriatic Pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bernardy Aubry, Fabrizio; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Boldrin, Alfredo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Finotto, Stefania; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea is a sub basin of the Mediterranean Sea located in its northeastern part; it has a shallow northern part (average depth of 40 m) and a deep Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP) that reaches 1200m. The presence of a wide continental shelf exposed to strong heat and momentum fluxes during winter months makes the Northern Adriatic a formation site of dense waters, generally referred to as Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). Once produced, it moves south as a quasi-geostrophically adjusted vein , flowing along the Italian coast and enters the SAP giving origin to descent and cascading dense shelf water bringing into the deep layers oxygen, nutrients and organic compound. In February 2012 a long and intense cold air outbreak, with strong Bora winds, interested the northern part of the Adriatic sea causing a drop in water temperature to less than 6 °C and an increase in density to values as high as 1030.2 kg/m3 (likely the maximum values since 1929). This resulted in a massive production of NAdDW. In order to study the behavior of the NAdDW vein, a rapid response 2 legs cruise (ODW2012) was organized in the southern Adriatic. During the cruise, along with physical and chemical measurements, water and phytoplankton samples were collected at different depths. Usual abundance and distribution with a general decrease in phytoplankton abundance from the surface to the bottom were found in all stations with one exception. The bottom sample of a station located roughly 40 km at 120 m depth in front of Gargano showed a significantly high dominance (40%) of the small diatom Skeletonema sp whose flowering is typical in the surface waters of the northern Adriatic in late winter. The physical parameters of the water column showed signs of the passage of the dense water vein (lower temperature and higher dissolved oxygen concentrations) hence it was hypothesized that those diatoms were actively transported by the NAdDW near-bottom stream. A further

  13. Cruise Shipping in the Adriatic-Ionian Region and its Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Žlak, Boštjan; Stojaković, Maja; Zanne, Marina; Twrdy, Elen

    2016-01-01

    Continuing – and constant - growth in world maritime traffic, and the increasing number of cruise ships in the Adriatic-Ionian region, was the motive for this study. Maritime passenger transport represents important part of tourism. This paper deals with maritime passenger transport, more specifically, maritime cruise traffic. Based on the data gathered through the EA SEA-WAY project, we have prepared an overview of the state of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic-Ionian region, identified...

  14. A NOTE ON CAUDAL FIN ABSENCE IN Symphodus roissali, RISSO 1810 (PISCES: LABRIDAE) RECORDED IN THE NORTHERN ADRIATIC

    OpenAIRE

    Pero Tutman; Jakov Dulčić; Marko Ćaleta

    2010-01-01

    On 08th August 2006 an tailless adult of five–spotted wrasse, Symphodus roissali (RISSO, 1810), were caught in the Cesarica cove (Northern Adriatic Sea). A possible reasons and causes for such phenomena are argued.

  15. Toxin Levels and Profiles in Microalgae from the North-Western Adriatic Sea—15 Years of Studies on Cultured Species

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Riccardi; Monica Cangini; Silvia Pigozzi; Marinella Pompei; Luciana Tartaglione; Anna Milandri; Ernesto Fattorusso; Martino Forino; Carmela Dell’Aversano; Patrizia Ciminiello; Silvana Vanucci; Manuela Riccardi; Laura Pezzolesi; Franca Guerrini; Rossella Pistocchi

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by dia...

  16. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN FISH FARMS ALONG THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Tomec

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of net phytoplankton composition were performed at three fish farms situated at the northern, middle and southern part of the eastern Adriatic Sea coast, respectively. In the northern part investigations were conducted in the Limski kanal, in the middle part at the Ugljan island and in the southern part in the place Drače on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure 1). At all three localities fish culture included mostly two species: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicen...

  17. Trophic transfer and accumulation of mercury in ray species in coastal waters affected by historic mercury mining (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Milena; Degenek, Nina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-03-01

    Total mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were analysed in the gills, liver and muscle of four cartilaginous fish species (top predators), namely, the eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), the bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus), the pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), collected in the Gulf of Trieste, one of the most Hg-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and worldwide due to past mining activity in Idrija (West Slovenia). The highest Hg and MMHg concentrations expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis were found in the muscle of the pelagic stingray (mean, 2.529 mg/kg; range, 1.179-4.398 mg/kg, d.w.), followed by the bull ray (mean, 1.582 mg/kg; range, 0.129-3.050 mg/kg d.w.) and the eagle ray (mean, 0.222 mg/kg; range, 0.070-0.467 mg/kg, d.w.). Only one specimen of the common stingray was analysed, with a mean value in the muscle of 1.596 mg/kg, d.w. Hg and MMHg contents in the bull ray were found to be positively correlated with species length and weight. The highest MMHg accumulation was found in muscle tissue. Hg and MMHg were also found in two embryos of a bull ray, indicating Hg transfer from the mother during pregnancy. The number of specimens and the size coverage of the bull rays allowed an assessment of Hg accumulation with age. It was shown that in bigger bull ray specimens, the high uptake of inorganic Hg in the liver and the slower MMHg increase in the muscle were most probably due to the demethylation of MMHg in the liver. The highest Hg and MMHg contents in all organs were found in the pelagic stingray, which first appeared in the northern Adriatic in 1999. High Hg and MMHg concentrations were also found in prey species such as the banded murex (Hexaplex trunculus), the principal prey of the eagle rays and bull rays, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) and the red bandfish (Cepola rubescens), which are preyed upon by the pelagic stingray, as well as in zooplankton and seawater. Based on previously published

  18. Mapping of decadal middle Adriatic oceanographic variability and its relation to the BiOS regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihanović, Hrvoje; Vilibić, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Å epić, Jadranka

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed long-term time series of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations collected along the Palagruža Sill transect (middle Adriatic) between 1952 and 2010. The data have been mostly collected on seasonal basis, allowing for extraction of seasonal signal from the series. By applying Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, a kind of unsupervised neural network method, the processes on a decadal time scale emerged as the most relevant for changes of oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic area. Sensitivity studies revealed that oceanographic patterns obtained by SOM were not sensitive to shortening of time series, to removal of data from one station or to removal of DO from the analysis. Simultaneous SOM-based mapping of sea surface heights in the northern Ionian Sea, with these heights serving as a proxy for the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), revealed asymmetry between anticyclonic and cyclonic BiOS patterns and correlated the decadal oscillations in the middle Adriatic with the reversals in the BiOS circulation regimes. These reversals are found to either rapidly change oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic (e.g., during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient) or to change them with a time lag of 2-3 years. The mapped connections may be used for a short-time (a few years) forecasting of the Adriatic oceanographic properties or for mapping future climate decadal oscillations as seen by ocean climate models.

  19. The geochemistry model of the surface sediment determined by using ED-XRF technique: a case study of the Boka Kotorska bay, Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaskovski, Bojan; Jović, Mihajlo; Miličić, Ljiljana; Pezo, Lato; Mandić, Milica; Stanković, Slavka

    2016-06-01

    The spatial distribution of major oxides (Na2O, K2O, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO2, P2O5) and numerous elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, Sn, Sb, Ba, Sr, Br, Rb, Zr, Mo, Cs, Y, V, Ga, La, U, Th, Nb, W, Sc, Ge, Gd, Yb, Hf, and Ce) was determined by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on the basis of previously measured organic matter and carbonates. The optimal measuring variables for the investigated oxides and elements were determined by using five standard reference materials. The carbonated sediment type can be determined on the basis of the highest Sr, Sc, La, Nb, Hf, and Yb concentrations followed with the lowest concentrations of the remaining elements and the negative Ce anomaly. The complexity of the obtained data was also examined by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) in the identifying geochemical composition of the surface sediment. Boka Kotorska bay's geographical position, orographical configuration, and hydrographic characteristics influence the geochemistry model of the surface sediment, quite different from the open sea. PMID:26948969

  20. Distribution of natural radioactivity in sediment cores from Amvrakikos Gulf (western Greece) as a part of IAEA's campaign in the Adriatic and Ionian seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of natural radionuclides 232Th decay, 238U decay, 40K and 210Pb) was assessed in sediment cores collected from the Amvrakikos Gulf, (Ionian Sea, Western Greece). Two collection stations were selected, the first at the western part of the Gulf near Preveza Strait (13A station) and the other near the centre of the Gulf (13B station). Activity concentrations were measured by means of gamma-ray spectrometry using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors installed at two national laboratories. The activity concentration of 226Ra was found in a range from 10 to 20 Bq kg-1, while the activity concentration of 222Rn daughters 214Pb, 214Bi) ranged from 6 to 20 Bq kg-1. The activity concentration of 228Ac varied from 20 to 28 Bq kg-1, while 220Rn daughters 212Pb, 208Tl) from 7 to 35 Bq kg-1. As concerns 40K and 210Pb, their activities varied from 400 to 830 Bq kg-1 and from 11 to 360 Bq kg-1, respectively. Also, the data of 210Pb were utilised in the calculations of the sedimentation rate along the sediment cores. Both locations were characterised by a consistent pattern with the average rates of 0.55 ± 0.02 and 0.32 ± 0.02 cm y-1, corresponding to 13A and 13B stations, respectively. Finally, the measurements constituted the basis of the first reported database concerning the radiological condition of the Gulf and which can be reclaimed as reference values in future monitoring studies. (authors)

  1. Extreme winter 2012 in the Adriatic: an example of climatic effect on the BiOS rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gačić; G. Civitarese; Kovačević, V.; L. Ursella; M. Bensi; Menna, M.; Cardin, V.; P.-M. Poulain; S. Cosoli; G. Notarstefano; C. Pizzi

    2014-01-01

    Adriatic and Ionian Seas are Mediterranean sub-basins linked through the Bimodal Oscillating System mechanism responsible for decadal reversals of the Ionian basin-wide circulation. Altimetric maps showed that the last cyclonic mode started in 2011 but unexpectedly in 2012 reversed to anticyclone. We related this "premature" inversion to extremely strong winter in 2012, which caused the formation of very dense Adriatic waters, flooding Ionian flanks in May a...

  2. Extreme winter 2012 in the Adriatic: an example of climatic effect on the BiOS rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gačić; G. Civitarese; Kovačević, V.; L. Ursella; M. Bensi; Menna, M.; Cardin, V.; Poulain, P.-M.; S. Cosoli; G. Notarstefano; C. Pizzi

    2014-01-01

    Adriatic and Ionian seas are Mediterranean sub-basins linked through the Bimodal Oscillating System mechanism responsible for decadal reversals of the Ionian basin-wide circulation. Altimetric maps showed that the last cyclonic mode started in 2011 but unexpectedly in 2012 reversed to anticyclonic. We related this "premature" inversion to the extremely strong winter in 2012, which caused the formation of very dense Adriatic waters, flooding Ionian flanks in May and inverting...

  3. Impact of winter oceanographic conditions on zooplankton abundance in northern Adriatic with implications on Adriatic anchovy stock prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Romina; Supić, Nastjenjka; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica

    2015-12-01

    Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (L.), is commercially one of the most important Adriatic small pelagic fish. Despite the prevailing oligotrophication trend in the northern Adriatic (NA), the anchovy catch increased after 2000, coinciding with an increased number of the winter type A occurrences, when Po River waters are favoured to spread across the NA. Namely, winter type A is characterised by conditions resulting with Po River waters spreading across the NA along with salinity decrease. On the contrary, in winters of type B, salinity is high. We hypothesized in previous paper, based on correlation between circulation patterns and phytoplankton with anchovy catch, that excess feeding of anchovy in this winter pre-spawning period (February) can lead to increased amounts of the anchovy eggs two months later and subsequently to the total fish catch of the same year. In this paper, we investigate in more details and based on longer time series the relation between anchovy catch and winter circulation patterns of the NA. Additionally, we studied the association between anchovy catch and zooplankton, as anchovy is predominantly zooplanktivorous. We found that zooplankton abundances in winters of A type enhance and that ciliates play an important role in the NA anchovy food web and enrichment of the region with anchovy. Finally, the results of our investigation might in time represent the basics for a sustainable anchovy management in the Adriatic Sea as they enable the development of prediction models of the anchovy stock.

  4. Long-term variability of the southern Adriatic circulation in relation to North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabrang, L.; Menna, M.; Pizzi, C.; Lavigne, H.; Civitarese, G.; Gačić, M.

    2016-02-01

    The interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre and its relation to the wind vorticity and the large-scale climatic pattern (North Atlantic Oscillation - NAO) was studied using the time series of satellite altimetric data and ocean surface wind products. The cyclonic circulation observed in the southern Adriatic area was partly sustained by the local wind forcing, as suggested by the positive correlation between the rate of change of the current vorticity and the wind-stress vorticity. Nevertheless, the influence of vorticity advection from the adjacent area (northern Ionian Sea) cannot be ignored and it is more significant during the anticyclonic phase of Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillation System. The geostrophic current vorticities of the southern Adriatic and northern Ionian seas are correlated with a time lag of 14 months, which approximately corresponds to an advection speed of ˜ 1 cm s-1. The different wind patterns observed during two NAO phases in the winter revealed a stronger positive vorticity during the negative NAO phase. Conversely, during the wintertime positive NAO phase the wind vorticity is characterized by lower positive or slightly negative values. Despite a statistically significant negative correlation between the NAO index and the wind vorticity, no unequivocal relationship between large climatic system and the interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre intensity was found due to additional effects of the vorticity advection from the Ionian. This can be explained by the fact that the Ionian circulation mode does not depend on the NAO variations. Therefore, the main result of this study is that the interannual variability of the southern Adriatic cyclonic circulation is a result of the combined influence of the vorticity advection from the Ionian and the local wind-curl effect.

  5. Marine Conservation and Accession: The Future for the Croatian Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

  6. Severe flooding along the eastern Adriatic coast: the case of 1 December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međugorac, Iva; Pasarić, Miroslava; Orlić, Mirko

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses an extraordinary storm surge in the Northern Adriatic that was more pronounced on the eastern than on the western shore. On 1 December 2008, Adriatic monitoring stations detected exceptionally high sea levels; the oldest Croatian tide gauge station recorded the highest water level in its operating history at the time. Apart from the Northern Adriatic, large portion of the Dalmatian Coast was also exposed to high water levels, while Venice experienced a less-dramatic event. This marine storm was different from the capital storm of 4 November 1966 during which the surge had the highest impact ahead of Venice and along the north-western coastline. The 2008 event is studied here in detail, and the mechanisms that resulted in the different flooding of the two shores are identified. The study is based on hourly sea level, air pressure and wind data measured along both basin sides together with ECMWF reanalysis fields. Four components of sea-level evolution are identified: the storm surge, tide, Adriatic seiche and, low-frequency variability. The 2008 event was the outcome of a fine interplay between the first three components, which were all superimposed on the raised sea level due to low-frequency variability. The marine storm differed from the 1966 storm in the atmospheric forcing and relative timing of all contributing processes. The 2008 flooding of the eastern coast was mainly due to the Sirocco-wind shear, whereas the 1966 flooding of the western coast was due to the combined effect of almost uniform Sirocco and bottom slope.

  7. State of the art of seafood chemical contamination in the Adriatic sea and risk assessment for the population living along the Italian coast; Stato dell'arte sulla contaminazione chimica dei prodotti ittici nel mare Adriatico e valutazione del rischio per la popolazione residente lungo la costa italiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, F.; Funari, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    Data on seafood chemical contamination in the Adriatic sea (Italy) from open and grey literature referring to the period 1985-1997 are gathered. In spite of the high number of available data, the risk assessment was possible only few contaminants. Through the comparison of the estimated intakes with the safety doses defined by international organizations, according to a conservative approach, the latter were never exceeded for the general population in the case of aluminium, chromium, copper, mercury, zinc, DDTs, HCBs and HCHs. In the case of strong consumer categories, these doses were sometimes exceeded for arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel only when the conservative approach was applied but not with the some realistic one. [Italian] Sono presentati i dati della letteratura scientifica aperta e grigia, relativi al periodo 1985-1997, sulla contaminazione chimica dei prodotti ittici del mare Adriatico. Nonostante la notevole mole di dati, la valutazione del rischio e' possibile soltanto per alcuni contaminanti. Confrontando le assunzioni stimate con le dosi ritenute tollerabili da organismi internazionali, applicando un approccio cautelativo, queste ultime non vengono mai superate per la popolazione generale nei casi di alluminio, cromo, mercurio, rame e zinco, DDT, HCB e HCH. Per le categorie dei forti consumatori, applicando l'approccio cautelativo, ma non quello piu' realistico, le dosi di sicurezza vengono talvolta superate nei casi di arsenico, cadmio, nichel e piombo.

  8. Tamaricion dalmaticae, a new alliance from the eastern Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasprica Nenad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Tamaricion dalmaticae alliance and the Tamaricetum dalmaticae association, a new syntaxa localized under the saline or sub-halophilous conditions within the thermo-mediterranean and meso-mediterranean belts of the eastern Adriatic coast. The Tamaricion dalmaticae alliance is considered analogous to the Western Mediterranean Tamaricion africanae. The Tamaricetum dalmaticae association shows the high ecological amplitude of in terms of moisture. It develops on sandy soils only periodically inundated with sea or brackish waters, as well as on non-flooded areas in south Croatia, Montenegro and NW Albania. In Croatia, Tamaricetum dalmaticae has connections with the halophyte communities of the Sarcocornietea fruticosae and Ammophiletea classes, and the xerophilous ruderal communities of the Artemisietea vulgaris class. The habitats are exposed to disturbances and fragmentation.

  9. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tudor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind – ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  10. Evaluation and Characterization of a Potential CO2 Storage Site in the South Adriatic Offshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpi V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the FP7 European Sitechar project. The potential reservoir identified in the investigated area is represented by a carbonate formation (Scaglia Formation – Late Cretaceous. This paper shows the site characterization applied to one of the structures identified in the carbonate storage system of the South Adriatic offshore. The interpretation and analysis of seismic and borehole data allowed the construction of a 3D geological static model on both regional and local scales. Dynamic modeling was applied, adopting a sensitivity approach (i.e. fault transmissivity, petrophysical properties of the caprock and reservoir, and different stress regimes. Coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulation was applied to investigate the potential risk of leakage induced by mechanical solicitation on the faults occurring in the investigated area.

  11. Time variability of atmospheric and marine parameters over the Adriatic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raicich, F.; Crisciani, F. [CNR, Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy). Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico

    1999-04-01

    The time evolution of atmospheric and marine parameters over the Adriatic region is studied for the period 1946-1996 on different time-scales. On the inter annual and interdecadal time-scales evidence is found of the inverted barometer effect on sea level and the strong connection between air and sea temperatures. By contrast, opposite relationship are found on longer (secular) time-scales, which might be explained as different results of global climatic fluctuations on the atmospheric and marine parameters involved. On the inter annual time-scale a correlation is found between sea-level pressure gradient along the basin and the water inflow/outflow through the Otranto Channel, in terms of sea level and sea temperature.

  12. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN FISH FARMS ALONG THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of net phytoplankton composition were performed at three fish farms situated at the northern, middle and southern part of the eastern Adriatic Sea coast, respectively. In the northern part investigations were conducted in the Limski kanal, in the middle part at the Ugljan island and in the southern part in the place Drače on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure 1. At all three localities fish culture included mostly two species: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Beside some physico–chemical parameters (sea water temperature, salinity special attention was placed on the examination of qualitative net phytoplankton composition, which was conducted in the period of May and November 2004 and May and October 2005. Samples were collected at the depths of 0. 5 and 4 meters. According to the physico–chemical parameters, sea water temperature was influenced by the temperature of the environment. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition consisted of 153 microphytic species belonging to the systematic compartments of Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta (Table 1. The most numerous algal group were diatoms or Bacillarophyceae (84 species or 55% with relative frequencies of species from 1 to 7. Taxonomic composition of diatoms showed the community Chaetoceros–Rhizosolenia (Proboscia as the dominant one. The second numerically most dominant compartment were Dinophyta (62 species or 401% with dominant the species of the genera Ceratium and Protoperidinium. Relative frequencies of species was ranging from 1 to 7 (mass presence of specimens in the water column. From Cyanobacteria (4 species or 3%, only filamentous algae were determined, with individual presence in net phytoplankton composition. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition suggests the similarity of species composition in the water column at all investigated fish farms. From the obtained characteristics of net phytoplankton composition

  13. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of 137Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  14. Essential Oils from Anthemis maritima Flowers: Infraspecific Variability along the Adriatic Coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa

    2016-05-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oils (EOs) from flowers of five Adriatic populations of Anthemis maritima were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Anthemis maritima is a psammophilous plant living generally on coastal sand dunes but occasionally on sea cliffs and shingle beaches. A total of 163 chemical compounds were identified, accounting for 90.5% of the oils. The main classes of compounds represented in the EOs were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and terpene esters.The multivariate chemometric techniques, in particular cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis, used to classify the samples, highlighted three different chemotypes linked to a geographic origin. One group living in northern Italy was characterized by the highest content of β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and β-caryophyllene, a second chemotype was in central Italy with the highest amount of trans-chrysanthenyl acetate and a third group living in southern Italy with a more heterogeneous volatile profile was characterized by the highest values of cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, trans-chrysanthenyl isobutyrate, cis-carveol propionate, α-zingiberene, and cubenol. Moreover, the comparison of the Adriatic populations with the Tyrrhenian samples, analyzed in a previous research, showed that cubenol (absent in all the Tyrrhenian populations) and (E)-β-farnesene (absent in all the Adriatic samples) play a crucial role in discriminating the Italian populations. PMID:27114258

  15. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  16. Comparison of Biocoenosis with Thanatocoenosis from Adriatic, between the peninsula Istria and the river Po

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Šribar

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of biocoenosis and thanatocoenosis at three observational stations, west of the peninsula Istria, in littoral of the Adriatic sea, has shown a suprisingly low similarity between them. The difference seems to be due to ecological changes during the deposition of thanatocoenosis (approximately in thelast hundert years. These ecological changes can not be studied in thanatocoenosis because of a very high degree of bioturbation that destroyed stratification and mixed all the skeletal particles. Lateral transport of skeletal particles seems to be of minor importance.

  17. Are the 1/3-Octave Band 63- and 125-Hz Noise Levels Predictive of Vessel Activity? The Case in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Gospić, Nikolina Rako

    2016-01-01

    A 3-years sea ambient-noise (SAN) monitoring was carried out in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Croatia), where a bottlenose dolphin population is threatened by unregulated nautical tourism. A total of 540 5-min SAN samples were collected and analyzed in an Indicator 11.2.1 (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) perspective. The 1/3-octave band center frequencies of 63 and 125 Hz (re 1 μPa.rms) proved to be predictive of local predominant ship type over time. However, the noisiest band level was centered on 200 Hz. We therefore suggest measuring a wider frequency band than those requested in Indicator 11.2.1. PMID:26611038

  18. Burried MIS 5 abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic) confirm long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2016-04-01

    The youngest seafloor sediments of the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic) are represented by an up to several 100 meters thick succession of Pliocene to Quaternary continental and shallow-marine deposits recording numerous transgressive-regressive cycles. These sediments are separated from older lithologies (mainly Eocene flysch) by an erosional unconformity. Previous geophysical campaigns conducted in the Italian part of the Gulf of Trieste revealed a complex undulating morphology of the unconformity characterised by numerous morphological steps in the flysch appearing between 40 and 200 m below sea level. From correlation with onshore well data from the Friuli and Veneto area it is assumed that the highest system of these unconformities located at approximately 40 mbsl represents a marine abrasion platform formed during the MIS 5 period sea-level highstand. We present the first observations of these abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper in the southern (Slovenian) part of the Gulf of Trieste. A series of perpendicular sub-bottom sonar profiles with a spacing of 250-500 meters was acquired in the Bay of Koper between 2009 and 2012 with the Innomar parametric sediment echo sounder SES-2000. Along the northern coast of the bay several acoustic facies were resolved, including the top erosional unconformity surface of the flysch. On this surface we located platforms at 35 ms (platform A), 40 ms (platform B) and 50 ms (platform C) of two-way-travel time. The top of abrasion platform B coincides with the top of a sediment progradational wedge which overlies abrasion platform C. No progradational wedge is developed at the top of platform A. Due to signal attenuation and multiples sub-bottom profiles could not be interpreted below 53 ms TWT time. We used a sound velocity of 1650 m/s for the time to depth conversion, which places the platforms at the depth of 28, 33 and 41 mbsl, respectively. Assuming that the abrasion platforms are a remnant of the MIS 5 highstand, this

  19. Model study of the ship emissions impact on the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios; Argiriou, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    The increase of the ship traffic for touristic and commercial purposes is one of the EU Blue Growth targets. The Adriatic/Ionian is one of the sea-basin strategic areas for this target. The purpose of the study is the examination of the impact of the ship emissions on the gaseous and particulate pollutants concentrations in the Adriatic/Ionian area for which the current scientific knowledge is limited. The impact is simulated over a domain covering the Central and Eastern Mediterranean in 10 km resolution during a summer period (July) and a winter period (January) of the year 2012. The modeling system used consists of the photochemical model CAMx off line coupled with the meteorological model WRF. The zero-out modeling method is implemented involving CAMx simulations performed while including and omitting the ship emission data. The simulations are based on the European scale anthropogenic emission inventory of The Netherlands Organisation (TNO) for the reference year 2009. Natural emissions (NMVOCs from the vegetation, sea salt, wind-blown dust), estimated with the use of the Natural Emission MOdel (NEMO) developed by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, are accounted for in the photochemical model runs. The spatial distribution of the resulting differences in the gaseous and particulate pollutant concentration fields for both emission scenarios are presented and discussed, providing an estimation of the contribution of ship emissions on the determination of the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian countries

  20. Factors favouring large organic production in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, R.; Supić, N.; Precali, R.

    2015-06-01

    Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy). We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production at the transect in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and in the Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phyto-abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to 1-15 days earlier Po River discharge rates and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phyto-abundances increased 1-3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of circulation fields. During the entire year the phyto-abundances were dependant on forcing of the previous 1-12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. Large February blooms are, as well as February circulation patterns, precondited by low evaporation rates in previous November. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. Performed investigations represent the preliminary actions in building of an empirical ecological model of the northern Adriatic which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, however also in validation of the numerical ecological model of the region, which is currently being developed.

  1. Factors favouring large organic production in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kraus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy. We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production at the transect in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and in the Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phyto-abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to 1–15 days earlier Po River discharge rates and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phyto-abundances increased 1–3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of circulation fields. During the entire year the phyto-abundances were dependant on forcing of the previous 1–12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. Large February blooms are, as well as February circulation patterns, precondited by low evaporation rates in previous November. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. Performed investigations represent the preliminary actions in building of an empirical ecological model of the northern Adriatic which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, however also in validation of the numerical ecological model of the region, which is currently being developed.

  2. Long-term variability of the South Adriatic circulation and phytoplankton biomass in relation to large-scale climatic pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shabrang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre and its relation to the wind vorticity and the large-scale climatic pattern (North Atlantic Oscillation – NAO, was studied using the time-series of satellite altimetry data and ocean surface wind products. The cyclonic circulation observed in the South Adriatic area was mainly sustained by the local wind forcing, as suggested by the positive correlation between the rate of change of the current vorticity and the wind-stress vorticity. Nevertheless, the influence of vorticity advection from the adjacent area (North Ionian Sea cannot be ignored and it is more significant during the anticyclonic phase of Adriatic–Ionian Bimodal Oscillation System. The geostrophic current vorticities of the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas are correlated with a time lag of 15 months, which corresponds to an advection speed of ~1 cm s−1. The different wind patterns observed during the two NAO phases revealed a stronger positive vorticity during the negative NAO phase. Conversely, during the positive NAO phase the wind vorticity is characterized by lower positive values. Subsequently, the calculated positive linear correlation between the NAO index and the frequency of the cold and dry northerly wind suggests the strengthening of the winter convection, and of the consecutive deep water formation, during the positive NAO phases. As a consequence of the winter deep convection, Southern Adriatic area is characterized by the late winter/early spring algal blooms. Relationship between the spatially averaged surface chlorophyll concentrations and the northerly wind frequencies revealed that the two biological productivity regimes likely exist: the subtropical one and the subpolar one depending on the frequency of windy days. We also showed that the bloom timing is a linear function of the wind frequency and can vary within the range of almost two months. This study thus contributes to our understanding of the

  3. Toxin Levels and Profiles in Microalgae from the North-Western Adriatic Sea—15 Years of Studies on Cultured Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Riccardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins, constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum, recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins

  4. Assessing the main threats to marine ecosystem components of the Adriatic - Ionian Region for the implementation of Maritime Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipizer, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems and the related benefits they provide for humans are threatened by increasing pressures and competing usages. To address these issues, in the last decade, several EU legislations have been formulated to guarantee and promote sustainable use of the sea (e.g. Common Fishery Policy, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Maritime Spatial Planning). As a first step to implement cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Adriatic - Ionian Seas, a review of the main anthropogenic pressures due to maritime activities involving the Adriatic - Ionian Region (AIR) as well as of the most relevant environmental components has been carried out. The main objective of the analysis is to better identify the spatial distribution of human uses of the sea and of the key environmental components and the ecosystem services provided. The analysis of the existing conditions includes a description of the human activities per economic sector, considering type, location, dimension and magnitude of the activity in the AIR and the spatial extent of the main environmental and ecological values present in the AIR. The environmental status has been characterized according to the descriptors proposed by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD Directive 2008/56/EC) and the most sensitive ecosystem components in the AIR have been pointed out. A qualitative analysis of the relationships between good environmental status descriptors sensu MSFD and ecosystem services in the AIR has been carried out to provide useful information for the implementation of MSP. Cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning is particularly needed in a semi-enclosed basin such as the Adriatic Sea, hosting very diverse human activities, ranging from fishery to tourism, sand extraction, commercial and passenger transport, oil and gas exploration and exploitation, which may partially overlap and severely threaten ecosystem functioning and the associated services.

  5. Meteorological Safety of Entering Eastern Adriatic Ports

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Ružica; Kulović, Mirsad; Stanivuk, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Traffic and sea shipping industry are perhaps the most important economic activities in modern economic and social development of the world. Basic features and the meaning of sea shipping industry, as one of the constituent parts of multimodal transport, emerge primarily from special characteristics of the sea as a transportation way. Ports represent a great economic power; they play an essential role in the international and national economies, as well as in the global commodity exchange. Th...

  6. On the Isotopic Altitude Effect of Precipitation in the Northern Adriatic (Croatia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper (northern) Adriatic is very rich in precipitation. This input into the water system and its stable isotope composition is a basic factor, knowledge of which is required for proper use and management of water resources. The geomorphology of the region (e.g., mountains of 1400 m next to the sea) can cause specific local conditions. The isotopic composition of precipitation has been measured in various locations at different altitudes. For δ18O this 'altitude effect' is found to lie around -0.2 per mille /100 m; its exact value depends on the specific location and the season. The δ2H values and the d-excess vary correspondingly. (author)

  7. The largescaled terapon Terapon theraps: a new Indo-Pacific fish in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Jakov DULČIĆ; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc; Žiža, Valter

    2015-01-01

    A specimen of the largescaled terapon Terapon theraps was recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of T. theraps in the northernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea raises a number of Lessepsian migrant species to al least 68 and in the Adriatic Sea to at least 11.

  8. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  9. Sightings of Delphinus delphis (Cetacea, Odontoceti in the Otranto Channel (Southern Adriatic Sea and Northern Ionian Sea / Avvistamenti di Delphinus delphis (Cetacea, Odontoceti nel Canale d'Otranto (Mar Adriatico Meridionale e Mar Ionio Settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Angelici

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two sightings of Common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the Channel of Otranto are reported, and the status of this species in the Mediterranean Sea is briefly discussed. Riassunto Sono riportati due avvistamenti di Delfino comune Delphinus delphis nel Canale d'Otranto, lungo la costa greca e quella italiana. Viene inoltre brevemente commentata la frequenza degli avvistamenti e degli spiaggiamenti di tale specie nel Mar Mediterraneo.

  10. Potentially harmful microalgal distribution in an area of the NW Adriatic coastline: Sampling procedure and correlations with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Antonella; Ingarao, Cristina; Ercolessi, Manuela; Rocchi, Marco; Penna, Nunzio

    2006-10-01

    In this study, the trend of potentially Harmful Algal (HA) taxa (genera and species), was analysed along a coastal area of the NW Adriatic Sea on a monthly scale. The study included the use of a phytoplankton net for sample collection. The investigation was carried out in four sampling stations characterised by different ecological features. The composition of potentially HA phytoplankton taxa and their succession were related to the environmental factors. The potentially HA group abundance accounted for 8% of all the phytoplankton taxa considered. Multivariate analyses of environmental factors suggested that potentially HA taxa are sensitive to phosphate content: potential DSP-YTX (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning-Yessotoxin) producers were positively correlated with P content ( p = 0.023), while potential ASP (Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning) producers were negatively correlated with P content ( p = 0.006). Phosphorus could be considered to be the limiting factor for phytoplankton taxa density in the NW Adriatic Sea. There was a highly positive correlation between the occurrences of potentially HA taxa and low values of salinity ( p = 0.001 for potential producers of ASP, p = 0.029 for potential DSP-YTX producers). The counting of potential HA dinoflagellates in net samples represented a more accurate estimation of potential HA abundances in the water column making it possible to concentrate a greater number of potential HA dinoflagellate cells by net sampling along the entire water column rather than by sampling only at the surface as in routine monitoring procedures.

  11. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.

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    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1000 to 1500 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  12. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1800 to 1900 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1800-1900 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea and
    the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the present
    paper.

  13. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1900 to 1980 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1900 to 1980 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  14. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1500 to 1800 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1500-1800 A.D., in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea and the
    Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the present
    paper.

  15. Managing polyploidy in ex situ conservation genetics: the case of the critically endangered Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Leonardo; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Forlani, Anna; Cenadelli, Silvia; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Barbisan, Federica; Galli, Andrea; Fontana, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    While the current expansion of conservation genetics enables to address more efficiently the management of threatened species, alternative methods for genetic relatedness data analysis in polyploid species are necessary. Within this framework, we present a standardized and simple protocol specifically designed for polyploid species that can facilitate management of genetic diversity, as exemplified by the ex situ conservation program for the tetraploid Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A critically endangered endemic species of the Adriatic Sea tributaries, its persistence is strictly linked to the ex situ conservation of a single captive broodstock currently decimated to about 25 individuals, which represents the last remaining population of Adriatic sturgeon of certain wild origin. The genetic variability of three F1 broodstocks available as future breeders was estimated based on mitochondrial and microsatellite information and compared with the variability of the parental generation. Genetic data showed that the F1 stocks have only retained part of the genetic variation present in the original stock due to the few parent pairs used as founders. This prompts for the urgent improvement of the current F1 stocks by incorporating new founders that better represent the genetic diversity available. Following parental allocation based on band sharing values, we set up a user-friendly tool for selection of candidate breeders according to relatedness between all possible parent-pairs that secures the use of non-related individuals. The approach developed here could also be applied to other endangered tetraploid sturgeon species overexploited for caviar production, particularly in regions lacking proper infrastructure and/or expertise. PMID:21483472

  16. Lithosphere model of the Pannonian-Adriatic overthrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumanovac, Franjo

    2015-12-01

    A gravity model has been established at the contact of the southern part of the Pannonian basin and central Dinarides. Two-dimensional gravity modelling was carried out by means of the calibrated density set, defined at the Alp07 profile (Šumanovac, 2010), which significantly improved the resolution of the method. Gravity attraction caused by the structure in the upper mantle was analyzed in detail, which enabled construction of complete lithosphere model at the contact of the Dinarides, as a part of the Adriatic microplate, and the Pannonian basin as a segment of the Eurasian plate. Geophysical models demonstrate that overthrusting structures need to be considered in the present geological model; notably, the thrusting of the Adriatic microplate under the European plate. However, overthrusting processes cannot provide a complete explanation of the processes in the Pannonian basin. Considering that the Pannonian basin area is in fact a large geothermal anomaly, it is necessary to introduce the asthenosphere upwelling into the model. The presence of this structure is confirmed by a change in densities and seismic velocities in the uppermost mantle. This process has led to a significant thinning of the crust in the Tisia block and to the homogenization of properties as a result of the rising of the asthenosphere, and the crust can therefore be considered as a single layer. The combined effect of the push exerted by the African plate, and the rising of the asthenosphere and the thinning of the crust in the Pannonian basin caused the underthrusting of the Adriatic microplate below the Pannonian segment, thickening of the crust and steeply sinking of the Adriatic upper mantle below the Dinarides. Seismicity of the area and earthquake hypocenters enable the construction of active faults, which correlate well with the main faults at the surface and boundaries of density blocks in the crust.

  17. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  18. Development of climate risk services under climate change scenarios in the North Adriatic coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Silvia, Torresan; Anna, Sperotto; Elisa, Furlan; Andrea, Critto; Antonio, Marcomini

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the challenge for coastal stakeholders and decision makers is to incorporate climate change in land and policy planning in order to ensure a sustainable integrated coastal zone management aimed at preserve coastal environments and socio-economic activities. Consequently, an increasing amount of information on climate variability and its impact on human and natural ecosystem is requested. Climate risk services allows to bridge the gap between climate experts and decision makers communicating timely science-based information about impacts and risks related to climate change that could be incorporated into land planning, policy and practice. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), a participatory Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was applied for the evaluation of water-related hazards in coastal areas (i.e. pluvial flood and sea-level rise inundation risks) taking into consideration future climate change scenarios in the case study of the North Adriatic Sea for the period 2040-2050. Specifically, through the analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk and the application of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the RRA methodology allowed to identify and prioritize targets (i.e. residential and commercial-industrial areas, beaches, infrastructures, wetlands, agricultural typology) and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood and sea-level rise impacts in the same region. From the early stages of the climate risk services development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the needs, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders dealing with the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), by means of questionnaires, workshops and focus groups organized within the project. Specifically, stakeholders were asked to provide their needs in terms of time scenarios, geographical scale and resolution, choice of receptors, vulnerability factors and thresholds that were considered in the

  19. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences

  20. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely

  1. VHR Reconstruction of a Portion of Late Holocene Transgressive Adriatic System Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscon, Giorgia; Correggiari, Annamaria; Remia, Alessandro; Stefani, Cristina; Fontana, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The Adriatic Sea is an epicontinental semi-enclosed basin characterized by a very low axial gradient shelf in the northern and central part and by a steeper gradient in the southern sector. During the last sea-level cycle in the Adriatic basin were deposited 1) low-stand deposits formed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 2) transgressive deposits formed during the last relative sea-level rise and 3) high-stand deposits confined in a narrow belt parallel to the modern shore-line. Across the low-gradient northern shelf, the stepwise, high-amplitude last relative sea-level rise favoured the deposition and in-place drowning of different generations of transgressive barrier-lagoon systems. Where present, the paralic transgressive deposits rest on a transgressive surface and are topped by a wave ravinement surface (Cattaneo and Steel, 2003). The transgressive deposits located south of the Po delta, offshore Ravenna show a dominant longshore trend similar to the modern sea-level high-stand deposits. These bodies are wreak of ancient coastal wedges drowned in place and consist in well sorted sand capped by ravinement surface and frequently drapped by a thin veneer of high-stand mud. In recent years, the study of the transgressive deposits has focused on the quality and the amount of sand for beaches nourishment. A stratigraphic characterization of one transgressive deposit at 33 m depth was carried out in order to understand its evolution before and during the last sea-level rise and define its sand content. 765 Km of very high resolution seismic profiles were acquired at 33 w.d. during NAD12 oceanographic cruise to increase the knowledge in a known shelf area. In each profiles the transgressive surface (ts) has been traced correlating the dated peat layers from published data and it has been digitized through SeisPrho which is an interactive software for processing and interpreting high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. Data processing defined a transgressive

  2. Submarine landslides in the Southern Adriatic basin: good candidates for potential paleoseismic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Trincardi, Fabio; Foglini, Federica; Campiani, Elisabetta; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the western continental margin that surround the Southern Adriatic basin mainly consists of contourite depositional systems. The architectural stacking pattern of the contourites-linked bodies is sometimes interrupted by the presence of large-scale mass-transport complexes (MTCs). MTCs are spatially diffused along the margin and are characterized by high variability in size, morphology and geometries. In the northern sector of the margin MTCs derive from the remobilisation of upper-slope contourite drifts, whereas in the southern sector of the margin sedimentary instability involves shelf-margin, progradational deposits. The most prominent MTC of the northern sector of the margin is the Gondola Slide (GS) a large, deep-seated MTC composed of at least three distinct MTDs involving up to 40km3 of sediments. The events that have generated these MTDs have been enclosed within a robust chronological framework using sedimentary shallow piston-cores collected along the continental slope. The reconstruction of the age of these MTDs indicates that failures have repeatedly occurred along the margin during at least the last 55,000 years. Therefore, the GS case indicates that sediment instability processes can span a large portion of a sea-level cycle, pointing to triggering mechanisms that are independent from variations in the relative sea level position. The repeated GS failure events are therefore interpreted to be mainly triggered by earthquake shocks. The Southern Adriatic basin represents a seismically active area and earthquakes are generally cluster along long-lived shear zones. One of these zones, the Gondola Zone, which run across the shelf and the slope, close to the GS-MTC, has been site of paleoseismology analysis, indicating recent (younger than 5.5 kyr) tectonic deformation through E-W strike-slip faulting . Basin-scale MTDs characterize also the southern sector of the continental margin. MTDs are present both

  3. Nested modeling of the east Adriatic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira PASARIĆ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The middle Adriatic coastal area was numerically modeled with a 1 km resolution in order to simulate temperature, salinity and currents. The model employed was a modification of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM, forced with surface momentum, heat and water fluxes and discharges from four rivers: Jadro, Žrnovnica, Cetina and Neretva. The coastal model was nested into the whole-Adriatic model having a 5 km resolution, using a simple off-line one-way nesting technique. Results of a three-year long experiment with perpetual atmospheric and river forcing were characterized by a strong annual signal, in reasonable agreement with temperature and salinity data taken at permanent oceanographic stations along the Split-Gargano transect. Current reversal obtained between the islands of Hvar and Vis in summer also agreed with previous measurements. The simulation also revealed the way Dalmatian islands – in particular Lastovo and Vis – influence the East Adriatic Current prevailing in winter, with wakes being formed behind the islands and jets among them. Comparison of an interannual simulation with corresponding measurements showed good agreement for temperature, whereas a discrepancy in salinity was related to the model being forced with climatological water fluxes. Experimental forecasts, produced over a six-month period, enabled some experience to be gained in operational oceanography, but also pointed to an additional problem – the model overmixing when the wind forcing is pronounced. Moreover, low spatial resolution of atmospheric forcing was suspected of reducing the quality of current forecasts for some wind directions.

  4. Impact of mesoscale meteorological processes on anomalous radar propagation conditions over the northern Adriatic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Horvat, Igor; Tomažić, Igor; Kvakić, Marko; Viher, Mladen; Grisogono, Branko

    2015-09-01

    The impact of mesoscale structures on the occurrence of anomalous propagation (AP) conditions for radio waves, including ducts, superrefractive, and subrefractive conditions, was studied. The chosen meteorological situations are the bora wind and the sporadic sea/land breeze (SB/LB) during three selected cases over a large portion of the northern Adriatic. For this purpose, we used available radio soundings and numerical mesoscale model simulations (of real cases and their sensitivity tests) at a horizontal resolution of 1.5 km and 81 vertical levels. The model simulated the occurrences of AP conditions satisfactorily, although their intensities and frequency were underestimated at times. Certain difficulties appeared in reproducing the vertical profile of the modified refractive index, which is mainly dependent on the accuracy of the modeled humidity. The spatial distributions of summer AP conditions reveal that the surface layer above the sea (roughly between 30 and 100 m asl) is often covered by superrefractive conditions and ducts. The SB is highly associated with the formations of AP conditions: (i) in the first 100 m asl, where trapping and superrefractive conditions form because of the advection of cold and moist air, and (ii) inside the transition layer between the SB body and the elevated return flow in the form of subrefractive conditions. When deep convection occurs, all three types of AP conditions are caused by the downdraft beneath the cumulonimbus cloud base in its mature phase that creates smaller but marked pools of cold and dry air. The bora wind usually creates a pattern of AP conditions associated with the hydraulic jump and influences distribution of AP conditions over the sea surface.

  5. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  6. Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the north-western Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies. PMID:26725754

  7. Picoplankton seasonal variation and community structure in the northeast Adriatic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silović, Tina; Balagué, Vanessa; Orlić, Sandi; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The bacterial community in coastal waters of northeastern Adriatic Sea was dominated by SAR11 and Sulfitobacter taxa throughout the year. The seasonal distribution of bacterioplankton taxa showed continual differences between surface (0 m) and bottom (27 m) layers. The surface assemblage was represented by Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, while the bottom assemblage was made up of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. As SAR11 was more dominant in the bottom layer, its appearance may be linked to northward transport of oligotrophic waters of higher salinity from the south. Gammaproteobacteria appeared only in the surface layer during summer, influenced by higher amounts of nutrients, brought in by the Po River. Synechococcus was the most abundant taxon at the genus level. Dominance of Synechococcus during the whole season agrees with its dominance in terms of abundance determined by flow cytometry, and confirms its utmost importance in the picoplankton community of this area. We found two different types of Synechococcus: one type with high similarity to Synechococcus CC9902, present in the surface and bottom layers, and another one similar to Synechococcus WH7803, present only in the surface layer. Oligotrophic conditions together with complex hydrological features of this area were reflected in diversification and dynamic shifts of surface and bottom assemblages. PMID:22748097

  8. Domoic Acid - A New Toxin in the Croatian Adriatic Shellfish Toxin Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Marasović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis, Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus. Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g-1 in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1, therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.

  9. Agip is preparing for deep sea production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agip, wishing to increase its production and reserves, decided several years ago to concentrate its efforts on deep sea offshore areas. The Italian company is currently gearing up to developing the Aquila field, situated in the Adriatic at a depth of 850 m. Agip's adventure in the great depths of the Adriatic goes bask to the end of the 1970's, with the Rovesti well drilled at a depth of 955 m, which gave some traces of oil but which was not economically exploitable. In 1991, Agip re-examined the possibility of exploiting the Aquila field and undertook a second drilling to gather data on the reservoir. The flow recorded in the test confirmed the potential of abundantly productive fields in this area. Agip therefore carried out surveys of the reservoir and established a development plant (sub-sea wells, FPSO and a shuttle tanker for removal of the crude). (author). 1 photo

  10. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 500 to 1000 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 500 to 1000 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding Black Sea and the
    Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the present
    paper.

  11. A late Quaternary multiple paleovalley system from the Adriatic coastal plain (Biferno River, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Bracone, Vito; Campo, Bruno; D'Amico, Carmine; Rossi, Veronica; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-02-01

    A buried paleovalley system, up to 2 km wide and exceeding 50 m in relief, made up of multiple cross-cutting depressions incised into the Lower Pleistocene bedrock, is reported from the central Adriatic coastal plain at the mouth of Biferno River. Through a multi-proxy approach that included geomorphological, stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleontological (benthic foraminifers, ostracods and molluscs) investigations, the facies architecture of distinct, superposed valley fills is reconstructed and their relative chronology established along a transverse profile with extremely high data density (average borehole spacing 75 m). Regional tectonic uplift appears as the major controlling factor of initial (Middle Pleistocene) river down-cutting and paleovalley formation. In contrast, glacio-eustatic fluctuations drove fluvial-system response over the last 120 ky, when valley incision was primarily induced by the last glacial base-level lowering and climatic forcing. A fragmented record of coastal and shallow-marine deposits is available for the lower paleovalley fill, which is penetrated by a limited borehole dataset. Multiple erosion phases probably related to the post-MIS 5e sea-level fall are reconstructed from the upper paleovalley fill, where a buried fluvial terrace succession is identified a few tens of meters below the ground surface. The flat surfaces of two buried fluvial terraces suggest longer-term, stepped relative sea-level fall, and are correlated with fluvial incisions that took place possibly at the MIS 5/4 transition and at the MIS 3/2 transition, respectively. A laterally extensive gravel body developed on the valley floor during the Last Glacial Maximum. During the ensuing latest Pleistocene-early Holocene sea-level rise the Biferno paleovalley was transformed into an estuary. Upstream from the maximum shoreline ingression, the vertical succession of well-drained floodplain, poorly-drained floodplain, and swamp deposits evidences increasing

  12. Systematic Radioactivity Monitoring of Adriatic Coastal Waters Using Mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) as a Bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW) is a project for radioactivity monitoring of Mediterranean coastal waters using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bioindicator. Mussels are sessile marine organisms able to filter up to 80 L of sea water daily. Possibility of absorption and accumulation of dissolved/particulate matter from sea water makes them a good bioindicator for environmental pollution studies. Laboratory for Radioecelogy systematically monitores Adriatic coastal waters as a part of MMW project, which includes determination of 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra,238U and 137Cs, as well as highly radiotoxic naturally occuring radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb. The mussels were collected in spring and autumn periods of 2010 and 2011 at 13 stations including areas under significant fresh water discharges (Rasa, Zrnovnica, Neretva and Ombla Rivers) or areas under potential antropogenic influence (Kastela Bay). After sample preparation 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs were determined gamma-spectrometrically, while 210Po and 210Pb were separated on Sr resin. 210Po was determined on an alpha spectrometer after self-deposition on Ag disc, while 210Pb was determined via 210Bi on a gas proportional counter after PbSO4 precipitation. 7Be, 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations were higher in spring than in autumn periods for all locations, with the highest activities in the areas under heavy fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of 40K were practically the same at all locations with no seasonal changes, while 137Cs activities varied significantly. Activities of 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were mostly below the detection limit of gamma-spectrometric measurements.(author)

  13. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  14. Long-term variability of the southern Adriatic circulation in relation to North Atlantic Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Shabrang, L.; Menna, M.; C. Pizzi; Lavigne, H.; G. Civitarese; M. Gačić

    2016-01-01

    The interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre and its relation to the wind vorticity and the large-scale climatic pattern (North Atlantic Oscillation – NAO) was studied using the time series of satellite altimetric data and ocean surface wind products. The cyclonic circulation observed in the southern Adriatic area was partly sustained by the local wind forcing, as suggested by the positive correlation between the rate of change of the current vorticity and the wind...

  15. The concept of territorial organisation of Adriatic Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Magaš

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the author’s starting point is a maximum quality and functional territorial organisation of Croatia, especially its littoral area. Adriatic Croatia, as well as Eastern (Pannonian and Northwestern Croatia, is one of the three defined (future Euroregions NUTS II in Croatia. It was suggested in its current territorial coverage by the Republic of Croatia, and accepted by Eurostat in 2007. It includes all littoral counties (7 of Croatia, covering 24.7 thousand km2 with 1.4 million inhabitants (2011. The paper discusses a possible differentiation of this strategic littoral Adriatic area on three functional (gravitational regions of the third level (NUTS III according to the criteria of the Croatian Government on efficient decentralisation and new regionalisation of Croatia. Namely, some littoral counties do not meet the European demographic criterion for statistical NUTS III region (150-800 thousand inhabitants although, in general, Croatian counties meet this criterion. That is why the author, applying demographic, geographic, economic, administrative and other criteria, stresses the need for defining the demographically maximally coordinated three nodal-functional, i.e., gravitational regions with their centres in Rijeka, Zadar and Split. So, the Rijeka region would potentially cover Istria, Kvarner and Gorski Kotar areas with 505,000 inhabitants (2011, Zadar region would cover North Dalmatian and Lika areas with 330,000 inhabitants, and Split region would include Middle Dalmatian and Dubrovnik (South Dalmatian areas with 578,000 inhabitants. The area of Lika is functionally and economically most optimally oriented towards Zadar, with regard to new processes of highway linking and the recent fast development of Zadar.

  16. COMPETITION BETWEEN CONTAINER PORTS IN THE NORTHERN ADRIATIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available World trade has changed in the last decade such that container traffic flows are oriented towards more parts of the European continent. The European container port system is not a homogeneous set of ports; instead it consists of several big ports (e.g., Rotterdam, Hamburg, Algeciras... and a large number of medium and small ports. Northern Adriatic (NA ports, namely Rijeka, Koper, Trieste, Venice and Ravenna, are small ports. Each of these ports have different development plans but in varying degrees common hinterlands and costumers. As these ports are located very close one to another, they have to cooperate, but at same time they are competing for their market share. Based on the literature related to port competition and port selection we have analysed the throughput in NA ports for the last twenty four years, and in accordance with this, we have prepared a model for expected growth of container throughput in this region. The resulting model of port dynamics includes three characteristics of container throughput: relative growth, market share and container shift. Furthermore, to obtain some insight into cooperation/competition between the NA ports we have set up a simple dynamic model in which we selected ports’ market share fractions for each port as a dynamic variable.

  17. Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, 1885 in the Adriatic Region of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Žanić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Dialeurodes citri (Hom. Aleyrodidae first invaded citrus orchards in the South Adriatic, near Dubrovnik, during 1977. Since the characteristics of the pest have not been studied in Croatia, this paper reviews its morphology, locations, host plant range and biology. Leaf samples, collected all over the Croatian coast and islands, were observed in the laboratory for purpose of creating a map with citrus whitefly locations, morphological description and a list of host plants. The pest biological cycle and population trend were investigated in the region of Split (May 1996-May 1998. The presence of citrus whitefly was confirmed in all citrus-growing areas of Croatia. The number of noted host plants was somewhat lower than in Mediterranean countries. Other than citrus, it also colonised and harmed laurustinus (Viburnum tinus Hemsl., persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. and several plants of Oleaceae. The citrus whitefly had three generations on citrus per year. However, the part of larval population that belonged to second generation did not finish the post-embryonic development and it remained on the summer flush leaves and awaited the hibernation. The appearance of adults followed the appearance of young citrus growth. All development stages had three population peaks during vegetation period. The presence of young larval stages (L-1, L-2 was pronounced during the middle of June, August and October. The pest overwintered mainly as fourth instar larva. On deciduous persimmon trees it had two generations per year.

  18. Changes in the northern Adriatic molluscan community from the Holocene transgression up to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is one of the few modern, epicontinental seas comparable to typical Palaeozoic shelf environments. It has a shallow average water depth (coastal building development, pollution, eutrophication, increased sedimentation), making it one of the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. Our study was designed to reconstruct major environmental changes here since the onset of the Holocene transgression using down-core changes in death assemblages of molluscs as indicators for ecological shifts. The sediment cores were taken at three different stations (Brijuni Islands, Croatia, off Piran, Slovenia, and off Venice, Italy), each representative of specific sediment and nutrient conditions and degrees of habitat exploitation. The cores were 1.5 m long and had diameters of 90 or 160 mm. For the molluscan shell analyses, sediment subsamples were examined for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity and ecological interactions (e.g. frequencies of drilling predation). In total, 98,700 valves and shells were investigated and 113 bivalve and 178 gastropod species recorded. Sedimentation rates derived from 210Pb dating are very low, between 0.15 cm/yr at Brijuni and 0.25 cm/yr at Piran. The dating of Lucinella divaricata, Timoclea ovata and Gouldia minima shells with 14C calibrated amino-acid racemisation (AAR) revealed that the cores at all three stations cover at least 6000 to 8000 years, i.e. the whole Holocene transgression period. Time averaging is high, especially in the lower core layers of Piran station, probably due to strong bioturbation. Surface mixed-layer assemblages tend to show right-skewed postmortem age-frequency distributions, whereas subsurface assemblages show unimodal or uniform shapes. Molluscan assemblages show significant interregional differences that correlate with sedimentation rate, grain size, and the occurrence of organic pollutants and heavy metals. Down-core changes in molluscan communities are also conspicuous

  19. Ripensare le “Piattaforme Logistiche”: il Caso del Gateway dell’Alto Adriatico Rethinking “Logistics Platforms”: the case of the North Adriatic Gateway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dean

    2011-11-01

    the wider network of European corridors.

    Until this moment, the logistics and strategic national plans have not been selective concerning the identification, along the TEN-T Corridors, of a few ports and freight villages which are able to become effective European gateways within the Italian territory and attract private investments. Moreover, these planning instruments, instead of basing their strategies on the most concrete corridors have preferred to conceive their policies on entirely “imaginary” ones. This is, for instance, the case of the Logistics Platform in the Nord-East area of Italy. This Platform has been organized around the uncertain Corridor V, rather than the more concrete (but not yet recognized in the European maps Adriatic-Baltic corridor. As a consequence, in this Region, several existing national infrastructures appear, at the moment, largely underused: 

    1. a freight village of considerable size and European standards such as the Interporto Alpe Adria in Cervignano del Friuli, and
    2. an international double railway such as the “Pontebbana” that links the North-East area of Italy with Austria, through the Alpine pass of Tarvisio, and which is already the southern segment of the Adriatic-Baltic corridor.

     

    On the other hand, these infrastructures might play a significant role in light of the positive estimates about the new trends of maritime trades, which would realize a renewed centrality to the Mediterranean Sea (Drewry Shipping Consultants, 2010, and important development programs regarding the Adriatic ports, involving both public (Venice, Rijeka and private (Monfalcone-Triest, Koper stakeholders. The aim of these projects is to increase the competitive capacity of the North Adriatic port system and establish a more effective connection between it and the central and eastern parts of Europe, through the Baltic-Adriatic Corridor, so as to constitute the so-called North Adriatic Gateway

  20. MERCURY IN FISHERY PRODUCTS FROM CENTRAL ADRIATIC SEA (OFFICIAL CONTROLS FROM 1995 TO 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli, C.; A Aliventi; V Di Trani; A. M. Semeraro; P. Capocasa

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to its properties, methylmercury is the most bioavailable form of mercury compounds. In fact, it causes the most toxic effects on the immune, cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, in particular the fetal brain. Seafood consumption is recognized as being the largest environmental mercury source to most human populations. So, fishery products are the most important source of methylmercury exposure in human. As the mercury burden of fish increases for transference to upper tr...

  1. Microphytobenthic response to mussel farm biodeposition in coastal sediments of the northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effects of long-line mussel farming on benthic diatoms were investigated. • Farms influenced the abundance and species composition of benthic diatoms. • Gyrosigma and to some extent Navicula were stimulated by the organic load. • Nitzschia seemed to suffer from the shading effect caused by suspended structures. • Recovery was observed after the removal of the mussel farm. - Abstract: The effects of long-line mussel farming on microphytobenthos were investigated in a coastal area of the Gulf of Trieste. Sediment grain-size, organic matter content, microalgal abundance and community structure were analysed in September 2008 and March 2009. Four areas were sampled: a twenty-year farm, a four-year farm, a disused farm and a reference site. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted a decreasing gradient of organic matter content from the twenty-year farm to the control. Mussel farming seemed to influence microphytobenthic abundance with higher densities in the oldest farm. Three genera were dominant; Navicula and Gyrosigma seemed to be stimulated by the organic load under the active farms while we infer that Nitzschia proliferation was limited by shade caused by mussel ropes. In the PCA, samplings of the disused farm were placed in-between the still active farms and the control, indicating the partial recovery occurred in this site

  2. Feeding habits of European pilchard late larvae in a nursery area in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borme, Diego; Tirelli, Valentina; Palomera, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    European pilchard Sardina pilchardus late larvae were collected in the Gulf of Manfredonia, an important nursery area, during their seasonal inshore occurrence. Thanks to diel cycle sampling and to the wide range of larval lengths (from a minimum of 27 mm to a maximum of 45 mm), both feeding rhythm and ontogenetic changes were analysed. The feeding peak was observed in the afternoon, before sunset. Sardine larvae were exclusively zooplanktivorous, their diet being based on Calanoid Copepods from the genus Paracalanus (IRI% = 65.7), on the species Temora longicornis (IRI% = 15.5) and other small-sized Copepods. Other planktonic organisms appeared in the stomach contents occasionally and never reached IRI% values > 1. The number of prey per stomach increased suddenly at larval lengths around 40 mm, corresponding to the development of the stomach. Prey composition in the environment was established by contemporaneous sampling of plankton, performed by means of two plankton nets with different meshes. The main prey items were positively selected among those available in the field, but some other prey (Centropages spp., Harpacticoids, Corycaeids, Temora stylifera and Acartia spp.) were also preferred, although rare in the plankton samples. In contrast, copepod nauplii, despite their abundance in the environment (15,848 ± 4441 individuals m- 3), were only occasionally recovered in the larval gut contents (N = 0.26%). This shows that sardine late larvae have switched to larger prey items.

  3. Check list of the parasitofauna in Adriatic sea cage-reared fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mladineo Ivona

    2006-01-01

    Along with the fast development of aquaculture in the Mediterranean, a number of emerging parasitic diseases was observed in cage-reared fish, which in confined rearing conditions induced mortality or/and indirect economical losses related to suppressed growth. The trend of diversification of aquaculture products and the introduction of new fish species in the rearing system, helped the introduction of new parasitic pathogens along with their host in the new environment. The process resulted ...

  4. MERCURY IN FISHERY PRODUCTS FROM CENTRAL ADRIATIC SEA (OFFICIAL CONTROLS FROM 1995 TO 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ciccarelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its properties, methylmercury is the most bioavailable form of mercury compounds. In fact, it causes the most toxic effects on the immune, cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, in particular the fetal brain. Seafood consumption is recognized as being the largest environmental mercury source to most human populations. So, fishery products are the most important source of methylmercury exposure in human. As the mercury burden of fish increases for transference to upper trophic levels (biomagnification, piscivors have the potential to accumulate extremely high mercury loads, in the methylated form, 70 to 100% in the muscular tissues. Reg. CE 1881/2006 sets, lastly, allowed maximum levels of mercury in seafood. Several authors found out an increase of mercury levels with size of carnivorous fishes. But this relationship strictly depends on fish species, and is a result of the interaction between environmental and physiological effects. This paper describes the results of a monitoring of mercury levels in fishery products, from 1995 to 2009, before they were sold by auction in the Wholesale Fish Market in the town of San Benedetto del Tronto. The authors’aim was to set a correlation between increasing fish size (weight and loads of the metal up to maximum levels by law.

  5. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels and sediments from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen individual PAHs were measured using GC-MS in the samples of surface sediments, sediment core and mussels collected in the Gulf of Trieste. Observing the PAHs profiles in the samples the most abundant compounds are napthalene and phenanthrene what suggests that the origin of these contaminants are maritime activities associated with the ports of Koper (Slovenia) and Trieste (Italy)

  6. Spatial data integration for analyzing the dynamics of Albanian Adriatic shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapi, Luan; Nikolli, Pal; Kovaçi, Sander

    2016-04-01

    Shoreline mapping and shoreline change detection are critical subjects for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection and sustainable coastal development and planning. Coastal changes are attracting more focus since they are important environmental indicators that directly impact coastal economic development and land management. Changes in the shape of shoreline may essentially affect the environment of the coastal zone. These may be caused by natural processes and human activities. The undertaken work focuses on analyzing the Adriatic shoreline dynamics, using spatial temporal data, by taking advantage of Geographic Informatin System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). Shoreline mapping focuses on some specific issues such as mapping methods used to acquire shoreline data, models and database design used to represent shoreline in the spatial database and shoreline -change analysis methods. The study area extends from the mouth of Buna River in the north to Vlora Bay in the south covering a total length of about 220 km. Detection and future assessment of Albanian Adriatic shoreline spatial position is carried out through integration of multi scale resolution of spatial temporal data and different processing methods. We have combined topographic maps at different scales (1:75 000, 1918; 1:50 000, 1937; 1:25 000, 1960, 1986 and 1:10 000, 1995), digital aerial photographs of 2007 year, satellite images of Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and field observed GIS data. Generation of spatial data is carried out through vectorization process and image processing. Monitoring the dynamics of shoreline position change requires understanding the coastal processes as well as coastal mapping methods. The net rates of variations in the position of the shoreline are calculated according to transects disposed perpendicularly to the baseline and spaced equally along the coast. Analysis of the relative impact of the natural factors and human activities, it is fundamental

  7. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTIVATION OF CHAMELEA GALLINA (LINNAEUS, 1758 CLAM ALONG EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dupčić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Chamelea gallina clam is among 16 shellfish species commonly present on Croatian fish markets. In the year 2000, European fishermen collected 39,819 tons of this species. The most abundant settlements of Chamelea gallina are situated along western Adriatic coast, however, there are settlements along eastern Adriatic coast especially in the estuaries of Neretva and Cetina, Nin and Novigradsko more areas, as well as along the coasts of islands; Brač, Rab and Susak. Ecological parameters affect growth rates, reproduction and mortality. Due to great temperature oscillations insufficient spat recruitment occurs on occasion. Temperature values determine the time and the intensity of spawning. Hatcheries insure constant and secure spat resource. Adults from brood stock mature during conditioning process, after which they are transferred into spawning tanks for fertilization. Brood stock, larvae, and spat are fed by cultured phytoplankton species.

  8. Environmental challenges for sustainable development in the Croatian north Adriatic littoral region:

    OpenAIRE

    Lončar, Jelena; Maradin, Mladen

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of the North Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted with problems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy, especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastal region where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Another environmental problem is the oil transportat...

  9. Environmental challenges for sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Lončar; Mladen Maradin

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of the North Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted with problems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy, especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastal region where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Another environmental problem is the oil transportat...

  10. The Adriatic-Ionian Macroregion in the Eurasian Socio-economic Future

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Carboni; Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic and social potential enabled by the Adriatic Ionian Macroregion (AIMr), characterized by a diffuse industrial pattern based on small and mediumsized enterprises, located in a European periphery, logistics and politics. The analyses show a diverse environment, made up of territories and states that move between vitality, modernization, economic backwardness and social inadequacy of infrastructure networks. In reference to the pillars identified ...

  11. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Milin, Cedomila; Giacometti, Jasminka

    2001-01-01

    Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino). The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, p...

  12. Factors affecting fish assemblages associated with gas platforms in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Pierpaolo; Romeo, Teresa; Ferraro, Maria; Sarà, Gianluca; Andaloro, Franco

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role played by offshore platforms in marine ecosystems is acquiring increasing importance worldwide. In this work, underwater visual census techniques were applied to describe spatial and temporal patterns of fish assemblages associated with extractive platforms. Data were collected during three seasons according to the following spatial factors: Location (Adriatic and Ionian Seas), Depth (0-6 m and 12-18 m) and Distance from the platform (external and internal). Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed highly significant differences for each factor assessed in this study, as well as for the interaction among said factors. Results indicated that artificial structures in both the Adriatic and Ionian Seas act as artificial reefs attracting reef-dwelling or partially reef-dwelling species, which are not present far from the platforms in open waters. Results also showed significant differences between Ionian and Adriatic fish assemblages, with a higher mean density of fish and a greater mean number of species in the latter basin. Boops boops, Chromis chromis and several species belonging to the Blennidae family most contributed to these differences. This is likely due to the eutrophication that involves the coast of the northern and central Adriatic, allowing a high production of fish, especially planctivorous. Thanks to the eutrophication, platforms located in this basin are characterized by a greater abundance of fouling organisms which offer a perfect habitat for cryptobenthic species, such as Blennids. Moreover, Thalassoma pavo and Scorpaena maderensis, thermophilic species, were more abundant in the Ionian platforms than in the Adriatic ones thus contributing to the dissimilarities between these two basins. Present results could bear strong implications for the environmental management of drilling and production activities in different basins. Assessing biodiversity in these highly complex contexts is a challenge for the near future, and

  13. Record of an established population of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the Mediterranean Sea: confirming a prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. CUESTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The capture of larvae of Palaemon macrodactylus off Mallorca (Balearic Islands has been recently reported as evidence of a potential presence of a population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos of this species, taken during dives in the Sacca di Goro (northern Adriatic were published in the same year, but no specimen could be collected at that time. Herein we report the capture in 2013 of numerous individuals of the oriental shrimp, including ovigerous females, both in the Sacca di Goro and in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, confirming the existence of a well-established population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Changing knowledge perspective in a changing world: The Adriatic multidisciplinary TDS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Carniel, Sandro; Nativi, Stefano; Signell, Richard P.; Benetazzo, Alvise; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Bonaldo, Davide; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    The use and exploitation of the marine environment in recent years has been increasingly high, therefore calling for the need of a better description, monitoring and understanding of its behavior. However, marine scientists and managers often spend too much time in accessing and reformatting data instead of focusing on discovering new knowledge from the processes observed and data acquired. There is therefore the need to make more efficient our approach to data mining, especially in a world where rapid climate change imposes rapid and quick choices. In this context, it is mandatory to explore ways and possibilities to make large amounts of distributed data usable in an efficient and easy way, an effort that requires standardized data protocols, web services and standards-based tools. Following the US-IOOS approach, which has been adopted in many oceanographic and meteorological sectors, we present a CNR experience in the direction of setting up a national Italian IOOS framework (at the moment confined at the Adriatic Sea environment), using the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). A TDS is a middleware designed to fill the gap between data providers and data users, and provides services allowing data users to find the data sets pertaining to their scientific needs, to access, visualize and use them in an easy way, without the need of downloading files to the local workspace. In order to achieve this results, it is necessary that the data providers make their data available in a standard form that the TDS understands, and with sufficient metadata so that the data can be read and searched for in a standard way. The TDS core is a NetCDF- Java Library implementing a Common Data Model (CDM), as developed by Unidata (http://www.unidata.ucar.edu), allowing the access to "array-based" scientific data. Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant NetCDF files can be read directly with no modification, while non-compliant files can

  15. Historical demography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Adriatic drainage including the putative S. letnica endemic to Lake Ohrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susnik, Simona; Snoj, Ales; Wilson, Iain F; Mrdak, Danilo; Weiss, Steven

    2007-07-01

    We explore the historical demography of the Adriatic lineage of brown trout and more explicitly the colonization and phylogenetic placement of Ohrid trout, based on variation at 12 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region. All Adriatic basin haplotypes reside in derived positions in a network that represents the entire lineage. The central presumably most ancestral haplotype in this network is restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, where it is very common, supporting a Western Mediterranean origin for the lineage. The expansion statistic R2, Bayesian based estimates of demographic parameters, and star-like genealogies support expansions on several geographic scales, whereas application of pairwise mismatch analysis was somewhat ambiguous. The estimated time since expansion (155,000 years ago) for the Adriatic lineage was supported by a narrow confidence interval compared to previous studies. Based on microsatellite and mtDNA sequence variation, the endemic Ohrid trout represents a monophyletic lineage isolated from other Adriatic basin populations, but nonetheless most likely evolving from within the Adriatic lineage of brown trout. Our results do not support the existence of population structuring within Lake Ohrid, even though samples included two putative intra-lacustrine forms. In the interests of protecting the unique biodiversity of this ancient ecosystem, we recommend retaining the taxonomic epithet Salmo letnica for the endemic Ohrid trout. PMID:17046289

  16. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. PMID:25127501

  17. Seasonal sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and at the Atlantic European coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Tsimplis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hourly sea level data from tide gauges and a barotropic model are used to explore the spatial and temporal variability of sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula on seasonal time scales. Significant spatial variability is identified in the observations in all seasons. The Atlantic stations show larger extreme values than the Mediterranean Sea primarily due to the tidal signal. When the tidal signal is removed most stations have maximum values of less than 90 cm occurring in winter or autumn. The maxima in spring and summer are less than 60 cm in most stations. The wind and atmospheric forcing contributes about 50 cm in the winter and between 20–40 cm in the other seasons. In the western Mediterranean the observed extreme values are less than 50 cm, except near the Strait of Gibraltar. Direct atmospheric forcing contributes significantly to sea level extremes. Maximum sea level values due to atmospheric forcing reach in some stations 45 cm during the winter. During the summer the contribution of the direct atmospheric forcing is between 10–20 cm. The Adriatic Sea shows a resonant behaviour with maximum extreme observed sea level values around 200 cm found at the northern part. Trends in the 99.9% percentiles are present in several areas, however most of them are removed when the 50% percentile is subtracted indicating that changes in the extremes are in line with mean sea level change. The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Mediterranean Oscillation Index are well correlated with the changes in the 99.9% winter values in the Atlantic, western Mediterranean and the Adriatic stations. The correlation of the NAO and the MOI indices in the Atlantic and western Mediterranean is significant in the autumn too. The correlations between the NAO and MOI index and the changes in the sea level extremes become insignificant when the 50% percentile is removed indicating again that changes in extremes

  18. Post-collisional and intraplate Cenozoic volcanism in the rifted Apennines/Adriatic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, G.; Beccaluva, L.; Siena, F.

    2008-02-01

    The distinctive tectono-magmatic characteristics of rift volcanism in the Apennines/Adria domains are discussed focussing attention on the nature of mantle sources, stress regimes, and conditions of magma generation. Post-collisional intensive lithospheric rifting and tectonic collapse of the Apennines generate large amounts of Pliocene-Quaternary orogenic magmas which overlie a nearly vertical subducted slab along the peri-Tyrrhenian border. This magmatism includes the Roman Magmatic Province sensu lato (RMP-s.l.) and the Internal Apennines Volcanism (IAV), and consists of high-K calcalkaline, potassic (shoshonitic) and ultrapotassic (leucitites, leucite basanite and minor lamproites and kamafugites) products. Integrated petrological and geochemical studies of these rocks (and associated mantle xenoliths) indicate that most of them could have been generated by a restricted partial melting range ( F ≤ 5-10%) of extremely inhomogeneous phlogopite-veined lithospheric mantle sources, resulting from subduction related K-metasomatic processes. Moreover, the presence of both intermediate anorogenic and subduction related geochemical features in Mt. Vulture magmas support the existence of a slab window beneath the central-southern Apennines, which could have allowed inflow of subduction components to intraplate mantle sources. This slab discontinuity may mark the transition between the already collisioned Adriatic and the still subducting Ionian lithospheric slabs. By contrast, the Paleogene intraplate magmatism of the Adriatic foreland (i.e., the Veneto Province (VVP) and the minor Mt. Queglia and Pietre Nere magmatic bodies) is characterized by small volumes of basic magmas, varying from tholeiitic to strongly Na-alkaline in composition. This magmatism appears to be related to a limited extensional regime typical of the low volcanicity rifts. Petrogenetic modelling of the intraplate Adriatic foreland magmas indicates that their composition is remarkably depth

  19. Environmental challenges for sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lončar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of the North Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted with problems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy, especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastal region where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Another environmental problem is the oil transportation by a pipeline which is planned to be built in the frames of Russian-Croatian project Družba-Adria.

  20. The Adriatic-Ionian Macroregion in the Eurasian Socio-economic Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Carboni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the economic and social potential enabled by the Adriatic Ionian Macroregion (AIMr, characterized by a diffuse industrial pattern based on small and mediumsized enterprises, located in a European periphery, logistics and politics. The analyses show a diverse environment, made up of territories and states that move between vitality, modernization, economic backwardness and social inadequacy of infrastructure networks. In reference to the pillars identified by the EU, the ability to develop investments agreements with strategic political partnership between the states are the main instruments to achieve the objectives of modernizing the infrastructure and technology of this new political and economic realities.

  1. Bora event variability and the role of air-sea feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, J.; Doyle, J.D.; Haack, T.; Dorman, C.; Signell, R.P.; Lee, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    A two-way interacting high resolution numerical simulation of the Adriatic Sea using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and Coupled Ocean/ Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS??) was conducted to improve forecast momentum and heat flux fields, and to evaluate surface flux field differences for two consecutive bora events during February 2003. (COAMPS?? is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory.) The strength, mean positions and extensions of the bora jets, and the atmospheric conditions driving them varied considerably between the two events. Bora 1 had 62% stronger heat flux and 51% larger momentum flux than bora 2. The latter displayed much greater diurnal variability characterized by inertial oscillations and the early morning strengthening of a west Adriatic barrier jet, beneath which a stronger west Adriatic ocean current developed. Elsewhere, surface ocean current differences between the two events were directly related to differences in wind stress curl generated by the position and strength of the individual bora jets. The mean heat flux bias was reduced by 72%, and heat flux RMSE reduced by 30% on average at four instrumented over-water sites in the two-way coupled simulation relative to the uncoupled control. Largest reductions in wind stress were found in the bora jets, while the biggest reductions in heat flux were found along the north and west coasts of the Adriatic. In bora 2, SST gradients impacted the wind stress curl along the north and west coasts, and in bora 1 wind stress curl was sensitive to the Istrian front position and strength. The two-way coupled simulation produced diminished surface current speeds of ???12% over the northern Adriatic during both bora compared with a one-way coupled simulation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Sun exposure and visual field damage among children on the Adriatic Island Rab--possible initial risk factor in development of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojniković, Bozidar; Micović, Vladimir; Coklo, Miran; Vojniković, Davor

    2009-09-01

    The Adriatic Island Rab, situated in the northern part of the Croatian sea, is more strongly exposed to sunlight (especially from May to October) than the other parts of Croatia and most of the European countries. As consequences of higher solar radiation, significant percentage of Pseudoexfoliation of lens capsula occurs in 15% and fundus picture of AMD (Age-Related Macular Degeneration) in 18% of agriculturalists and fishermen (45-70 years old). We previously presented the first clinical study showing that in AMD the peripheral visual field is also damaged. In this clinical study we examined 68 children (8-15 years old), including following procedures: vision correction, slit lamp examination, visual field in technic of isopters and profile quantitative perimetry (meridian retinal thresholds examination) using Kowa automated perimeter. In 15% of examinees we found strictly foveal "degeneration", and changes of visual fields: higher meridian thresholds and typical changes with invagination of isopters. It is very interesting that these children with damaged visual field and fundus picture do not protect their eyes from the sunlight during summertime. We suggest the possibility of the influence of higher sun radiation as one of the risk factors in the earlier development of future AMD. PMID:19860099

  3. QUANTIFYING ABUNDANCE OF PREDATORS USING EXPERIMENTAL HOOK AND LINE FISHING: COMPARISONS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE A MARINE PROTECTED AREA IN THE CENTRAL ADRIATIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Blindow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in ecology is the role of predators in limiting their prey populations. This question can be approached for shallow marine fish communities by comparison of abundance of species inside and outside marine protected areas (MPAs, where fishing restrictions may enforce large abundance differences in large (top predators. The first step in demonstrating differences in these populations is the development and testing of methods capable of estimating abundance of fast-swimming and alert species which generally are difficult to quantify with traditional net-based sampling or visual census. That the method of experimental fishing with hook and line is capable of sampling predatory fish of a wide range of sizes, from 15 to 125 cm, inside and outside an MPA in the central Adriatic Sea, Kornati National Park, Croatia, was demonstrated in this preliminary study. Evidence of significantly more abundant top predators inside the MPA and a significantly higher mean size of fish overall was found. A total of 11 species of fish were sampled across several benthic habitats, of which six were found only in the MPA. It is concluded that the MPA represents a natural experiment with greater abundance of larger predators than outside, and that experimental fishing can take advantage of these differences to test the hypothesis of top-down regulation of fish communities.

  4. Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on data from an oceanographic cruise on the German research vessel Meteor covering large parts of the Mediterranean Sea during spring of 2011. The main objectives of this cruise was to conduct measurements of physical, chemical and biological variables on a section across the Mediterranean Sea with the goal of producing a synoptic picture of the distribution of relevant physical and biogeochemical properties, in order to compare those to historic data sets. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of relevant variables following the guide lines for repeat hydrography outlined by the GO-SHIP group (http://www.go-ship.org/ was collected. The measurements include; salinity and temperature (CTD, an over-determined carbonate system, inorganic nutrients, oxygen, transient tracers (CFC-12, SF6, Helium isotopes and tritium, and carbon isotopes. The cruise sampled all major basins of the Mediterranean Sea following roughly an east-to-west section from the coast of Lebanon to through the Strait of Gibraltar, and to the coast of Portugal. Also a south-to-north section from the Ionian Sea to the Adriatic Sea was carried out. Additionally, sampling in the Aegean, Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas were carried out. The sections roughly followed lines and positions that have been sampled previously during other programs, thus providing the opportunity for comparative investigations of the temporal development of various parameters.

  5. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  6. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation / Lars Fredrik Stöcker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stöcker, Lars Fredrik, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Norkus, Zenonas. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation. Verlag Apostrofia Publishers, Central European University Press. Budapest und New York 2012

  7. Mitochondrial DNA reveals genetic structuring of Pinna nobilis across the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna

    Full Text Available Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic Mediterranean marine bivalve. During past centuries, various human activities have promoted the regression of its populations. As a consequence of stringent standards of protection, demographic expansions are currently reported in many sites. The aim of this study was to provide the first large broad-scale insight into the genetic variability of P. nobilis in the area that encompasses the western Mediterranean, Ionian Sea, and Adriatic Sea marine ecoregions. To accomplish this objective twenty-five populations from this area were surveyed using two mitochondrial DNA markers (COI and 16S. Our dataset was then merged with those obtained in other studies for the Aegean and Tunisian populations (eastern Mediterranean, and statistical analyses (Bayesian model-based clustering, median-joining network, AMOVA, mismatch distribution, Tajima's and Fu's neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots were performed. The results revealed genetic divergence among three distinguishable areas: (1 western Mediterranean and Ionian Sea; (2 Adriatic Sea; and (3 Aegean Sea and Tunisian coastal areas. From a conservational point of view, populations from the three genetically divergent groups found may be considered as different management units.

  8. Investigating and forecasting coastal Adriatic surface currents by using neural networks (NEURAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibic, Ivica; Zagar, Nedjeljka; Cosoli, Simone; Dadic, Vlado; Horvath, Kristian; Ivankovic, Damir; Jesenko, Blaz; Mihanovic, Hrvoje; Sepic, Jadranka; Tudor, Martina

    2014-05-01

    We present major components of the project NEURAL (www.izor.hr/neural) funded by the Unity Through Knowledge Fund (www.ukf.hr). The project aims to investigate and to build an efficient and reliable prototype of the ocean surface current forecasting system, based on high-frequency (HF) radar measurements, numerical weather prediction (NWP) model outputs and neural network algorithms (Self-Organising Maps). The Self-Organising Maps (SOM) method, a kind of neural network algorithms that performs a nonlinear smooth mapping of high-dimensional input data into the elements of a low-dimensional array, has previously been used on historical HF radar measurements and NWP Aladin/HR wind fields, which were operational in the northern Adriatic during 2008. It was found that the SOM surface currents patterns and associated SOM surface currents and winds patterns were highly correlated, indicating the predominance of the wind-driven forcing on the measured ocean currents. Therefore, a forecasting system has been proposed, that will use operational NWP products for the Adriatic region, then search for the closest SOM solutions in wind fields and finally to forecast ocean currents by using associated SOM patterns in HF radar currents. Such a prototype forecasting system will be tested on a long and quality-checked HF radar surface currents dataset available in the northern Adriatic, where the first part of the series will be used for the training of the SOM and the second part for assessing the skill performance of the surface currents hindcast. Two NWP systems will be used on the project: (1) high-resolution non-hydrostatic research WRF-ARW model based at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the University of Ljubljana, and (2) operational Aladin/HR NWP system of the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia. The prototype forecasting system will be also tested in the middle Adriatic after the collection of substantially long high-quality surface currents dataset

  9. Isotope composition of precipitation along the Adriatic coasts of Croatia and Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of isotope composition of precipitation includes measurements of radioactive isotope tritium (3H) and stable isotopes (2H, 18O) in monthly precipitation samples. Isotope composition of precipitation at Zagreb (Croatia) and Ljubljana (Slovenia) have been performed for more than 20 years within the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Within the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Program 'Isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate' the network has been extended since September 2000 to several stations along the Adriatic coast: Malinska on Krk Island, Zadar, Komiza on Vis Island, Dubrovnik, and Zavizan on Mt. Velebit (alt 1594 m) in Croatia, as well as Portoroz-Airport and Kozina in Slovenia. The sampling sites are situated in areas characterized with three different types of climate: (i) in the northern part continental climate prevails, (ii) in the mountainous middle part, mostly karst area, colder continental climate dominates, and (iii) the area along the Adriatic coast is controlled by the Mediterranean climate. In this work we present tritium activity and stable isotope content in monthly precipitation samples at the mentioned stations, together with the corresponding meteorological data: precipitation amount and mean monthly temperature. The results of tritium activity in monthly precipitation are presented. The results cover the period from September 2000 to September 2001 for marine stations and from January 2000 to December 2001 for continental stations Zagreb and Ljubljana (GNIP stations). Seasonal variations are typical for the continental stations of the Northern Hemisphere. The minimal activities in winter approach in the last years the natural, pre-bomb tritium level. Seasonal variations at maritime stations of mid- and south-Adriatic stations are

  10. Sea surface slicks measured by SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system capability to detect and characterize marine surface slicks was tested during the SAR-580 experiment in the northern Adriatic Sea, offshore the Venice coast, in October 1990. Two small artificial slicks of oleyl alcohol were produced in an area around the oceanographic platform of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The oleyl alcohol produces a damping of the sea centimetric waves, which has been measured by an airborne two band (C and X) SAR, by a tower based 3 band (L, S and C) scatterometer and by a wave gauge, installed on board the platform, which measures the instantaneous sea surface elevation in the range form gravity up to capillary waves. The good agreement among measures proves that multi-frequency SAR is able to detect and characterized sea surface films. Slicks in SAR images taken during SIR-C/X-SAR mission in 1994 have been analysed on the basis of these results and L-band measurements of spatial attenuation near the borders of the slicks have been done, in order to test the slicks detectability using single-band SAR images

  11. Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Hotels and Camps Along the Adriatic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents a possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast, through equipment modernisation, efficient use of various energy forms (electric energy, oil, gas) including solar energy. An elaborate quantitative analysis the greenhouse gas emissions and possible ways of reducing them have been carried out in 180 hotels with their own boiler rooms and 70 camps with solar hot water system. The representatives of the two specified groups were chosen in order to perform the quantitative analysis. Considering that the reduction of the carbon emission is the basic condition for the prevention of climate changes, the assumptions were made in line with their reducing. The starting point is that the combustion of a litre of fuel causes 2,5 kg CO2, while the generation of 1 kWh of electric energy and use of 1 m3 of water emit 0,5 kg of CO2 respectively. Thereby it is necessary to bear in mind that the reduction of emissions can be achieved directly in hotel boiler rooms and, in a wider perspective, in plants through the reduction of the electric energy and water consumption, i.e. solar energy consumption The article ends with a review of possible emission reductions which are to be carried out. According to the calculation presented, the share of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast principate with 1% in the obligatory 5% emission reduction of the Republic of Croatia till the year 2012 related to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  12. Effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation on the thermohaline properties as recorded by fixed deep-ocean observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Manuel; Velaoras, Dimitris; Meccia, Virna L.; Cardin, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Temperature and salinity time-series from three fixed observatories in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMed) are investigated using multi-annual (2006-2014), high-frequency (up to 3 h sampling rate) data. Two observatories are deployed in the two dense water formation (DWF) areas of the EMed (Southern Adriatic Sea, E2-M3A; Cretan Sea, E1-M3A) and the third one (Southeast Ionian Sea, PYLOS) lays directly on the intermediate water masses pathway that connects the DWF sources. The long-term variations of the hydrological characteristics at the observatories reflect the oscillating large-scale circulation modes of the basin (i.e. BiOS-Bimodal Oscillating System and internal thermohaline pump theories). In particular, between 2006 and 2014 an anti-correlated behaviour of the intermediate layer (200-600 m) salinity between the Adriatic and Cretan Sea observatories is verified. This behaviour is directly linked to reversals of the North Ionian Gyre, which appeared cyclonic during 2006-2011 and turned anticyclonic after 2011. Statistical analysis suggests that the travel time of the intermediate salinity maximum signal between the Cretan and Adriatic Sea is roughly 1.5 years, in good agreement with the analysis of additionally presented ARGO data as well as previous literature references. We argue that the understanding of such oscillations provides important foresight on future DWF events, as increased salinity may act as a crucial preconditioning factor for DWF processes. Additionally, energy spectrum analysis of the time-series revealed interesting short-term variability connected to mesoscale activity at the observatories. Hence, the sustain of permanent observatories able to monitor oceanic parameters at high sampling rates may play a key role in understanding both climatic and oceanic processes and trends.

  13. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  14. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Tsangaris; Vanessa, Moschino; Evangelia, Strogyloudi; Valentina, Coatu; Andreja, Ramšak; Rana, Abu Alhaija; Susana, Carvalho; Serena, Felline; Alisa, Kosyan; Yiota, Lazarou; Ioannis, Hatzianestis; Andra, Oros; Daniela, Tiganus

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses. PMID:26396017

  15. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED; (ii the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED; (iii the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA; and (iv the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED. The updated checklist (December 2010 of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718, less in the WMED (328 and CMED (267 and least in the Adriatic (171. Of these, 535 species (56% are established in at least one area.Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(subtropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED.Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  16. Sometimes Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) Cannot Find Their Way Back to the High Seas: A Multidisciplinary Study on a Mass Stranding

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Petrella, Antonio; Marsili, Letizia; Fossi, Cristina M.; Claudio LEONZIO; Zizzo, Nicola; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Gaspari, Stefania; Pavan, Gianni; Podestà, Michela; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Ferrante, Margherita; Copat, Chiara; Traversa, Donato

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) remain peculiar and rather unexplained events, which rarely occur in the Mediterranean Sea. Solar cycles and related changes in the geomagnetic field, variations in water temperature and weather conditions, coast geographical features and human activities have been proposed as possible causes. In December 2009, a pod of seven male sperm whales stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the sixth instance fro...

  17. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Barišić, Delko

    2015-06-01

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring ((7)Be, (40)K, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U), as well as anthropogenic (137)Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of (7)Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of (40)K did not vary significantly with season or location. (137)Cs activities were low, while (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement. PMID:25794925

  18. Selecting the Location of a Nautical Tourism Port by Applying PROMETHEE And GAIA Methods Case Study – Croatian Northern Adriatic

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the multi-criteria analysis methods, PROMETHEE I and II and GAIA, used for selecting the location of a nautical tourism port. In an example of the selected location of a nautical tourism port in the Northern Adriatic, the author has used an analytic and graphical evaluation for solving such a problem. Particular attention has been paid to the use of GAIA method, which is suitable for visualisation of the problem characteristics through geometrical interpreta...

  19. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring (7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra and 238U), as well as anthropogenic 137Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of 7Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of 40K did not vary significantly with season or location. 137Cs activities were low, while 232Th, 226Ra and 238U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement. - Highlights: • 7Be, 40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 137Cs in mussels along Croatian Adriatic coast. • Seasonal and spatial variations for the period 2009–2013. • Higher activities of 7Be in spring versus autumn. • Constant and uniform 40K activities. • Low and uniform levels of 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 137Cs activities

  20. The role of solar and wind energy in sustainable development of the Adriatic Marco region in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregated energy demand in the Adriatic region, as well as the specific demand of individual sectors like industry, tourism, residential and commercial sector and agriculture has been assessed. Seasonal and daily load characteristics of the thermal and electric energy consumption in the Adriatic macro-region, as applied for heating, cooling and electrical appliances are discussed. Optimal mix of energy carrier (fossil and renewable) covering thermal and electric demand in the region is proposed. It has been shown that present regional energy mix, particularly for thermal applications based on electric energy, can be modified in favor of other energy carriers like LPG, LNG, hydropower, solar and wind energy, which are more appropriate for the sustainable development of the region. The expected market penetration of flat plate collectors, power plants with line focusing collectors, wind parks, photovoltaic power plants (off grid and grid connected) and passive use of solar radiation in commercial and residential buildings is given in the outlines. Based on the low energy consumption and seasonal/daily load characteristics, latest by the year 2050, it could be expected that renewables, at least for a number of Adriatic islands, could by nearly 100% substitute the present use of fossil sources, supplying electricity and thermal energy. (author)

  1. Microbial contribution to carbon biogeochemistry in the Central Mediterranean Sea: Variability of activities and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Caruso, Gabriella; Decembrini, Franco; Leonardi, Marcella; Maimone, Giovanna; Monticelli, Luis S.; Raffa, Francesco; Santinelli, Chiara; Zaccone, Renata; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2005-08-01

    This paper concerns the current debate as to whether oceans are heterotrophic or autotrophic environments. Microbes are responsible for the assimilation and remineralization of CO 2 in the sea and microbial processes are involved in the Earth climatic change. The variability of microbial biomass and activities were studied in the Mediterranean Sea which represents a suitable basin for mapping the trophic regimes by the study of biogeochemical processes. The surveys were carried out in the epi-, meso- and bathy-pelagic zones of the Central Mediterranean Sea from 1996 to 2002. Bacterial abundance, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and β-glucosidase (β-GLU) activities, bacterial carbon production (BCP), community respiration (R) and primary production (PP) were the main parameters investigated. Biomass and activities seasonally varied in epipelagic and, to some extent, in meso- and bathy-pelagic layers too and several trophic ratios were determined, showing different scenarios in the different areas and seasons. In the euphotic layer, bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) widely ranged between 4% and 50% showing a decreasing trend from estuaries towards pelagic areas in alignment with the trophic gradient from the Northern Adriatic to the Ionian Sea. However, BGE did not correlate to PP and temperature. The Central Mediterranean Sea showed different trophic regimes in the examined areas and seasons. In the Northern Adriatic Sea in winter, the trophic balance appeared to move towards autotrophy and a positive C budget resulted. An opposite scenario happened in summer when the trophic balance moved to heterotrophy and a negative C budget occurred. In the Ionian Sea, the overall balance turned always towards remineralization. However, on annual time scale, the Central Mediterranean Sea seems to show a tendency towards a heterotrophic system.

  2. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  3. Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cossarini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas, where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 μmol kg−1 that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

  4. Tracking cold bottom water in the Gargano Peninsula and Bari Canyon regions of the Adriatic using seismic oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren; Book, Jeffrey; Carniel, Sandro; Lindwall, Dennis; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-05-01

    lateral resolution of the SO technique is similar to the vertical resolution - therefore adequate to detect changes over as little as 5-10 meters. The images are not an instantaneous snap-shot, but occur over a finite time. Each column of image pixels is a combination of sound pulses that occur over 2-4 minutes, depending on source fire rate and ship speed. In March of 2009 an international SO field effort (AdriaSeismic09) took place the Gargano Peninsula, and Bari Canyon areas of the southern Adriatic Sea. On several seismic profiles through these areas a layer of cold bottom water, between 7 and 10 m thick is clearly imaged. Temperatures in the overlying water typically ranged from 12.5 to 13.5 degrees C, and those of the bottom water typically ranged from 12.0 to 12.5 degrees C. Some of these thin bottom water masses were observed in shallow, coastal waters about 100 m deep and some were as deep as 350m. Undulations with later wavelength of 500m and shorter, and amplitudes of several meters are clearly visible in the upper surfaces of the cold water masses.

  5. A training network for introducing telemedicine, telecare and hospital informatics in the Adriatic-Danube-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogeianaki, Antonia; Ilonidis, George; Anogianakis, George; Lianguris, John; Katsaros, Kyriakos; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Klisarova, Anelia; Negrev, Negrin

    2004-01-01

    DIMNET is a training mechanism for a region of central Europe. The aim is to upgrade the information technology skills of local hospital personnel and preserve their employability following the introduction of medical informatics. DIMNET uses Internet-based virtual classrooms to provide a 200-hour training course in medical informatics. Training takes place in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi and Varna. So far, more than 600 people have benefited from the programme. Initial results are encouraging. DIMNET promotes a new vocational training culture in the Balkans and is supported by local governments that perceive health-care as a fulcrum for economic development. PMID:15603593

  6. Cadmium bioaccumulation in European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis from Middle Adriatic Sea (San Benedetto del Tronto district, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Ciccarelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs represent an important source of cadmium exposure in humans, in particular oysters, because of their high filter feeding capability and high concentration of metal-binding metallothionein in tissues. In this study the authors investigated the difference in cadmium bioaccumulation in European flat oysters harvested from production areas in the district of San Benedetto del Tronto (Ascoli Piceno province, Italy, as a function of their origin (farming or natural beds and the time of gathering. The beds lie 3 nm off-shore at a depth of 20-40 m and are collected by dredging. In the farms, baskets are suspended in the water column 2.5-3 nm offshore at a depth of 4 m. The authors analysed the results of cadmium monitoring plan carried out in oyster natural beds for a total of 15 samples collected from 2004 to 2012 and in two oyster farms for a total of 11 samples from 2009 to 2012. Although the few data did not allow to find a significant statistical association, they suggested two findings: i cadmium concentration in oysters from natural beds seemed to be lower than in farmed oysters; and ii in farmed oysters cadmium concentration even exceeded allowed maximum level for human consumption, in particular in autumn. The vertical stratification in the water column of phytoplankton and a cadmium dilution at oyster gonadal maturation might cause changes in oyster cadmium accumulation.

  7. Multibeam investigation of an artificial reef settlement in the Adriatic sea (Italy 33 years after its deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarine Manoukian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs (ARs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation that acoustic systems can provide. An AR into the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. The AR stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. The acoustic systems are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around ARs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. High-frequency multibeam echosounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. In 2008 the EM3002 multibeam was used to investigate the first scientifically-planned AR in Italy deployed during 1974-75. After 33 years the AR is almost in perfect condition. A considerable scouring around the structures and some vertical/horizontal movements of the single units have occurred. Moreover a deepening of the whole area hosting the AR was observed.Os recifes artificiais (ARs estão se tornando um componente biológico e de manejo de ambientes de áreas rasas com substratos característicos não rígidos, representando habitats marinhos importantes e ainda constituindo uma ferramenta para o manejo da pesca e dos recursos costeiros. Devido à natureza instável dos sedimentos, exigem um estudo detalhado e sistemático que os sistemas acústicos podem disponibilizar. Um RA atua no ambiente marinho como um sistema aberto com troca de materiais e energia, alterando as características físicas e biológicas das áreas que o cerca. A estabilidade do RA dependerá do equilíbrio entre a escavação, o assentamento e aterramento resultantes das ações do oceano no decorrer do tempo. Os sistemas acústicos são ferramentas eficientes no monitoramento da evolução ambiental ao redor dos ARs, uma vez que a turbidez da água pode limitar o mergulho visual e as inspeções ROV. A ecosonda multifeixe de alta frequência oferece meios para identificar com precisão a distribuição das unidades recifais, com nível de resolução, cobertura e definição especial. Em 2008, a sonda multifeixe EM3002 foi usada para estudar a primeira implantação cientificamente planejada de RA na Itália, durante 1974-75. Após 33 anos, o RA está praticamente em perfeitas condições. Foram observadas a ocorrência de escavação considerável ao redor das estruturas , alguns movimentos vertical/horizontal das unidades isoladas e ainda o aprofundamento de toda a area que abriga o RA.

  8. Concentration factors for 226Ra in the mullet (Mugilidae) species Mugil cephalus from the South Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    226Ra activity concentration in the mullet (Mugilidae) species Mugil cephalus whole individuals, and some organs (gills, gastrointestinal system, fins, muscle and bones), was measured by the γ-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. 226Ra transfer parameters [concentration factors (CFs)] from seawater, sediment and mud with detritus to fish tissues, and annual intake by humans consuming this fish species, have been estimated. Minimum detected radium activity concentration in whole M. cephalus individuals was found to be 0.89 ± 0.42 to 3.09 ± 0.41 Bq kg-1, with arithmetic mean of 1.65 ± 0.39 Bq kg-1. An average concentration in muscles is found to be 2.28 ± 0.84 Bq kg-1, in gills - 5.02 ± 1.85 Bq kg-1, in gastrointestinal system - 12.88 ± 1.71 Bq kg-1, and in bones - 14.72 ± 3.75 Bq kg-1. No one fins showed radium activity above minimum detectable one. Annual intake of 226Ra by human consumers of this fish species is estimated to provide an effective dose of 0.006 mSv year-1. CFs for 226Ra indicating transfer from seawater to whole individuals ranged from 8.9 to 30.9, and those indicating transfer from the sediment and mud with detritus - from 0.11 to 0.39 and from 0.08 to 0.3, respectively. The seawater to bones CFs varied from 97.9 to 197.3, to gastrointestinal system - from 59 to 178.8, to gills - from 22.5 to 68.3, to muscles - from 17 to 30.8. (author)

  9. Natural Recovery and Planned Intervention in Coastal Wetlands: Venice Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming.

  10. Relation between the geochemical environment and disease incidence rate. A case study the Island Krk in the Adriatic Sea, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that among the seven municipalities of the Island of Krk the three in the central part of the island have increased disease incidence rates for the five groups of diseases: (a) neoplasm, (b) diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism, (c) endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, (d) mental and behavioral disorders and (e) diseases of the circulatory system. One of the etiological factors is assumed to be the influence of the geochemical environment. The average element concentration values of six trace elements (Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As) for the geochemical environment in the individual municipalities were determined by XRF analyses of soil, plant, potable water and hair samples. The data on disease incidence rates for the individual municipalities, from 1997 to 2001, have been obtained from the Public Health Institution in charge of monitoring population health on the island. Diseases' groups have been defined by the WHO methodology. The GPS-GIS methodology was used to obtain maps of trace elements in different matrices and disease incidence distributions. Data analyses were performed by multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis and cluster analysis). It has been shown that the concentration levels of the elements could be related to disease incidence rates. (author)

  11. Contemporary genetic structure and postglacial demographic history of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, E; Micu, D; Janczyszyn-Le Goff, M; Neglia, V; Bat, L; Todorova, V; Panayotova, M; Kruschel, C; Macic, V; Milchakova, N; Keskin, Ç; Anastasopoulou, A; Nasto, I; Zane, L; Planes, S

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity in the light of past demographic events linked with climatic shifts will help to forecast evolutionary trajectories of ecosystems within the current context of climate change. In this study, mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci were analysed using traditional population genetic approaches together with Bayesian dating and the more recent approximate Bayesian computation scenario testing. The genetic structure and demographic history of a commercial fish, the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, was investigated throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The results suggest that the species recently underwent population expansions, in both seas, likely concomitant with the warming period following the Last Glacial Maximum, 20 000 years ago. A weak contemporaneous genetic differentiation was identified between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. However, the genetic diversity was similar for populations of the two seas, suggesting a high number of colonizers entered the Black Sea during the interglacial period and/or the presence of a refugial population in the Black Sea during the glacial period. Finally, within seas, an east/west genetic differentiation in the Adriatic seems to prevail, whereas the Black Sea does not show any structured spatial genetic pattern of its population. Overall, these results suggest that the Black Sea is not that isolated from the Mediterranean, and both seas revealed similar evolutionary patterns related to climate change and changes in sea level. PMID:26989881

  12. Direct pollution cost assessment of cruising tourism in the Croatian Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Carić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and one that has significant environmental, economic and social impacts on target destinations. Yet, tourism decision makers, developers and managers rarely incorporate or estimate environmental impacts in their tourism development planning. Indeed, the analysis of the resulting resource exploitation is rarely undertaken until carrying capacity is breached and attractiveness diminished. In this article an assessment is offered that determines, quantifies and financially estimates emissions and waste streams so they can be compared with the direct income generated to the local economy by cruising tourism. It is applied to the Croatian part of the Adriatic and financially evaluates environmental impacts, arguing that they are negative externalities due to inappropriate internalization and management.The purpose of the assessment is to give a “snapshot” of the situation, and also to create the groundwork for a model that will assist decision makers and stakeholders, at different levels and of different interests, to prevent and reduce the ecological, health and economic risks associated with dead-end tourism development.

  13. Mobilisation processes responsible for iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Central Adriatic Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmucci, William; Rusi, Sergio; Di Curzio, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Iron and manganese are two of the most common contaminants that exceed the threshold imposed by international and national legislation. When these contamination occurs in groundwater, the use of the water resource is forbidden for any purposes. Several studies investigated these two metals in groundwater, but research focused in the Central Adriatic area are still lacking. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the origin of Fe and Mn contamination in groundwater and the hydrogeochemical processes that can enrich aquifers with these metals. This work is based on hydrogeochemical and multivariate statistical analysis of analytical results undertaken on soils and groundwater. Fe and Mn contamination are widespread in the alluvial aquifers, and their distribution is regulated by local conditions (i.e. long residence time, presence of peat or organic-rich fine sediments or anthropic pollution) that control redox processes in the aquifers and favour the mobilisation of these two metals in groundwater. The concentration of iron and manganese identified within soil indicates that the latter are a concrete source of the two metals. Anthropic impact on Fe and Mn contamination of groundwater is not related to agricultural activities, but on the contrary, the contribution of hydrocarbons (e.g. spills) is evident. PMID:26948970

  14. Structural Changes and Convergence in EU and in Adriatic-Balkans Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Liviu ALBU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coming from standard economic growth theory and empirical evidences, we concentrated on the convergence process as a result of structural changes in economy. We investigate the differences among countries in EU in terms of the share in total economy of main sectors. Then, based on the spatial (empirical distribution of such shares in EU we are proposing a model to estimate a typology of the convergence process in the European area. Taking into account the existing differences among sectors in matter of productivity, there are two versions of the model: considering the share of sectors in total employment and the share of sectors in GDP, respectively. Moreover, we developed several modelling schemes that could be useful to improve the strategies oriented to achieve a real convergence in EU and further in the Adriatic-Balkans Region. In this way, we can obtain simulations from a country or group of countries (European Union, for example on long term and quantifying the impact of structural changes on the convergence process. Indeed, the actual global crisis seems to influence negatively the convergence process in the EU. As a rule, just newly adhered countries have been more affected by the actual crisis. Today all forecasts are suffering from uncertainty. Thus, further efforts must be allocated to evaluate the negative impact of actual crisis on the convergence process.

  15. Changes in ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea during the past 25 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schneider

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea has a fast overturning circulation and the deep water masses are well ventilated in comparison to the deep waters of the world ocean. Significant changes in the overturning circulation has been observed during the last few decades, the most prominent phenomena being the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT in the early 1990s and the Western Mediterranean Transit (WMT near the mid of the decade following. During both of these events unusually large amounts of deep water were formed, and in the case of the EMT, the deep water formation area shifted from the Adriatic to the Aegean Sea. This variability is important to understand and to monitor, because ventilation is the main process to propagate surface perturbations, such as uptake of anthropogenic CO2, into the ocean interior. Here we synthesize a unique collection of transient tracer (CFC-12, SF6 and tritium data from nine cruises conducted between 1987 and 2011 and use these data to determine temporal variability of Mediterranean ventilation. We also discuss biases and technical problems with transient tracer-based ages arising from their different input histories over time; particularly in the case of time-dependent ventilation. We observe a period of stagnation in the deep eastern (Levantine basin after it was ventilated by the EMT so that the age of the deep water is increasing with time. In the Ionian Sea, on the other hand, we see evidence of increased ventilation after year 2001, indicating the restarted deep water formation in the Adriatic Sea. This is also reflected in the increasing age of the Cretan Sea deep water and decreasing age of Adriatic Sea deep water since the end of the 1980s. In the western Mediterranean deep basin we see the massive input of recently ventilated waters during the WMT. This signal is not yet apparent in the Tyrrhenian Sea, where the ventilation seems to be fairly constant since the EMT. Also the western Alboran Sea does not show any

  16. Random Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Frigaard, Peter

    Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considering in the design of coastal and offshore structures.......Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considering in the design of coastal and offshore structures....

  17. The salt water encroachment along the Lamone river artificial estuary: an issue for the coastal management in the Southern Po Plain Adriatic Coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, M.; Antonellini, M.; Minchio, A.; Stecchi, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the problem of saltwater intrusion in shallow aquifers has been recognized across Europe as one of the major threats for freshwater resources in coastal areas. Italy is indicated as one of the countries most severely affected. The problem of saltwater encroachment into the coastal water system attracted the public opinion attention during the last summers, when, due to low rainfall and low discharge rates, the ingression of seawater along the Po river branches was measured 12 kilometres upstream of the river delta. This situation caused a weakening of agricultural activities (inability to irrigate crops and orchards) and led, in same cases, to the shutdown of electric power generation plants due to the lack of freshwater used for cooling. This study is carried out to quantify the saltwater encroachment along the Lamone river and to estimate its possible contribution to the salinization process of the shallow sandy aquifer in the area. The Lamone River is typical for one of the many small low-discharge rivers flowing from the Appennines and reaching the Adriatic sea after a 88 km course through the southern Po Plain. Its estuary was artificially constrained to the actual position in 1960 and this is the reason of its artificially rectified shape. The salt water encroachment phenomenon has been analyzed during 2008 with a monthly monitoring of electrical conductivity profiles in 31 stations along the terminal 8 kilometres of the river, from its upstream physical boundary (represented by an artificial dam built to collect water for the Ravenna city water treatment plant) and the sea. Measurements point out that the Lamone river estuary has sharp vertical water stratification. Bottom water conductivity values show the presence of saltwater (45 mS/cm) in the first 24 stations (starting from the sea) in almost all monitoring campaigns. At 6.5 km from the sea, the presence of a rocky sill protecting a pipeline represents an efficient threshold that blocks or in

  18. Energy use and environmental impact from hotels on Adriatic Coast in Croatia : current status and future possibilities for HVAC systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zanki Alujevic, Vlasta

    2006-01-01

    This thesis analyses a specific type of energy usage system, “energy usage in hotels”, and how this system behaves. In order to evaluate the current state of energy use in hotels, an energy audit questionnaire was developed and conducted among 31,5% of hotels on the Adriatic coast. The energy audit was used as a tool to set a benchmark for energy consumption in hotels and to identify opportunities for increased energy efficiency measures in HVAC systems. The analysis has shown that the averag...

  19. Structural and functional responses of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia in the Northern Adriatic: an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Troch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ and laboratory studies were conducted to document the effects of anoxia on the structure and functioning of meiobenthic communities, with special focus on harpacticoid copepods. In a first step, anoxia was created artificially by means of an underwater chamber at 24 m depth in the Northern Adriatic, Gulf of Trieste (Mediterranean. Nematodes were found as most abundant taxon, followed by harpacticoid copepods. While nematode densities were not affected by treatment (anoxia/normoxia or sediment depth, these factors had a significant impact on copepod abundances. Harpacticoid copepod family diversity, in contrast, was not affected by anoxic conditions, only by depth. Ectinosomatidae and Cletodidae were most abundant in both normoxic and anoxic samples. The functional response of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia was studied in a laboratory tracer experiment by adding 13C pre-labelled diatoms to sediment cores in order to test (1 if there is a difference in food uptake by copepods under normoxic and anoxic conditions and (2 whether initial (normoxia feeding of harpacticoid copepods on diatoms results in a better survival of copepods in subsequent anoxic conditions. Independent of the addition of diatoms, there was a higher survival rate in normoxia than anoxia. The supply of additional food did not result in a higher survival rate of copepods in anoxia, which might be explained by the presence of a nutritionally better food source and/or a lack of starvation before adding the diatoms. However, there was a reduced grazing pressure by copepods on diatoms in anoxic conditions. This resulted in a modified fatty acid composition of the sediment. We concluded that anoxia not only impacts the survival of consumers (direct effect but also of primary producers (indirect effect, with important implications for the recovery phase.

  20. Artificially induced migration of redox layers in a coastal sediment from the Northern Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Metzger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term experimental studies suggest that, under anoxic transient conditions, redox fronts within the sediment shift upwards causing sequential rise and fall of benthic fluxes of reduced species (Mn(II, Fe(II than S(−II. Infaunal benthic organisms are associated to different redox fronts as micro-habitats and must be affected by such changes during natural hypoxia events. In order to document geochemical evolution of the sediment during prolonged anoxia in a realistic system, benthic chambers were deployed on the seafloor of the Northern Adriatic and sampled after 9, 30 and 315 days of incubation. Oxygen and sulfide were measured continuously in the early stages of the experiment (during 9 days. High-resolution porewater profiles were sampled by DET probes and redox sensitive species were analysed (alkalinity, SO42–, Mn2+, Fe2+. After 7 days, anoxia was reached within the chambers. Mn and Fe started diffusing towards the water column giving a rusty color to the seafloor. Infaunal species appeared at the surface. After 20 days, all macro-organisms were dead. Macro-organisms decomposition laying on the seafloor generated important production of sulfides within the chamber generating a downward flux of sulfide towards the sediment where sulfides were quickly oxidized by metallic oxides or precipitated as FeS. Sulfide was no more detectable in the water column and porewaters at the end of the experiment. Therefore, our results suggest that sulfide enrichment in the water column in coastal systems is strongly controlled by the biomass of benthic macrofauna and its decay during hypoxia while its residence time in water column is controlled by iron content (as solid oxides or as dissolved reduced cation within the sediment, even without water circulation.

  1. Structural and functional responses of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia in the Northern Adriatic: an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Troch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ and laboratory studies were conducted to document the effects of anoxia on the structure and functioning of meiobenthic communities, with special focus on harpacticoid copepods. In a first step, anoxia was created artificially by means of an underwater chamber at 24 m depth in the Northern Adriatic, Gulf of Trieste (Mediterranean. Nematodes were found as the most abundant taxon, followed by harpacticoid copepods. While nematode densities were not affected by treatment (anoxia/normoxia or sediment depth, these factors had a significant impact on copepod abundances. Harpacticoid copepod family diversity, in contrast, was not affected by anoxic conditions, only by depth. Ectinosomatidae and Cletodidae were most abundant in both normoxic and anoxic samples. The functional response of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia was studied in a laboratory tracer experiment by adding 13C pre-labelled diatoms to sediment cores in order to test (1 if there is a difference in food uptake by copepods under normoxic and anoxic conditions and (2 whether initial (normoxia feeding of harpacticoid copepods on diatoms results in a better survival of copepods in subsequent anoxic conditions. Independent of the addition of diatoms, there was a higher survival rate in normoxia than anoxia. The supply of additional food did not result in a higher survival rate of copepods in anoxia, which might be explained by the presence of a nutritionally better food source and/or a lack of starvation before adding the diatoms. However, there was a reduced grazing pressure by copepods on diatoms in anoxic conditions. This resulted in a modified fatty acid composition of the sediment. We concluded that anoxia not only impacts the survival of consumers (direct effect but also of primary producers (indirect effect, with important implications for the recovery phase.

  2. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes

    2015-06-01

    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  3. Impact of the introduced small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus on abundance and activity time of the introduced ship rat (Rattus rattus and the small mammal community on Adriatic islands, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijana Barun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus is one of the world’s 100 worst invasive species (IUCN 2000. It has negative impacts on several small mammals on islands where it was introduced. We assess the abundance of small mammal populations and the activity time of introduced ship rats (Rattus rattus on three mongoose-infested and three mongoose-free islands in the Adriatic Sea, Croatia. We set up three transects on each island with a trapping system consisting of 30 small live traps to capture small mammals under 30 grams and 30 larger traps to capture ship rats and mongooses, on each transect. Our results support an already large but mostly speculative literature that suggests inability of the small Indian mongoose to reduce high abundances of introduced R. rattus. Further, we suggest that the low abundance of native small mammals is probably not solely caused by the mongoose but also by high R. rattus populations on all six islands. In addition, we provide evidence that R. rattus has changed its activity time to become more nocturnal on mongoose-infested islands, possibly to avoid predation by the mongoose. As R. rattus became more nocturnal, the diurnal mongoose may have become the main predator on amphibians, reptiles, and poultry.

  4. "Climate change on Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy): rapid temperature rise, new records of heavy precipitation and orographic effects on temperature extremes across Alps and Adriatic. Analysis of the data of the period 1991-2015 in comparison to the histori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Friuli Venezia Giulia is weel-know as the wettest land of Italy with important yearly average from 1000 m over coastal zone to 3300 m over prealpine sector., and from 1991, OSMER has implemented a observative meteorological system and investigated over a pattern of meteorological phenomena, some oh this, typical of this zone, as strong rainfall precipitation, frequent thunderstorms with hail, strong wind Bora over the sea. During the last 25 years we have seen significant change in weather conditions, with a rapid rise of temperature and distribution, frequency and intensity of precipitation. The most frequent extension to high latitude of tropical high pressure and a irregularity of westerly circulation over Mediterranean zone cause a change of the distribution of precipitation, an increasing a strong and quickly rainfall, and a rapid increase in average temperatures, with many new heat and cold records. During the 1961-1990 time, but too in the past since the beginning of observation, the average precipitation is quiet stable, but in the last 25 years it's possible observe more variability with more frequency of period of abundance and scarcity. This extremes of variability of precipitations is even more significant over the last 15 years, with an exceptional peak in 2014. The temperature analysis shows a clear upward trend, more pronounced than the other Italian regions, with new records, due to the location and geography of the region, the bridge between the Alps, the Adriatic and the Balkans.

  5. Flocculation, heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) and the sand-mud transition on the Adriatic continental shelf, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.A.; Hill, P.S.; Milligan, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    Across a limited depth range (5-10 m) on many continental shelves, the dominant sediment size changes from sand to mud. This important boundary, called the sand-mud transition (SMT), separates distinct benthic habitats, causes a significant change in acoustic backscatter, represents a key facies change, and delimits more surface-reactive mud from less surface-reactive sand. With the goal of improving dynamical understanding of the SMT, surficial sediments were characterized across two SMTs on the Adriatic continental shelf of Italy. Geometric mean diameter, specific surface area (SSA), mud fraction (<63 ??m) and heavy metal concentrations were all measured. The SMT related to the Tronto River is identified between 15 and 20 m water depth while the SMT associated with the Pescara River varies between 15 and 25 m water depth. The sediment properties correlate with a new, process-based sedimentological parameter that quantifies the fraction of the sediment in the seabed that was delivered as flocs. These correlations suggest that floc dynamics exert strong influence over sediment textural properties and metal concentrations. Relative constancy in the depth of the SMT along this portion of the margin and its lack of evolution over a period during which sediment input to the margin has dramatically decreased suggest that on the Adriatic continental shelf energy is the dominant control on the depth of the SMT. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An assessment of waterspout occurrence in the Eastern Adriatic basin in 2010: Synoptic and mesoscale environment and forecasting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renko, Tanja; Kozarić, Tomislav; Tudor, Martina

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we performed a comprehensive analysis of 19 waterspout events that occurred in the Eastern Adriatic basin in 2010. Data were collected from the synoptic and climatological weather stations and from eyewitness reports from newspapers and the internet. The geographical and temporal distributions of the waterspouts, as well as the absolute frequencies of four synoptic types relevant to waterspout development (south-west flow (SW), long-wave trough (LW), closed low (CLOSED) and short-wave trough (SWT), are presented. The synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions were analyzed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, satellite images, data from synoptic and automatic weather stations and atmospheric soundings. To test waterspouts for thunderstorm relations the LINET network sensor data were used to infer lightning activity. Because thermodynamic instability indices are usually insufficient for forecasting waterspout activity, the performance of the Szilagyi Waterspout Nomogram (SWN) and the Szilagyi Waterspout Index (SWI) were tested using the ALADIN model. The results of the analyses of the 2010 cases show that the SWN successfully forecasted 15 out of 19 events (hit rate of 78.9%). This is a significant hit rate but is not as high as in the work of Keul et al. (2009), in which 96% of the Adriatic cases satisfied the nomogram. In addition, four selected waterspout cases, which represent the four basic synoptic types, were analyzed in detail to provide an overview of favorable atmospheric environments for waterspouts throughout the year.

  7. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  8. Ultraphytoplankton basin-scale distribution in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in winter: link to hydrodynamism and nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M.; Thyssen, M.; Martin, V.; Manca, B.; Vidussi, F.

    2010-07-01

    The basin-scale distribution of ultraphytoplankton (hydrodynamic structures (fronts, gyres, transition between western and eastern basins). The effect of the main hydrodynamic structures and nutrients on the ultraphytoplankton distribution was investigated. No positive correlation between nutrients and phytoplankton could be established when considering large scales. However, below 50 m depth, nutrient ratios between particular stations were correlated to corresponding density ratios. In contrast, significant relationships were found between Synechococcus abundance and density, resulting from the impact of a gyre in southern Adriatic basin and a thermohaline front in the Ionian basin. A significant relationship was also found between picoeukaryotes and salinity in the comparison of western and eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Errata to the Review Article (Medit. Mar. Sci. 11/2, 2010, 381-493: "Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED; (ii the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED; (iii the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA; and (iv the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED. The updated checklist (December 2010 of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718, less in the WMED (328 and CMED (267 and least in the Adriatic (171. Of these, 535 species (56% are established in at least one area.Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(subtropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED.Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  10. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes. PMID:26922044

  11. Public health problems in the medieval statutes of Croatian Adriatic coastal towns: from public morality to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana; Bosnar, Alan; Frkovic, Vedran; Azman, Josip

    2013-06-01

    The article seeks out the regulations about public health in the oldest medieval statutes of fourteen cities of the eastern Croatian Adriatic coast, between the thirteenth and sixteenth century. The research revealed numerous examples of direct or indirect ways of protecting public health. Through the analyzed documents, a noteworthy relationship between public morality and public health can be noted. The described rules are important as a reflection of awareness about public health as a condition of survival and progress in the past. They witness a progressive transition from an original common law into a written law as well as the impact that religion had in influencing people's general opinion and lifestyle in light of public health problems. PMID:21674275

  12. [Resistance to the organophosphate insecticides temephos and malathion in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera, Culicidae) from the Adriatic coast near Friuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamburlini, R; Bellantone, P

    1993-12-01

    Susceptibility to organophosphorus insecticides Temephos and Malathion was tested in Culex pipiens L. larvae from Friuli Adriatic coast (North-East of Italy). The samples were collected in various sites of three zones with different intensity of insecticidal treatments. Tests were made following the W.H.O. recommendations. The tests were made on larval samples which were exposed for 24 hours to ascending concentrations of each insecticide. From the observed percentage mortalities the LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The resistance ratio was obtained comparing the CL50 values with reference CL50 values provided by the W.H.O. The obtained data suggest the existence of Cx. pipiens populations resistant to the tested chemicals in the most intensively treated touristic zone (Lignano Sabbiadoro). The samples collected in an agricultural zone with no mosquito control treatments showed a slight reduced susceptibility to the tested compounds. PMID:7520564

  13. Environmental security of the coastal sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal sea floor is littered with many of man made objects and materials including a variety of ammunition. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas have increased concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. Therefore, one has to develop capabilities of measuring concentrations of chemical elements in the sediments, determining the content of different containers, establishing the presence of threat materials, identifying the material within sunken ships. In this report the activities related to the development of capabilities for the evaluation of environmental security of the coastal sea floor are summarized. Several hundred coastal sea sediment samples have been collected and analyzed for 18 chemical elements by using EDXRF as an analytical tool. Contour maps of antifouling biocide elements (Cu, Zn, As and Pb) have been generated for the entire eastern coast of Adriatic Sea indicating the locations of 'hot spots' in the distribution of chemical elements used as biocides (Cu, Zn, As, Pb). In order to be able to establish if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical warfare) a system using neutron sensor installed within an unmanned underwater vessel has been developed and tested. When positioned above the object such a system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat material by using α particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d + t neutron generator. While the commonly used military explosives are characterized by the presence of only four chemical elements (C, H, N, O) chemical warfare agents usually have in addition one or more chemical element (P, S, Cl, F, As or Br). The results from the laboratory tests for the detection of the presence of these chemical elements are presented. It is often required to inspect ship hulls, either to detect potential anomalies attached to the hull, or to determine the nature of materials within hull, especially of sunken

  14. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTURING BIG SEA CRABS (LOBSTERS, SPINY LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19 th century an experimental work on culturing big sea crabs began in Europe and North America. Great demand for their flesh as well as their high price urged many institutions to explore the possibilities of a commercial production in varios parts of the world. Lobsters (Homarus sp. were mainly used for experimenting, so that the most data available refer to them. Because of the complicated larva stage spiny lobster culturing is mainly being carried out in experimental circumstances. Despite the promissing results this aquacultural activity faces many problems (long time until they achieve a commercial size, loss of eggs due to stress sensitivity during the process of moulting, canibalism. In order to minimize these problems various researches are being carried out, like temperature influence, influence of light, way of feeding, hormonal regulation of moulting frequency. Although both lobster and spiny lobsters live in the Adriatic Sea, there are no data on their culturing in our contry. Concernig conditions in our sea there are realistic possibilities for crabs production development. In this way this delicacy would be more affordable to broader population and could be a highly rated export product.

  15. Distribution of bioluminescent organisms in the Mediterranean Sea and predicted effects on a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density of bioluminescent organisms was measured using an ISIT camera profiler in the eastern and western Mediterranean, from the subsurface layer to the seafloor; in the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, Ionian, Adriatic Seas and the Strait of Sicily, including neutrino telescope sites at ANTARES and NESTOR. A west-east gradient in the density of bioluminescent animals in deep water (1500-2500 m) was observed, with the average density in the Ligurian (ANTARES) Sea (0.65±0.13 m-3) an order of magnitude greater than the E Ionian (NESTOR) Sea (0.06±0.04 m-3). Additionally, an exponential relationship was found between the density of near-bed bioluminescence (0-400 mab) and depth, with greatest divergence from the trend at the extreme west and easterly sites. For small scale effects we applied flash kinetics of bioluminescent organisms to map the bioluminescent field around a sphere; we predict most light emission downstream of an optical module.

  16. Distribution of bioluminescent organisms in the Mediterranean Sea and predicted effects on a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jessica [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB 41 6AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.craig@abdn.ac.uk; Jamieson, Alan J.; Heger, Amandine; Priede, Imants G. [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB 41 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-11

    The density of bioluminescent organisms was measured using an ISIT camera profiler in the eastern and western Mediterranean, from the subsurface layer to the seafloor; in the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, Ionian, Adriatic Seas and the Strait of Sicily, including neutrino telescope sites at ANTARES and NESTOR. A west-east gradient in the density of bioluminescent animals in deep water (1500-2500 m) was observed, with the average density in the Ligurian (ANTARES) Sea (0.65{+-}0.13 m{sup -3}) an order of magnitude greater than the E Ionian (NESTOR) Sea (0.06{+-}0.04 m{sup -3}). Additionally, an exponential relationship was found between the density of near-bed bioluminescence (0-400 mab) and depth, with greatest divergence from the trend at the extreme west and easterly sites. For small scale effects we applied flash kinetics of bioluminescent organisms to map the bioluminescent field around a sphere; we predict most light emission downstream of an optical module.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and demographic histories of the Atherinidae in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea re-examined by Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Zane, L; Congiu, L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the phylogenetic relationship, divergence times and demographic history of the five close-related Mediterranean and North-eastern Atlantic species/forms of Atherina using the full Bayesian framework for species tree estimation recently implemented in ∗BEAST. The inference is made possible by multilocus data using three mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, control region) and one nuclear gene (rhodopsin) from multiple individuals per species available in GenBank. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the complete gene dataset produced a tree with strong support for the monophyly of each species, as well as high support for higher level nodes. An old origin of the Atherina group was suggested (19.2 MY), with deep split events within the Atherinidae predating the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Regional genetic substructuring was observed among populations of A. boyeri, with AMOVA and MultiDimensional Scaling suggesting the existence of five groupings (Atlantic/West Mediterranean, Adriatic, Greece, Black Sea and Tunis). The level of subdivision found might be consequence of the hydrographic isolation within the Mediterranean Sea. Bayesian inference of past demographic histories showed a clear signature of demographic expansion for the European coast populations of A. presbyter, possibly linked to post-glacial colonizations, but not for the Azores/Canary Islands, which is expected in isolated populations because of the impossibility of finding new habitats. Within the Mediterranean, signatures of recent demographic expansion were only found for the Adriatic population of A. boyeri, which could be associated with the relatively recent emergence of the Adriatic Sea. PMID:22425706

  18. Conceptual development of the trail methodology for the preservation of intangible maritime heritage: A case for the Adriatic coast and islands

    OpenAIRE

    James Bender

    2015-01-01

    In the Adriatic, the importance in tourism of the small rowing and sailing boats, like the gajeta and other heritage vessels, is clearly relevant, as icons of heritage boats adorn brochures, logos, and their names are bequested to hotels and restaurants. As a symbol, the gajeta stands for the heritage of the island, and the ethics of the place; these constitute an intangible treasure which highlights the lifestyle of the agriculturalist society. However, the distinct experience of the gajeta,...

  19. Occurrence, Diversity, and Pathogenicity of Halophilic Vibrio spp. and Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae from Estuarine Waters along the Italian Adriatic Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Elena; Falzano, Loredana; Fiorentini, Carla; Pianetti, Anna; Baffone, Wally; Fabbri, Alessia; Matarrese, Paola; Casiere, Annarita; Katouli, Mohammad; Kühn, Inger; Möllby, Roland; Bruscolini, Francesca; Donelli, Gianfranco

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence, diversity, and pathogenicity of Vibrio spp. were investigated in two estuaries along the Italian Adriatic coast. Vibrio alginolyticus was the predominant species, followed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, non-O1 Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio vulnificus. By using a biochemical fingerprinting method, all isolates were grouped into nine phenotypes with similarity levels of 75 to 97.5%. The production of toxins capable of causing cytoskeleton-dependent changes was detected in a large num...

  20. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  1. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  2. Assessing the impacts induced by global climate change through a multi-risk approach: lessons learned from the North Adriatic coast (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torressan, Silvia; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Glade, Thomas; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to pose a wide range of impacts on natural and human systems worldwide, increasing risks from long-term climate trends and disasters triggered by weather extremes. Accordingly, in the future, one region could be potentially affected by interactions, synergies and trade-offs of multiple hazards and impacts. A multi-risk risk approach is needed to effectively address multiple threats posed by climate change across regions and targets supporting decision-makers toward a new paradigm of multi-hazard and risk management. Relevant initiatives have been already developed for the assessment of multiple hazards and risks affecting the same area in a defined timeframe by means of quantitative and semi-quantitative approaches. Most of them are addressing the relations of different natural hazards, however, the effect of future climate change is usually not considered. In order to fill this gap, an advanced multi-risk methodology was developed at the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change (CMCC) for estimating cumulative impacts related to climate change at the regional (i.e. sub-national) scale. This methodology was implemented into an assessment tool which allows to scan and classify quickly natural systems and human assets at risk resulting from different interacting hazards. A multi-hazard index is proposed to evaluate the relationships of different climate-related hazards (e.g. sea-level rise, coastal erosion, storm surge) occurring in the same spatial and temporal area, by means of an influence matrix and the disjoint probability function. Future hazard scenarios provided by regional climate models are used as input for this step in order to consider possible effects of future climate change scenarios. Then, the multi-vulnerability of different exposed receptors (e.g. natural systems, beaches, agricultural and urban areas) is estimated through a variety of vulnerability indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, sediment budget, % of urbanization

  3. Determination of trace metals in sea waters of the albanian coast by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preconcentration of trace transition and heavy metal ions by precipitation with APDC has been combined with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for environmental sea water analysis. The preconcentration procedure implies adding of 500 μg Mo ion and 10 ml of 1 % water solution of APDC to a 500 ml water sample at pH 4, filtering off on a Millipore filter and analyzing after drying. Realistic detection limits are at 1 μg * l-1 level and precision varies between 10 - 25% at about 5 μg * l-1 level, depending on the element. Eleven sea water samples, covering Albanian Adriatic and Ionian coast, are analyzed for trace metal ions. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Global change and relative sea level rise at Venice: what impact in term of flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognin, Laura; Tosi, Luigi [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); Teatini, Pietro [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University of Padova, Department of Mathematical Methods and Models for Scientific Applications, Padua (Italy); Tomasin, Alberto [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University Ca' Foscari in Venice, Venice (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Relative sea level rise (RSLR) due to climate change and geodynamics represents the main threat for the survival of Venice, emerging today only 90 cm above the Northern Adriatic mean sea level (msl). The 25 cm RSLR occurred over the 20th century, consisting of about 12 cm of land subsidence and 13 cm of sea level rise, has increased the flood frequency by more than seven times with severe damages to the urban heritage. Reasonable forecasts of the RSLR expected to the century end must be investigated to assess the suitability of the Mo.S.E. project planned for the city safeguarding, i.e., the closure of the lagoon inlets by mobile barriers. Here we consider three RSLR scenarios as resulting from the past sea level rise recorded in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the IPCC mid-range A1B scenario, and the expected land subsidence. Available sea level measurements show that more than 5 decades are required to compute a meaningful eustatic trend, due to pseudo-cyclic 7-8 year long fluctuations. The period from 1890 to 2007 is characterized by an average rate of 0.12 {+-} 0.01 cm/year. We demonstrate that linear regression is the most suitable model to represent the eustatic process over these 117 year. Concerning subsidence, at present Venice is sinking due to natural causes at 0.05 cm/year. The RSLR is expected to range between 17 and 53 cm by 2100, and its repercussions in terms of flooding frequency are associated here to each scenario. In particular, the frequency of tides higher than 110 cm, i.e., the value above which the gates would close the lagoon to the sea, will increase from the nowadays 4 times per year to a range between 20 and 250. These projections provide a large spread of possible conditions concerning the survival of Venice, from a moderate nuisance to an intolerable aggression. Hence, complementary solutions to Mo.S.E. may well be investigated. (orig.)

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  6. Impact of mussel farming on sedimentary geochemical properties of a Northern Adriatic area influenced by freshwater inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, F.; Berto, D.; Giani, M.; Brigolin, D.; Covelli, S.; Cacciatore, F.; Brusà, R. Boscolo; Bellucci, L. G.; Pastres, R.

    2013-09-01

    The interactions of mussel aquaculture with physico-chemical properties and the biogenic elemental composition of the surface sediment were studied at a long-line farm, located in a 12 km2 area, which included the farm (4 km2) characterized by relevant freshwater inputs along the North-Western Adriatic coastline. Negative redox potentials were detected at two stations directly affected by the farm. Total phosphorus content reached the highest concentration at stations located beneath the farm. OC/TP and TN/TP showed similar patterns, which was characterized by average values underneath the farm (respectively 45.5 and 4.5) that were significantly lower than those measured at the control stations. Our hypothesis, that these patterns could be related to organic matter enrichment of the surface sediment underneath the farm, due to intense mussel biodeposition, was confirmed by the mass accumulation rates, estimated to be respectively 23, 2.3, 0.94 and 0.26 g m-2 y-1 for organic carbon, total nitrogen, total and organic phosphorus. Data concerning the sediment chemistry were normalized with respect to the pelite fraction thus increasing the capability of detecting the environmental impact of the farm under variable background sedimentary fluxes.

  7. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Strassburg; B. D. Hamlington; R. R. Leben; P. Manurung; J. Lumban Gaol; B. Nababan; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated...

  8. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea from anthropogenic carbon penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Abed El Rahman; Gemayel, Elissar; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Goyet, Catherine; Abboud-Abi Saab, Marie; Guglielmi, Véronique; Touratier, Franck; Falco, Cédric

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an estimation of the anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) concentrations and acidification (ΔpH=pH2013-pHpre-industrial) in the Mediterranean Sea, based upon hydrographic and carbonate chemistry data collected during the May 2013 MedSeA cruise. The concentrations of CANT were calculated using the composite tracer TrOCA. The CANT distribution shows that the most invaded waters (>60 μmol kg-1) are those of the intermediate and deep layers in the Alboran, Liguro- and Algero-Provencal Sub-basins in the Western basin, and in the Adriatic Sub-basin in the Eastern basin. Whereas the areas containing the lowest CANT concentrations are the deep layers of the Eastern basin, especially those of the Ionian Sub-basin, and those of the northern Tyrrhenian Sub-basin in the Western basin. The acidification level in the Mediterranean Sea reflects the excessive increase of atmospheric CO2 and therefore the invasion of the sea by CANT. This acidification varies between -0.055 and -0.156 pH unit and it indicates that all Mediterranean Sea waters are already acidified, especially those of the Western basin where ΔpH is rarely less than -0.1 pH unit. Both CANT concentrations and acidification levels are closely linked to the presence and history of the different water masses in the intermediate and deep layers of the Mediterranean basins. Despite the high acidification levels, both Mediterranean basins are still highly supersaturated in calcium carbonate minerals.

  9. Precipitation chemistry within Kvarner Bay area, northern Adriatic (Croatia), 1984-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of rainwater analyses collected at five sampling sites within Kvarner Bay area are presented for the period 1984-1991. The samples were collected on a daily basis in open buckets thus representing bulk samples. Although measurements are referred to as wet deposition samples, they are actually an upper limit for the wet deposition. The rainwater was initially analysed for pH, sulphate and nitrate content, while during the period March 1990 - May 1991 the analyses were extended to major ion concentrations: hydrogen, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The pH frequency distribution, pH medians and precipitation weighted average (PWA) concentrations of hydrogen, sulphate and nitrate are presented, as well as wet deposition rates of sulphur (as sulphate) and nitrogen (as nitrate). The dependence of hydrogen, sulphate and nitrate mean concentrations on wind directions and seasons for Site 1 is also given. The highest precipitation acidity is obtained at urban and industrial Site 1(city of Rijeka) because of the local washout of the atmosphere and influence of dry deposition, and at remote Site 4 (Lake Vrana) due to long-range transport. The neutralizing potential of sea salt and soil dust on chemical composition of rainwater is observed at all sites. The estimated wet deposition rates of sulphate and nitrate are close to the values reported for Southeast Europe. The wet deposition rate for ammonium ion at Site 1 is almost double comparative regional values. 26 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the Calabrian Arc and surrounding seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the non-linear inversion of Surface-Wave Tomography data, using as a priori constraints seismic data from literature, it has been possible to define a fairly detailed structural model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system (thickness, S-wave and P-wave velocities of the crust and of the upper mantle layers) in the Calabrian Arc region (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Calabria and the Northern-Western part of the Ionian Sea). The main features identified by our study are: (1) a very shallow (less then 10 km deep) crust-mantle transition in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and very low S-wave velocities just below a very thin lid in correspondence of the submarine volcanic bodies in the study area; (2) a shallow and very low S-wave velocity layer in the mantle in the areas of Aeolian islands, of Vesuvius, Ischia and Phlegraean Fields, representing their shallow-mantle magma source; (3) a thickened continental crust and lithospheric doubling in Calabria; (4) a crust about 25 km thick and a mantle velocity profile versus depth consistent with the presence of a continental rifled, now thermally relaxed, lithosphere in the investigated part of the Ionian Sea; (5) the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere towards NW below the Tyrrhenian Basin; (6) the subduction of the Adriatic lithosphere underneath the Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields. (author)

  11. FEMALE EMIGRATION. FROM RURAL ROMANIA TO THE ADRIATIC COAST: WOMEN ON THEIR JOURNEY BETWEEN OPPORTUNITY AND SOCIAL VULNERABILITY. “THE ITALIAN SYNDROME”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. BURTINI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Female Emigration. From Rural Romania to the Adriatic Coast: Women on Their Journey between Opportunity and Social Vulnerability. “The Italian Syndrome”. The twenty-first century can be called the “age of migration”, in fact since the de-colonization and markedly since the eighties migration affects the entire planet, qualifying as a global phenomenon. Comparing it with it in the past today prevails new elements and in fact, in addition to a geographical change of the phenomenon, it has turned its composition, showing a growing feminization.

  12. GENDER INEQUALITIES AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS OF EMPOLYED WOMEN IN THE ALPS-ADRIATIC REGION. A COMPARISON BETWEEN CARINTHIA, FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA AND SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    FEDEL, SERENA

    2007-01-01

    Serena Fedel's dissertation is focused on gender issues, more precisely she has chosen to analyse the social conditions of employed women and the way they manage to reconcile the duties arising from their job with the ones connected with their role within the family. Geographically speaking she has decided to examine the above mentioned issues in the core of the so called Alps-Adriatic region, i.e. in the three bordering areas of Carinthia, Friuli Venezia Giulia and Slovenia. The aim of th...

  13. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  14. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Claudia, Virno Lamberti [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Barbara, Pisanelli [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Ginevra, Moltedo [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Francesco, Regoli, E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.i [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  15. Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. II: Effects on macrobenthic assemblages in channels and ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Massimo; Pasteris, Andrea; Guerra, Roberta; Abbiati, Marco

    2009-10-01

    Coastal lagoons are ephemeral habitats whose conservation requires human intervention, such as maintenance dredging of inner channels. Dredging can reduce the abundance of benthic species due to the removal of individuals with the sediment, modify sediment properties, and resuspend fine sediment, nutrients and pollutants, which can lead to eutrophication, hypoxic events and increasing toxicity. Both direct effects in the dredged channel and possible indirect effects in surrounding shallow areas could be expected. This study assesses the effects of the channel maintenance dredging, performed between October 2004 and August 2005, on the invertebrate assemblages both in channels and adjacent ponds in the northern Adriatic coastal lagoon of Pialassa Baiona. The lagoon is affected by eutrophication, chemical and thermal pollution from wastewater treatment and power plants. Three impacted sites were located in the dredged channel and three in the adjacent interconnected shallow water ponds, while three non-impacted sites were located in a channel and in a pond far from the dredged area. Replicate samples were collected from each site one time before and one time after the dredging operations. Despite the extent of the intervention, effects of the dredging on macrobenthic assemblages were detected only within the dredged channel, while in the surrounding ponds no clear and unequivocal effects were found. In particular the dredging could have promoted the increase of the abundance of the polychaete Streblospio shrubsolii in the southern and central parts of the dredged channel and the increase in abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum in the northern side, compared to the controls. Instead, species diversity was reduced in the central and northern parts of the dredged channel. These effects on the macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages could be related to the observed changes of sediment characteristics, contamination and toxicity. Overall, direct effects on benthic

  16. Assessment of PCB and chlorinated pesticide accumulation in mussels at Kaštela Bay (Eastern Adriatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milun, Vesna; Grgas, Dijana; Dragičević, Tibela Landeka

    2016-08-15

    The biological response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, resident and transplanted to cages, to contamination with anthropogenic pollutants from Kaštela Bay, located in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to trace the accumulation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (HCB, lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-DDTs) as a direct measure of potential contaminant availability to organisms, in a period from 2000 to 2011. In order to do so, cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the same size and age were transplanted from the unpolluted Mali Ston Bay to the Kaštela Bay. Sampling was performed bimonthly, and the level of target contaminants in whole soft tissue was determined. After two months of exposure, the concentration of PCBs in transplanted mussels increased on average 6.5-times, and of DDTs 2-times, while the intensity of changes for HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin was negligible. Seasonal variation of pesticide content was similar without a significant change throughout the experimental period, while that of PCBs was somewhat different showing increased accumulation in summer. Seasonal and spatial variation of organochlorines in the Kaštela Bay was likely the result of prevailing environmental rather than biological parameters. In accordance with prevailing hydrodynamic cycling, contaminant concentration decreased in acyclonic direction towards the exit of the Bay. Measurement of target contaminants in resident mussels sampled from the most contaminated area of the Bay exhibited decreasing concentrations of lindane, aldrin and p,p'-DDTs. However, PCBs exhibited statistically significant increasing concentrations in relation to the slightly increasing concentrations of HCB. With regard to human health, organochlorine (OC) levels in the mussel tissue were below prescribed limits for human consumption. PMID:27096632

  17. The Dynamics of Sea Straits Reveals Large-Scale Modes of Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Angelo; Androsov, Alexey; Zanchettin, Davide; Voltzinger, Naum

    2016-04-01

    Using a very high resolution 3D numerical model we investigate the tidal dynamics in the Strait of Messina. We show that different stratifications at the southern boundaries, consistent with observed stratifications in the Ionian approaches to the Strait, yield different mean sea level heights. On this basis we search for long-term variations in sea level heights measured in the tidal stations of Catania, Messina and Marseille, and associate them with the concomitant phase of dominant modes of interannual-to-decadal climate variability in the Euro-Mediterranean sector. We focus on the atmospheric North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and on the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) to illustrate the grand variability in sea level teleconnections during the last four decades. In particular, observations reveal a strong imprint of both NAO and BiOS on all sea level records in the 21st century, when NAO and BiOS are inversely correlated. In the 1990s, a well known period of persistent positive NAO anomalies, the NAO imprint on sea level becomes weaker compared to the most recent period, although it remains clear on decadal trends, while the BiOS shows very weak positive variability. In the 1970s and early 1980s, when the NAO was on a neutral phase with weak variability, the NAO imprint on sea levels is weakest, and sea levels in Marseille and Sicily anticorrelate with each other, in contrast to the positive correlations found during the later periods. Based on these observational evidence, we discuss how our modeling results provide a basis to understand the local dynamics that contributed to determine such observed decadal variability.

  18. Conceptual development of the trail methodology for the preservation of intangible maritime heritage: A case for the Adriatic coast and islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Adriatic, the importance in tourism of the small rowing and sailing boats, like the gajeta and other heritage vessels, is clearly relevant, as icons of heritage boats adorn brochures, logos, and their names are bequested to hotels and restaurants. As a symbol, the gajeta stands for the heritage of the island, and the ethics of the place; these constitute an intangible treasure which highlights the lifestyle of the agriculturalist society. However, the distinct experience of the gajeta, or other local boats as a relevant form of tourist activity, is largely missing in the offerings of local tourist information centers and nature parks where they reside. This paper outlines a heritage trail interpretive strategy, which would create a network supporting small local tourist venues that showcase intangible maritime heritage of the coast and islands. The methodology creates an alterative to what is primarily leisure-based tourism that Adriatic counties like Croatia are experiencing in all but the largest cultural monuments and ecological reserves which provide avenues for community-based ecological management in remote regions.

  19. Pliocene-Quaternary contourite depositional system along the south-western Adriatic margin: changes in sedimentary stacking pattern and associated bottom currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Claudio; Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    The Pliocene-Quaternary history of the south-western Adriatic margin, represented by a complex contourite depositional system, records the palaeoceanography of the basin and the interactions between oceanographic processes and the uneven slope morphology that resulted from tectonic deformation. Three main stages can be recognized: (1) during the Pliocene, a giant sediment drift formed on the southern flank of the slope-transverse Gondola anticline that focused and accelerated the flow of slope-parallel bottom currents; (2) since the early to middle Pleistocene transition, a reorganization of bottom-current pathways led to a sharp change in the sedimentary architecture of the margin that became dominated by the growth of contourite deposits; (3) as of 350 ka, landward-migrating contourites on the outer shelf (less than 120 m water depth) reflect the presence of bottom currents also in shallow waters. This analysis of the sedimentary stacking pattern of the contourite depositional system that developed along the south-western Adriatic margin since the Pliocene enables disentangling the processes that controlled changes in bottom-current activity, demonstrating that bottom-current deposits constitute the bulk of depositional sequences at the Milankovitch timescale.

  20. Recruitment and food composition of juvenile thin-lipped grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1826, in the Neretva River estuary (Eastern Adriatic, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad JASPRICA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the recruitment and food composition of thin-lipped grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1826 juveniles in the estuary of the Neretva River in the southeastern Adriatic. Thin-lipped mullet appeared in the Port of Ploče in February. The relationships between total length, standard length, and weight showed a remarkably good fit to the expected allometric model, with b=3 for total length. Twelve different animal food categories were identified. The greatest diversity was recorded in April at the Port of Ploče when 10 categories were present. In addition, six diatom taxa were noted. Harpacticoid copepods were the most common prey (39% in these samples, followed by insects (32% and cladocerans (12%. All other prey accounted for less than 4%. Insects represented 99% of prey in the stomachs of specimens sampled from the freshwater Crna Rijeka River. Thin-lipped mullet juveniles were not found on sandy beaches or natural bays around the port. It thus appears that juveniles find the port area to be a habitat with the favorable characteristics of a brackish water nursery: of predators, lower salinity, and high food availability. These all promote better survival and recruitment in this area of the Croatian Adriatic.

  1. Elemental analysis of mussels and possible health risks arising from their consumption as a food: The case of Boka Kotorska Bay, Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaskovski, Bojan; Jović, Mihajlo; Mandić, Milica; Pezo, Lato; Degetto, Sandro; Stanković, Slavka

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the essential and non-essential elements in cultivated and wild mussels and assessed the health risk arising from their consumption as an impact of rapid growth and intensive production of Mytilus galloprovincialis in the mussel farms of the Boka Kotorska Bay. The concentrations of macro, micro, nonessential and even the small amounts of potentially toxic elements in the cultivated and wild mussels were influenced by industry, tourism and the geohydrology of the Bay. In the case of cultivated mussels, the limiting factor, i.e., the element the elevated concentration of which restricts mussels consumption, was Zr, while in the case of wild mussels the limiting factors were Cr and As. The sites with cultivated mussels stand out as sites with the highest calculated element pollution index, the total hazard index and with higher estimated risk to the health of consumers. PMID:27084999

  2. Comment on 'inflow, levels and the fate of some persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Rijeka Bay area of the Adriatic Sea by N. Picer and M. Picer'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    the PCB standard used for their identification and quantification of PCBs. It is unjustified to report the concentration levels of PCBs, as such, in the environment unless each and every congener of the PCBs is properly identified. It is a well known... individual congener of PCB, such as IUPAC No. 88 or IUPAC No. 209, is indispensable without which the data reproduced would become meaningless (Duinker and Hillebrand, 1983). Chemical Oceanography Division National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula...

  3. APPLICATION OF O-H-B-Sr ISOTOPE SYSTEMATICS TO THE EXPLORATION OF SALINIZATION AND FLUSHING IN COASTAL AQUIFERS : PRELIMINARY DATA FROM THE PIALASSA BAIONA ECOSYSTEM (ADRIATIC SEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Petrini; Maddalena Pennisi; Alessandra Adorni Braccesi; Barbara Stenni; Onelio Flora; Umberto Aviani

    2009-01-01

    O, H, B and Sr isotopes were identified from surface-waters, ground-waters and waters percolating in soils at the Pialassa Baiona lagoon and nearby inland areas. The preliminary data demonstrate the occurrence of both conservative mixtures between seawater and freshwaters and cation exchange at the salt/fresh water interface during the intrusion. The O and H isotopes indicate that the freshwater component in the binary mixing had the isotopic features of the rainwater from Apennine catchments...

  4. The Effect of Map Scale on the Determination of the Coastline Length and the Area of Islands in the Adriatic Sea - the Example of the Island of Rab

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Vučetić; Nedjeljko Frančula; Ivana Šimat

    2006-01-01

    The procedure to determine the coastline length and the area of the island of Rab from the maps at the scales 1:25 000, 1:50 000, 1:100 000, 1:200 000, 1:300 000, 1:500 000, 1:1 000 000 and 1:2 000 000 is described. The map sheets at the scales 1:25 000, 1:100 000 and 1:200 000 were obtained already in a georeferenced raster format, and the others were scanned and georeferenced. This was followed by a manual vectorization of the coastline and a transformation of all coordinates into the 5th z...

  5. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg-1. Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg-1, with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg-1. In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg-1), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg-1). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 μSv y-1. - Highlights: → Radionuclide transfer from seawater, sediment and mud with detritus. → Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in C. labrosus whole fish and organs. → Cs-137 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus muscles. → Ra-226 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus skeleton.

  6. APPLICATION OF O-H-B-Sr ISOTOPE SYSTEMATICS TO THE EXPLORATION OF SALINIZATION AND FLUSHING IN COASTAL AQUIFERS : PRELIMINARY DATA FROM THE PIALASSA BAIONA ECOSYSTEM (ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O, H, B and Sr isotopes were identified from surface-waters, ground-waters and waters percolating in soils at the Pialassa Baiona lagoon and nearby inland areas. The preliminary data demonstrate the occurrence of both conservative mixtures between seawater and freshwaters and cation exchange at the salt/fresh water interface during the intrusion. The O and H isotopes indicate that the freshwater component in the binary mixing had the isotopic features of the rainwater from Apennine catchments. Coupled O-H-B isotopes also show that the major contribution of the moving seawater was confined to the deeper aquifers and some of the soil waters. The Sr isotopes highlight the role of cation exchanges when seawater flushes freshwater aquifers, and allow the recognition of the different components of the solute. Deviations from these processes as revealed by B isotopes are interpreted as the evidence of possible anthropogenic inputs.

  7. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  8. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  9. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    , the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea, western African coast, the Adriatic, and the Aegean Sea, which show high concentrations of endangered, threatened, or vulnerable species. The Levantine Basin, severely impacted by the invasion of species, is endangered as well. This abstract has been translated to other languages (File S1.

  10. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S; Gasol, Josep M; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M; Lotze, Heike K; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Sasa; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea), western African coast, the Adriatic, and the Aegean Sea, which show high concentrations of endangered, threatened, or vulnerable species. The Levantine Basin, severely impacted by the invasion of species, is endangered as well. This abstract has been translated to other languages (File S1). PMID:20689844

  11. Hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea during a cruise with RV POSEIDON in April 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hainbucher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea on the German research vessel POSEIDON in April 2014. Data were taken on a west–east section starting at the Strait of Gibraltar and ending south-east of Crete as well on sections in the Ionian and Adriatic Sea. The objectives of the cruise were twofold; long-term variations of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW and the deep water masses of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea were investigated. The measurements include salinity, temperature, oxygen and currents and were conducted with a CTD/rosette system, an underway CTD and an ADCP. The sections are on tracks which have been sampled during several other cruises, thus supporting the opportunity to investigate the long term temporal development of the different variables. The use of an underway CTD made it possible to conduct measurements of temperature and salinity with a high resolution of 6 nm and a vertical resolution of 1 dbar for the upper 800 m of the water column.

  12. Seafloor heterogeneity influences the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Pusceddu, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical ecology predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area. In the deep sea, biodiversity is positively linked with ecosystem functioning, suggesting that deep-seabed heterogeneity could influence ecosystem functions and the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). To shed light on the BEF relationships in a heterogeneous deep seabed, we investigated variations in meiofaunal biodiversity, biomass and ecosystem efficiency within and among different seabed morphologies (e.g., furrows, erosional troughs, sediment waves and other depositional structures, landslide scars and deposits) in a narrow geo-morphologically articulated sector of the Adriatic Sea. We show that distinct seafloor morphologies are characterized by highly diverse nematode assemblages, whereas areas sharing similar seabed morphologies host similar nematode assemblages. BEF relationships are consistently positive across the entire region, but different seabed morphologies are characterised by different slope coefficients of the relationship. Our results suggest that seafloor heterogeneity, allowing diversified assemblages across different habitats, increases diversity and influence ecosystem processes at the regional scale, and BEF relationships at smaller spatial scales. We conclude that high-resolution seabed mapping and a detailed analysis of the species distribution at the habitat scale are crucial for improving management of goods and services delivered by deep-sea ecosystems.

  13. Hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea during a cruise with RV Poseidon in April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Siena, G.; Hübner, U.; Moritz, M.; Drübbisch, U.; Basan, F.

    2015-09-01

    We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea on the German research vessel Poseidon in April 2014. Data were taken on a west-east section, starting at the Strait of Gibraltar and ending south-east of Crete, as well on sections in the Ionian and Adriatic Sea. The objectives of the cruise were threefold: to contribute to the investigation of the spatial evolution of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) properties and of the deep water masses in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and to investigate the mesoscale variability of the upper water column. The measurements include salinity, temperature, oxygen and currents and were conducted with a conductivity, temperature and depth(CTD)/rosette system, an underway CTD and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The sections are on tracks which have been sampled during several other cruises, thus supporting the opportunity to investigate the long-term temporal development of the different variables. The use of an underway CTD made it possible to conduct measurements of temperature and salinity with a high horizontal spacing of 6 nm between stations and a vertical spacing of 1 dbar for the upper 800 m of the water column.

  14. Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral. PMID:17626470

  15. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). PMID:27033917

  16. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  17. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  18. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  19. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life. PMID:22552996

  20. The Zadar maritime zone in Pîrî Reis’ Book of Navigation of 1526: maritime and geographical images of part of the Croatian Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithad Kozličić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the analysis of maps and textual geographical descriptions (pilot of the Zadar maritime zone from the work Kitâb-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation by Pîrî Reis, an Ottoman seafarer, pirate and later admiral. Comparative analysis was made of several examples of that navigational manual from Istanbul sources known to date and also from a lesser-known example from The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore. The objective was to compare the information obtained by the Ottomans regarding wide Zadar area based on the secretive work of a foreigner from ranks of the enemy, Pîrî Reis, with that shown in the works of his contemporary Venetian cartographers, his‘hosts’ on the eastern Adriatic coast. Providing either the historical-cartographical or imagologicalgeographical perspective, the research reveals that Pîrî Reis managed to balance the demand for production of high quality navigation and geographical materials with his position as a foreigner on the east Adriatic. Cartographic and narrative images of the Zadar maritime zone by Pîrî Reis represent a reflection of the scope and possibilities of Ottoman cartography, enabling its reappraisal. The reason lies in the fact that the quality of the cartographic and narrative output of Pîrî Reis was not achieved in the navigational manuals of that time. The toponyms employed indicate that Pîrî Reis used other accessible sources, for example, navigation instructions, but he combined them with numerous observations of his own. Therefore, his work represents a totally original description of the Zadar maritime zone which, due to a lot of new information it contains, provides completely new scholarly cognisance.

  1. Sea level rise

    OpenAIRE

    Warrick, R. A.; Oerlemans, J.

    1990-01-01

    This Section addresses three questions: Has global-mean sea level been rising during the last 100 years? What are the causal factors that could explain a past rise in sea level? And what increases in sea level can be expected in the future?

  2. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    of wave-energy for generation of electricty. Wind while blowing over the sea surface trans- fers huge amounts of energy into the sea by imparting oscillatory motion to the surface. This includes both ki- netic and potential Chaotic sea surface; (inset) a... stimulation and excite- ment since it has much complexity and scope for further developments. The recently developed wonder-tool of mathematics, 'fractals' can also be used to model sea surfaces. Generation of waves on the sea surface is a very complex process...

  3. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 105 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  4. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have...

  5. Sea piracy and law of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad Tahir

    2010-01-01

    As the sea become world’s largest source to trade between the nations during the last few decades. Of course there are lots of problems in this regards when we are using the sea on such a large scale. The problem of piracy is most dangerous problems, among the all problems of the sea at the same time. Nations are trying to control this crime individually and collectively but the problem is still on its peak. Lots of international and national laws and conventions are held in this ...

  6. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zibordi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC. The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities with those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized-water leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite derived and in situ data at the center-wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration (443–547 nm, or equivalent. Remarkable is the consistency among the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center-wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent center-wavelengths, suggesting difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  7. Vertical distribution of the prokaryotic cell size in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, R.; Maimone, G.; Azzaro, M.; Conversano, F.; Brunet, C.; Cabral, A. S.; Paranhos, R.

    2012-12-01

    Distributions of prokaryotic cell size and morphology were studied in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea by using image analysis on samples collected from surface down to bathypelagic layers (max depth 4,900 m) in the Southern Tyrrhenian, Southern Adriatic and Eastern Mediterranean Seas. Distribution of cell size of prokaryotes in marine ecosystem is very often not considered, which makes our study first in the context of prokaryotic ecology. In the deep Mediterranean layers, an usually-not-considered form of carbon sequestration through prokaryotic cells has been highlighted, which is consistent with an increase in cell size with the depth of the water column. A wide range in prokaryotic cell volumes was observed (between 0.045 and 0.566 μm3). Increase in cell size with depth was opposed to cell abundance distribution. Our results from microscopic observations were confirmed by the increasing HNA/LNA ratio (HNA, cells with high nucleic acid content; LNA, cells with low nucleic acid content) along the water column. Implications of our results on the increasing cell size with depth are in the fact that the quantitative estimation of prokaryotic biomass changes along the water column and the amount of carbon sequestered in the deep biota is enhanced.

  8. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  9. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  10. High-resolution satellite turbidity and sea surface temperature observations of river plume interactions during a significant flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, V. E.; Braga, F.; Zaggia, L.; Giardino, C.; Bresciani, M.; Matta, E.; Bellafiore, D.; Ferrarin, C.; Maicu, F.; Benetazzo, A.; Bonaldo, D.; Falcieri, F. M.; Coluccelli, A.; Russo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2015-11-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) and turbidity (T) derived from Landsat 8 (L8) imagery were used to characterize river plumes in the northern Adriatic Sea (NAS) during a significant flood event in November 2014. Circulation patterns and sea surface salinity (SSS) from an operational coupled ocean-wave model supported the interpretation of the plumes' interaction with the receiving waters and among them. There was a good agreement of the SSS, T, and SST fields at the sub-mesoscale and mesoscale delineation of the major river plumes. L8 30 m resolution also enabled the description of smaller plume structures. The different plumes' reflectance spectra were related to the lithological fingerprint of the sediments in the river catchments. Sharp fronts in T and SST delimited each single river plume. The isotherms and turbidity isolines' coupling varied among the plumes due to differences in particle loads and surface temperatures in the discharged waters. The surface expressions of all the river plumes occurring in NAS were classified based on the occurrence of the plume dynamical regions in the L8 30 m resolution imagery.

  11. Distribution patterns of carbon oxidation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Evidence of changes in the remineralization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Civitarese, Giuseppe; Ribera D'Alcalã, Maurizio

    2003-09-01

    Deep remineralization patterns, as carbon dioxide production, were investigated in microplankton samples from several areas of eastern Mediterranean Sea. The respiration data, collected during six oceanographic surveys from 1993 through 1999, evidence biogeochemical peculiarities of the deep waters of Mediterranean as compared to the open ocean and allow drawing up an hypothesis on the possible impact of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) on remineralization processes. The temporal trend of the oxidative processes in the basin is tightly coupled with the main features of the circulation pattern. In the Mediterranean Sea, the convective processes and the consequent advection of dense waters assume a relevant role in sustaining the amount of remineralization in the deep layers and appear to be more important than the sinking of particulate matter from the upper layers. Respiration in the deepest Mediterranean waters accounts for a greater percentage of the upper aphotic zone respiration (over 45%) than that found in the open oceans (below 21%). In addition, the increase in respiratory rates in only a few years in the Ionian Basin could represent a signal of the changes induced by the EMT, which replaced the Adriatic deepwater supply with waters of Aegean origin. The ecological change induced by the EMT, negligible in the photic layers of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, seems to concern the impact of the continental shelf pump by advection of younger, less-refractory organic matter utilizable by deep biota.

  12. Climatological variations of total alkalinity and total inorganic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gemayel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A compilation of several cruises data from 1998 to 2013 was used to derive polynomial fits that estimate total alkalinity (AT and total inorganic carbon (CT from measurements of salinity and temperature in the Mediterranean Sea surface waters. The optimal equations were chosen based on the 10-fold cross validation results and revealed that a second and third order polynomials fit the AT and CT data respectively. The AT surface fit showed an improved root mean square error (RMSE of ±10.6 μmol kg−1. Furthermore we present the first annual mean CT parameterization for the Mediterranean Sea surface waters with a RMSE of ±14.3 μmol kg−1. Excluding the marginal seas of the Adriatic and the Aegean, these equations can be used to estimate AT and CT in case of the lack of measurements. The seven years averages (2005–2012 mapped using the quarter degree climatologies of the World Ocean Atlas 2013 showed that in surface waters AT and CT have similar patterns with an increasing eastward gradient. The surface variability is influenced by the inflow of cold Atlantic waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and by the oligotrophic and thermohaline gradient that characterize the Mediterranean Sea. The summer-winter seasonality was also mapped and showed different patterns for AT and CT. During the winter, the AT and CT concentrations were higher in the western than in the eastern basin, primarily due to the deepening of the mixed layer and upwelling of dense waters. The opposite was observed in the summer where the eastern basin was marked by higher AT and CT concentrations than in winter. The strong evaporation that takes place in this season along with the ultra-oligotrophy of the eastern basin determines the increase of both AT and CT concentrations.

  13. A new contribution to the Late Quaternary tephrostratigraphy of the Mediterranean: Aegean Sea core LC21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, C.; Tomlinson, E. L.; Grant, K. M.; Albert, P. G.; Smith, V. C.; Manning, C. J.; Ottolini, L.; Wulf, S.; Rohling, E. J.; Lowe, J. J.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Menzies, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra layers preserved in marine sediments can contribute to the reconstruction of volcanic histories and potentially act as stratigraphic isochrons to link together environmental records. Recent developments in the detection of volcanic ash (tephra) at levels where none is macroscopically visible (so-called 'crypto-tephra') have greatly enhanced the potential of tephrostratigraphy for synchronising environmental and archaeological records by expanding the areas over which tephras are found. In this paper, crypto-tephra extraction techniques allow the recovery of 8 non-visible tephra layers to add to the 9 visible layers in a marine sediment core (LC21) from the SE Aegean Sea to form the longest, single core record of volcanic activity in the Aegean Sea. Using a novel, shard-specific methodology, sources of the tephra shards are identified on the basis of their major and trace element single-shard geochemistry, by comparison with geochemical data from proximal Mediterranean volcanic stratigraphies. The results indicate that the tephra layers are derived from 14 or 15 separate eruptions in the last ca 161 ka BP: 9 from Santorini; 2 or 3 from Kos, Yali, or Nisyros; 2 from the Campanian province; and one from Pantelleria. The attributions of these tephra layers indicate that 1) inter-Plinian eruptions from Santorini may have produced regionally significant tephra deposits, 2) marine tephrostratigraphies can provide unique and invaluable data to eruptive histories for island volcanoes, and 3) tephra from both Pantelleria and Campania may be used to correlate marine records from the Aegean Sea to those from the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian Seas.

  14. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  15. Silica cycling in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Krom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although silica is a key plant nutrient there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS. Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ~ 1 μM, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin was due to the inflow of Western Mediterranean Sea (WMS water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 μM close to the S. Adriatic area of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 μM plus biogenic silica (BSi from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 μM. The increase of 4.4 μM across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in-situ diagenetic weathering of alumina-silicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si year−1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si year−1 BSi, silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si year−1, riverine (27 × 109 mol Si year−1 and subterranean ground water (9.7 × 109 mol Si year−1 inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si year−1. This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in-situ weathering of alumino-silicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.

  16. Sometimes sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus cannot find their way back to the high seas: a multidisciplinary study on a mass stranding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mazzariol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus remain peculiar and rather unexplained events, which rarely occur in the Mediterranean Sea. Solar cycles and related changes in the geomagnetic field, variations in water temperature and weather conditions, coast geographical features and human activities have been proposed as possible causes. In December 2009, a pod of seven male sperm whales stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the sixth instance from 1555 in this basin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete necropsies were performed on three whales whose bodies were in good condition, carrying out on sampled tissues histopathology, virology, bacteriology, parasitology, and screening of veins looking for gas emboli. Furthermore, samples for age determination, genetic studies, gastric content evaluation, stable isotopes and toxicology were taken from all the seven specimens. The animals were part of the same group and determined by genetic and photo-identification to be part of the Mediterranean population. Causes of death did not include biological agents, or the "gas and fat embolic syndrome", associated with direct sonar exposure. Environmental pollutant tissue concentrations were relatively high, in particular organochlorinated xenobiotics. Gastric content and morphologic tissue examinations showed a prolonged starvation, which likely caused, at its turn, the mobilization of lipophilic contaminants from the adipose tissue. Chemical compounds subsequently entered the blood circulation and may have impaired immune and nervous functions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multi-factorial cause underlying this sperm whales' mass stranding is proposed herein based upon the results of postmortem investigations as well as of the detailed analyses of the geographical and historical background. The seven sperm whales took the same "wrong way" into the Adriatic Sea, a potentially dangerous trap for Mediterranean

  17. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  18. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    . The Andaman Sea remains the least studied basin in this region. Physical and chemical signatures suggest that the deep basin of the Andaman Sea are largely influenced by intermediate circulation. Deep waters are warmer and low in oxygen than those at similar...

  19. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  20. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...

  1. Motorways of the Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ionita Profir

    2011-01-01

    In its communication aim, the European Commission presents the following definition: short distance shipping means the movement of cargo and passengers by sea between ports situated in Europe geographical area or between those ports and ports situated in non-European countries located at closed seas on the border of Europe

  2. North Sea update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the offshore activity in the North Sea bringing together a special update feature for the petroleum industries in the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands. The total capital expenditure required for the period from 1995 to 1998 for the North Sea area which includes exploration, development projects and well abandoning, are discussed and presented. 20 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Surface connection between different areas in Mediterranean Sea derived from drifter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Paolo; Carlson, Daniel F.; Falco, Pierpaolo; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    The surface connection of five study areas in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily Strait, Gulf of Lyon, Ionian Sea, Alborán Sea and Crete Passage) is studied by looking at the statistical properties of near-surface lagrangian trajectories. The choice of the areas is due to the geographical distribution of data and the key role of these sub-basins in the dynamics of the Mediterranean. We used Lagrangian drifter data taken from the Mediterranean Surface Velocity Programme (http://nettuno.ogs.trieste.it/sire/medsvp/). The most common surface drifter used is the CODE-type drifter (Davis, 1985), designed to follow the vertical average velocity of the upper 1 m layer of the water column. The dataset consist of 1547 trajectories, deployed between 1986 and 2015 in all Mediterranean sub basins. By examining the drifter paths through the study areas, we computed transit and residence time, pseudo-Eulerian statistics and connection probabilities. Given the small number of drifters and the non-normal distribution of transit times, it is possible to use a bootstrap method (Efron and Tibshirani, 1986) to estimate the average transit time. In particular, we divided it into forward and backward transit times to consider the time taken by drifters respectively, from the exit of study area to end of its trajectory and from the deployment position to the study area. The main results indicate that the transit time between Sicily Strait and coast of Libya is about 83-103 days and between the Strait and the Gulf of Lyon is approximately 134 days. The time to reach the Adriatic Sea from the Ionian is around 30-40 days; the drifters take around 70 days to go from Alborán Sea to Sardinia channel and 43 days between Crete and the Ionian Sea. The Ionian Sea due has the highest number of drifter trajectories and the highest residence time, about 42 days. Also the Crete Passage has a high value of residence time, approximately 35 days; the other study areas are characterized by residence times of

  4. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (∼ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ14C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ14C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (Tisol) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ14C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ∼ 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in a thin

  5. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  6. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg; Melsheimer, Christian; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Schyberg, Harald; Tveter, Frank; Dahlgren, Per; Lundelius, Tomas; Gustafsson, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect and...... determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  7. Climate Impacts on Sea Turtle Breeding Phenology in Greece and Associated Foraging Habitats in the Wider Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Stephen J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Panagopoulou, Aliki; Margaritoulis, Dimitris; Spotila, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are vulnerable to climate change impacts in both their terrestrial (nesting beach) and oceanic habitats. From 1982 to 2012, air and sea surface temperatures at major high use foraging and nesting regions (n = 5) of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) nesting in Greece have steadily increased. Here, we update the established relationships between sea surface temperature and nesting data from Zakynthos (latitude: 37.7°N), a major nesting beach, while also expanding these analyses to include precipitation and air temperature and additional nesting data from two other key beaches in Greece: Kyparissia Bay (latitude: 37.3°N) and Rethymno, Crete (latitude: 35.4°N). We confirmed that nesting phenology at Zakynthos has continued to be impacted by breeding season temperature; however, temperature has no consistent relationship with nest numbers, which are declining on Zakynthos and Crete but increasing at Kyparissia. Then using statistically downscaled outputs of 14 climate models assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we projected future shifts in nesting for these populations. Based on the climate models, we projected that temperature at the key foraging and breeding sites (Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Crete, Gulf of Gabès and Zakynthos/Kyparissia Bay; overall latitudinal range: 33.0°—45.8°N) for loggerhead turtles nesting in Greece will rise by 3–5°C by 2100. Our calculations indicate that the projected rise in air and ocean temperature at Zakynthos could cause the nesting season in this major rookery to shift to an earlier date by as much as 50–74 days by 2100. Although an earlier onset of the nesting season may provide minor relief for nest success as temperatures rise, the overall climatic changes to the various important habitats will most likely have an overall negative impact on this population. PMID:27332550

  8. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  9. The M3A multi-sensor buoy network of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nittis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A network of three multi-sensor timeseries stations able to deliver real time physical and biochemical observations of the upper thermocline has been developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System during the MFSTEP project. They follow the experience of the prototype M3A system that was developed during the MFSPP project and has been tested during a pilot pre-operational period of 22 months (2000–2001. The systems integrate sensors for physical (temperature, salinity, turbidity, current speed and direction as well as optical and chemical observations (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, PAR, nitrate. The south Aegean system (E1-M3A follows a modular design using independent mooring lines and collects biochemical data in the upper 100 m and physical data in the upper 500 m of the water column. The south Adriatic buoy system (E2-M3A uses similar instrumentation but on a single mooring line and also tests a new method of pumping water samples from relatively deep layers, performing analysis in the protected ''dry'' environment of the buoy interior. The Ligurian Sea system (W1-M3A is an ideal platform for air-sea interaction processes since it hosts a large number of meteorological sensors while its ocean instrumentation, with real time transmission capabilities, is confined in the upper 50 m layer. Despite their different architecture, the three systems have common sampling strategy, quality control and data management procedures. The network operates in the Mediterranean Sea since autumn 2004 collecting timeseries data for calibration and validation of the forecasting system as well for process studies of regional dynamics.

  10. The M3A multi-sensor buoy network of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zanon

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A network of three multi-sensor timeseries stations able to deliver real time physical and biochemical observations of the upper thermocline has been developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System during the MFSTEP project. They follow the experience of the prototype M3A system that was developed during the MFSPP project and has been tested during a pilot pre-operational period of 22 months (2000–2001. The systems integrate sensors for physical (temperature, salinity, turbidity, current speed and direction as well as optical and chemical observations (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, PAR, nitrate. The south Aegean system (E1-M3A follows a modular design using independent mooring lines and collects biochemical data in the upper 100 m and physical data in the upper 500 m of the water column. The south Adriatic buoy system (E2-M3A uses similar instrumentation but on a single mooring line and also tests a new method of pumping water samples from relatively deep layers, performing analysis in the protected "dry" environment of the buoy interior. The Ligurian Sea system (W1-M3A is an ideal platform for air-sea interaction processes since it hosts a large number of meteorological sensors while its ocean instrumentation, with real time transmission capabilities, is confined in the upper 50 m layer. Despite their different architecture, the three systems have common sampling strategy, quality control and data management procedures. The network operates in the Mediterranean Sea since autumn 2004 collecting timeseries data for calibration and validation of the forecasting system as well for process studies of regional dynamics.

  11. Intermittent Sea Level Acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Spada, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Fondamenti, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino

    2013-01-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea{level acceleration for the last 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, con firm the existence of a global sea level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0:01 mm/yr2. However, di fferently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or ...

  12. Changes in Sea Level

    OpenAIRE

    Church, J.A.; Gregory, J. M.; Huybrechts, Philippe; Kuhn, M.; Lambeck, K.; Nhuan, M. T.; Qin, D.; Woodworth, P. L.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter assesses the current state of knowledge of the rate of change of global-averaged and regional sea-level in relation to climate change. We focus on the 20th and 21st centuries.However, because of the slow response to past conditions of the oceans and ice sheets and the consequent land movements, we consider changes in sea level prior to the historical record, andwe also look over a thousand years into the future.Past changes in sea levelFrom recent analyses, our conclusions are as...

  13. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  14. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution...

  15. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  16. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  17. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m3, which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  18. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  19. ROE Sea Level Relative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point dataset represents changes in relative sea level along U.S. coasts, 1960-2013. Data were provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  20. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious pollution of these shallow seas endangering marine life and spoiling recreational facilities. Different polluting agents like sewage, chemicals, industrial coolants etc...

  1. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  2. Understanding sea level changes

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, BF; Farr, T.; Labrecque, J; Bindschadler, R.; Douglas, B; E. Rignot; Shum, CK; Wahr, J.

    2002-01-01

    Sea level change occurs on all timescales, depending on the type of change in question. It also occurs with a continuous range of spatial scales-local, regional, and global. To understand and be able to eventually predict sea level changes is a truly interdisciplinary endeavor. It requires geodetic and non-geodetic measurements of various types from space as well as in situ, while various numerical models for a number of meteorological and geophysical processes or properties are essential or ...

  3. Canterbury Basin Sea Level

    OpenAIRE

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Institute for Geophysics John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Building 196 (ROC) 10100 Burnet Road (R2200) Austin TX 78758-4445 USA; Hoyanagi, K.; Department of Geology Faculty of Science Shinshu University 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 Japan; Blum, P.; United States Implementing Organization Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845 USA; Guèrin, G.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Slagle, A. L.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Blair, S. A.; Department of Geological Sciences Florida State University 006 Carraway Building Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Browne, G. H.; Hydrocarbon Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Carter, R. M.; Marine Geophysical Laboratory James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville QLD 4811 Australia; Ciobanu, M.; Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes CNRS UMR-6197 Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer Technopole Brest-Iroise Plouzane 29280 France; Claypool, G. E.; Organic Geochemist 8910 West 2nd Avenue Lakewood CO 80226 USA; Crundwell, M. P.; New Zealand Observer/Paleontologist (foraminifers) Paleontology and Environmental Change Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Ding, X.; School of Marine Sciences China University of Geosciences (Beijing) 29 XueYuan Road, Haidian District Beijing P.R. China; George, S. C.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia; Hepp, D. A.; MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences University of Bremen Leobener Strasse MARUM Building, Room 2230 28359 Bremen Germany

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin,...

  4. Organic and inorganic micropollutants in Adriatic seafood: contamination levels and evaluation of human potential intake; Microinquinanti organici ed inorganici in specie marine eduli del mare Adriatico: livelli di presenza e stima dell`assunzione potenziale da parte dell`uomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubadda, F.; Stacchini, P.; Baldini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. Alimenti

    1998-06-01

    Review the state of the art on the chemical contamination of seafood and on the human intake of contaminants through these commodities in the Adriatic area. Scientific literature on the levels of inorganic (i.e. cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead) and organic (i.e. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants as well as studies on potential health hazard related to Adriatic seafood consumption were examined. Where sufficient data were available, an evaluation of the average potential intake was carried out through the correlation between contamination levels in marine organisms and seafood consumption. The results of this study did not show any risk for the average consumer related to the consumption of Adriatic seafood. Nevertheless it is essential to carefully evaluate the potential risk to which some population groups, especially high consumers of local seafood, are exposed. For this purpose, it is necessary to obtain additional data on the content of contaminants in the main seafood products and on the levels of consumption by the Adriatic coastal populations. [Italiano] Si propone di fare il punto sullo stato dell`arte in materia di contaminazione chimica delle specie marine eduli e di assunzione di contaminanti da parte dell`uomo mediante tali alimenti nell`are adriatica. A tal fine e` stata presa in esame la letteratura scientifica concernente i livelli di presenza di contaminanti inorganici (cadmio, cromo, mercurio, piombo) e organici (pesticidi, policlorobifenili, diossine, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici), nonche` gli studi relativi al problema del rischio sanitario associato al consumo di prodotti della pesca nel Mare Adriatico. Nel caso dei contaminanti per i quali esiste una sufficiente base di dati si e` proceduto ad una stima dell`assunzione media potenziale calcolata mediante la correlazione dei livelli di presenza negli organismi marini con dati di consumo alimentare. In base ai risultati ottenuti

  5. Large-scale spatio-temporal monitoring highlights hotspots of demersal fish diversity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Victoria; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Bez, Nicolas; Relini, Giulio; Meynard, Christine N.; Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Maiorano, Porzia; Garcia Ruiz, Cristina; Follesa, Cristina; Gristina, Michele; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Brind'Amour, Anik; Carbonara, Pierluigi; Charilaou, Charis; Esteban, Antonio; Jadaud, Angélique; Joksimovic, Aleksandar; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Kolitari, Jerina; Manfredi, Chiara; Massuti, Enric; Mifsud, Roberta; Quetglas, Antoni; Refes, Wahid; Sbrana, Mario; Vrgoc, Nedo; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Mérigot, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Increasing human pressures and global environmental change may severely affect the diversity of species assemblages and associated ecosystem services. Despite the recent interest in phylogenetic and functional diversity, our knowledge on large spatio-temporal patterns of demersal fish diversity sampled by trawling remains still incomplete, notably in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most threatened marine regions of the world. We investigated large spatio-temporal diversity patterns by analysing a dataset of 19,886 hauls from 10 to 800 m depth performed annually during the last two decades by standardised scientific bottom trawl field surveys across the Mediterranean Sea, within the MEDITS program. A multi-component (eight diversity indices) and multi-scale (local assemblages, biogeographic regions to basins) approach indicates that only the two most traditional components (species richness and evenness) were sufficient to reflect patterns in taxonomic, phylogenetic or functional richness and divergence. We also put into question the use of widely computed indices that allow comparing directly taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity within a unique mathematical framework. In addition, demersal fish assemblages sampled by trawl do not follow a continuous decreasing longitudinal/latitudinal diversity gradients (spatial effects explained up to 70.6% of deviance in regression tree and generalised linear models), for any of the indices and spatial scales analysed. Indeed, at both local and regional scales species richness was relatively high in the Iberian region, Malta, the Eastern Ionian and Aegean seas, meanwhile the Adriatic Sea and Cyprus showed a relatively low level. In contrast, evenness as well as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional divergences did not show regional hotspots. All studied diversity components remained stable over the last two decades. Overall, our results highlight the need to use complementary diversity indices through different

  6. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  7. EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping - Developing a higher resolution digital bathymetry for the European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Moussat, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). The EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping projects made good progress in developing the EMODNet Hydrography portal to provide overview and access to available bathymetric survey datasets and to generate an harmonised digital bathymetry for Europe's sea basins. Up till end 2012 more than 8400 bathymetric survey datasets, managed by 14 data centres from 9 countries and originated from 118 institutes, have been gathered and populated in the EMODNet Hydrography Data Discovery and Access service, adopting SeaDataNet standards. These datasets have been used as input for analysing and generating the EMODNet digital terrain model (DTM), so far for the following sea basins: • the Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat • the English Channel and Celtic Seas • Western and Central Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea • Bay of Biscay, Iberian coast and North-East Atlantic • Adriatic Sea • Aegean - Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). • Azores - Madeira EEZ The Hydrography Viewing service gives users wide functionality for viewing and downloading the EMODNet digital bathymetry: • water depth in gridded form on a DTM grid of a quarter a minute of longitude and latitude • option to view QC parameters of individual DTM cells and references to source data • option to download DTM tiles in different formats: ESRI ASCII, XYZ, CSV, NetCDF (CF), GeoTiff and SD for Fledermaus 3 D viewer software • option for users to create their Personal Layer and to upload multibeam survey ASCII datasets for automatic processing into personal DTMs following the EMODNet standards The NetCDF (CF) DTM files are fit for use in a special 3D Viewer software package which is based on the existing open

  8. Spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton dimensional classes in the Mediterranean Sea from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, Michela; Di Cicco, Annalisa; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-04-01

    coastal areas, such as the North Adriatic Sea, micro-phytoplankton fraction on Chl a is constant, all over the year. On contrary, the contribution of nano-phytoplankton seems to be quite constant (30-40%) over the basin, with higher values in the western basin. At sub-basin scale, the largest interannual variability occurs in specific areas, e.g. Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, influenced by physical processes, which strongly control the nutrients availability. In absence of sufficient in situ data of community composition, our analysis underlines the potential use of ocean colour data for monitoring the phytoplankton assemblage in the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea constrained by multiple transient tracer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stöven

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation is the prime pathway for ocean surface perturbations, such as temperature anomalies, to be relayed to the ocean interior. It is also the conduit for gas exchange between atmosphere and ocean and thus the mechanism whereby, for instance, the interior ocean is oxygenated and enriched in anthropogenic carbon. The ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea is fast in comparison to the world ocean and has large temporal variability, so that quantification of Mediterranean Sea ventilation rates is challenging and very relevant for Mediterranean oceanography and biogeochemistry. Here we present transient tracer data from a field-campaign in April 2011 that sampled a unique suite of transient tracers (SF6, CFC-12, tritium and 3He in all major basins of the Mediterranean. We apply the Transit Time Distribution (TTD model to the data which then constrain the mean age, the ratio of the advective/diffusive transport mechanism, and the presence, or not, of more than one significant (for ventilation water mass. We find that the eastern part of the Eastern Mediterranean can be reasonable described with a one dimensional Inverse Gaussian (1IG TTD, and thus constrained with two independent tracers. The ventilation of the Ionian Sea and the Western Mediterranean can only be constrained by a multidimensional TTD. We approximate the ventilation with a two-dimensional Inverse Gaussian (2IG TTD for these areas and demonstrate one way of constraining a 2IG-TTD from the available transient tracer data. The deep water in the Ionian Sea has higher mean ages than the deep water of the Levantine Basin despite higher transient tracer concentrations. This is partly due to the deep water of Adriatic origin having more diffusive properties in the transport and formation, i.e. a high ratio of diffusion over advection, compared to the deep water of Aegean Sea origin that still dominates the deep Levantine Basin deep water after the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT in

  10. Lost at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    OVER the last several years,dozens of sea turtles have been washing up on the shores of Central Africa dead.Many of these creatures,olive ridley turtles,were adult females poised to breed. Most puzzling,though,is that these turtles are being found on protected beaches that belong to national parks both in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. Olive ridleys are considered to be the most abundant sea turtles on the planet,with around 800,000 females nesting annually.They can be found around the globe,in places like China’s Hainan and Hong Kong,among others.In spite of their numbers,they are the world’s most exploited species of sea

  11. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    well as in communicative perspective. Developing indicators is both a political and professional process, and the paper finally discuss the need of selection criteria mentioned in the guidelines, and also gives some ideas on how to tackle the development of indicators being explicit about it both as a......Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation and if the...

  12. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  13. Sea-level fluctuations and deep-sea sedimentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, T R; Davies, T A

    1979-02-01

    Sediment accumulation rate curves from 95 drilled cores from the Pacific basin and sea-level curves derived from continental margin seismic stratigraphy show that high biogenous sediment accumulation rates correspond to low eustatic sea levels for at least the last 48 million years. This relationship fits a simple model of high sea levels producing lower land/sea ratios and hence slower chemical erosion of the continents, and vice versa. PMID:17734144

  14. Skin disorders at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  15. Seasonal Change of Steric Sea Level in the GIN Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; WANG Huijuan; SUN Ruili

    2011-01-01

    The Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea, and Norwegian Sea (GIN seas) form the main channel connecting the Arctic Ocean with other Oceans, where significant water and energy exchange take place, and play an important role in global climate change. In this study steric sea level, associated with temperature and salinity, in the GIN seas is examined based on analysis of the monthly temperature and salinity fields from Polar science center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0). A method proposed by Tabata et al. is used to calculate steric sea level, in which, steric sea level change due to thermal expansion and haline contraction is termed as the thermosteric component (TC) and the halosteric component (SC), recpectively. Total steric sea level (TSSL) change is the sum of TC and SC. The study shows that SC is making more contributions than TC to the seasonal change of TSSL in the Greenland Sea, whereas TC contributes more in the Norwegian and the Iceland Seas. Annual variation of TSSL is larger than 50ram over most regions of the GIN Seas, and can be larger than 200mm at some locations such as 308mm at 76.5°N, 12.5°E and 246mm at 77.50N, 17.5°W.

  16. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  17. Biomonitoring of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn in Mali Ston Bay (eastern Adriatic using the Mediterranean blue mussel (1998-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav ZVONARIĆ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mali Ston Bay, located on the eastern Adriatic coast, mussels and oysters have traditionally been cultivated. However, previous studies showed that water and sediments from Mali Ston Bay contain elevated levels of some trace metals, which was attributed to natural processes of sedimentation and drainage. In order to assess the bioavailability of trace metals in the bay, and to assess the health risk of consumption of shellfish species from Mali Ston Bay, a passive monitoring program was carried out in the period from December 1998 to August 2005. Samples of the whole soft tissue were collected seasonally at 4 shellfish breeding farms and analyzed for essential (Cu, Zn and non-essential (Cd, Cr, THg, Pb metals. Mean concentrations of analyzed metals in the edible tissue of mussels (Cd: 1.15 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Cr: 1.65 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Cu: 5.6 mg kg-1 d.wt.; THg: 0.15 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Pb: 1.09 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Zn: 139 mg kg-1 d.wt. fell in the range of values usually found in low to moderately contaminated marine coastal areas. Examination of the spatial pattern of contaminants showed that there were no statistically significant differences among stations in Mali Ston Bay regarding trace metal content. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr and THg were significantly higher during the autumn-winter period, while concentrations of Pb and Zn did not depend on the sampling season. Among six analyzed metals, only concentrations of Cd and THg were significantly negatively correlated with the condition index of the mussels. Analysis of temporal trends during the 7 years of monitoring showed that metal concentrations had not changed with time. According to EU and WHO legislation, consumption of the edible tissue of the mussels was not harmful for humans since all the values were well below the permissible limits for fresh seafood. In addition, results of the evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels containing trace metals suggest

  18. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  19. The Dirac Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dimock, J.

    2010-01-01

    We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.

  20. Solar Sea Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  1. The Provident Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, David H.

    1988-09-01

    The Provident Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the provident sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.

  2. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  3. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  4. The Sea Beside Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Carol; Hallard Raymond E.

    1974-01-01

    The Sea Beside Us for the Special Child is a project in Delaware with three goals: providing outdoor and overnight experiences for handicapped children; introducing these students to beach, bay, and marsh environments; and increasing the number of special education teachers incorporating seashore studies in their teaching curriculum. (LS)

  5. Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

  6. The sea is your mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Parenthoen, Marc; Murie, Fred; Thery, Flavien

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Is Your Mirror is an artistic interactive experience where surface cerebral electromagnetic waves from a participant wearing an EEG sensor headset are depicted in real-time as ocean waves in an animated 3D environment. The aim of this article is to describe the sea wave model used for the sea state animation and how it is connected to the brain computer interface (BCI). The sea state is animated by the groupy choppy wave model that provides nonlinear sea states with wave groups and as...

  7. Dead Sea Rate of Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz L. AL-Khlaifat

    2008-01-01

    The Dead Sea is exceptional by many standards. It is the saltiest and lowest lake in the world. Moreover it is a closed lake with very large variations in its water level caused by both man-made and natural oscillations of the components that make up the water balance. Most of the fundamental studies on the Dead Sea focused on the sea water contents, Dead Sea geology, salt origin, ground-water sea intrusion, and qualitative analysis of the material balance. The objective of the present paper ...

  8. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    Aerosols are important climactically. Their specific emissions are key to reducing the uncertainty in global climate models. Marine aerosols make up the largest source of primary aerosols to the Earth's atmosphere. Uncertainty in marine aerosol mass and number flux lies in separating primary...... emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use of a...... cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...

  9. Spatial and temporal genetic structure of the planktonic Sagitta setosa (Chaetognatha) in European seas as revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peijnenburg, K T C A; Fauvelot, C; Breeuwer, J A J; Menken, S B J

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about the spatial and temporal scales at which planktonic organisms are genetically structured. A previous study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the holoplanktonic chaetognath Sagitta setosa revealed strong phylogeographic structuring suggesting that Northeast (NE) Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea populations are genetically disjunct. The present study used a higher sampling intensity and a combination of mitochondrial and four microsatellite markers to reveal population structuring between and within basins. Between basins, both marker sets indicated significant differentiation confirming earlier results that gene flow is probably absent between the respective S. setosa populations. At the within-basin scale, we found no evidence of spatial or temporal structuring within the NE Atlantic. In the Mediterranean basin, both marker sets indicated significant structuring, but only the mtDNA data indicated a sharp genetic division between Adriatic and all other Mediterranean populations. Data were inconclusive about population structuring in the Black Sea. The levels of differentiation indicated by the two marker sets differed substantially, with far less pronounced structure detected by microsatellite than mtDNA data. This study also uncovered the presence of highly divergent mitochondrial lineages that were discordant with morphology, geography and nuclear DNA. We thus propose the hypothesis that highly divergent mitochondrial lineages may be present within interbreeding S. setosa populations. PMID:16968273

  10. Changing Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  11. Wood decay at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Sea-Level climate variability in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaduce, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level variability is characterized by multiple interacting factors described in the Fourth Assessment Report (Bindoff et al., 2007) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that act over wide spectra of temporal and spatial scales. In Church et al. (2010) sea-level variability and changes are defined as manifestations of climate variability and change. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) defines sea level as one of most important indicators for monitoring climate chan...

  13. Modelling of the anthropogenic tritium transient and its decay product helium-3 in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution regional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, M.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Beranger, K.; Arsouze, T.; Beuvier, J.; Palmieri, J.; Le-vu, B.; Roether, W.

    2015-05-01

    This numerical study provides the first simulation of the anthropogenic tritium invasion and its decay product helium-3 (3He) in the Mediterranean Sea. The simulation covers the entire tritium (3H) transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s and is run till 2011. Tritium, helium-3 and their derived age estimates are particularly suitable for studying intermediate and deep-water ventilation and spreading of water masses at intermediate/deep levels. The simulation is made using a high-resolution regional model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean), in a regional configuration for the Mediterranean Sea called MED12, forced at the surface with prescribed tritium evolution derived from observations. The simulation is compared to measurements of tritium and helium-3 performed along large-scale transects in the Mediterranean Sea during the last few decades on cruises of R/V Meteor: M5/6, M31/1, M44/4, M51/2, M84/3, and R/V Poseidon: 234. The results show that the input function used for the tritium generates a realistic distribution of the main hydrographic features of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. In the eastern basin, the results highlight the weak formation of Adriatic Deep Water in the model, which explains its weak contribution to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW) in the Ionian sub-basin. It produces a realistic representation of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) signal, simulating a deep-water formation in the Aegean sub-basin at the beginning of 1993, with a realistic timing of deep-water renewal in the eastern basin.

  14. The response of the lower ionosphere driven by the chain of the meteotsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea during 23 - 28 June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Maria; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Levin, Boris; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Fedun, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    and in the Adriatic Sea. The VLF/LF anomalies were also observed on 27 and 28 June with twice intensity in the region between Sicily and Crete and with much smaller intensity in the region Crete - Cyprus. The spectral analysis of the anomalous VLF/LF signals revealed periods between 15 and 30 min, coherent with the tsunami. These periods are also in good agreement with the periods of IGWs.

  15. Sea level monitoring in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Nhampulo, C.I.S.; Ruby, J,

    2002-01-01

    Observing changes in the rise of relative sea level has resulted from the balance between the sea level rise due to the global warming of the planet, and the vertical displacements of the coast due to geological movements. The main objective of this paper is to outsource information about sea level monitoring in Mozambique, as part of a common global effort aiming to colect and analyse data that can help in understanding physical processes envolving ocean basins or oceans as a hole. Tidal ...

  16. Air sea ratio reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Airfreight is the most expensive mode of transportation as well as the most impacting in terms of CO{sup 2} emissions. It is 7 times more expensive on average to ship by air than shipping by sea 1. Airfreight transportation mode emits 30 times more CO{sup 2} than sea freight mode 2. These elements provided a compelling platform to design a global logistics program to initiate a modal shift from air to sea freight without compromising service to customers.

  17. Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

  18. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  19. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  20. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  1. AIR / SEA RESCUE LAUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Motor Boat Wing of the South African Air Force was inaugurated some thirty eight years ago.With its main base at Gordon's Bay, the wing was formed to operate the various marine craft used to provide a service to the flying component of the South African Air Force. Its main function was to be air/sea rescue, but it also had to man and maintain armoured target boats, seaplane tenders, marine tenders and the 'bomb scows', used for recovering practise bombs and missiles and for laying and lifting moorings.

  2. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.

    • Institut fur Biotechno\\ogle. Biotechnikum. Walter Rathenau Strasse 49A, 17489GrcJf~wald.Germany. 265 266 Raghukumar and Damare from water samples collected from the subtropical Atlantic Ocean, from the surface to a depth of 4,500 m using sterile van Dom... Calcareous shells %5, Bay ofBengal 73 Only preserved specimens CFU CFt.: Chapter IS • Deep-Sea Fungi 267 fungi were isolated from surface-sterilized calcareous fragments collected from a depth of 300 to 860 m in the Bay of Bengal (73). These fungi were...

  3. Sea shore in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Black and white photograph, showing a winter’s day at a deserted sea shore in Cyprus - Μαυρόασπρη κάρτ ποστάλ που απεικονίζει μια χειμωνιάτικη μέρα σε μια ερημική ακτή στην Κύπρο.

  4. The Sea Around Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Rachel L.

    1991-12-01

    Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our

  5. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens

  6. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes: Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are relati

  7. (1)H NMR metabolomic profiling of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) from the Adriatic Sea (SE Italy): A comparison with warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa), and edible crab (Cancer pagurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Del Coco, Laura; Migoni, Danilo; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The metabolomic profile of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) captured in the Acquatina lagoon (SE Italy) was compared to an autochthonous (Eriphia verrucosa) and to a commercial crab species (Cancer pagurus). Both lipid and aqueous extracts of raw claw muscle were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and MVA (multivariate data analysis). Aqueous extracts were characterized by a higher inter-specific discriminating power compared to lipid fractions. Specifically, higher levels of glutamate, alanine and glycine characterized the aqueous extract of C. sapidus, while homarine, lactate, betaine and taurine characterized E. verrucosa and C. pagurus. On the other hand, only the signals of monounsaturated fatty acids distinguished the lipid profiles of the three crab species. These results support the commercial exploitation and the integration of the blue crab in human diet of European countries as an healthy and valuable seafood. PMID:26593533

  8. Deep sea biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of deep-sea bacterial cultures was completed. Procedures were instituted to shelter the culture collection from accidential warming. A substantial data base on the rates of reproduction of more than 100 strains of bacteria from that collection was obtained from experiments and the analysis of that data was begun. The data on the rates of reproduction were obtained under conditions of temperature and pressure found in the deep sea. The experiments were facilitated by inexpensively fabricated pressure vessels, by the streamlining of the methods for the study of kinetics at high pressures, and by computer-assisted methods. A polybarothermostat was used to study the growth of bacteria along temperature gradients at eight distinct pressures. This device should allow for the study of microbial processes in the temperature field simulating the environment around buried HLW. It is small enough to allow placement in a radiation field in future studies. A flow fluorocytometer was fabricated. This device will be used to determine the DNA content per cell in bacteria grown in laboratory culture and in microorganisms in samples from the ocean. The technique will be tested for its rapidity in determining the concentration of cells (standing stock of microorganisms) in samples from the ocean

  9. Sea ice terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  10. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived...

  11. Neutrino sea scope takes shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A consortium of European physicists building a vast neutrino detector on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has unveiled the science it will carry out. The Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT) will use strings of radiation detectors arranged in a 3D network to measure the light emitted when neutrinos very occasionally interact with the surrounding sea water.

  12. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis of...

  13. Governance of the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, Adriaan F.L.; Geerdink, T.R.A.; Rockmann, Christine; Vöge, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is a unique area from ecological, geological and cultural perspectives and lies in the territories of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The trilateral cooperation on the protection of the Wadden Sea can be marked to start in 1978, although the countries already cooperated befor

  14. The Sea Trout Year 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E

    1986-01-01

    The wet year of 1985 yielded good catches to the rod and to commercial engines. Salmon were taken in reasonable numbers in the drift nets although only small numbers of sea trout were captured by this method. The wet angling season is thought to have provided productive fishing conditions contributing largely to a 22% increase over the previous year's landings of sea trout.

  15. Pollution of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first modern review on the fate, distribution and effects of pollutants in the North Sea. The reader will find general information on the North Sea system and details on the behavior of pollutants and their impact on selected areas and organisms. (orig.) With 238 figs

  16. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are discussed, with

  17. Characterization of aerosol episodes in the greater Mediterranean Sea area from satellite observations (2000-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2016-03-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000-2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more

  18. Ultraphytoplankton basin-scale distribution in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in winter: link to hydrodynamism and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The basin-scale distribution of ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm was determined in the upper 200 m of the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the winter season. Four clusters were resolved by flow cytometry on the basis of their optical properties and identified as Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, pico- (<3 μm and nanoeukaryotes (3–10 μm. Synechococcus was the most abundant population (maximum abundance of about 37 000 cells cm−3 and contributed up to 67.7% to the overall ultraphytoplanktonic carbon biomass, whereas the contribution of Prochlorococcus never exceeded 6.5%. The maximum integrated carbon biomass was 1763, 453, 58 and 571 mg C m−2 for nanoeukaryotes, picoeukaryotes, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus respectively. Water mass properties were analyzed on the basis of temperature and salinity distributions in order to account for the general circulation and locate the main hydrodynamic structures (fronts, gyres, transition between western and eastern basins. The effect of the main hydrodynamic structures and nutrients on the ultraphytoplankton distribution was investigated. No positive correlation between nutrients and phytoplankton could be established when considering large scales. However, below 50 m depth, nutrient ratios between particular stations were correlated to corresponding density ratios. In contrast, significant relationships were found between Synechococcus abundance and density, resulting from the impact of a gyre in southern Adriatic basin and a thermohaline front in the Ionian basin. A significant relationship was also found between picoeukaryotes and salinity in the comparison of western and eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  19. FLOATING CRANE RESPONSE IN SEA WAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Čorić, Većeslav; Ćatipović, Ivan; Slapničar, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    Many activities present in the offshore technology are affected by sea waves and their safety strongly depends on the sea state. The fundamental question in operation risk analysis is the limit sea state which enables the safe operation controlled in all phases: from the sea surface to the sea bottom. The safe limit sea state is especially important when some lifting operation is performed in sea waves. This paper presents a dynamical model of a floating crane in sea waves with a hanging load...

  20. Uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalent situation in the field of uranium extraction from the oceans was reviewed from a scientific and technological standpoint and as to legality too. No international convention seems to limit the access to dissolved or suspended matter in free area of the oceans. All publications received through 1979 point to adsorption as the method of choice, at some form of hydrated titanium ''oxide'' as the most promising sorbent, and, generally spoken, at the cost of pumping water through the contacting system as a huge economical problem. A recent Swedish invention may circumvent the pumping problem by making available, in a previously unknown manner, some kind of self-renewing energy from the oceans. A simple economic calculus has resulted in costs from two to six times the present world market price of crude uranium oxide (which is assumed to be US dollar 43.-/1b), with a possibility to compete really after some technical and systematic developments. Results from a small-scale adsorption experiment in genuine sea water are presented: During a few weeks sea water was pumped through tiny, 10 cm high beds of sodium titanate ion exchangers, partly in the hydrogen form. The grain size was 250-500 μm, the flow rate 0.15-0.61 m/min. About 5% of the total amount of uranium passing the columns was retained, resulting in 8-11 μg/Ug. Also, large amounts of manganese, strontium, vanadium and zink were retained. Some of these elements and plankton as well may perhaps be recovered with an economic gain

  1. Development from the seafloor to the sea surface of the cabled NEMO-SN1 observatory in the Western Ionian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparnocchia, Stefania; Beranzoli, Laura; Borghini, Mireno; Durante, Sara; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Italiano, Francesco; Marinaro, Giuditta; Meccia, Virna; Papaleo, Riccardo; Riccobene, Giorgio; Schroeder, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    A prototype of cabled deep-sea observatory has been operating in real-time since 2005 in Southern Italy (East Sicily, 37°30' N - 15°06'E), at 2100 m water depth, 25 km from the harbor of the city of Catania. It is the first-established real-time node of the "European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory" (EMSO, http://www.emso-eu.org) a research infrastructure of the Sector Environment of ESFRI. In the present configuration it consists of two components: the multi-parametric station NEMO-SN1 (TSN branch) equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors for measurements at the seafloor, and the NEMO-OνDE station (TSS branch) equipped with 4 wideband hydrophones. A 28 km long electro-optical cable connects the observatory to a shore laboratory in the Catania harbor, hosting the data acquisition system and supplying power and data transmission to the underwater instrumentation. The NEMO-SN1 observatory is located in an area particularly suited to multidisciplinary studies. The site is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean (some of the strongest earthquakes occurred in 1169, 1693 and 1908, also causing very intense tsunami waves) and is close to Mount Etna, one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Europe. The deployment area is also a key site for monitoring deep-water dynamics in the Ionian Sea, connecting the Levantine basin to the southern Adriatic basin where intermediate and deep waters are formed, and finally to the western Mediterranean Sea via the Strait of Sicily. The observatory is being further developed under EMSO MedIT (http://www.emso-medit.it/en/), a structural enhancement project contributing to the consolidation and enhancement of the European research infrastructure EMSO in Italian Convergence Regions. In this framework, a new Junction Box will be connected to the TSN branch and will provide wired and wireless (acoustic connections) for seafloor platforms and moorings. This will allow the

  2. Role of sea ice in air-sea exchange and its relation to sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 包澄澜; 姜德中; 邹斌

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous stereoscopic sea-ice-air comprehensive observation was conducted during the First China Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on these data, the role of sea ice in sea-air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice and their variation significantly influence the air-sea heat exchange. In floating ice area, the heat momentum transferred from ocean to atmosphere is in form of latent heat; latent heat flux is closely related to floating ice concentration; if floating ice is less, the heat flux would be larger. Latent heat flux is about 21 23.6 W*m-2, which is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice, heat momentum transferred from atmosphere to sea ice or snow surface is in form of sensible heat. In the floating ice area or polynya, sea-air exchange is the most active, and also the most sensible for climate. Also this area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large-scale vapor fog process of about 500000 km2 on Aug. 21 22,1999 was calculated; the heat momentum transferred from ocean to air was about 14.8×109 kW. There are various kinds of sea fog, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog, forming in the Arctic Ocean in summer. One important cause is the existence of sea ice and its resultant complexity of both underlying surface and sea-air exchange.

  3. Rapid sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2012-11-01

    Several global and regional factors contribute to observed sea-level change along any particular coast. Global processes include changes in ocean mass (glacio-eustasy from ice melt), ocean volume (steric effects), viscoelastic land movements (glacioisostatic adjustment GIA), and changes in terrestrial water storage. Regional processes, often connected to steric and glacial changes, include changes in ocean circulation (Meridional Overturning Circulation [MOC]), glacial melting, local GIA, regional subsidence and others. Paleoclimate, instrumental and modeling studies show that combinations of these factors can cause relatively rapid rates of sea-level rise exceeding 3 mm yr-1 over various timescales along particular coasts. This paper discusses patterns and causes of sea-level rise with emphasis on paleoclimatological records. It then addresses the hypothesis of late Holocene (pre-20th century) sea-level stability in light of paleoclimatic evidence, notably from reconstructions of sea-surface temperature and glacial activity, for significant climate and sea-level variability during this time. The practical difficulties of assessing regional sea-level (SL) patterns at submillennial timescales will be discussed using an example from the eastern United States.

  4. The Kerr-Fermi Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, Thomas; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a massive scalar field near a Kerr black hole is known to produce instabilities associated with bound superradiant modes. In this paper we show that for massive fermions, rather than inducing an instability, the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. The shape of this Fermi sea in phase space and various other properties are analytically computed in the semiclassical WKB approximation. The low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the Fermi surface. Expressions are derived for their dispersion relation and the effective force on particles which venture into the sea.

  5. Towards Good Order at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Vreÿ, Francois

    structural problems facing attempts to create and maintain good order at sea off East Africa. As mentioned in one of the chapters, the most secure place for a criminal in East Africa to be is at sea, because most African littoral states have only limited capacity to police their territorial waters. The...... problems originating from the resultant “bad order at sea” can be directly felt on land, when smuggling, terrorism and related criminal activities operate more or less unhindered. The book provides an important mapping of the challenges preventing good order at sea off the African coast and East Africa in...

  6. Advantages of North Sea Assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Sea is a significant hydrocarbon province and any large multinational will need to maintain North Sea assets within their portfolio - as indeed they do. The general feeling that pervades the oil industry that the North Sea is ''mature'' can be demonstrated by reference to the facts. The result is a potential fall-off in activity and a serious threat to the future levels of profitability in the region. Notwithstanding the continuing development of large fields, such as Troll, of or multi-field developments, for example BP's recent announcement on ETAPs, activity is beginning to fall, most noticeably at the front end of the development cycle, in exploration. (author)

  7. Summer sea ice characteristics of the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During August 1999, we investigated sea ice characteristics; its distribution, surface feature, thickness, ice floe movement, and the temperature field around inter-borders of air/ice/seawater in the Chukchi Sea. Thirteen ice cores were drilled at 11 floe stations in the area of 72°24′ 77°18′N, 153°34′ 163°28′W and the ice core structure was observed. From field observation, three melting processes of ice were observed; surface layer melting, surface and bottom layers melting, and all of ice melting. The observation of temperature fields around sea ice floes showed that the bottom melting under the ice floes were important process. As ice floes and open water areas were alternately distributed in summer Arctic Ocean; the water under ice was colder than the open water by 0.4 2.8℃. The sun radiation heated seawater in open sea areas so that the warmer water went to the bottom when the ice floes move to those areas. This causes ice melting to start at the bottom of the ice floes. This process can balance effectively the temperature fluctuating in the sea in summer. From the crystalline structure of sea ice observed from the cores, it was concluded that the ice was composed of ice crystals and brine-ice films. During the sea ice melting, the brine-ice films between ice crystals melted firstly; then the ice crystals were encircled by brine films; the sea ice became the mixture of ice and liquid brine. At the end of melting, the ice crystals would be separated each other, the bond between ice crystals weakens and this leads to the collapse of the ice sheet.

  8. AoA Region: South Asian Seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The South Asian Seas region lies in the northern extreme of the Indian Ocean. It includes the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) along with their marginal basins as well as the Laccadive Sea and the Andaman Sea. Counties...

  9. Baltic sea level low-frequency variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, Evgueni A.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter

    2015-01-01

    The low-frequency sea level spectrum in the Baltic Sea has been analysed based on long-term time series of sea level data (15–124 yr) from three tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea and two stations in the North Sea. The principal periodicities detected in the spectrum are seasonal and tidal oscillations including the pole tide with a period of about 14 months. Cross-spectral analysis has been applied to estimate the frequency response of sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea relative to ...

  10. Euthanasia across the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rigter, Henk; Borst-Eilers, Els; Leenen, H J J

    1988-01-01

    The United Kingdom and The Netherlands are separated by a narrow stretch of sea but in terms of an understanding of euthanasia they seem to be light years apart. An attempt to bridge the information gap seems in order.

  11. The Maastrichtian sea level rise

    OpenAIRE

    Gullentops, F.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum sea level rise during the Maastrichtian has been much less than the 500 m claimed by some recent authors on this subject. Sedimentological and geomorphological arguments against such an hypothesis are forwarded.

  12. Sea otter studies in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The final objective of the present Fish and Wildlife sea otter program is to learn enough of the ecology, population, reproductive potential, and requirements in...

  13. ROE Absolute Sea Level Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster dataset represents changes in absolute sea level along U.S. coasts from 1993 to 2014. Data were provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder (2015)...

  14. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  15. Sea Turtle Cold Stun Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This spreadsheet includes data on sea turtle cold stun strandings from 2001 to present. These data include field number, species, stranding date, turtle...

  16. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... ARC observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all...

  17. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Aung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to become the first nation to be sunk by global warming because it is one of the smallest and lowest-lying countries in the world. Approach: In this study, sea level data from the Australian project will be focussed on despite the fact that the length of data is not sufficiently long. The AusAID funded South Pacific Sea Level and climate monitoring project was set up in response to concerns raised by Pacific island countries over the potential impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect on climate and sea levels in the South Pacific for 20 years. Results: Based upon the 15½ years of sea level data from the project, the sea level rise rate in Tuvalu as at september 2008 was 5.9 mM year-1. This was about four times higher than the global average of 1-2 mm year-1. Sea level in the Tuvalu area had risen approximately 9.14 cm since the inception of the project 15½ years ago. However, it was to be noted that the land is quite stable and the rate of land sinking is -0.06 mM year-1 only. Accordingly, there was no significant impact on the sea level trends. Conclusion: Although the data length is just over 15 years, the sea level trend values do not fluctuate significantly since 1999. It simply indicated that the rate of sea level rise in the Tuvalu region was not accelerating as anticipated by the community.

  18. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    OpenAIRE

    Than Aung; Awnesh Singh; Uma Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to...

  19. Respiration in Neonate Sea Turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Edwin R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Strohl, Kingman P.; Pilar Santidrián, T.; Klann, Kenneth; Spotila, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings’ response to hypercapnic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic challenges over this time period. Hatchling sea turtles generally showed resting ...

  20. Studies on sea snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    TAMIYA, Nobuo; YAGI, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Erabutoxins a and b are neurotoxins isolated from venom of a sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (erabu-umihebi). Amino acid sequences of the toxins indicated that the toxins are members of a superfamily consisting of short and long neurotoxins and cytotoxins found in sea snakes and terrestrial snakes. The short neurotoxins to which erabutoxins belong act by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the post synaptic membrane in a manner similar to that of curare. X-ray crystallography an...