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Sample records for adriatic sea water

  1. The importance of modeling nonhydrostatic processes for dense water reproduction in the Southern Adriatic Sea

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    Bellafiore, Debora; McKiver, William J.; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2018-05-01

    Dense water (DW) formation commonly occurs in the shallow Northern Adriatic Sea during winter outbreaks, when there is a combination of the cooling of surface waters by the winds and high salinity as a result of reduced river inputs. These DWs subsequently propagate southwards over a period of weeks/months, eventually arriving in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The investigation is based on a new nonhydrostatic (NH) formulation of the 3D finite element model SHYFEM that is validated for a number of theoretical test cases. Subsequently this model is used to simulate, through high-resolution numerical simulations, an extreme DW event that occurred in the Adriatic Sea in 2012. We perform both hydrostatic (HY) and NH simulations in order to explicitly see the impact of NH processes on the DW dynamics. The modeled results are compared to observations collected in the field campaign of March-April 2012 in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The NH run correctly reproduces the across isobath bottom-trapped gravity current characterizing the canyon DW pathways. It also more accurately captures the frequency and intensity of dense water cascading pulsing events, as the inclusion of NH processes produces stronger currents with different DW mixing characteristics. Finally, the NH run simulates internal gravity waves (IGW), generated during the cascading at the edge of the canyon, which propagate downslope. This IGW activity is not captured in the HY case.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the model for estimation of the Adriatic sea turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

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    Franic, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable data on the turnover time of water in the Adriatic Sea (approximately 35000 cubic kilometres) is extremely important for any risk analysis involving various economic activities, tourism, etc. Water exchange through the Strait of Otranto between the Adriatic and the Ionian seas has been the subject of a series of experimental investigations and more recently, of some numerical studies, is extensively presented by Cushman-Roisin et al. [1]. The turnover time of the Adriatic sea water can be easily calculated from the data on water fluxes through the Strait by calculating annual water mass flowing through the Strait and dividing it by the total volume of the Adriatic sea. Literature data on the Adriatic Sea water turnover time range from minimal 0.7 to maximal 5.0 years. Using a model describing the rate of change of 9 0S r activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water by function minimisation to long-term experimental data, the turnover time for 9 0S r in the Adriatic was calculated to be 3.3±0.4 years. The uncertainty was estimated by Monte Carlo analysis. As 9 0S r is a reliable radiotracer for seawater, this value also reflects the sea water turnover time. Sensitivity analysis of the model, applied by varying critical parameters over their nominal values, showed that ±25% uncertainty in the estimation of the Adriatic sea water activity results in approximately ±10% change in 9 0S r mean residence time. On the other hand, a larger input of 9 0S r, either by fallout or water influx from the Ionian Sea may lead to a shorter mean residence time.Direct proportionality between 9 0S r input into the Adriatic sea and its mean residence time in the sea water suggests that 3.3 years is the upper limit of the Adriatic sea water turnover time. Namely, re-suspension from sediments could affect 9 0S r activity concentrations, acting as additional input, especially in the northern, relatively shallow part of the Adriatic.(author)

  3. Biodiversity of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in the Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coastal waters

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    Loredana Stabili

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in water samples from the Southern Adriatic Sea of Italy was examined. Water samples were collected monthly, for a year, at 16 stations along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca. The results obtained described the heterotrophic bacterial community over an annual cycle. Mean values of bacterial densities were 5.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Brindisi, 5.8 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. Cataldo, 4.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Otranto and 6.7 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. M. di Leuca. The differences in bacterial densities between the sites considered were estimated. The hydrodynamic circulation, the trophism and the geographical position of the examined sites contribute to justify the different bacterial density trends. The bacterial community consisted mainly of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae represented a considerable fraction of the bacterial community in the Southern Adriatic Sea. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram positive bacteria. The enzymatic versatility of the observed genera suggest their importance in organic matter turnover of this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  4. Intense air-sea exchanges and heavy orographic precipitation over Italy: The role of Adriatic sea surface temperature uncertainty

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    Stocchi, Paolo; Davolio, Silvio

    2017-11-01

    Strong and persistent low-level winds blowing over the Adriatic basin are often associated with intense precipitation events over Italy. Typically, in case of moist southeasterly wind (Sirocco), rainfall affects northeastern Italy and the Alpine chain, while with cold northeasterly currents (Bora) precipitations are localized along the eastern slopes of the Apennines and central Italy coastal areas. These events are favoured by intense air-sea interactions and it is reasonable to hypothesize that the Adriatic sea surface temperature (SST) can affect the amount and location of precipitation. High-resolution simulations of different Bora and Sirocco events leading to severe precipitation are performed using a convection-permitting model (MOLOCH). Sensitivity experiments varying the SST initialization field are performed with the aim of evaluating the impact of SST uncertainty on precipitation forecasts, which is a relevant topic for operational weather predictions, especially at local scales. Moreover, diagnostic tools to compute water vapour fluxes across the Italian coast and atmospheric water budget over the Adriatic Sea have been developed and applied in order to characterize the air mass that feeds the precipitating systems. Finally, the investigation of the processes through which the SST influences location and intensity of heavy precipitation allows to gain a better understanding on mechanisms conducive to severe weather in the Mediterranean area and in the Adriatic basin in particular. Results show that the effect of the Adriatic SST (uncertainty) on precipitation is complex and can vary considerably among different events. For both Bora and Sirocco events, SST does not influence markedly the atmospheric water budget or the degree of moistening of air that flows over the Adriatic Sea. SST mainly affects the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer, thus influencing the flow dynamics and the orographic flow regime, and in turn, the precipitation pattern.

  5. Response of the Adriatic Sea to the atmospheric anomaly in 2003

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    B. Grbec

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Unusual weather conditions over the southern Europe and the Mediterranean area in 2003 significantly impacted the oceanographic properties of the Adriatic Sea. To document these changes, both in the atmosphere and the sea, anomalies from the normal climate were calculated. The winter 2003 was extremely cold, whereas the spring/summer period was extremely warm. The air temperature in June was more than 3 standard deviations above the average. On the other hand, precipitation and river runoff were extremely low between February and August. The response of the sea was remarkable, especially in surface salinity during spring and summer, with values at least one standard deviation above the average. Analysis of thermohaline properties in the middle Adriatic showed the importance of two phenomena responsible for the occurrence of exceptionally high salinity: (1 enhanced inflow of saline Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW in the Adriatic, and (2 extremely low precipitation and river runoff, accompanied with strong evaporation. Two large-scale atmospheric indices: NAOI (North Atlantic Oscillation Index and MOI (Mediterranean Oscillation Index, although generally correlated to the Adriatic climate, failed to describe anomalies in 2003. The air pressure gradients used for the definition of both indices significantly decreased in 2003 due to the presence of the high pressure areas over most of Europe and the northern Atlantic, and were actually responsible for the observed anomalies above and in the Adriatic.

  6. First records of two planktonic Indo-Pacific diatoms: Chaetoceros bacteriastroides and C. pseudosymmetricus in the Adriatic Sea

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    Marijeta Čalić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual occurrence of planktonic diatom species, Chaetoceros bacteriastroides and Chaetoceros pseudosymmetricus, was noticed in three different marine ecosystems of Adriatic Sea: the Krka Estuary and Telaščica Bay in the Central Adriatic, and in southern Adriatic offshore. From 2010 to 2015, these two Chaetoceros species were recorded in heterogeneous environmental conditions and in a very low abundances. Both species are regarded as very rare in world oceans, and consequently knowledge of their distribution and ecology is rather poor. Primarily described from tropical waters and showing Indo-Pacific distribution, C. bacteriastroides and C. pseudosymmetricus findings in Adriatic represent the northernmost records in world's oceans and seas. For C. pseudosymmetricus this is also the first occurrence in European seas. Areal expansion and introduction of new phytoplankton species in the Adriatic Sea might be related to different circulation regimes in the Ionian Sea and the concurrent rise in sea temperature in the Mediterranean in the last decade. Recent investigations have shown that entering currents, of either Atlantic/Western Mediterranean or Eastern Mediterranean origin, modify the composition of the plankton community in the Adriatic by bringing different newcomers.

  7. Wintertime dynamics in the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea: the NAdEx 2015 experiment

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    I. Vilibić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the wintertime dynamics of the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea and is based on numerical modelling and in situ data collected through field campaigns executed during the winter and spring of 2015. The data were collected with a variety of instruments and platforms (acoustic Doppler current profilers, conductivity–temperature–depth probes, glider, profiling float and are accompanied by the atmosphere–ocean ALADIN/ROMS modelling system. The research focused on the dense-water formation (DWF, thermal changes, circulation, and water exchange between the coastal and open Adriatic. According to both observations and modelling results, dense waters are formed in the northeastern coastal Adriatic during cold bora outbreaks. However, the dense water formed in this coastal region has lower densities than the dense water formed in the open Adriatic due to lower salinities. Since the coastal area is deeper than the open Adriatic, the observations indicate (i balanced inward–outward exchange at the deep connecting channels of denser waters coming from the open Adriatic DWF site and less-dense waters coming from the coastal region and (ii outward flow of less-dense waters dominating in the intermediate and surface layers. The latter phenomenon was confirmed by the model, even if it significantly underestimates the currents and transports in the connecting channels. The median residence time of the coastal area is estimated to be approximately 20 days, indicating that the coastal area may be renewed relatively quickly by the open Adriatic waters. The data that were obtained represent a comprehensive marine dataset that can be used to calibrate atmospheric and oceanic numerical models and point to several interesting phenomena to be investigated in the future.

  8. Wintertime dynamics in the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea: the NAdEx 2015 experiment

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    Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Janeković, Ivica; Denamiel, Cléa; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Orlić, Mirko; Dunić, Natalija; Dadić, Vlado; Pasarić, Mira; Muslim, Stipe; Gerin, Riccardo; Matić, Frano; Šepić, Jadranka; Mauri, Elena; Kokkini, Zoi; Tudor, Martina; Kovač, Žarko; Džoić, Tomislav

    2018-03-01

    The paper investigates the wintertime dynamics of the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea and is based on numerical modelling and in situ data collected through field campaigns executed during the winter and spring of 2015. The data were collected with a variety of instruments and platforms (acoustic Doppler current profilers, conductivity-temperature-depth probes, glider, profiling float) and are accompanied by the atmosphere-ocean ALADIN/ROMS modelling system. The research focused on the dense-water formation (DWF), thermal changes, circulation, and water exchange between the coastal and open Adriatic. According to both observations and modelling results, dense waters are formed in the northeastern coastal Adriatic during cold bora outbreaks. However, the dense water formed in this coastal region has lower densities than the dense water formed in the open Adriatic due to lower salinities. Since the coastal area is deeper than the open Adriatic, the observations indicate (i) balanced inward-outward exchange at the deep connecting channels of denser waters coming from the open Adriatic DWF site and less-dense waters coming from the coastal region and (ii) outward flow of less-dense waters dominating in the intermediate and surface layers. The latter phenomenon was confirmed by the model, even if it significantly underestimates the currents and transports in the connecting channels. The median residence time of the coastal area is estimated to be approximately 20 days, indicating that the coastal area may be renewed relatively quickly by the open Adriatic waters. The data that were obtained represent a comprehensive marine dataset that can be used to calibrate atmospheric and oceanic numerical models and point to several interesting phenomena to be investigated in the future.

  9. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS FARMED IN ADRIATIC SEA

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    Tibor Janči

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of fresh and cold smoked rainbow trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in the Adriatic sea by measuring water, fat, protein, salt and ash content, fatty acid profile with an emphasis on eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids. Physical characteristics were determined by pH and color measurements. Analysis was performed on homogenized fish muscles without skin and bones. Determination of moisture, ash, fat and protein was conducted according to AOAC (1995. Determination of fatty acid content of previously prepared methyl esters (HRN EN ISO 5509, 2004 was conducted by gas chromatography according to HRN EN ISO 5508 (1999. Results showed that fresh rainbow trout farmed in the Adriatic sea is an excellent protein source (21.21% but has slightly lower fat (5.21% and omega-3 fatty acid content (12.52 % compared to the results of other studies. Fat and omega-3 fatty acid content was not decreased by the process of cold smoking. Overall, fresh and smoked trout farmed in the Adriatic may be regarded as food high in nutritional value.

  10. Demands for Modern Shipping and SUiveillance of the Adriatic Sea

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    Martin Lakota

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work modem navigation and Adriatic control demandcharacteristics are developed. It correlates the modemnavigation characteristics and the Adriatic sea control. Thepresent operating procedures used for sea control are mentionedas well as the new systems and procedures based on newcomputer and communication technologies (automatic identificationsystems, GPS, computer networks, Internet/Intranetstandards. It discusses unmanned aerial vehicles characteristicsaccording to demands and grading standards for picture/scene interpretation (NIIRS grading scale.

  11. Adriatic Sea surface temperature and ocean colour variability during the MFSPP

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    E. Böhm

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years and six months of night-time Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST and daytime Sea viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS data collected during the MFSPP have been used to examine spatial and temporal variability of SST and chlorophyll (Chl in the Adriatic Sea. Flows along the Albanian and the Italian coasts can be distinguished year-round in the monthly averaged Chl but only in the colder months in the monthly averaged SST’s. The Chl monthly-averaged fields supply less information on circulation features away from coastal boundaries and where conditions are generally oligotrophic, except for the early spring bloom in the Southern Adriatic Gyre. To better characterise the year-to-year and seasonal variability, exploratory data analysis techniques, particularly the plotting of multiple Chl-SST histograms, are employed to make joint quantitative use of monthly-averaged fields. Modal water mass (MW, corresponding to the Chl-SST pairs in the neighbourhood of the maximum of each monthly histogram, are chosen to represent the temporal and spatial evolution of the prevalent processes and their variability in the Adriatic Sea. Over an annual cycle, the MW followed a triangular path with the most pronounced seasonal and interannual variations in both Chl-SST properties and spatial distributions of the MW in the colder part of the year. The winter of 1999 is the colder (by at least 0.5°C and most eutrophic (by 0.2 mg/m 3. The fall of the year 2000 is characterised by the lack of cooling in the month of November that was observed in the previous year. In addition to characterising the MW, the two-dimensional histogram technique allows a distinction to be made between different months in terms of the spread of SST values at a given Chl concentration. During spring and summer, the spread is minimal indicating surface homothermal conditions. In fall and winter, on the other hand, a spread of points

  12. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

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    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea is its most northern part which occupies approximately 200 km2 and is a part of the wider Gulf of Trieste. Slovenian coast consists of 47 kilometers of mostly steep, abrasive marl and sandstone coast. Low accumulation coast is located only at the mouths of the watercourses and represents but a smaller portion, whereas the smallest part is occupied by the limestone abrasion coast. Mainland coastal region is mostly hillside and has a very diverse relief, while plains, in smaller numbers, are located only in the lower parts of the river valleys. Slovenian sea indents the mainland by two larger gulfs: the Gulf of Koper and of Piran and is predominately very shallow. The average depth is around 18 m and the largest depth is 38 m at the Madona cape near Piran. Sea bottom is mostly covered by the thick layer of sediments deposited after the abrasion of the steep cliff coast and by the accumulation of the river alluvium. Due to its shallowness the sea is exposed to high temperature fluctuations and due to the fresh water influx also to the changes of its salinity. The circulation of the sea water is mainly induced by the tide and wind activities, mostly the Bora (strong north-easterly wind which significantly influences the vertical circulation of the water. Water current is weak and unstable. There is a large influx of nutrients into the Slovenian sea, resulting from the soil erosion, surface water influx, watercourses and direct emissions of waste waters into the sea. The consequence of the mentioned sea characteristics is a great landscape sensitivity of the coastal sea ecosystem. During summer the sea warms intensely and when accompanied by the weak water circulation, we are often witnessing the lack of oxygen in the deeper layers of the water, intensive algae growth and sea blooming, which points to exceeded self-cleaning (assimilation capacities of the marine ecosystem. The major polluters are the coastal towns

  13. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

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    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea is its most northern part which occupies approximately 200 km2 and is a part of the wider Gulf of Trieste. Slovenian coast consists of 47 kilometers of mostly steep, abrasive marl and sandstone coast. Low accumulation coast is located only at the mouths of the watercourses and represents but a smaller portion, whereas the smallest part is occupied by the limestone abrasion coast. Mainland coastal region is mostly hillside and has a very diverse relief, while plains, in smaller numbers, are located only in the lower parts of the river valleys. Slovenian sea indents the mainland by two larger gulfs: the Gulf of Koper and of Piran and is predominately very shallow. The average depth is around 18 m and the largest depth is 38 m at the Madona cape near Piran. Sea bottom is mostly covered by the thick layer of sediments deposited after the abrasion of the steep cliff coast and by the accumulation of the river alluvium. Due to its shallowness the sea is exposed to high temperature fluctuations and due to the fresh water influx also to the changes of its salinity. The circulation of the sea water is mainly induced by the tide and wind activities, mostly the Bora (strong north-easterly wind which significantly influences the vertical circulation of the water. Water current is weak and unstable. There is a large influx of nutrients into the Slovenian sea, resulting from the soil erosion, surface water influx, watercourses and direct emissions of waste waters into the sea. The consequence of the mentioned sea characteristics is a great landscape sensitivity of the coastal sea ecosystem. During summer the sea warms intensely and when accompanied by the weak water circulation, we are often witnessing the lack of oxygen in the deeper layers of the water, intensive algae growth and sea blooming, which points to exceeded self-cleaning (assimilation capacities of the marine ecosystem. The major polluters are the coastal towns

  14. Linear and non-linear sea-level variations in the Adriatic Sea from tide gauge records (1872-2012

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    Gaia Galassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed tide gauge data from the Adriatic Sea in order to assess the secular sea-level trend, its acceleration and the existence of possible cyclic variation. Analyzing the sea-level stack of all Adriatic tide gauges, we have obtained a trend of (1.25±0.04 mm yr-1, in agreement with that observed for the last century in the Mediterranean Sea, and an acceleration that is negligibile compared to the average global values. By means of the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition technique, we have evidenced an energetic oscillation with a period of ∼20 years that we relate with the recurrence of opposite phases in the Atlantic Multi–decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation indices. We suggest that anomalously high sea-level values observed at all the Adriatic tide gauges during 2010 and 2011 can be explained by the rising phase of this 20 years cycle.

  15. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

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    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  16. Adriatic storm surges and related cross-basin sea-level slope

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    Međugorac, Iva; Orlić, Mirko; Janeković, Ivica; Pasarić, Zoran; Pasarić, Miroslava

    2018-05-01

    Storm surges pose a severe threat to the northernmost cities of the Adriatic coast, with Venice being most prone to flooding. It has been noted that some flooding episodes cause significantly different effects along the eastern and western Adriatic coasts, with indications that the difference is related to cross-basin sea-level slope. The present study aims to determine specific atmospheric conditions under which the slope develops and to explore connection with increased sea level along the two coastlines. The analysis is based on sea-level time series recorded at Venice and Bakar over the 1984-2014 interval, from which 38 most intensive storm-surge episodes were selected, and their meteorological backgrounds (ERA-Interim) were studied. The obtained sea-level extremes were grouped into three categories according to their cross-basin sea-level slope: storm surges that slope strongly westward (W type), those that slope eastward (E type) and ordinary storm surges (O type). Results show that the slope is controlled by wind action only, specifically, by the wind component towards a particular coast and by the cross-basin shear of along-basin wind. Meteorological fields were used to force an oceanographic numerical model in order to confirm the empirically established connection between the atmospheric forcing and the slope. Finally, it has been found that the intensity of storm surges along a particular Adriatic coast is determined by an interplay of sea-level slopes in the along and cross-basin directions.

  17. First record of small tropical calanoid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris (Copepoda, Calanoida, Paracalanidae in the Adriatic Sea

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    O. VIDJAK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In December 2014 the adult females and copepodites of alien paracalanid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris were identified in the Central Adriatic port of Šibenik. The most probable transmission vector for this small copepod were ballast waters from the cargo ships that are regularly discharged at these locations. This paper is focused on P. crassirostris morphology and the state of population in the port of Šibenik. The possible path of introduction of Parvocalanus crassirostris into the Adriatic Sea is also discussed.

  18. Towards integrated assessment of the northern Adriatic Sea sediment budget using remote sensing

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    Taramelli, A.; Filipponi, F.; Valentini, E.; Zucca, F.; Gutierrez, O. Q.; Liberti, L.; Cordella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sediment fluxes is a key issue to interpret the evolution of coastal sedimentation under natural and human impact and relevant for the natural resources management. Despite river plumes represent one of the major gain in sedimentary budget of littoral cells, knowledge of factors influencing complex behavior of coastal plumes, like river discharge characteristics, wind stress and hydro-climatic variables, has not been yet fully investigated. Use of Earth Observation data allows the identification of spatial and temporal variations of suspended sediments related to river runoff, seafloor erosion, sediment transport and deposition processes. Objective of the study is to investigate sediment fluxes in northern Adriatic Sea by linking suspended sediment patterns of coastal plumes to hydrologic and climatic forcing regulating the sedimentary cell budget and geomorphological evolution in coastal systems and continental shelf waters. Analysis of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product, derived from 2002-2012 MERIS time series, was done to map changes in spatial and temporal dimension of suspended sediments, focusing on turbid plume waters and intense wind stress conditions. From the generated multi temporal TSM maps, dispersal patterns of major freshwater runoff plumes in northern Adriatic Sea were evaluated through spatial variability of coastal plumes shape and extent. Additionally, sediment supply from river distributary mouths was estimated from TSM and correlated with river discharge rates, wind field and wave field through time. Spatial based methodology has been developed to identify events of wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity, occurring during intense wind stress and extreme metocean conditions, especially in the winter period. The identified resuspension events were qualitatively described and compared with to hydro-climatic variables. The identification of spatial and

  19. The Henetus wave forecast system in the Adriatic Sea

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    L. Bertotti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the Henetus wave forecast system in the Adriatic Sea. Operational since 1996, the system is continuously upgraded, especially through the correction of the input ECMWF wind fields. As these fields are of progressively improved quality with the increasing resolution of the meteorological model, the correction needs to be correspondingly updated. This ensures a practically constant quality of the Henetus results in the Adriatic Sea since 1996. After suitable and extended validation of the quality of the results at different forecast ranges, the operational range has been recently extended to five days. The Henetus results are used also to improve the tidal forecast on the Venetian coasts and the Venice lagoon, particularly during the most severe events. Extensive statistics on the model performance are provided, both as analysis and forecast, by comparing the model results versus both satellite and buoy data.

  20. Spatial variations of scavenging rates within the central and northern Adriatic Sea: Use of U-Th disequilibria

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    Hamilton, T.; Heilmann, J.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Dissolved and particulate concentrations of 234 Th, 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured in surface waters of the central and northern Adriatic Sea. The half-lives and biogeochemistry of 234 Th (t 1/2 = 24.1 days), 210 Po (t 1/2 = 138.4 days) and 210 Pb (t 1/2 = 22.3 years) are ideal for studying particle dynamics in the upper water column. It has been observed that the residence time of dissolved 234 Th with respect to removal on biogenic particles is inversely proportional to primary productivity and may be used to predict export from or new production in the euphotic zone. Model-derived 234 Th fluxes can also be used to help validate sediment trap collections in the upper water column. The aim of the present study was to gain an insight into the intensity and variability of active scavenging and particle removal processes in the central and northern Adriatic Sea. This semi-enclosed sea is strongly influenced by fresh water runoff from rivers carrying large quantities of dissolved nutrients and suspended particles. These inputs of nutrients and suspended particles are expected to give rise to large biological and biogeochemical gradients across the Continental Shelf and offer a range of environments for studying particle scavenging and removal processes. The authors have examined the relationships between 234 Th scavenging rates and residence times of dissolved and particulate phases as a function of other physical and biological parameters (primary productivity, POC, chlorophyll, C/N and total suspended matter). Particular reference is made to the two contrasting environments of the Adriatic--a eutrophic zone near the Po River outflow and in the largely oligotrophic waters of the Jabuka Pit

  1. Water resources vulnerability assessment in the Adriatic Sea region: the case of Corfu Island.

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    Kanakoudis, Vasilis; Tsitsifli, Stavroula; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Karleusa, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Cross-border water resources management and protection is a complicated task to achieve, lacking a common methodological framework. Especially in the Adriatic region, water used for drinking water supply purposes pass from many different countries, turning its management into a hard task to achieve. During the DRINKADRIA project, a common methodological framework has been developed, for efficient and effective cross-border water supply and resources management, taking into consideration different resources types (surface and groundwater) emphasizing in drinking water supply intake. The common methodology for water resources management is based on four pillars: climate characteristics and climate change, water resources availability, quality, and security. The present paper assesses both present and future vulnerability of water resources in the Adriatic region, with special focus on Corfu Island, Greece. The results showed that climate change is expected to impact negatively on water resources availability while at the same time, water demand is expected to increase. Water quality problems will be intensified especially due to land use changes and salt water intrusion. The analysis identified areas where water resources are more vulnerable, allowing decision makers develop management strategies.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Gulf of Trieste (GOT) in the Northern Adriatic Sea

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    Turk, D.; McGillis, W. R.; Malacic, V.; Degrandpre, M.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal marine regions such as the Gulf of Trieste GOT in the Northern Adriatic Sea serve as the link between carbon cycling on land and the ocean interior and potentially contribute large uncertainties in the estimate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. This system may be either a sink or a source for atmospheric CO2. Understanding the sources and sinks as a result of biological and physical controls for air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes in coastal waters may substantially alter the current view of the global carbon budget for unique terrestrial and ocean regions such as the GOT. GOT is a semi-enclosed Mediterranean basin situated in the northern part of Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most productive regions in the Mediterranean and is affected by extreme fresh river input, phytoplankton blooms, and large changes of air-sea exchange during Bora high wind events. The unique combination of these environmental processes and relatively small size of the area makes the region an excellent study site for investigations of air-sea interaction, and changes in biology and carbon chemistry. However, there is a dearth of current data or information from the region. Here we present the first measurements of air and water CO2 flux in the GOT. The aqueous CO2 was measured at the Coastal Oceanographic buoy Piran, Slovenia using the SAMI CO2 sensor during spring and late summer and fall 2007. CO2 measurements were combined with hydrological and biological observations to evaluate the processes that control carbon cycling in the region.

  3. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

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    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  4. Radioactivity of fission products in cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater from roofs etc. with fission products have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium.After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were detected again, cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated 90 Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the mean residence time of 90 Sr in cistern waters being order of magnitude several years was similar to that calculated for fallout.Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, S r mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time.Therefore, the pre-Chernobyl) and the post-Chernobyl mean residence times of 90 Sr in cistern waters reflect the mechanism by which strontium was released to the atmosphere. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 90 Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be a few per cent of the dose from natural background radiation. (authors)

  5. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    30m), depends on the freshwater inflow as well ... The Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean) and location of satellite pigment data (cross marks) ..... landings of small pelagic fish in the eastern Adriatic– ... and North America (1858–1980).

  6. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  7. Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Holocene paleohydrology reconstruction is derived combining planktonic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, sea surface temperatures (SSTs and oxygen isotope composition of seawater (δ18Ow from a high sedimentation core collected in the South Adriatic Sea (SAS. Core chronology is based on 10 AMS 14C measures on planktonic foraminifera and tephra layers. Results reveal two contrasted paleohydrological periods that reflect (i a marked lowering of δ18Ow/salinity during the early to mid-Holocene (11.5 ka to 6.3 ka, including the two-step sapropel S1 deposition, followed during the mid- to upper Holocene by (ii a prevailing period of increased salinity and enhanced arid conditions in the South Adriatic Basin. Superimposed on these trends, short-term centennial-scale hydrological events punctuated the Holocene period in the SAS. During the early to mid-Holocene, two main SST coolings together with prominent δ18Ow/salinity lowering delineate the sapropel S1 interruption and the post-sapropel phase between 7.3 to 6.3 ka. After 6 ka, centennial-scale δ18Ow and G. bulloides δ13C lowering, mostly centered between 3 to 0.6 ka, reflect short-term hydrological changes related to more intensive runoff of the Po and/or Apennine rivers. These short-term events, even of lesser amplitude compared to the early to mid-Holocene period, may have induced a lowering of sea surface density and consequently reduced and/or inhibited the formation of deep bottom waters in the SAS. Comparison of the emerging centennial- to millennial-scale hydrological record with previous climatic records from the central Mediterranean area and north of the Alps reveal possible synchronicities (within the radiocarbon-dating uncertainty between phases of lower salinity in the SAS and periods of wetter climatic conditions around the north-central Adriatic Sea. Finally, wavelet analyses provide new clues about the potential origin of climate variability in the SAS, confirming

  8. Modeling land subsidence due to shallow-water hydrocarbon production: A case study in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambolati, G.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Janna, C.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    One major environmental concern of subsurface fluid withdrawal is land subsidence. The issue of a reliable estimate and prediction of the expected anthropogenic land subsidence is particularly important whenever the production of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) occurs from large reservoirs located close to deltaic zones (e.g., Mississippi, Po, Nile, Niger, Yellow rivers) or shallow-water with low-lying coastlands (e.g., Northern Caspian sea, Dutch Wadden Sea). In such cases even a small reduction of the ground elevation relative to the mean sea level may impact seriously on human settlements and natural environment. The monitoring of the ongoing land subsidence has been significantly improved over the last decade by SAR-based interferometry. These measurements can be quite effectively used to map the process and calibrate geomechanical models for predicting the future event. However, this powerful methodology cannot be implemented off-shore. Although permanent GPS stations can be established to monitor the movement of the production facilities usually installed above the gravity center of a reservoir, an accurate characterization of the settlement bowl affecting the sea bottom, with a possible migration toward the shore, is a challenge still today. In the present communication the case study of the Riccione gas reservoir is discussed. The field is located in the near-shore northern Adriatic Sea, approximately 15 km far from the coastline, where the seawater height is about 20 m. The gas-bearing strata are 1100 m deep and are hydraulically connected to a relatively weak aquifer. Production of 70% of the cumulative reserves as of 2006 yielded a pore pressure decrease of 60 bars. Reliable geometry and geomechanical properties of the depleted formations were detected with the aid of a 3D seismic survey and a borehole equipped with radioactive markers, respectively. The latter pointed out that the Riccione formations are characterized by an unusually high oedometer

  9. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  10. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas), two interdisciplinary surveys were carried out in April 2013 and April 2014 in the middle Adriatic Sea along the Pescara-Sibenik transect (Jabuka Pits area) and Vieste-Split transect (Palagruza Sill area) with Croatian research vessel "Bios II" and the Italian research vessel "G. Dallaporta", respectively. The main objective of these research cruises was the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in the Adriatic region for collecting physical, chemical and biological data in order to get a better understanding of whole Adriatic ecosystem. The two transects are already recognised as a key areas for the interception and the study of dense water modification (Zore-Armanda, 1963; Marini et al., 2006; Grilli et al., 2013). Due to seasonal circulation patterns, they are characterized by high temporal variability of the thermohaline structure (Grbec and Morović, 1997; Vilibić, et al., 2004) and other oceanographic parameters. Long term oceanographic records from the Middle Adriatic enable better understanding of the ecosystem response to changes of atmospheric and sea conditions through physical, chemical and biological processes (Marasović et al., 1995). Several oceanographic parameters relevant and useful for the ecosystem assessment of the two areas (temperature, salinity, density, fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, phyto- and zoo-plankton as well as selected pollutants , trace metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-PAHs in sediments) were collected. In the present work, the variations of PAHs and trace metals concentration in the marine sediments are presented in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer. A constant influx of metal induces more intense accumulation of anthropogenic metals, especially Cd, in sediment from Jabuka Pit, and the metal content slightly increases

  11. Benthic foraminifera from the Adriatic Sea : principles of phenotypic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and morphology of the benthic foraminifera in the Adriatic Sea appear to be strongly dependent on two primary controlling environmental parameters, oxygen concentration and food availability. These factors are both governed by the runoff from the Po and other Italian rivers, and

  12. Comparison of SeaWiFS and MODIS time series of inherent optical properties for the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mélin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Time series of inherent optical properties (IOPs derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS are compared for the Adriatic Sea. The IOPs are outputs of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm and include total absorption a, phytoplankton absorption aph, absorption associated with colored detrital material (CDM acdm, and particle backscattering coefficient bbp. The average root-mean square difference Δ computed for log-transformed distributions decreases for $a$ from 0.084 at 412 nm to 0.052 at 490 nm, is higher for aph(443 (0.149 than for acdm(443 (0.071, and is approximately 0.165 for bbp at various wavelengths. The SeaWiFS a at 443 and 490 nm, aph at 443 nm and bbp are on average higher than the MODIS counterparts. Statistics show significant variations in space and time. There is an overall increasing gradient for Δ associated with the absorption terms from the open southern and central Adriatic to the northwest part of the basin, and a reversed gradient for the particulate backscattering coefficient. For time series analysis, only a(412 and acdm(443 currently present an unbiased continuity bridging the SeaWiFS and MODIS periods for the Adriatic Sea.

  13. Distribution of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in the Eastern Adriatic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantić, D.; Šestanović, S.; Vrdoljak, A.; Šolić, M.; Kušpilić, G.; Ninčević Gladan, Ž.; Koblížek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 134-141 ISSN 0141-1136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs * Adriatic sea * Picoplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  14. The Radiological Condition of 137 Cs in the Northern Adriatic Sea (2006-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic-Hamer, D.; Lulic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Croatian Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research Rovinj has studied the levels and distribution of long-lived radionuclides in different marine samples. Artificial radioactivity in the northern Adriatic Sea was assessed by analysis of the concentration of 137Cs in seawater, sediment and marine organisms. A comparison of radioactive contamination was made between different ecosystems including in front of the river Po delta, the protected area of Lim bay and the Rovinj coastal area from 2006 to 2007. At the station which was under the direct influence of the Po river discharge the concentrations of 137Cs in seawater were back to pre-Chernobyl values (2.65 Bq m-3), although in sediment values were slightly higher (9.06 Bq/kg). Inside Lim bay the concentrations of 137Cs in seawater were low (1.99 Bq m -3 ) and in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were undetectable in this period. The concentrations of 137Cs in seawater in the surface layer in the Rovinj coastal area remained constant (2.43 Bq m-3), as were found within the top sediment layer (2.15 Bq/kg). The concentrations of 137Cs were detectable at very low levels in Mugil cephalus and Sardina pilchardus. Fucus virsoides and Mullus barbatus can be considered a good bio indicator of monitoring radio contamination in the Adriatic Sea. The radiological status of 137Cs in the Adriatic Sea has returned to the pre-accident level, taking into consideration their natural fluctuations due to physico-chemical and hydrological parameters in the investigated area. Such knowledge of radioactive contamination could be useful in the estimation of the state of the environment and as an input to plans for the protection of the Adriatic Sea.(author)

  15. Measurements of Sediment Transport in the Western Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, C. R.; Hill, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    Instrumented bottom tripods were deployed at two depths (10 and 20 m) off the mouth of the Chienti River in the western Adriatic Sea from November 2002 to May 2003 as part of the EuroSTRATAFORM Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) Experiment. Waves, currents, and proxies for suspended-sediment concentrations were measured with upward-looking acoustic Doppler current meters, downward looking pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profilers, single-point acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and acoustic and optical backscatter sensors. Flow was dominated by the western Adriatic coastal current (WACC) during the experiment. Mean southward alongshore velocity 2 m below the surface was 0.10 m/s at the 10-m site and 0.23 m/s at the 20-m site, and flow was modulated by tides, winds, and fluctuating riverflow. The largest waves (3 m significant height) were generated by winds from the southeast during a Sirocco event in late November that generated one of the few episodes of sustained northward flow and sediment transport. Most of the time, however, sediment resuspension and transport was dominated by Bora events, when downwelling-favorable winds from the northeast generated waves that resuspended sediment and simultaneously enhanced southward flow in the WACC. Mean flow near the bottom was slightly offshore at the 20-m site (0.01 m/s at 3 m above the bottom), but there was no significant correlation between downwelling and wave-induced resuspension, and cross-shelf sediment fluxes were small. The combination of persistent southward flow with low rates of cross-shelf leakage makes the WACC an efficient conduit for sediment past the Chienti region. If these observations are representative of typical winter conditions along the entire western Adriatic, they may help explain the enigmatic development of Holocene shelf-edge clinoforms that have formed hundreds of kilometers south of the Po River, which provides most of the sediment to the Adriatic Sea. Future data

  16. On the dense water cascading in the Southern Adriatic Sea during 2012: Setup of a Rapid Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    In the North Adriatic, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) forms during cold and dry winters by cooling and evaporation. DSW spreads southward along the western shelf reaching the southern Adriatic basin (1200 m deep) after 1-2 months, where sinks through cascading events. In February 2012, a large Siberian High caused blocking of the Atlantic flow and a westward flow of dry and cold air masses from eastern Russia toward Europe. The North Adriatic experienced a cold spell with large decrease of surface temperature (3° -6° C) associated to severe cold and dry Bora wind. The result was the formation of extremely dense shelf water, further made possible by the very limited discharge of the Po river in the preceding autumn. As contribution to the Italian research programme RITMARE (Italian Research for the Sea), CNR-ISMAR set up a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiment to study the occurrence, amount, timing and properties of the newly formed DSW. Setting up REA strategies is crucial for several scientific and practical reasons: (i) capturing extreme events to improve our understanding of natural systems in a global-change scenario; (ii) to evaluate their impact on marine systems and the biota; (iii) to address issues related to fluctuating fish stocks as well as (iv) C export and sequestration in the deep sea. The experiment was designed with an integrated approach, including modeling simulations, mooring deployments and quick-response oceanographic cruises. Based on numerical model ensemble, the arrival time of the DSW at the Gargano Cape was forecasted likely starting after March 15, 2012, thus moorings were deployed few days before. Five moorings were deployed in sites selected on the basis of modelling predictions and geology-driven inferences defining areas where the passage of dense shelf water is most likely to occur. Moorings were equipped with down-looking ADCPs, automatic sediment traps, temperature loggers, recorders of temperature, conductivity and

  17. Fundamental Adriatic seiche recorded by current meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leder

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Currents recorded at two stations positioned at the Adriatic shelf break between 17 February and 6 March 1989 were considered. They provided the first evidence of current variability related to the Adriatic-wide seiches. Current spectra were dominated by a peak at 21.1h – a well-known period of the fundamental Adriatic mode. Amplitudes of oscillations were considerable, occasionally greater than 30cm/s. Both along- and cross-basin currents were recorded, thus signalling the importance of rotational effects. Comparison of the current data with the sea-level measurements performed simultaneously along the east Adriatic coast showed that the 21-h currents flowing in the Adriatic preceded sea levels by a quarter of a cycle, as would be expected from a simple model of bay seiches. Sea-level amplitudes reached 40cm in the North Adriatic, thus marking the event as one of the strongest on record. Seiching was triggered by a suddenly changing sirocco wind, as is usually the case in the Adriatic. The most important features of the seiche event were reproduced with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Adriatic Sea, forced by the sea-level residuals measured at Otranto and the air pressure and wind data recorded at Lastovo. The model showed that the seiche-related currents were relatively strong in the area where the current measurements were performed and further north – between Zadar and Ancona. Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes – Oceanography: physical (sea-level variations, currents

  18. Oil spill model coupled to an ultra-high-resolution circulation model: implementation for the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotenko, K.

    2003-04-01

    An ultra-high-resolution version of DieCAST was adjusted for the Adriatic Sea and coupled with an oil spill model. Hydrodynamic module was developed on base of th low dissipative, four-order-accuracy version DieCAST with the resolution of ~2km. The oil spill model was developed on base of particle tracking technique The effect of evaporation is modeled with an original method developed on the base of the pseudo-component approach. A special dialog interface of this hybrid system allowing direct coupling to meteorlogical data collection systems or/and meteorological models. Experiments with hypothetic oil spill are analyzed for the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results (animations) of mesoscale circulation and oil slick modeling are presented at wabsite http://thayer.dartmouth.edu/~cushman/adriatic/movies/

  19. Verification of an ensemble prediction system for storm surge forecast in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel, Riccardo; Lionello, Piero

    2014-12-01

    In the Adriatic Sea, storm surges present a significant threat to Venice and to the flat coastal areas of the northern coast of the basin. Sea level forecast is of paramount importance for the management of daily activities and for operating the movable barriers that are presently being built for the protection of the city. In this paper, an EPS (ensemble prediction system) for operational forecasting of storm surge in the northern Adriatic Sea is presented and applied to a 3-month-long period (October-December 2010). The sea level EPS is based on the HYPSE (hydrostatic Padua Sea elevation) model, which is a standard single-layer nonlinear shallow water model, whose forcings (mean sea level pressure and surface wind fields) are provided by the ensemble members of the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) EPS. Results are verified against observations at five tide gauges located along the Croatian and Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Forecast uncertainty increases with the predicted value of the storm surge and with the forecast lead time. The EMF (ensemble mean forecast) provided by the EPS has a rms (root mean square) error lower than the DF (deterministic forecast), especially for short (up to 3 days) lead times. Uncertainty for short lead times of the forecast and for small storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty of the initial condition of the hydrodynamical model. Uncertainty for large lead times and large storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty in the meteorological forcings. The EPS spread increases with the rms error of the forecast. For large lead times the EPS spread and the forecast error substantially coincide. However, the EPS spread in this study, which does not account for uncertainty in the initial condition, underestimates the error during the early part of the forecast and for small storm surge values. On the contrary, it overestimates the rms error for large surge values. The PF (probability forecast) of the EPS

  20. Coastal boundary layers in ocean modelling: an application to the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanotte Rizzoli, P.; Dell'Orto, F.

    1981-01-01

    Boundary layers play an important role in modelling geophysical fluid-dynamical flows, in as much as they constitute regions of ageostrophic dynamics in which the physical balances characterizing the main interior of the water mass break down. A short synopsis is given of important boundary layers in ocean circulation modelling with specific emphasis drawn upon side wall boundary layers, namely those adjacent to the coastlines of the considered basin. Application of boundary layer analysis is thereafter made for one specific phenomenological situation, namely the Northern Adriatic Sea and the problem posed by its wintertime seasonal circulation. The analysis furnishes a mathematical model fo the coastal strip adjacent to the Italian shoreline, treated as a boundary layer in the density field, starting from general model equations valid throughout the interior of the Northern Adriatic. The boundary layer model is consequently used to modify the side wall boundary condition for the interior density field. Related numerical experiments are shown and compared with previous standard experiments in which the boundary layer contribution to the density field has not been considered. (author)

  1. Changes in the Adriatic oceanographic properties induced by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vilibić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term time series of physical and chemical parameters collected between 1960 and 2010 along the Palagruža Sill transect, Middle Adriatic Sea, have been investigated in terms of average water properties and their variability. Nutrients, especially orthophosphates, reached rather high levels of concentration below the euphotic zone between 1991 and 1998, the highest levels in the investigated period. Simultaneously, the N:P ratio, which is normally higher than 25:1, decreased to values less than 16:1 in the euphotic zone, indicating a switch from typical phosphorus to nitrogen- limited preconditioning for the primary production. Higher-than-usual nutrient levels peaking in the mid-1990s, coupled with lower-than-usual temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH values, are presumably related to the flow of the nutrient richer Western Mediterranean waters to the Adriatic below the euphotic layer. These waters, which keep their footprint in the N:P ratio, enter the Adriatic during the anticyclonic phase of the Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS, which has been uniquely strengthened by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient occurring in the early 1990s. This hypothesis should be confirmed through targeted research and modelling exercises, as it is highly relevant for the biogeochemistry of the Adriatic Sea.

  2. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Beran, Alfred; Ivesa, Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp

  3. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Marina [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mmonti@inogs.it; Minocci, Marco [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Beran, Alfred [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Ivesa, Ljiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research, G. Paliaga 5, 52210 Rovinj (Croatia)

    2007-05-15

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp.

  4. Diversity of rare and abundant bacteria in surface waters of the Southern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia Marina; Luna, Gian Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria are fundamental players in the functioning of the ocean, yet relatively little is known about the diversity of bacterioplankton assemblages and the factors shaping their spatial distribution. We investigated the diversity and community composition of bacterioplankton in surface waters of the Southern Adriatic sub-basin (SAd) in the Mediterranean Sea, across an environmental gradient from coastal to offshore stations. Bacterioplankton diversity was investigated using a whole-assemblage genetic fingerprinting technique (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis, ARISA) coupled with 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing. The main physico-chemical variables showed clear differences between coastal and offshore stations, with the latter displaying generally higher temperature, salinity and oxygen content. Bacterioplankton richness was higher in coastal than offshore waters. Bacterial community composition (BCC) differed significantly between coastal and offshore waters, and appeared to be influenced by temperature (explaining up to 30% of variance) and by the trophic state. Pyrosequencing evidenced dominance of Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 cluster), uncultured Gammaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) and Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus). Members of the Bacteroidetes phylum were also abundant, and accounted for 25% in the station characterized by the higher organic carbon availability. Bacterioplankton assemblages included a few dominant taxa and a very large proportion (85%) of rare (diversity, particularly evident at the level of the rare taxa, suggests to direct future investigations toward larger spatial or temporal scales, to better understand the role of bacterioplankton in the ecosystem functioning and the biogeochemistry of the basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elasmobranch bycatch in the Italian Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Moro, Fabrizio; Sala, Antonello

    2018-01-01

    Elasmobranchs are among the most threatened long-lived marine species worldwide, and incidental capture is a major source of mortality. The northern central Adriatic Sea, though one of the most overfished basins of the Mediterranean Sea, supports a very valuable marine biodiversity, including elasmobranchs. This study assesses the impact of the northern central Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery on common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), common eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), and pelagic stingray (Pteroplatytrygon violacea) by examining incidental catches recorded between 2006 and 2015. The distribution of bycatch events was evaluated using geo-referenced data. Generalized Linear Models were computed to standardize the catch of the four species and to predict the relative abundance of bycatch events. Data analysis shows that most bycatch events involving all four species occurred in the northern Adriatic Sea. The models predicted significant, distinct temporal patterns of standardized catches in line with previous investigations. Water depth, season, and fishing region were the best predictors to explain bycatch events. The present data suggest that the northern Adriatic may be an important nursery area for several elasmobranchs. They also highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the interactions between elasmobranchs and fisheries to develop and apply suitable, ad hoc management measures. PMID:29377920

  6. Elasmobranch bycatch in the Italian Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bonanomi

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs are among the most threatened long-lived marine species worldwide, and incidental capture is a major source of mortality. The northern central Adriatic Sea, though one of the most overfished basins of the Mediterranean Sea, supports a very valuable marine biodiversity, including elasmobranchs. This study assesses the impact of the northern central Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery on common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus, spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias, common eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila, and pelagic stingray (Pteroplatytrygon violacea by examining incidental catches recorded between 2006 and 2015. The distribution of bycatch events was evaluated using geo-referenced data. Generalized Linear Models were computed to standardize the catch of the four species and to predict the relative abundance of bycatch events. Data analysis shows that most bycatch events involving all four species occurred in the northern Adriatic Sea. The models predicted significant, distinct temporal patterns of standardized catches in line with previous investigations. Water depth, season, and fishing region were the best predictors to explain bycatch events. The present data suggest that the northern Adriatic may be an important nursery area for several elasmobranchs. They also highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the interactions between elasmobranchs and fisheries to develop and apply suitable, ad hoc management measures.

  7. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  8. POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE (IMTA IN THE ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Kanski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, scientific interest for investigating ecological, economical and social effects of Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA has increased worldwide. Its development in the Mediterranean, including the Adriatic Sea, is still in the early stages. The main obstacle preventing IMTA to be commercially adopted is the lack of scientific information on choosing compatible species, knowing the carrying capacity of a production area and interactions between species feeding at different trophic levels, as well as its socio–economic impacts. Current experience in the area is based on smaller experimental studies of local importance but they generally give a good insight into potential of IMTA and its interactions with the environment. The aim of this paper was to overview current literature and experiences worldwide and to review the potential for adopting IMTA principles in the Adriatic Sea.

  9. Review of Development of Adriatic Marine Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branica, G.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.; Petrinec, B.; Hanzek, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview and some research results of radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea and coastal areas caused by natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, with emphasis on the eastern Adriatic coast. The results of the first known survey of radioactivity of the Adriatic Sea have been published in 1909, by Prof. Dr. Peter Salcher from the Imperial and Royal Naval Academy (k.u.k. Marine Akademie) in the city of Rijeka. These were compared with similar studies conducted in the Atlantic Ocean. Systematic radioecological research of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea that began in 1961 at three locations (Rovinj, Split and Dubrovnik) have been organized by the Directorate for Civil Protection of the State Secretariat for people's defence, targeting the activity concentrations of fission products 90Sr and 137Cs in seawater. Editing and standardization of data has been coordinated by the engineer Velimir Popovic, an associate of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health.Nowadays, contemporary radieocological monitoring in the Republic of Croatia related to the Adriatic Sea today is conducted by Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health within the framework of 'Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in the Republic of Croatia' and the scientific project R adioecology of the Adriatic sea and Coastal Areas , project no. 022-0222882-2823 funded by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia.(author)

  10. Upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian sea-level rise and its consequences on the Adriatic-Dinaric carbonate platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gušić, I.; Jelaska, V.

    1993-12-01

    The Adriatic carbonate platform existed throughout most of the Mesozoic as an isolated (‘intraoceanic’) carbonate platform. It is characterized by what has been traditionally labelled a ‘continuous’ shallow marine carbonate sedimentation, without terrigenous influences. However, global sea-level changes left unequivocal imprints in the ‘continuous’ carbonate record, thus proving that the carbonate platform sensitively responded to sea-level fluctuations. This paper focuses on the relatively short Cenomanian — Turonian drowning event, which temporarily submerged the platform below the euphotic zone, and which is related here to the well known global Cenomanian — Turonian sea-level highstand. This drowning episode is characterized by the abrupt disappearance of numerous shallow water benthic invertebrate taxa and by an abundant occurrence of planktonic organisms, including calcispheres and ‘primitive’ planktonic foraminifera. Near the middle of the Turonian, the platform regime was re-established, correlating with the global fall in sea level. The situation is different only at the south-west margin of the platform, where pelagic sedimentation, initiated near the end of the Cenomanian, continues into the Santonian and probably marks the Adriatic trough. The drowning began earlier (in the Middle Cenomanian) in those areas nearer to the north-east margin of the platform (the area of what is today central Croatia) and then progressed gradually towards the more interior areas of the platform (the middle Dalmatian islands), which were drowned near the end of the Cenomanian.

  11. Isotopic characteristics of shells Mytilus galloprovincialis from eastern coastal area of Adriatic Sea

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    Tjaša Kanduč

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from entire Eastern Adriatic coast to determine δ18O and δ13C performed on calcite and aragonite shell layers. The aim of this work was to check whether shells of M. galloprovincialis are good environmental indicators (water temperature, salinity. Based on measured isotopic composition of oxygen in shell layers and assumed isotopic composition in water temperatures of calcite and aragonite of shell layers were calculated. The calculated temperatures for M. galloprovincialis shell growth of calcite and aragonite shell layer are in good agreement with measured temperatures of sea water. According to our results of δ18O and δ13C in shell layers we canseparate the locations of the investigated area into three groups: those with more influence of fresh water, those with less influence of fresh water and those of marine environments.

  12. Sea level variability at Adriatic coast and its relationship to atmospheric forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergant, K. [Centre for Atmospheric Research, Nova Gorica Polytechnic, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Susnik, M.; Strojan, I. [Dept. of Hydrology, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Shaw, A.G.P. [James Rennel Div., National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Sea level (SLH) variability at the Adriatic coast was investigated for the period 1872-2001 using monthly average values of observations at 13 tide gauge stations. Linear trends and seasonal cycles were investigated first and removed afterwards from the data. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis was used further on remaining anomalies (SLA) to extract the regional intermonthly variability of SLH. It was found that the leading EOF and its principal component (PC) explain a major part of SLA variability (92%). The correlation between the reconstructed SLA, based on leading EOF and its PC, and overlapping observed SLA values for selected tide gauge stations is between 0.93 and 0.99. Actual SLH values at tide gauge stations can be reconstructed and some gaps in the data can be filled in on the basis of estimated SLA values if reasonable estimates of long-term trends and seasonal cycles are also available. A strong, seasonally dependent relationship between SLA at the Adriatic coast and atmospheric forcing, represented by sea level pressure (SLP) fields, was also found. Comparing the time series of leading PC and gridded SLP data for the period 1948-2001, the highest correlation coefficients (r) of -0.92 in winter, -0.84 in spring, -0.66 in summer, and -0.91 in autumn were estimated for a SLP grid point located in northern Italy. The SLP variability on this grid point contains information about the isostatic response of the sea level at the Adriatic coast, but can also be treated as a sort of teleconnection index representing the large-scale SLP variability across central and southern Europe. To some extent the large-scale SLP variability that affects the SLA at the Adriatic coast can be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), because significant correlations were found between the NAO index and the first PC of SLA (r{sub winter}=-0.56, r{sub spring}=-0.45, r{sub summer}=-0.48, and r{sub autumn}=-0.43) for the period 1872-2001. The use of partial least

  13. 210Pb dating of sediments from the central and the northern Adriatic Sea: The deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.; La Rosa, J.

    1996-04-01

    A central goal of the ELNA project is to assess the carbon assimilation capacity of the Northern Adriatic Sea. This requires fundamental quantitative information on budgets and sinks of organic carbon. Any change in carbon production in the water column should be reflected in the underlying sediments. Moreover, the fraction of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor which is subsequently preserved in the sediment will be strongly coupled to sediment accumulation and mixing. In this study a series of box cores were collected in order to characterize a hypothetical eutrophication gradient extending from the Po River outflow region in the north down to the shallow meso-Adriatic depression (Jabuka Pit). The main tasks assigned to IAEA-MEL were to provide 210 Pb derived sedimentation and dry-mass accumulation rates and to examine the possible correlations between sedimentary processes, the deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon and pelagic primary productivity

  14. Comparison of hydrothermal activity between the Adriatic and the Red Sea rift margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip; Incerpi, Nicolò; Birkle, Peter; Lacsamana, Elizabeth; Manatschal, Gianreto; Agar, Susan; Zhang, Shuo; Borsato, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Detailed field studies, and access to high-quality seismic reflection and refraction data have led to an improved understanding of the architecture and evolution of magma poor and magma rich margins. Associated with the spatial-temporal evolution of the rift, it is evident that there are evolving, extensive, fluid-rock interactions due to the infiltration of fluids within the sediment, basement and lithospheric mantle. Key questions therefore arise: What are the different fluid-rock reactions that can be typed to different geodynamic stages of the rift evolution? What are their compositions and how do they interact with their environment (basement, sediments, evaporites, hydrosphere, and magmatism)? What are the implications for the evolution of the margin rheology, thermal structure, depositional environments/organic matter maturity, and reservoir quality? The Adriatic paleo-rifted margin is preserved in both SE Switzerland and northern Italy. The field exposures provide a unique opportunity to study the fluid flow history of a hyperextended magma poor extensional margin. Analysis of breccias, cement veins and replacement minerals reveal that the margin records a complex, long-lasting history of dolomitization, calcification and silicification during the Jurassic rifting. The Red Sea by contrast is a young rifted margin. It differs from the paleo-Adriatic margin by several characteristics: volcanism is more evident, and syn-tectonic sediments, including evaporites (halite and anhydrite) are thicker. Several core and fluid samples are available from both onshore and offshore wells, which reveal rift-related hydrothermal alteration. In addition, we find evidence for the presence of an extreme dynamic hydraulic system with infiltration of surface water into sub-salt units during Late Pleistocene. In this study we present results from petrographic and geochemical analysis of basement and sedimentary rocks from Adriatic field-derived samples and core/subsurface fluid

  15. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century – a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maramai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  16. Population dynamics of toxic phytoplankton and bacterial flora in the waters of the low Adriatic sea; Dinamica di popolazione di fitoplancton tossico e flora batterica nel basso Adriatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroppo, C.; Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R.A.; Pastore, M. [CNR, Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico Attlio Cerruti, Taranto (Italy); Marchiori, E. [Rome Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Organica; Bruno, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The coastal areas of the Southern Adriatic Sea, in particular the Apulian ones, may be considered an example of intact ecosystem and represent an ideal term of comparison to other marine ecosystems having higher levels of pollution (Northern Adriatic Sea). In order to evaluate the sanitary levels of this environment, four transect were investigated during two years monitoring (April 1995-March 1997) along the Otranto Channel coasts, by joint research groups of the Environmental Hygiene Laboratory of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' and the Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti of CNR in Taranto. The study underlines the phytoplanktic and bacterial population dynamics, and the detection of the microbiological water quality along the coast tract Brindisi-Lecce-Otranto-S. Maria di Leuca. The results acquired pointed out population dynamics of some potantially toxic species of Dinophysis genus and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. These depended on the winter nutrient loads due to the ASW (Adriatic Superficial Waters) and to the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Waters). The bacterial community was mainly constituted by genera Aeromonas, Photobacterium, Cytophaga and Pseudomonas. Also the presence of Enterobacteriaceae family was relevant. Among the pathogenic vibrios the most frequently isolated species were Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. [Italian] Considerando che le zone del basso Adriatico, in particolare quelle pugliesi, costituiscono un biotopo ancora relativamente inalterato, esse sono state oggetto di un'indagine sperimentale condotta in 24 mesi di attivita' (aprile 1995-marzo 1997) lungo le coste del Canale di Otranto, ad opera di un gruppo congiunto del Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' e dei laboratori dell'Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti del CNR di Taranto, ai fini di valutare lo stato di salute di questo ambiente, che fornisce, con buona probabilita', un

  17. On the record of Red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel,1843 (Osteichthyes: Sparidae in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Dulcic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of red seabream Pagrus major, 44.9 cm total length, was caught in the eastern middle Adriatic (Island Molat, Cape Bonaster by long-line hook at a depth of about 20 m on a hard rocky bottom on 25 September 2004. It is the first record of this species in the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean area.

  18. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassan, S.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps

  19. The addition of hydrodynamic variables to predictive cold water coral habitat modeling: The Bari Canyon case-study, southwestern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglini, Federica; Bargain, Annaëlle; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Taviani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Predictive habitat modeling is gaining momentum because of its usefulness to recognize potential distributional patterns of ecosystems thus facilitating their proper governance when required, as it is for instance the case of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This holds particularly true for the deep-sea in front of its overwhelming areal extent on a global scale and intrinsic technological difficulties (with related costs) for its direct exploration. Cold Water Corals (CWC) is one emblematic, virtually cosmopolitan, ecosystem in the deep, that is under international attention because of its multifaceted ecological importance. CWC is currently represented in the Mediterranean basin by habitats engineered by the arborescent scleractinians Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa associated with a number of other benthic invertebrates. One major CWC hotspot located on the southwestern Adriatic margin, the Bari Canyon cold water coral province, has been targeted for producing habitat suitability maps. Initially the evaluation of the theoretical distribution of CWC in this area has been based upon visual observations, mainly extracted from geo-referenced underwater ROV imagery, coupled with the eco-geographic information derived from bathymetry. This approach relies upon the compilation and comparison of presence-only models (MaxEnt and ENFA), but also presence-absence model (GLMs). However, the pivotal role played by oceanographic factors has been soon added in order to achieve more robust predictive models. In fact, the Bari Canyon CWC province is situated on the main path of the North Adriatic Dense Water cascading, and hypothesized to be sensitive to hydrological factors. Accordingly, the statistical models to assess potential habitat extent have been implemented using hydrodynamic fields provided by ROMS for ocean currents, coupled with SWAN within the COAWST modelling system to account for wave-current interactions. The integration of results is

  20. Fluxes and burial of particulate organic carbon along the Adriatic mud-wedge (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, T.; Langone, L.; Giani, M.; Ravaioli, M.; Miserocchi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Clinoform-shaped deposits are ubiquitous sedimentological bodies of modern continental margins, including both carbonate and silicoclastic platforms. They formed after the attainment of the modern sea level high-stand (mid-late Holocene) when river outlets and shoreline migrated landward. As clinoform-shape deposits are essential building blocks of the infill of sedimentary basins, they are sites of intense organic carbon (OC) deposition and account for a significant fraction of OC burial in the ocean during interglacial periods. In this study, we focused on sigmoid clinoforms that are generally associated with low-energy environments. In particular, we characterized the modern accumulation and burial of OC along the late-Holocene sigmoid in the Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). This sedimentary body consists of a mud wedge recognizable on seismic profiles as a progradational unit lying on top the maximum flooding surface that marks the time of maximum landward shift of the shoreline attained around 5.5 kyr cal BP. In the last two decades, several projects have investigated sediment dynamics and organic geochemistry along the Adriatic mud wedge (e.g., PRISMA, EURODELTA, EuroSTRATAFORM, PASTA, CIPE, VECTOR). All these studies increased our understanding of strata formation and organic matter cycling in this epicontinental margin. The overarching goal of this study was to combine the results gained during these projects with newly acquired data to assess fluxes to seabed and burial efficiency of organic carbon along the uppermost strata of the Adriatic mud-wedge. Our study benefited of an extensive number of radionuclide-based (Pb-210, and Cs-137) sediment accumulation rates and numerous biogeochemical data of surface sediments and sediment cores (organic carbon, total nitrogen, radiocarbon measurements, carbon stable isotopes, and biomarkers). In addition, because the accumulation of river-borne sediment may or may not be linked to a specific source, another

  1. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  2. Severe flooding along the eastern Adriatic coast: the case of 1 December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međugorac, Iva; Pasarić, Miroslava; Orlić, Mirko

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses an extraordinary storm surge in the Northern Adriatic that was more pronounced on the eastern than on the western shore. On 1 December 2008, Adriatic monitoring stations detected exceptionally high sea levels; the oldest Croatian tide gauge station recorded the highest water level in its operating history at the time. Apart from the Northern Adriatic, large portion of the Dalmatian Coast was also exposed to high water levels, while Venice experienced a less-dramatic event. This marine storm was different from the capital storm of 4 November 1966 during which the surge had the highest impact ahead of Venice and along the north-western coastline. The 2008 event is studied here in detail, and the mechanisms that resulted in the different flooding of the two shores are identified. The study is based on hourly sea level, air pressure and wind data measured along both basin sides together with ECMWF reanalysis fields. Four components of sea-level evolution are identified: the storm surge, tide, Adriatic seiche and, low-frequency variability. The 2008 event was the outcome of a fine interplay between the first three components, which were all superimposed on the raised sea level due to low-frequency variability. The marine storm differed from the 1966 storm in the atmospheric forcing and relative timing of all contributing processes. The 2008 flooding of the eastern coast was mainly due to the Sirocco-wind shear, whereas the 1966 flooding of the western coast was due to the combined effect of almost uniform Sirocco and bottom slope.

  3. {sup 137}Cs Distribution in the Northern Adriatic Sea (2006-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicic-Hamer, D. [' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Centre for Marine Research, Rovinj (Croatia); Barisic, D., E-mail: pavicic@cim.irb.hr [' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-07-15

    Artificial radioactivity in the northern Adriatic Sea was assessed by analysis of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in seawater, sediment and marine organisms. A comparison of radioactive contamination was made between different parts of the marine ecosystem including the area of the Po river delta, the protected area of the Lim bay and the Rovinj coastal area in the period from 2006 to 2010. In the area of the Po river delta {sup 137}Cs concentrations in seawater had decreased back to pre-Chernobyl values (2.48 Bq/m), although in sediment they were slightly higher (8.70 Bq/kg). Inside the Lim bay area {sup 137}Cs concentrations in surface water were low (1.93 Bq/m) and, in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, even undetectable in this period. In the Rovinj coastal area {sup 137}Cs concentrations in surface water remained constant (2.23 Bq/m), as well as in the surface sediment (1.88 Bq/kg). {sup 137}Cs concentrations were detectable at very low activity levels in Mugil cephalus and Sardina pilchardus. The data indicate that some species such as the intertidal brown algae Fucus virsoides and the benthic fish Mullus barbatus are better bio-accumulators of {sup 137}Cs than others. These species should be used as bio-indicators in future monitoring schemes in the A driatic Sea. (author)

  4. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships

  5. Spatio-temporal reproducibility of the microbial food web structure associated with the change in temperature: Long-term observations in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolić, Mladen; Grbec, Branka; Matić, Frano; Šantić, Danijela; Šestanović, Stefanija; Ninčević Gladan, Živana; Bojanić, Natalia; Ordulj, Marin; Jozić, Slaven; Vrdoljak, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Global and atmospheric climate change is altering the thermal conditions in the Adriatic Sea and, consequently, the marine ecosystem. Along the eastern Adriatic coast sea surface temperature (SST) increased by an average of 1.03 °C during the period from 1979 to 2015, while in the recent period, starting from 2008, a strong upward almost linear trend of 0.013 °C/month was noted. Being mainly oligotrophic, the middle Adriatic Sea is characterized by the important role played by the microbial food web in the production and transfer of biomass and energy towards higher trophic levels. It is very important to understand the effect of warming on microbial communities, since small temperature increases in surface seawater can greatly modify the microbial role in the global carbon cycle. In this study, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) procedure was used to analyse the time series of a number of microbial parameters at two stations with different trophic status in the central Adriatic Sea. The results show that responses of the microbial food web (MFW) structure to temperature changes are reproducible in time. Furthermore, qualitatively similar changes in the structure of the MFW occurred regardless of the trophic status. The rise in temperature was associated with: (1) the increasing importance of microbial heterotrophic activities (increase bacterial growth and bacterial predator abundance, particularly heterotrophic nanoflagellates) and (2) the increasing importance of autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in the MFW.

  6. Histological and Morphological Aspects of Reproduction in Male Blackspotted Smooth-Hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    Romana Gračan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on reproductive biology of male blackspotted smooth-hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea and first histological examination of gonads at different maturation stages and seasonal cycles for this species. We collected samples from 117 male specimens of M. punctulatus ranging in length from 44.6 to 126.5 cm, caught by commercial bottom trawls in the North-Central Adriatic Sea. Microscopic observation revealed a diametric development of testes, in which round-shaped spermatocysts have zonal arrangement, showing seven different stages of development. Males began to mature when they were between 61 and 88 cm body length, which was indicated by the presence of functional claspers or appearance of the spermatogenic cysts. While the smallest mature shark was only 80 cm long, all animals longer than 89 cm were sexually mature. The seasonal analysis of the testes indicated that mature spermatozoa dominated in testes during the first half of the year with a peak in May and June, after which followed less active period during July and August.

  7. Mortality of red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 on the Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic

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    Joksimović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mullet, Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758, is an economically very important species in trawl fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. Material for analysis was collected from October 2002 until May 2004 with a bottom trawl net from commercial trawlers on the Montenegrin shelf. Mortality of this species was analyzed for the first time in this area, sepa­rately for males and females and for both sexes together. Until now, only the spatial distribution and catch per unit of effort (CPUE of Mullus barbatus have been studied in Montenegrin waters. Estimated total mortality rates were Zmales = 0.653 and Zfemales = 0.712. The average mortality rate for both sexes was Z m+f = 0.749, while the natural mortality rate was Mm+f = 0.342. Values of Z in the Montenegrin shelf area are considerably lower than Z values for the Croatian and Italian parts of the Adriatic Sea, indicating that on the Montenegrin shelf fishing of this species is significantly less intensive than in other trawl-fishing areas of the Adriatic Sea.

  8. Variability of currents in front of the Venice Lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosoli, S.; Gacic, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS, Sgonico (Trieste) (Italy); Mazzoldi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - ISMAR-CNR, Venice (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Marine

    2008-07-01

    Time scales and modes of variability of the flow in the water column in the Northern Adriatic Sea for late summer 2002 are described based on current record from a single bottom-mounted ADCP in the shallow-water area in front of the Venice Lagoon. The time averaged flow was directed 277 E (CCW), roughly aligned with the coastline, with typical magnitudes in the range 4-6 cm/s and a limited, not significant clockwise veering with depth. Tidal forcing was weak and mainly concentrated in the semidiurnal frequency band, with a barotropic (depth-independent) structure. On a diurnal time scale, tidal signal was biased by the sea-breeze regime and was characterized by a clockwise veering with depth according to the Ekman spiral. A complex EOF analysis on the velocity profile time series extracted two dominant spatial modes of variability, which explained more than 90% of the total variance in the current field. More than 78% of the total variance was accounted for by the first EOF mode, with a barotropic structure that contained the low-frequency components and the barotropic tidal signal at semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies. The second mode had a baroclinic structure with a zero-crossing at mid-depth, which was related with the response of the water column to the high-frequency wind-driven diurnal sea breeze variability. The response of low-passed non-tidal currents to local wind stress was fast and immediate, with negligible temporal lag up to mid-depth. Currents vectors were pointing to the right of wind stress, as expected from the surface Ekman veering, but with angles smaller than the expected ones. A time lag in the range 10 to 11 h was found below 8 m depth, with current vectors pointing to the left of wind stress and a counterclockwise veering towards the bottom. The delay was consistent with the frictional adjustment time scale describing the dynamics of a frictionally dominated flow in shallow water, thus suggesting the importance of bottom friction on the

  9. Fish and fishery historical data since the 19th century in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Libralato, Simone; Arneri, Enrico; Giovanardi, Otello; Solidoro, Cosimo; Raicevich, Saša

    2017-09-01

    Historic data on biodiversity provide the context for present observations and allow studying long-term changes in marine populations. Here we present multiple datasets on fish and fisheries of the Adriatic Sea covering the last two centuries encompassing from qualitative observations to standardised scientific monitoring. The datasets consist of three groups: (1) early naturalists' descriptions of fish fauna, including information (e.g., presence, perceived abundance, size) on 255 fish species for the period 1818-1936 (2) historical landings from major Northern Adriatic fish markets (Venice, Trieste, Rijeka) for the period 1902-1968, Italian official landings for the Northern and Central Adriatic (1953-2012) and landings from the Lagoon of Venice (1945-2001) (3) trawl-survey data from seven surveys spanning the period 1948-1991 and including Catch per Unit of Effort data (kgh-1 and/or nh-1) for 956 hauls performed at 301 stations. The integration of these datasets has already demonstrated to be useful to analyse historical marine community changes over time, and its availability through open-source data portal will facilitate analyses in the framework of marine historical ecology.

  10. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

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    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011 and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a

  11. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  12. Long-Term Trends, Variability and Extremes of In Situ Sea Surface Temperature Measured Along the Eastern Adriatic Coast and its Relationship to Hemispheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbec, Branka; Matić, Frano; Beg Paklar, Gordana; Morović, Mira; Popović, Ružica; Vilibić, Ivica

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines long-term series of in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data measured at nine coastal and one open sea stations along the eastern Adriatic Sea for the period 1959-2015. Monthly and yearly averages were used to document SST trends and variability, while clustering and connections to hemispheric indices were achieved by applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. Both PCA and SOM revealed the dominance of temporal changes with respect to the effects of spatial differences in SST anomalies, indicating the prevalence of hemispheric processes over local dynamics, such as bora wind spatial inhomogeneity. SST extremes were connected with blocking atmospheric patterns. A substantial warming between 1979 and 2015, in total exceeding 1 °C, was preceded by a period with a negative SST trend, implying strong multidecadal variability in the Adriatic. The strongest connection was found between yearly SST and the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, while North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic/West Russia (EAWR) patterns were found to also affect February SST values. Quantification of the Adriatic SST and their connection to hemispheric indices allow for more precise projections of future SST, considered to be rather important for Adriatic thermohaline circulation, biogeochemistry and fisheries, and sensitive to ongoing climate change.

  13. Strong copper(II) species in estuarine and sea waters investigated by a method with high detection window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Scarponi, Giuseppe; Pesavento, Maria

    2007-02-15

    The distribution of copper(II) in species of different stability in some estuarine and sea water samples (Adriatic Sea) was investigated by a method based on the sorption of the metal ion on a strongly sorbing resin, Chelex 100, whose sorbing properties have been previously characterized. From them, it is possible to predict very high values of detection windows at the considered conditions, for example side reaction coefficient as high as 10(10) at pH 7.5. Strong copper(II) species in equilibrium with Chelex 100 were detected, at concentration 2-20nM, with a reaction coefficient approximately 10(10.6) at pH 7.45 in sea water, strictly depending on the acidity. They represent 50-70% of the total metal ion and are the strongest copper(II) complexes found in sea water. Weak complexes too were detected in all the samples, with reaction coefficient lower than ca. 10(9) at the same pH. The method applied, named resin titration (RT), was described in a previous investigation, and is here modified in order to be carried out on oceanographic boat during a cruise in the Adriatic Sea.

  14. Searching for a stock structure in Sardina pilchardus from the Adriatic and Ionian seas using a microsatellite DNA-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruggeri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the genetic variability of European sardine from Adriatic and Ionian seas was investigated in order to detect the occurrence of genetic structure within and between these basins. In several samples the analysis of genetic variability at eight microsatellite loci showed a number of homozygote individuals higher than expected at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The inter-population differentiation level estimated by AMOVA, qST and rRST and Bayesian descriptors detected no signs of population differentiation between the samples analysed. These results are consistent with previous studies based on allozymes and several mitochondrial DNA markers and add further evidence contradicting the early identification, based on morphological and reproductive data, of two sub-populations in the Adriatic Sea.

  15. Investigating the potential and feasibility of an offshore wind farm in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Joerg; Antonini, Alessandro; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Archetti, Renata; Supino, Enrico; Berretta, Claudia; Casadei, Carlo; Ozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First feasibility study for an offshore wind farm in the Northern Adriatic Sea. • Field wind and wave data collected at the site. • Site-specific design of transition piece and foundation. • Economical and technical feasibility applied to four different scenarios. - Abstract: The use of offshore wind power is becoming increasingly important towards a sustainable growth worldwide. In Italy, as well as in other countries where wind energy is provided only by onshore plants, the interest in the deployment of offshore wind resources is rapidly growing, despite relatively modest average wind speeds, compared to typical wind conditions in the North Sea. Research efforts have, so far, addressed the exploration of the most promising locations, based on wind characteristics; however, more extended evidence of technical and economic feasibility is now needed to raise awareness in the decision makers and secure to this source of renewable energy a proper role in the future energy policies. Within such a context, the paper presents the first feasibility study for the development of an offshore wind farm off the coast of Rimini, in the Northern Adriatic Sea. The study is based on an anemometric campaign started at the site in 2008 to provide a statistical assessment of the wind characteristics and the related wind energy potential, and on a 10-year wave measurement record next to the area, together with a thorough analysis of the site geological and environmental characteristics. Environmental data are interpreted with a proper consideration of the extreme events distribution and relevant results are used to select the most appropriate commercially available wind turbine and to design the site-specific support structure. A comprehensive evaluation of the investment costs and revenues is then carried out with reference to two wind farm layouts (a first smaller, constituted of 15 elements, and another one, featuring up to 60 elements) and in relation to two

  16. Marine radioecology and waste management in the Adriatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko

    2006-09-01

    This paper gives a review of marine radioecology research in the Adriatic area carried out by the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. Measurements of radioactivity in the Adriatic started in 1963 as a part of an extended monitoring programme of radioactivity in Croatian environment. The main sources of radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea are the fallout from past nuclear weapon testing conducted in the atmosphere and the Chernobyl accident. In 2005, the activity concentrations of fission radionuclides were detectable at very low levels in all environmental samples collected on the Adriatic. The 90Sr data obtained from long-term monitoring were used to estimate the upper limit of the Adriatic seawater turnover time, which turned out to be (3.4 +/- 0.4) years. Detailed knowledge about seawater circulation, including the turnover time is essential for planning an overall communal and other wastewater management on the Adriatic coast. The paper concludes with the prospects for future marine radioecological investigations.

  17. Picoplankton distribution influenced by thermohaline circulation in the southern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilović, Tina; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Batistić, Mirna; Radić, Iris Dupčić; Hrustić, Enis; Najdek, Mirjana

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we focus on the interactive dynamics between physico-chemical processes and picoplankton distribution in order to advance our current understanding of the roles of various parameters in regulating picoplankton community structure in highly dynamic marine system such as the South Adriatic Sea. The research was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 along the transect in the northern part of the South Adriatic Pit. The deep water convection occurred in the southern Adriatic during February 2012, with vertical mixing reaching the depth of 500 m. The picoplankton community was highly affected by this mixing event, whilst its compartments each responded differently. During deep water convection low nucleic acid heterotrophic bacteria (LNA HB) and Synechococcus had their lowest abundances (4 × 105 cell ml-1 and 8 × 102 cell ml-1, respectively), picoeucaryotes had their highest abundances (104 cell ml-1), while Prochlorococcus was absent from the area, most likely due to intense cooling and vertical mixing. In March 2012 Eastern Adriatic Current (EAC) brought warm and saline water with more nutrients, which resulted in the proliferation of high nucleic acid heterotrophic bacteria (HNA HB), having maximal abundance (4 × 105 cell ml-1). The re-establishment of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) intrusion after the deep water convection resulted in the re-appearance of Prochlorococcus and maximal abundances of Synechococcus (4 × 104 cell ml-1) in May 2012. The distribution of picoheterotrophs was mainly explained by the season, while the distribution of picophytoplankton was explained by the depth. Aside from nutrients, salinity was an important parameter, affecting particularly Prochlorococcus. The re-appearance of Prochlorococcus in the southern Adriatic during the period of LIW intrusion, together with their correlation with salinity, indicates their potential association with LIW. The relationship between Prochloroccocus distribution and

  18. Variability of currents in front of the Venice Lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cosoli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time scales and modes of variability of the flow in the water column in the Northern Adriatic Sea for late summer 2002 are described based on current record from a single bottom-mounted ADCP in the shallow-water area in front of the Venice Lagoon.

    The time averaged flow was directed 277° E (CCW, roughly aligned with the coastline, with typical magnitudes in the range 4–6 cm/s and a limited, not significant clockwise veering with depth. Tidal forcing was weak and mainly concentrated in the semidiurnal frequency band, with a barotropic (depth-independent structure. On a diurnal time scale, tidal signal was biased by the sea-breeze regime and was characterized by a clockwise veering with depth according to the Ekman spiral.

    A complex EOF analysis on the velocity profile time series extracted two dominant spatial modes of variability, which explained more than 90% of the total variance in the current field. More than 78% of the total variance was accounted for by the first EOF mode, with a barotropic structure that contained the low-frequency components and the barotropic tidal signal at semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies. The second mode had a baroclinic structure with a zero-crossing at mid-depth, which was related with the response of the water column to the high-frequency wind-driven diurnal sea breeze variability.

    The response of low-passed non-tidal currents to local wind stress was fast and immediate, with negligible temporal lag up to mid-depth. Currents vectors were pointing to the right of wind stress, as expected from the surface Ekman veering, but with angles smaller than the expected ones. A time lag in the range 10 to 11 h was found below 8 m depth, with current vectors pointing to the left of wind stress and a counterclockwise veering towards the bottom. The delay was consistent with the frictional adjustment time scale describing the dynamics of a frictionally dominated flow in shallow water, thus

  19. Variability of currents in front of the Venice Lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cosoli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time scales and modes of variability of the flow in the water column in the Northern Adriatic Sea for late summer 2002 are described based on current record from a single bottom-mounted ADCP in the shallow-water area in front of the Venice Lagoon. The time averaged flow was directed 277° E (CCW, roughly aligned with the coastline, with typical magnitudes in the range 4–6 cm/s and a limited, not significant clockwise veering with depth. Tidal forcing was weak and mainly concentrated in the semidiurnal frequency band, with a barotropic (depth-independent structure. On a diurnal time scale, tidal signal was biased by the sea-breeze regime and was characterized by a clockwise veering with depth according to the Ekman spiral. A complex EOF analysis on the velocity profile time series extracted two dominant spatial modes of variability, which explained more than 90% of the total variance in the current field. More than 78% of the total variance was accounted for by the first EOF mode, with a barotropic structure that contained the low-frequency components and the barotropic tidal signal at semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies. The second mode had a baroclinic structure with a zero-crossing at mid-depth, which was related with the response of the water column to the high-frequency wind-driven diurnal sea breeze variability. The response of low-passed non-tidal currents to local wind stress was fast and immediate, with negligible temporal lag up to mid-depth. Currents vectors were pointing to the right of wind stress, as expected from the surface Ekman veering, but with angles smaller than the expected ones. A time lag in the range 10 to 11 h was found below 8 m depth, with current vectors pointing to the left of wind stress and a counterclockwise veering towards the bottom. The delay was consistent with the frictional adjustment time scale describing the dynamics of a frictionally dominated flow in shallow water, thus suggesting the importance of

  20. 226Ra activity in the mullet species Liza aurata and South Adriatic sea marine environment of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N. M.; Antovic, I.; Svrkota, N.

    2010-01-01

    226 Ra activity in the South Adriatic Sea-water, surface sediment, mud with detritus, sea-grass (Posidonia oceanica) samples and the mullet (Mugilidae) species Liza aurata, as well as soil and sand from the Montenegrin Coast-was measured using the six-crystal gamma-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. The results are used for calculation of the absorbed (and annual effective) dose rates in air due to the 226 Ra gamma radiation. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 5.94 to 97.16 nGy h -1 (soil) and from 0.65 to 7.65 nGy h -1 (sand). In seawater 226 Ra activity is found to be from 0.08 to 0.15 Bq l -1 , while in whole L. aurata individuals from 0.58 to 1.97 Bq kg -1 . Annual intake of 226 Ra by human consumers of this fish species has been estimated to provide an effective dose of 0.006 mSv y -1 . (authors)

  1. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  2. Quantification of Dissolved and Particulate Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Casotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA are supposed to play critical roles in chemically-mediated plankton interactions. Laboratory studies suggest that they act as mediators of chemical defense and chemical communication. PUA are oxylipins containing an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element and are mainly found in diatoms. We present here a detailed surface mapping of PUA during a spring bloom of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi in the Adriatic Sea. We monitored dissolved PUA, as well as particulate PUA, which are produced by phytoplankton after cell disintegration. Our survey revealed a patchy distribution of PUA and shows that at most stations S. marinoi is the major contributor to the overall PUA. Our data also suggest that lysis of a diatom bloom can contribute significantly to the dissolved PUA concentrations and that other producers, which are smaller in cell size compared to diatoms, have to be taken into account as well if the total PUA content of marine samples is considered. The analyses of samples collected in deeper water suggests that diatom contribution to PUA decreases with depth, while smaller-sized unidentified organisms take place as dominant contributors to the PUA concentrations.

  3. On the fecundity of the Black Sea bream, Spondyliosoma cantharus (L. , from the Adriatic Sea (Croatian coast

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    Jakov Dulcic

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The fecundity of the Black Sea bream from the eastern middle Adriatic (Croatian coast was assessed by the volumetric method using 59 ovaries in pre-spawning stage from fish between 18.5 and 33.5 cm total length. Estimates of total potential annual fecundity varied between 31,670 and 554,070 eggs per female. Relationships between total potential fecundity and total length (TL, total weight (TW and age (A were established using the multiplicative regression model. Relative fecundity is constant, reaching a maximum of 850 eggs per g in the 30.5 cm to 31.0 cm length class.

  4. An Empirical Ocean Colour Algorithm for Estimating the Contribution of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in North-Central Western Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Campanelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of empirical band ratio models were evaluated for the estimation of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM using MODIS ocean colour sensor images and data collected on the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea. Relationships between in situ measurements (2013–2016 of CDOM absorption coefficients at 355 nm (aCDOM355 with several MODIS satellite band ratios were evaluated on a test data set. The prediction capability of the different linear models was assessed on a validation data set. Based on some statistical diagnostic parameters (R2, APD and RMSE, the best MODIS band ratio performance in retrieving CDOM was obtained by a simple linear model of the transformed dependent variable using the remote sensing reflectance band ratio Rrs(667/Rrs(488 as the only independent variable. The best-retrieved CDOM algorithm provides very good results for the complex coastal area along the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea where the Po River outflow is the main driving force in CDOM and nutrient circulation, which in winter mostly remains confined to a coastal boundary layer, whereas in summer it spreads to the open sea as well.

  5. Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

    2012-04-01

    An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic

  6. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Civitarese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the Southern Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, it is documented that nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that generally the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. As shown earlier, North Ionian Gyre (NIG changes its circulation sense on a decadal scale due to the Bimodal Oscillating System, i.e. the feedback mechanism between the Adriatic and Ionian. Cyclonic circulation causes a downwelling of the nitracline along the borders of the NIG and a decrease in the nutrient content of the water flowing into the Adriatic across the Otranto Strait, and vice versa. In addition, the highly oligotrophic central area of the Ionian shows annual blooms only during cyclonic NIG circulation. Inversion of the sense of the NIG results in the advection of Modified Atlantic Water or of the Levantine/Eastern Mediterranean waters in the Adriatic. Here, we show that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concurrent with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations of the NIG, respectively. On the basis of the results presented, a revision of the theory of Adriatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.

  7. Recent changes in the marine ecosystems of the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Michele; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo; Cozzi, Stefano; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umani, Serena Fonda

    2012-12-01

    This review of studies on long term series on river discharges, oceanographic features, plankton, fish and benthic compartments, collected since the 1970s revealed significant changes of mechanisms and trophic structures in the northern Adriatic ecosystems. A gradual increase of eutrophication pressure occurred during the 1970s until the mid 1980s, followed by a reversal of the trend, particularly marked in the 2000s. This trend was ascribed to the combination of a reduction of the anthropogenic impact, mainly due to a substantial decrease of the phosphorus loads, and of climatic modifications, resulting in a decline of atmospheric precipitations and, consequently, of the runoff in the northern Adriatic Sea. Significant decreases of the phytoplankton abundances were observed after the mid 1980s, concurrently with changes in the species composition of the communities, with an evident shift toward smaller cells or organism sizes. Moreover, changes in the zooplankton community were also observed. A decrease of demersal fishes, top predators and small pelagic fishes was ascribed to both overfishing and a demise of eutrophication. Macrozoobenthic communities slowly recovered in the last two decades after the anoxia events of the 1970s and 1980s. An increasing number of non-autochthonous species has been recorded in the last decades moreover the increasing seawater temperature facilitated the spreading of thermophilic species.

  8. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1988-11-17 to 1988-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0144306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144306 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean...

  9. Spatial distribution of microphytobenthos, meiofauna and macrofauna in the north-western Adriatic Sea: a synoptic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Franzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the general paucity of integrated information on offshore benthic communities in the Adriatic Sea and given the vulnerability of this particular coastal system, microphytobenthos, meiofauna and macrofauna were synoptically investigated in front of the Emilia-Romagna coast (northern Adriatic Sea in September 2010 and March 2011. As required by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which extends its action beyond the territorial waters (within 12 nmi of the Member States, our findings could help to fill the gap of knowledge on the environmental status in offshore areas since the study was carried out also at >12 nmi from the coastline. In fact, sediment samples for the analysis of the benthic communities were collected from a 10-point-station grid that covered an area of about 400 km2 with water depths ranging from 13 to 50 m. The variability of the sediment grain size and other chemical variables in the sediment suggests the presence of two distinct environmental contexts that enhance the proliferation of different benthic communities. At the inshore stations (depth <20 m the higher sand percentages and the maxima of dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations indicate the presence of hydrodynamic perturbations and the influence of nutrient loads of terrestrial origin. Inshore, both meio- and macrofaunal communities were poorly structured and dominated by relatively more opportunistic taxa, such as nematodes and the bivalve Corbula gibba. Offshore stations (depth >20 m had muddier sediments, which likely exerted a greater retention of sediment-bound organic matter. These conditions seemed to favour benthic deposit feeders like meio- and macrofaunal annelids. Surprisingly, a conspicuous microphytobenthic community, mainly represented by the diatom Paralia sulcata, has been observed even at remarkable depths (~50 m opening new questions regarding the role of these organisms in dim-light conditions. Although the investigated benthic

  10. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2011-04-05 to 2011-04-28 (NODC Accession 0108079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108079 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea,...

  12. An Empirical Ocean Colour Algorithm for Estimating the Contribution of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in North-Central Western Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Campanelli; Simone Pascucci; Mattia Betti; Federica Grilli; Mauro Marini; Stefano Pignatti; Stefano Guicciardi

    2017-01-01

    The performance of empirical band ratio models were evaluated for the estimation of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) using MODIS ocean colour sensor images and data collected on the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Relationships between in situ measurements (2013–2016) of CDOM absorption coefficients at 355 nm (aCDOM355) with several MODIS satellite band ratios were evaluated on a test data set. The prediction capability of the different linear models was assess...

  13. 137Cs and 40K activity in individuals of the mullet (Mugilidae) species Liza aurata from the South Adriatic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, I.; Antovic, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the 137 Cs i 40 K activity measurements in whole individuals and some organs of the mullet species Liza aurata from the South Adriatic Sea, are presented. The measurements were performed in the non-coincidence mode of counting of the multidetector spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. (author) [sr

  14. Internal Tidal Hydrodynamics and Ambient Characteristics of the Adriatic (ITHACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    document atmospheric conditions along the line extending from the coast to the open sea. 2.1. Measuring sites Position of meteorological measuring sites...idealized case, they are perpendicular to the straight shoreline. However, along the eastern Adriatic irregularly shaped coast there is a number of...Cvitan, 2003; Belusic et al., 2004; Belusic and Klaic, 2004, 2006), southwestward, downslope windstorm , which frequently blows over the Adriatic

  15. Studies on phycobiliproteins in Algae. VI. Light-harvesting phycobiliprotein pigments in some Rhodophyta from the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phycobiliprotein content in 5 species of red algae from the coast of the Adriatic Sea' was studied by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The phycobiliproteins, R-phycoerythrin, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were identified. The total content of phycobiliproteins ranged from 0.152 (Phyllophora nervosa to 1.874 mg•g-1 dry wt. (Plocamium cartilagineum. The dominant phycobiliproteins were found to belong to the phycocyanin group, this resulting from complementary chromatic adaptation.

  16. Some trace elements in the waters, marine organisms and sediments of the Adriatic by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.; Ravnik, V.; Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Stirn, J.

    1978-01-01

    A number of investigations of trace elements in the waters, organisms and sediments of the Adriatic, using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations are reported. These include studies of Hg in mussels from the Northern Adriatic, of Hg and Se in edible animals from the Rijeka region, and of seven elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn) in marine invertebrates from the Slovene coast. Additionally, plankton, sediment cores and water samples were taken from a grid of stations covering the whole Adriatic and analyzed for 6 to 11 of the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn (Hg only in water). Generally, levels found were not indicative of pollution as compared with oceanic samples, but some evidence of locally increased levels was found, especially for Hg. The levels of eleven trace elements in three marine Intercomparison samples prepared by the IAEA Monaco Laboratory are also presented. (T.G.)

  17. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from UNKNOWN in the Adriatic Sea from 1948-03-19 to 1991-11-16 (NODC Accession 9800082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, nutrients, and other data were collected from CTD and bottle casts in the Adriatic Sea from 19 March 1948 to 16 November 1991. Data include...

  18. Dispersal of Sediment in the Western Adriatic during Energetic Wintertime Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. K.; Sherwood, C. R.; Mullenbach, B. L.; Pullen, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    EuroSTRATAFORM aims to relate sediment delivery and reworking to seabed morphology and stratigraphy through observations and modeling of water column transport. The Po River dominates buoyancy and sediment input into the Adriatic Sea, but small Apeninne rivers (the Chienti, Pescara, etc.) may produce locally important signals. Sedimentation is influenced by fluvial supply, resuspension by waves and currents, and transport by oceanographic currents forced by winds and buoyancy. Transport is likely highest during times of energetic forcing; including Bora events with northeasterly winds and Sirocco events with southeasterly winds. It is difficult, from field measurements alone, to characterize dispersal and convergence patterns over the relevant spatial scales. We applied a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that includes fluvial delivery, transport, resuspension, and deposition of sediment to quantify sediment dispersal with a 2-km resolution over the entire Adriatic. Circulation calculations were driven by spatially- and temporally-varying wind fields for the Fall / Winter of 2002 / 2003 and realistic Po and Apennine river discharges. Waves were hindcast with the SWAN model. Dispersion of both resuspended and river-derived sediment was estimated for periods that contained intense Bora and Sirocco winds. Predicted sediment dispersal rates and patterns are sensitive to forcing winds, buoyancy flux, and wave patterns. Higher sediment flux was predicted during Bora conditions than during Sirocco conditions. Sirocco winds weaken the Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC), and because they tend to concentrate over the Eastern Adriatic, they often fail to create especially energetic waves in the Western Adriatic. Bora wind conditions, on the other hand, intensify the WACC and can build high wave energies over the northwestern Adriatic. Most of the sediment transport occurs during Bora, with a net southward flux. These predictions will be compared to field observations

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2014-03-09 to 2015-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0160489)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160489 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Arabian...

  20. Systematic Radioactivity Monitoring of Adriatic Coastal Waters Using Mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) as a Bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW) is a project for radioactivity monitoring of Mediterranean coastal waters using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bioindicator. Mussels are sessile marine organisms able to filter up to 80 L of sea water daily. Possibility of absorption and accumulation of dissolved/particulate matter from sea water makes them a good bioindicator for environmental pollution studies. Laboratory for Radioecelogy systematically monitores Adriatic coastal waters as a part of MMW project, which includes determination of 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra,238U and 137Cs, as well as highly radiotoxic naturally occuring radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb. The mussels were collected in spring and autumn periods of 2010 and 2011 at 13 stations including areas under significant fresh water discharges (Rasa, Zrnovnica, Neretva and Ombla Rivers) or areas under potential antropogenic influence (Kastela Bay). After sample preparation 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs were determined gamma-spectrometrically, while 210Po and 210Pb were separated on Sr resin. 210Po was determined on an alpha spectrometer after self-deposition on Ag disc, while 210Pb was determined via 210Bi on a gas proportional counter after PbSO 4 precipitation. 7Be, 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations were higher in spring than in autumn periods for all locations, with the highest activities in the areas under heavy fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of 40K were practically the same at all locations with no seasonal changes, while 137Cs activities varied significantly. Activities of 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were mostly below the detection limit of gamma-spectrometric measurements.(author)

  1. An Amphibious Seismic Study of the Crustal Structure of the Adriatic Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannowski, A.; Kopp, H.; Schurr, B.; Improta, L.; Papenberg, C. A.; Krabbenhoeft, A.; Argnani, A.; Ustaszewski, K. M.; Handy, M.; Glavatovic, B.

    2016-12-01

    The present-day structure of the southern Adriatic area is controlled by two oppositely-vergent fold-and-thrust belt systems (Apennines and Dinarides). The Adriatic continental domain is one of the most enigmatic segments of the Alpine-Mediterranean collision zone. It separated from the African plate during the Mesozoic extensional phase that led to the opening of the Ionian Sea. Basin widening and deepening peaked during Late Triassic-Liassic extension, resulting in the formation of the southern Adriatic basin, bounded on either side by the Dinaric and Apulian shallow water carbonate platforms. Because of its present foreland position with respect to the Dinaric part of orogenic belt, the southern Adriatic basin represents the only remnant of the Neotethyan margin and offers the unique opportunity to image a segment of Mesozoic passive margin in the Mediterranean. To study the deep crustal structure, the upper mantle and the shape of the plate margin, the German research vessel Meteor acquired 2D seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data during an onshore-offshore experiment (cruise M86-3). We present two profiles: Profile P03 crossed Adria from the Gargano Promontory into Albania. A second profile (P01) was shot parallel to the coastlines, extending from the southern Adriatic basin to a possible mid-Adriatic strike-slip fault that purportedly segments the Adriatic microplate. Two different approaches of travel time tomography are applied to the data set: A non-linear approach is used for the shorter profile P01. A linear approach is applied to profile P03 (360 km length) and allows for the integration of the 36 ocean bottom stations and 19 land stations. First results show a good resolution of the sedimentary part of the Adriatic region. The depth of the basement as well as the depth of the Moho discontinuity vary laterally and deepen towards the North-East, consistent with the notion of flexural loading of the externally propagating orogenic wedge of the

  2. Downwelling dynamics of the western Adriatic Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, W. R.; Mullenbach, B. L.; Kineke, G. C.; Sherwood, C. R.; Signell, R. P.; Ogston, A. S.; Puig, P.; Traykovski, P.

    2004-12-01

    The western Adriatic coastal current (WACC) flows for hundreds of kilometers along the east coast of Italy at speeds of 20 to 100 cm/s. It is fed by the buoyancy input from the Po River and other rivers of the northern Adriatic Sea, with typical freshwater discharge rates of 2000 m**3/s. The Bora winds provide the dominant forcing agent of the WACC during the winter months, resulting in peak southeastward flows reaching 100 cm/s. The energy input of the Bora is principally in the northern Adriatic, and the coastal current response is due mainly to the set up of the pressure field, although there is sometimes an accompanying local component of down-coast winds that further augments the coastal current. Downwelling conditions occur during Bora, with or without local wind-forcing, because the bottom Ekman transport occurs in either case. Downwelling results in destratification of the coastal current, due to both vertical mixing and straining of the cross-shore density gradient. The relative contributions of mixing and straining depends on the value of the Kelvin number K=Lf/(g_Oh)**1/2, where L is the width of the coastal current, f is the Coriolis parameter, g_O is reduced gravity, and h is the plume thickness. For a narrow coastal current (KWACC during Bora events, with strain-induced destratification occurring in less than 24 hours. The straining process limits vertical mixing of the coastal current with the ambient Adriatic water, because once the isopycnals become vertical, no more mixing can occur. This limitation of mixing may explain the persistence of the density anomaly of the coastal current in the presence of high stresses. The straining process also has important implications for sediment transport: destratification allows sediment to be distributed throughout the water column during Bora events, resulting in enhanced down-coast fluxes. The influence of the downwelling dynamics on cross-shore sediment transport is still under examination.

  3. New data on Eimeria dicentrarchi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a common parasite of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the mid-eastern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study extends the original description of Eimeria dicentrarchi Daoudi and Marquès, 1987, a common coccidian parasite of European sea bass from the mid-eastern Adriatic, by providing insights into the parasite’s site of infection, development and pathogenicity. E. dicentrarchi was found in vario...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and OXYGEN - APPARENT UTILIZATION (AOU) collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1874-10-11 to 2000-04-26 (NODC Accession 0117350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117350 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea,...

  5. Determination of trace metals in sea waters of the albanian coast by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.

    1994-01-01

    Preconcentration of trace transition and heavy metal ions by precipitation with APDC has been combined with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for environmental sea water analysis. The preconcentration procedure implies adding of 500 μg Mo ion and 10 ml of 1 % water solution of APDC to a 500 ml water sample at pH 4, filtering off on a Millipore filter and analyzing after drying. Realistic detection limits are at 1 μg * l -1 level and precision varies between 10 - 25% at about 5 μg * l -1 level, depending on the element. Eleven sea water samples, covering Albanian Adriatic and Ionian coast, are analyzed for trace metal ions. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Sources of CO{sub 2} in the Gulf of Trieste (N. Adriatic). Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, N.; Zavadlav, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Turk, D. [Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, NY (United States); Faganeli, J. [Marine Biological Station National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study the influence of freshwater intrusions on the net carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated. Carbonate mineral weathering dominates the inorganic carbon geochemical flux of the N Adriatic rivers and thus the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the gulf seawater. Based on {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values and isotopic mass balance it was estimated that rivers represents about 20% of DIC in spring, while the riverine contribution in autumn is less pronounced probably due to intensive water mixing. The results, therefore, suggest that river inputs play a significant role in the carbon cycling in the Gulf of Trieste due to mixing of higher DIC riverine water with lower seawater DIC. The observed higher summer {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values were due to more pronounced photosynthetic carbon fractionation. (author)

  7. Characteristic carotenoids in some phytobenthos species in the coastal area of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the presence of various carotcnoids in some phytobenthos species (20 species representative of Chlorophytn, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The presence of following carotenoids has been determined 1 in Chlorophyta lycopene, α-, β-, γ- , ε-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein and astaxanthin esier; 2 in Phorophyta: α-, β-, γ- , ε- carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diataxanthin, fucoxanthin, fucoxanthol, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and rhodoxanthin-like: 3 in Rhodophyta α-, β-, γ-carotene,α-, β-,cryptoxanthin, lutein lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, anthcraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, fucoxanthin neoxanthin and violaxanthin The total carotenoid content ranged from 1.197 ( Cystoseira corniculata to 16 748 mg g-1 dry weight (Chaetomorpha aerea.

  8. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic Species in Rays from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Šlejkovec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The difference in arsenic concentration and speciation between benthic (Pteromylaeus bovinus, Myliobatis aquila and pelagic rays (Pteroplatytrygon violacea from the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste in relation to their size (age was investigated. High arsenic concentrations were found in both groups with tendency of more efficient arsenic accumulation in benthic species, particularly in muscle (32.4 to 362 µg·g−1 of total arsenic. This was attributed to species differences in arsenic access, uptake and retention. In liver most arsenic was present in a form of arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenoipids, whereas in muscle mainly arsenobetaine was found. The good correlations between total arsenic/arsenobetaine and size reflect the importance of accumulation of arsenobetaine with age. Arsenobetaine is an analogue of glycine betaine, a known osmoregulator in marine animals and both are very abundant in mussels, representing an important source of food for benthic species P. bovinus and M. aquila.

  9. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2012-01-01 to 2012-12-31 (NODC Accession 0059946)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0059946 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea,...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2016-01-02 to 2017-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157264 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea,...

  12. Cadmium, lead and organic matter distribution in coastal sediment from the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujevic, I.; Bogner, D.; Baric, A.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Cd, and Pb has been studied in surface sediments of the eastern Adriatic coastal region. In addition, Pb concentration has been determined in long sediment cores dating back to pre-industrial time. The results indicate that trace metal concentrations in surface sediment layer depend both on pollution sources, and on local characteristics of the marine and terrestrial environment. Generally, most of the concentrations are not high revealing that the coastal area is not heavily polluted. Granulometric and geochemical data indicate the existence of some differences between sediments formed in the vicinity of fresh water input and sediments from areas without fresh water input. (author)

  13. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Environmental control of asexual reproduction and somatic growth of Aurelia spp. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) polyps from the Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hubot, Nathan; Lucas, Cathy H.; Piraino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A.relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21 °C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind‾¹ week‾¹) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favo...

  15. Comparative Morphometric Analysis of the Smallscaled Scorpionfish, Scorpaena Porcus (Scorpaenidae, Scorpaeniformes, from the Southern Coast of the Crimea and Eastern Part of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manilo L. G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of morphometric characters of small-scaled scorpionfish from the Black Sea (near the southern coast of the Crimea and from the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea showed significant differences in males and females on thirteen plastic and three meristic characters. These differences may be due to unequal abiotic and biotic habitat conditions, and refer about the geographical variability of the species, indicating the presence of two different populations in the study area.

  16. Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the central Mediterranean inferred from a high-resolution marine pollen record (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Combourieu-Nebout

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution multiproxy study of the Adriatic marine core MD 90-917 provides new insights to reconstruct vegetation and regional climate changes over the southcentral Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas (YD and Holocene. Pollen records show the rapid forest colonization of the Italian and Balkan borderlands and the gradual installation of the Mediterranean association during the Holocene. Quantitative estimates based on pollen data provide Holocene precipitations and temperatures in the Adriatic Sea using a multi-method approach. Clay mineral ratios from the same core reflect the relative contributions of riverine (illite and smectite and eolian (kaolinite contributions to the site, and thus act as an additional proxy with which to evaluate precipitation changes in the Holocene. Vegetation climate reconstructions show the response to the Preboreal oscillation (PBO, most likely driven by changes in temperature and seasonal precipitation, which is linked to increasing river inputs from Adriatic rivers recorded by increase in clay mineral contribution to marine sediments. Pollen-inferred temperature declines during the early–mid Holocene, then increases during the mid–late Holocene, similar to southwestern Mediterranean climatic patterns during the Holocene. Several short vegetation and climatic events appear in the record, indicating the sensitivity of vegetation in the region to millennial-scale variability. Reconstructed summer precipitation shows a regional maximum (170–200 mm between 8000 and 7000 similar to the general pattern across southern Europe. Two important shifts in vegetation occur at 7700 cal yr BP (calendar years before present and between 7500 and 7000 cal yr BP and are correlated with increased river inputs around the Adriatic Basin respectively from the northern (7700 event and from the central Adriatic borderlands (7500–7000 event. During the mid-Holocene, the wet summers lead to permanent moisture all year

  17. On the Isotopic Altitude Effect of Precipitation in the Northern Adriatic (Croatia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roller-Lutz, Z.; Mance, D.; Hunjak, T., E-mail: Roller@medri.hr [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Rijeka (Croatia); Lutz, H. O. [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Rijeka (Croatia); Physics Faculty, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The upper (northern) Adriatic is very rich in precipitation. This input into the water system and its stable isotope composition is a basic factor, knowledge of which is required for proper use and management of water resources. The geomorphology of the region (e.g., mountains of 1400 m next to the sea) can cause specific local conditions. The isotopic composition of precipitation has been measured in various locations at different altitudes. For {delta}{sup 18}O this 'altitude effect' is found to lie around -0.2 per mille /100 m; its exact value depends on the specific location and the season. The {delta}{sup 2}H values and the d-excess vary correspondingly. (author)

  18. Decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SANTELLI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge on the distribution of decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef positioned on sandy-mud bottoms in the central Adriatic Sea. The reef is constituted of concrete modules assembled in pyramids and concrete poles. Hard and soft bottom samples were collected from 2001, just after reef construction, to 2005 (4 surveys per year. Regarding the soft seabed, three sites close to a pyramid, three inside the reef area at a distance of 10-15 m from the structures, and three 200 m outside the reef (control sites were randomly sampled during each survey. At the same time, three pyramids (vertical and horizontal walls and three poles were also investigated. After taxonomical analysis, decapod crustaceans were analysed using abundance and species richness. Sites and years were compared using a balanced, fixed effect, 2-way ANOVA and PERMANOVA. In addition, SIMPER analysis was performed to identify those species typifying each community inhabiting both the soft bottom and the artificial substrates. The results showed that the artificial reef induced an increase in both abundance and diversity of the decapods of the natural habitat. In fact, man-made substrates may offer new available space for biological colonization and allow the settlement of new species usually living on hard bottoms, thus increasing the complexity of the original benthic communities.

  19. Copper complexing ligands and organic matter characterization in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Marta; Gašparović, Blaženka; Strmečki, Slađana; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Tepić, Nataša

    2009-11-01

    The study on dissolved organic ligands capable to complex copper ions (L T), surface-active substances (SAS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Northern Adriatic Sea station (ST 101) under the influence of Po River was conducted in period from 2006-2008. The acidity of surface-active organic material (Ac r) was followed as well. The results are compared to temperature and salinity distributions. On that way, the contribution of the different pools of ligands capable to complex Cu ions could be determined as well as the influence of aging and transformation of the organic matter. The L T values in the investigated period were in the range of 40-300 nmol l -1. The range of DOC values for surface and bottom samples were 0.84-1.87 mg l -1 and 0.80-1.30 mg l -1, respectively. Total SAS concentrations in the bottom layer were 0.045-0.098 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100 while those in the surface layer were 0.050-0.143 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100. The majority of organic ligands responsible for Cu binding in surface water originate from new phytoplankton production promoted by river borne nutrients. Older, transformed organic matter, possessing higher relative acidity, is the main contributor to the pool of organic ligands that bind copper in the bottom samples. It was estimated that ˜9% of DOC in surface samples and ˜12% of DOC in the bottom samples are present as ligands capable to complex copper ions.

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of thermohaline properties in the Bay of Koper (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soczka Mandac, Rok; Žagar, Dušan; Faganeli, Jadran

    2013-04-01

    In this study influence of fresh water discharge on the spatial and temporal variability of thermohaline (TH) conditions is explored for the Bay of Koper (Bay). The Bay is subject to different driving agents: wind stress (bora, sirocco), tidal and seiches effect, buoyancy fluxes, general circulation of the Adriatic Sea and discharge of the Rizana and Badaševica rivers. These rivers have torrential characteristics that are hard to forecast in relation to meteorological events (precipitation). Therefore, during episodic events the spatial and temporal variability of TH properties in the Bay is difficult to determine [1]. Measurements of temperature, salinity and turbidity were conducted monthly on 35 sampling points in the period: June 2011 - December 2012. The data were processed and spatial interpolated with an objective analysis method. Furthermore, empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) [2] was applied to investigate spatial and temporal TH variations. Strong horizontal and vertical stratification was observed in the beginning of June 2011 due to high fresh water discharge of the Rizana (31 m3/s) and Badaševica (2 m3/s) rivers. The horizontal gradient (ΔT = 6°C) was noticed near the mouth of the Rizana river. Similar pattern was identified for salinity field on the boundary of the front where the gradient was ΔS = 20 PSU. Vertical temperature gradient was ΔT = 4°C while salinity gradient was ΔS = 18 PSU in the subsurface layer at depth of 3 m. Spatial analysis of the first principal component (86% of the total variance) shows uniform temperature distribution in the surface layer (1m) during the studied period. Furthermore, temporal variability of temperature shows seasonal variation with a minimum in February and maximum in August. This confirms that episodic events have a negligible effect on spatial and temporal variation of temperature in the subsurface layer. Further analysis will include application of EOF on the salinity, density and total

  1. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  2. Population genomics meet Lagrangian simulations: Oceanographic patterns and long larval duration ensure connectivity among Paracentrotus lividus populations in the Adriatic and Ionian seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Marta; Schiavina, Marcello; Aglieri, Giorgio; Ben Souissi, Jamila; Boscari, Elisa; Casagrandi, Renato; Chassanite, Aurore; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Congiu, Leonardo; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Kruschel, Claudia; Macic, Vesna; Marino, Ilaria A M; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Melià, Paco

    2017-04-01

    Connectivity between populations influences both their dynamics and the genetic structuring of species. In this study, we explored connectivity patterns of a marine species with long-distance dispersal, the edible common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus , focusing mainly on the Adriatic-Ionian basins (Central Mediterranean). We applied a multidisciplinary approach integrating population genomics, based on 1,122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from 2b-RAD in 275 samples, with Lagrangian simulations performed with a biophysical model of larval dispersal. We detected genetic homogeneity among eight population samples collected in the focal Adriatic-Ionian area, whereas weak but significant differentiation was found with respect to two samples from the Western Mediterranean (France and Tunisia). This result was not affected by the few putative outlier loci identified in our dataset. Lagrangian simulations found a significant potential for larval exchange among the eight Adriatic-Ionian locations, supporting the hypothesis of connectivity of P. lividus populations in this area. A peculiar pattern emerged from the comparison of our results with those obtained from published P. lividus cytochrome b (cytb) sequences, the latter revealing genetic differentiation in the same geographic area despite a smaller sample size and a lower power to detect differences. The comparison with studies conducted using nuclear markers on other species with similar pelagic larval durations in the same Adriatic-Ionian locations indicates species-specific differences in genetic connectivity patterns and warns against generalizing single-species results to the entire community of rocky shore habitats.

  3. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Claudia, Virno Lamberti [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Barbara, Pisanelli [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Ginevra, Moltedo [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Francesco, Regoli, E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.i [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  4. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti; Claudia, Virno Lamberti; Barbara, Pisanelli; Ginevra, Moltedo; Francesco, Regoli

    2009-01-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  5. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  6. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN FISH FARMS ALONG THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of net phytoplankton composition were performed at three fish farms situated at the northern, middle and southern part of the eastern Adriatic Sea coast, respectively. In the northern part investigations were conducted in the Limski kanal, in the middle part at the Ugljan island and in the southern part in the place Drače on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure 1. At all three localities fish culture included mostly two species: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Beside some physico–chemical parameters (sea water temperature, salinity special attention was placed on the examination of qualitative net phytoplankton composition, which was conducted in the period of May and November 2004 and May and October 2005. Samples were collected at the depths of 0. 5 and 4 meters. According to the physico–chemical parameters, sea water temperature was influenced by the temperature of the environment. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition consisted of 153 microphytic species belonging to the systematic compartments of Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta (Table 1. The most numerous algal group were diatoms or Bacillarophyceae (84 species or 55% with relative frequencies of species from 1 to 7. Taxonomic composition of diatoms showed the community Chaetoceros–Rhizosolenia (Proboscia as the dominant one. The second numerically most dominant compartment were Dinophyta (62 species or 401% with dominant the species of the genera Ceratium and Protoperidinium. Relative frequencies of species was ranging from 1 to 7 (mass presence of specimens in the water column. From Cyanobacteria (4 species or 3%, only filamentous algae were determined, with individual presence in net phytoplankton composition. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition suggests the similarity of species composition in the water column at all investigated fish farms. From the obtained characteristics of net phytoplankton composition

  7. Differences and similarities of the Eocene to recent Sphaerogypsina tests collected from the Pannonian basin to the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Katica; Ćosović, Vlasta; Čretnik, Janko; Turk, Janez; Briguglio, Antonino; Rögl, Fred; Praprotnik, Anton

    2017-04-01

    With a new series of shots in the X-ray tomographic techniques (CT), the study of fossil (Eocene and Miocene) and recent tests of Sphaerogypsina globulus (Reuss, 1848) sensu lato, sampled in the Adriatic Sea and adjacent coastal areas, have continued. The Eocene, Lutetian samples collected at the NW margin of the Central Neotethys (Benkovac) contain tests up to 2 mm in diameters, while specimens found in Priabonian deposits from the southern outskirts of the Eastern Alps (Šuštarica, Ravna Gora) and in the central Pannonian basin (Eger) are smaller, with diameters of 1.2 mm. In the Oligocene, Rupelian, sediments, deposited in the Slovenian corridor, area south of the E. Alps, known as representing transition between recessing Neotethys and emerging Pannonian Sea, (Gornji grad, Nova Štifta), foraminiferal tests are of 1.1 mm in diameter. Globular tests of Miocene, Badenian, specimens (Nussdorf, north of the E. Alps), originally described as bryozoan Ceriopora globulus by Reuss 1848, attained 1.2 mm in diameter. Comparison of tests diameters shows that Middle Eocene sphaerogypsinids had the largest tests among fossil taxa, implying that warm temperatures suited them a lot. The Oligocene tests, were smaller and the trend of decreasing in size persisted in the Miocene. Recent tests, although collected over decades from different places in the Adriatic Sea, just recently have been systematically sampled at Pakleni Is. (Hvar), Kornati archipelago and Mali Čutin Is., and studied.The tests, with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 mm (an average of 0.6 to 0.8 mm), are very small in comparison with fossil forms. The life habitats, as type of substrate, light (sunny vs. shadowed areas) have been investigated, revealing that sphaerogypsinids prefer to live at water depth up to 50 - 60 m. Special attention is payed to find live specimens, which would provide the basis for DNA analysis. The application of micro- tomography contributed significantly in studying test internal

  8. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; pmercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  10. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  11. Reproductive cycle and sexual maturation of the musky octopus Eledone moschata (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in the northern and central Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Krstulović Šifner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationships, sex ratio, maturity patterns, reproductive outputs, fecundity and spawning period of the musky octopus Eledone moschata (Lamarck, 1798 in the northern and central Adriatic Sea are presented for the first time. Samples were collected on a monthly basis by commercial bottom trawls between October 2001 and June 2003. A total of 1552 specimens were analysed (779 males, 764 females, 9 undetermined. The overall sex ratio was close to 1:1, but during summer males were dominant. Length-weight relationships calculated for each sex and the whole sample showed negative allometric growth (b

  12. Distribution and morphological abnormalities of recent foraminifera in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (North Adriatic Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MELIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Marano and Grado Lagoon, is a northern Adriatic wetland system of relevant naturalistic and economic value, that is constantly under quality control in accordance with the current environmental directives. Benthic foraminifers community with its morphological abnormalities were investigated in the recent sediments (about 10 years old of 21 stations collected in the framework of the “MIRACLE” Project which aimed at testing the coexistence of clam farming with high Hg contamination. Euryhaline foraminifers, well known in Mediterranean brackish-waters, mainly characterizes the total assemblage. A. tepida dominates in areas characterized by low salinity, high clay and Corg content, but also to anthropogenic pressure. E. gunteri and H. germanica are recorded in the western sector of the lagoon, which is more affected by salinity variations and agricultural activities. Slightly higher values of assemblage diversity appear in less restricted areas of the lagoon or, at least, where physical parameters such as temperature and salinity are less variable. The test abnormalities, carried out on total assemblage, shows that the FAI (Foraminiferal Abnormality Index values always exceed 1% of the total assemblage, with clear decreasing gradients from inland to the sea (from N to S and from W to E in the studied area.

  13. Southern Adriatic sea as a potential area for CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, V.; Forlin, F.; Donda, F.; Civile, D.; Facchin, L.; Sauli, L.; Merson, B.; Sinza-Mendieta, K.; Shams, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO 2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7) European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO 2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO 2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene). In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick cap-rock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO 2 emitter) where a pilot plant for CO 2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO 2 emissions. (authors)

  14. A P-Vector Approach to Absolute Geostrophic Currents in the Adriatic Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinto, Renato

    1998-01-01

    .... As part of this project, the OGEX1 cruise was conducted between 19 and 24 May 1995 with focus in the Otranto Strait, through which the Adriatic is connected to the rest of the Mediterranean basin...

  15. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A multidisciplinary environmental integrated approach to better understand the Tegnue Reefs formation, offshore Chioggia, Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Donnici, Sandra; Tosi, Luigi; Tagliapietra, Davide; Zaggia, Luca; Bonaldo, Davide; Braga, Federica; Da Lio, Cristina; Keppel, Erica; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Franceschini, Gianluca; Giovanardi, Otello; Carol, Eleonora; Fornaro, Elena; Grant, Carley

    2014-05-01

    , and benthic invertebrates like bryozoans, mollusks, serpulids and corals also contribute to the final building of the status of Tegnue's environment, but we want to demonstrate that the in first stage of consolidation abiotic phenomena could have played a major role. In order to prove our thesis a series of ground water sampling as well as rock sampling and sediment cores were carried out. The poster illustrates the overall ongoing program as well as some work in progress and first results from field cruise. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Municipality of Chioggia through the Tegnue Project and partially by the Flagship Project RITMARE - The Italian Research for the Sea - coordinated by the Italian National Research Council and funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research within the National Research Program 2011-2013, and by the Scientific Cooperation Agreement between the CONICET (Argentina) - CNR (Italy), Program 2013-2014, Project 'Fresh-saltwaters in high-value coastlands: from the hydrogeophysical/geochemical characterization of the present interactions to the modeling quantification of the expected effects of climate changes'. References - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L. 2000. Indagini preliminari su alcune formazioni di sabbie cementate nella laguna di Venezia. In: La Ricerca Scientifica Per Venezia. Il Progetto Sistema Lagunare Veneziano, Modellistica del Sistema Lagunare Studio di Impatto Ambientale. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Vol. II, Tomo II, p. 967-974, Venezia, ISBN: 88-86166-82-6. - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L., Rizzetto, F., Brancolini, G., Baradello, L. 2006. Effects of climate changes on the late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39, 279-284. - Casellato S., Stefanon A. 2008. Coralligenous habitat in the northern Adriatic Sea: an overview. Marine Ecology, 29: 321-341. - Gabbianelli, G., Colantoni, P., Degetto, S., Dinelli, E., Lucchini, F. 1997

  17. Methylmercury in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea: From Microbial Sources to Seafood Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Hines

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea is one of the most mercury-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and in the world due to the past mining activity in the Idrija region (western Slovenia. The link between microbial production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg, and its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in marine food webs of the gulf is at present rather poorly characterized but is critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels, such as fish, that are ultimately vectors of human and wildlife exposure. This overview explores three major topics: (i the microbial biogeochemical cycling of Hg in the area, (ii the trophic transfer and bioaccumulation of MeHg in pelagic and benthic marine food webs, and (iii human exposure to Hg through marine fish and shellfish consumption. These are important goals since the Gulf of Trieste is an area of great economical importance.

  18. Sediment Resuspension and Transport During Bora in the Western Adriatic Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, B. L.; Geyer, W. R.; Sherwood, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    The Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC) is an important agent for along-shelf transport of sediment and fresh water in the western Adriatic Sea. The WACC is driven by a combination of buoyancy forcing from the Po River (northern Adriatic) and wind forcing from northeasterly Bora winds. The large seasonal pulse of freshwater (during the winter) from the Po River influences WACC strength; however, preliminary results from current measurements and model runs indicate that the WACC responds quickly and strongly to Bora wind events, with a strengthening of the current moving southward. Along-margin sediment transport to the south is significantly increased as a result of Bora wind events, presumably because of enhanced wave resuspension and WACC velocity. Elevated sediment fluxes have been observed in both the upper water column (i.e., core of the WACC) and bottom boundary layer (BBL) during these events, which suggests that wind-driven currents may be coupled with the near-bottom transport. This study addresses the interaction of the WACC with the BBL and the impact of this interaction on sediment transport in the western Adriatic. Two benthic tripods were deployed from November 2002 to June 2003 on an across-shelf transect near the Chienti River (at 10 and 20-m water depth), in the region where WACC begins to intensify (200 km south of Po River). Continuous measurements of suspended sediment concentration and current velocity were recorded in the upper-water column and BBL to document sediment transport events. A time series of sediment fluxes and shear velocities (from currents only, u*c; from waves and currents, u*wc) were calculated from these data. Results show that suspended sediment concentrations near the seabed (few cmab) during Bora wind events are strongly correlated with u*wc, which supports a previous hypothesis that wave resuspension (rather than direct fluvial input) is responsible for much of the suspended sediment available for transport southward

  19. Dissolved lipid production in the Northern Adriatic (Mediterranean) in response to sea surface warmin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparovic, Blazenka; Novak, Tihana; Godrijan, Jelena; Mlakar, Marina; MAric, Daniela; Djakovac, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (OM) represents one of the largest active pools of organic carbon in the global carbon cycle. Oceans and seas are responsible for half of global primary production. Ocean warming caused by climate change is already starting to impact the marine life that necessary will have impact on ocean productivity. The partition of OM production by phytoplankton (major OM producer in seas and ocens) in the conditions of rising temperatures may considerably change. This has implications for the export of organic matter from the photic zone. In this study, we set out to see how annual temperature changes between 10 and 30 C in the Northern Adriatic (Mediterranean) affect production of DOM and particularly dissolved lipids and lipid classes. We have sampled at two stations being oligotrophic and mesotrophic where we expected different system reaction to temperature changes. In addition, we performed microcosm incubations covering temperature range of the NA with nutrient amendments to test whether changes in the available nutrients would reflect those of dissolved OM in the NA. We have selected to work with extracellular OM produced during growth of diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus cultures according to the criteria that genera Chaetoceros are important component of the phytoplankton in the NA and are often among bloom-forming taxa. Details on the dissolved lipid and lipid classes production as plankton responce to rising temperature will be discussed.

  20. Regulatory Framework on Exploration and Exploitation of Croatian Part of Adriatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudric, M.

    2015-01-01

    As the prelude to the regulation of marine exploration and exploitation activities in the Croatian Adriatic waters, the new Mining Act and Act on exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons have provided a general legal framework for the natural resources exploration and exploitation. The latter Act also appropriated the establishment of the independent regulatory body, the Hydrocarbon Agency. It is important to mention the Decree on Fees for exploration and production of hydrocarbons, and the Decree on main technical requirements on safety and security of offshore exploration and production of hydrocarbons in the Republic of Croatia, that are of special relevance for the current activities with regard the proposed project of exploration and exploitation of the Croatian waters in search for gas and oil sea-bed deposits. The Hydrocarbon Agency has published the Strategic Study of the Likely Significant Environmental Impact of the Framework Plan and Program of Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons in the Adriatic, a document receiving a lot of criticism from the legal experts and general public. At the same time, the experts tend to support the general idea of sea-bed exploration and exploitation, with the major antagonism still being present in the general public, with several initiatives introducing the possibility of a public referenda to oppose the sea-bed exploration and exploitation. The Government is currently preparing the Act on the Safety of Offshore Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production Operations, based on the Directive 94/22/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 1994 on the conditions for granting and using authorizations for the prospection, exploration and production of hydrocarbons, the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1112/2014 of 13 October 2014 determining a common format for sharing of information on major hazard indicators by the operators and owners of offshore oil and gas installations and a common format

  1. Border Reconstruction of Bosnia and Herzegovina's Access to the Adriatic Sea at Sutorina by Consulting Old Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Tuno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research into the former southernmost Bosnian border by analyzing historical maps. In cartographic representations of the area (created between the mid-17th and mid-20th centuries, state and administrative boundary lines are clearly demarcated. They provide indisputable proof that the Sutorina area belonged to Bosnia and Herzegovina through many centuries, providing access to the Adriatic Sea. The maps presented follow the course of the historical changes in the area which shaped its borders. The extent of the narrow Sutorina corridor was observed by combining data on boundary lines taken from historical maps with the current situation in the area. The technique of georeferencing old maps based on a genetic algorithm was developed for this purpose. 

  2. Harmful algae records in Venice lagoon and in Po River Delta (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Sfriso, Adriano; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide "updated reference conditions" for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance.

  3. When land breezes collide: Converging diurnal winds over small bodies of water

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, ST; Llewellyn Smith, SG

    2014-01-01

    © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society. Over enclosed and semi-enclosed bodies of water, the land-breeze/sea-breeze circulation is expected to be modified by the presence of opposing coastlines. These effects are studied using satellite scatterometer surface wind observations from the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-2 tandem mission from April-October 2003. Winds are studied for six bodies of water: the Red Sea, the Gulf of California, the Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. T...

  4. Coding early naturalists' accounts into long-term fish community changes in the Adriatic Sea (1800-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso Fortibuoni

    Full Text Available The understanding of fish communities' changes over the past centuries has important implications for conservation policy and marine resource management. However, reconstructing these changes is difficult because information on marine communities before the second half of the 20(th century is, in most cases, anecdotal and merely qualitative. Therefore, historical qualitative records and modern quantitative data are not directly comparable, and their integration for long-term analyses is not straightforward. We developed a methodology that allows the coding of qualitative information provided by early naturalists into semi-quantitative information through an intercalibration with landing proportions. This approach allowed us to reconstruct and quantitatively analyze a 200-year-long time series of fish community structure indicators in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea. Our analysis provides evidence of long-term changes in fish community structure, including the decline of Chondrichthyes, large-sized and late-maturing species. This work highlights the importance of broadening the time-frame through which we look at marine ecosystem changes and provides a methodology to exploit, in a quantitative framework, historical qualitative sources. To the purpose, naturalists' eyewitness accounts proved to be useful for extending the analysis on fish community back in the past, well before the onset of field-based monitoring programs.

  5. Levels of 232Th activity in the South Adriatic Sea marine environment of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    232 Th activities in the South Adriatic Sea-water, surface sediment, mud with detritus, seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) samples, and the mullet (Mugilidae) species Mugil cephalus, as well as soil and sand from the Montenegrin Coast, were measured using the six-crystal spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M, which has relatively high detection efficiency and a good sensitivity, and allows a short acquisition time, and measuring samples of any shape, without preliminary preparation and calibration measurements for different sample geometries. An average 232 Th activity concentration in surface soil layer is found to be 40.33 Bq kg -1 , while in sand-4.7 Bq kg -1 . The absorbed dose rate in air due to 232 Th gamma radiation from surface soil layer ranged from 11.76 to 63.39 nGy h -1 , with a mean of 24.06 nGy h -1 . Corresponding average annual effective dose rate has been found to be 0.03 mSv y -1 . The absorbed dose rates due to the thorium gamma radiation in air at 1 m above sand surface on the Montenegrin beaches have been found to be from 0.41 to 9.08 nGy h -1 , while annual effective dose rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.011 mSv y -1 . 232 Th activity concentration in seawater ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 Bq L -1 , as in the mullet (Mugil cephalus) whole individuals from 0.63 to 1.67 Bq kg -1 . Annual intake of 232 Th by human consumers of this fish species has been estimated to provide an effective dose of about 0.003 mSv y -1 . (author)

  6. The Adriatic response to the bora forcing. A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachev, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the bora wind effect on the Adriatic Sea circulation as simulated by a 3-D numerical code (the DieCAST model). The main result of this forcing is the formation of intense upwelling along the eastern coast in agreement with previous theoretical studies and observations. Different numerical experiments are discussed for various boundary and initial conditions to evaluate their influence on both circulation and upwelling patterns

  7. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  8. Trends of anchovy (Engraulis encrasilocus, L. biomass in the northern and central Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santojanni

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L. is one of the most important commercial species of the northern and central Adriatic Sea. The mean annual catch of anchovy estimated by IRPEM for these areas, in the time interval 1975-1996, is equal to 25,000 tonnes. Estimates of anchovy stock biomass at sea in the time interval 1975-1996 were obtained using two population dynamics methods based on different data inputs: Virtual Population Analysis (VPA and the DeLury model with recruitment index. VPA was carried out tuning the estimated fishing mortality rate at age by fitting on corresponding Catch Per Unit of fishing Effort (CPUE. Both VPA and the DeLury model yielded sensible results. The effect on the assessments due to the use of a different birth date and thus of split-year data was investigated. Biomass values as well as patterns over time so estimated were similar on the basis of both assessment methods and calendar year versus split-year data. In particular, the biomass in more recent years (around 100,000 tonnes was lower than in the second half of the 1970s and first half of the 1980s (over 200,000 tonnes. The minimum value (lower than 50,000 tonnes was always estimated in 1987, when a strong drop in the catch and crisis of the anchovy fishery took place. Though high values of both fishing effort and fishing mortality/exploitation rate were obtained for some years before 1987, very low levels of recruitment in 1986 and 1987 seem to be mainly responsible for the collapse of the stock.

  9. Coccolithophore diversity and dynamics at a coastal site in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Fornasaro, Daniela; Kralj, Martina; Cabrini, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Two years-data (May 2011-February 2013) obtained from a monthly sampling carried out at the coastal long term Ecological Research station C1-LTER in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were analysed to describe the seasonal dynamics and diversity of coccolithophore assemblages and to assess their relationship with environmental forcing. Coccolithophores represented 10.7% of the total Utermöhl phytoplankton that were mainly dominated by small (Emiliania huxleyi, and a secondary peak in May-June (0.7-15.0 · 104 coccospheres L-1), coinciding with the increase of the light intensity and the beginning of the seasonal stratification, dominated by holococcolithophores and small Syracosphaera species. The most abundant taxa were E. huxleyi and holococcolithophores, followed by Acanthoica quattrospina, Syracosphaera species and other minor species. Statistical analyses recognized four distinct groups, corresponding to seasonal variations of environmental conditions. Considering the two years, some species displayed a recurrent seasonal pattern highlighting possible species-specific ecological requirements, while others showed an interannual variability probably due to local factors.

  10. Limited impact of beach nourishment on macrofaunal recruitment/settlement in a site of community interest in coastal area of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Nepote, Ettore; Martire, Marco Lo; Ciotti, Claudia; De Grandis, Gianluca; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Carugati, Laura; Cerrano, Carlo; Pica, Daniela; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Dell'Anno, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Beach nourishment is a widely utilized solution to counteract the erosion of shorelines, and there is an active discussion on its possible consequences on coastal marine assemblages. We investigated the impact caused by a small-scale beach nourishment carried out in the Western Adriatic Sea on macrofaunal recruitment and post-settlement events. Artificial substrates were deployed in proximity of nourished and non-manipulated beaches and turbidity and sedimentation rates were measured. Our results indicate that sedimentation rates in the impacted site showed a different temporal change compared to the control sites, suggesting potential modifications due to the beach nourishment. The impact site was characterized by subtle changes in terms of polychaete abundance and community structure when compared to controls, possibly due to beach nourishment, although the role of other factors cannot be ruled out. We conclude that small-scale beach nourishments appear to be an eco-sustainable approach to contrast coastal erosion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Gas exchange at the air-sea interface: a technique for radon measurements in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirazza, G.; Roveri, M.

    1991-01-01

    The rate of exchange of various gas species, such as O 2 , CO 2 etc. across the air-water interface can be evaluated from the 222 Rn vertical profiles in the water column. Radon profiles were measured in 4 stations in the NW Adriatic Sea, in September 1990, using solvent extraction and liquid scintillation counting techniques, directly on board the ship. The radiochemical procedure is described in detail. The lower limit of detection is approximately 0.4 mBq 1 -1 . The radon deficiency in the profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the air-sea interface ranging from 0.9 to 7.0 m d -1 . The suitability of the radon deficiency method in shallow water, enclosed seas is briefly discussed. (Author)

  12. Bora-induced currents corresponding to different synoptic conditions above the Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Beg Paklar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bora wind field is characterised by strong vorticity and divergence. Several numerical experiments, in which an oceanographic model was forced with northeasterly winds having climatological alongshore variability, were performed in order to study the influence of spatial variability in the bora wind field on the surface currents in the northern Adriatic. Numerical model results showed that during bora episodes with lower speeds and fast offshore decay surface currents along transect Rovinj - Po River are predominantly in the downwind direction. On the other hand, during bora episodes with strong intensity and slow offshore decay, a cyclonic gyre due to the pronounced bora alongshore variability is formed in the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea and the studied transect is influenced by the counter currents. Moreover, bora having a high speed and a short offshore range produces the same effect in the eastern part of the Rovinj - Po River transect as low-speed bora characterised by slow offshore decay. Eulerian current measurements performed in the northern Adriatic during bora episodes characterised by different synoptic conditions supported the numerical model findings. Surface currents during the bora episode of 8-11 February 1984 were directed downwind, whereas during the episode of 12-19 February 1984 they were directed upwind. The first episode was characterised by a deep bora layer with cyclonic activity over the western Mediterranean and Genoa Bay, whereas the second one was accompanied by temperature inversion and a southwesterly tropospheric wind above a shallow bora layer. According to the hydraulic theory developed by Smith (1985, an observed descent of isentropes during the second bora episode led to the stronger acceleration in the bora layer and its larger offshore extent. Different offshore bora decays during studied events were confirmed by a comparison of the wind data originating from the meteorological stations

  13. Alterations of gene expression indicating effects on estrogen signaling and lipid homeostasis in seabream hepatocytes exposed to extracts of seawater sampled from a coastal area of the central Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Paolo; Capriotti, Martina; Mosconi, Gilberto; Campanelli, Alessandra; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Marini, Mauro; Caprioli, Giovanni; Sagratini, Gianni; Aretusi, Graziano; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidences suggest that the toxicological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) involve multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways, including estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling systems. Thus, our objective in this study was to detect the summated endocrine effects of EDCs with metabolic activity in coastal waters of the central Adriatic Sea by means of a toxicogenomic approach using seabream hepatocytes. Gene expression patterns were also correlated with seawater levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found that seawater extracts taken at certain areas induced gene expression profiles of ERα/vitellogenin, PPARα/Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1A, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and metallothionein. These increased levels of biomarkers responses correlated with spatial distribution of PAHs/PCBs concentrations observed by chemical analysis in the different study areas. Collectively, our data give a snapshot of the presence of complex EDC mixtures that are able to perturb metabolic signaling in coastal marine waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benthic fluxes of mercury during redox changes in pristine coastal marine sediments from the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koron, Neza [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Faganeli, Jadran [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) is an example of a coastal environment contaminated with mercury (Hg). Contamination is a consequence of nearly 500 years of activity at the Idrija Mine (western Slovenia), which is the second largest Hg mine in the world. Oxygen depletion can be common in the Gulf of Trieste due to late summer stratification of the water column and accumulation of labile organic matter. Since changing redox conditions can have an impact on Hg transformations, we studied the effect of oxygen depletion, in parallel with sulphide, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, on total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes from sediments. Materials and methods: Pore water concentrations and benthic fluxes of total dissolved Hg and MeHg were studied in situ and in microcosm laboratory experiments using flux chambers encompassing three different stages: oxic, anoxic and reoxidation. Results and discussion: Our experiments showed that in the oxic stage there were small effluxes of MeHg to the water column, which increased in the anoxic stage and dropped rapidly in a subsequent reoxic stage, showing influx. Our results support the hypothesis that MeHg desorption from reduced metal hydroxides under anoxic conditions, and co-precipitation with Fe-oxides and MeHg demethylation in the reoxidation stage, may play a major role in determining MeHg benthic fluxes. For Hg and MeHg, it appears that there is little relationship between their pore water distribution and flux and that of FDOM, i.e. humics. Conclusions: The results indicate that there was no significant difference in Hg and MeHg pore water levels and their benthic fluxes between the contaminated northern and central parts of the Gulf of Trieste and the pristine southern part. This suggests that shallow and stratified coastal marine environments, in general, represent areas with a risk of high benthic release of

  15. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline sediment (saline healing mud or "fango") from the Sečovlje Salina (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) is traditionally used in the coastal health resorts as a virgin material for medical treatment, wellness and relax purposes. Therapeutic qualities of the healing mud depend on its mineralogical composition and physical, mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties. Their microbial and potentially toxic elements contamination are the most important features affecting user safety. However, the degree of metal toxicity (and its regulation) for natural healing mud is still under discussion. Therefore, the influence of the overlying water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals (and some other geochemical characteristic) was studied for saline sediments of the Sečovlje Salina. Experiments takes place in tanks under defined conditions i.e. at day (21 °C): night (16 °C) cycle for three months. Sediment was covered with water of different salinities (36, 155, 323 g NaCl L-1 and distillate water) and mixed/stirred every week during the experimental period. At the same time, the evaporated water was replaced with distilled water. The mud samples were analyzed, at the beginning and at the end of experiment, for mineral (XRD), elemental composition (ICP-MS) and organic content (% TOC, % TN). Geochemical analysis of the aqueous phase (content of cations and anions) have also been carried out in an accredited Canadian laboratory Actlabs (Activation Laboratories, Canada). Salinity and maturation of sediment does not significantly affect its mineral composition. The samples taken at the end of the experiment have higher percent of water but lower organic carbon concentration. Concentrations of investigated elements are comparable to that in surface sediments from Central Adriatic Sea. In the water phase, concentrations of most elements (As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb) rise from the beginning to the end of the experiment, whereas the metal (potentially toxic elements

  16. Temporal variability in SeaWiFS derived apparent optical properties in European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrepotte, V.; Mélin, F.

    2010-02-01

    The 10-year record of ocean color data provided by the SeaWiFS mission is an important asset for monitoring and research activities conducted on the optically complex European seas. This study makes use of the SeaWiFS data set of normalized water leaving radiances LWN to study the major characteristics of temporal variability associated with optical properties across the entire European domain. Specifically, the time series of LWN and associated band ratios are decomposed into terms representing a fixed seasonal cycle, irregular variations and trends, and the contribution of these components to the total variance is described for the various basins. The diversity of the European waters is fully reflected by the range of results varying with regions and wavelengths. Generally, the Mediterranean and Baltic seas appear as two end-members with, respectively, high and low contributions of the seasonal component to the total variance. The existence of linear trends affecting the satellite products is also explored for each basin. By focusing the analysis on LWN and band ratios, the validity of the results is not limited by the varying levels of uncertainty that characterize derived products such as the concentration of chlorophyll a in optically complex waters. Statistically significant, and in some cases large, trends are detected in the Atlantic Ocean west of the European western shelf, the central North Sea, the English Channel, the Black Sea, the northern Adriatic, and various regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern Baltic Sea, revealing changes in the concentrations of optically significant constituents in these regions.

  17. Age and growth of Crystallogobius linearis (von Düben, 1845 (Teleostei: Gobiidae from the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. La Mesa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of the crystal goby Crystallogobius linearis (von Düben, 1845 were investigated by means of daily growth increment counts on the sagittal otoliths. Samples of C. linearis, obtained as by-catch of the Aphia minuta fishery, were collected in a coastal area of the central Adriatic Sea between March and September 1996. Otolith age-readings were carried out on 167 specimens, ranged from 14 to 41 mm of total length, and indicated that the population was composed of individuals from two to seven months old. Growth of both males and females appeared practically linear over the whole size range studied, although in females a slight decrease in growth rate of older specimens was observed. Furthermore, the hatch date distribution of C. linearis, obtained by the backcalculation of the ageing data, indicated a long breeding season of at least eight months. The results of this study indicated that, as reported from literature for most nektonic gobies, the crystal goby is also characterised by a short life span, during which a high reproductive effort is displayed throughout a long breeding season.

  18. Tectonic Interpretation of CHAMP Geopotential Data over the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. T.; Kim, H. R.; Mayer-Gürr, T.

    2006-05-01

    Recent aeromagnetic anomaly compilations (Chiappini et al., 2000 and Tontini et al., 2004) show a large positive (>700 nT) northwest-southeast trending magnetic anomaly off the Dalmatian coast. Unfortunately these aeromagnetic data cover only a part of this anomaly. We wanted to investigate if this large magnetic anomaly could be detected at satellite altitude and what is the extent and source of this feature. Therefore, magnetic and gravity anomaly maps were made from the CHAMP geopotential data, measured at the current low altitude of 345-350 km over the northern Adriatic Sea. We made the magnetic anomaly map over this relatively small region using 36 descending and 85 ascending orbits screened to be at the lowest altitude and the most magnetically quietest data. We removed the main field component (i.e., IGRF-10 up to degree and order 13) and then demeaned individual tracks and subtracted a second order polynomial to remove regional and/or un-modeled external field features. The resulting map from these well-correlated anomalies revealed a positive magnetic anomaly (>2 nT). Reduction-to-the pole brought these CHAMP anomaly features into coincidence with the aeromagnetic data. Previously Cantini et al. (1999) compared the surface magnetic data with MAGSAT by continuing upward the former and downwards the latter to 100 km and found a good correlation for wavelengths of 300-500 km. We also investigated the CHAMP gravity data. They were reduced using the kinematic short-arc integration method (Ilk et al., 2005 and Mayer Gürr et al., 2005). However, no corresponding short-wavelength gravity anomaly was observed in our study area. This tectonically complex region is under horizontal stress and the source of the large magnetic anomaly can be modelled by an associated ophiolite melange.

  19. Towards the Adriatic meteotsunami early warning system: modelling strategy and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denamiel, Clea; Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica

    2017-04-01

    Destructive meteotsunamis are known to occur along the eastern Adriatic coastal areas and islands (Vilibić and Šepić, 2009). The temporal lag between the offshore generation of meteotsunamis due to specific atmospheric conditions and the arrival of a dangerous nearshore propagating wave at known locations is of the order of tens of minutes to a couple of hours. In order to reduce the coastal risk for the coastal communities, an early warning system must rely on the ability to detect these extreme storms offshore with in-situ measurements and to predict the hydrodynamic response nearshore via numerical models within this short time lag. However, the numerical modelling of meteotsunamis requires both temporal and spatial high-resolution atmospheric and ocean models which are highly demanding concerning time and computer resources. Furthermore, both a multi-model approach and an ensemble modelling strategy should be used to better forecast the distribution of the nearshore impact of meteotsunamis. The modelling strategy used in this study thus rely on the development of an operational atmosphere-ocean model of the Adriatic Sea at 1km spatial resolution based on the state-of-the-art fully coupled COAWST model (Warner et al., 2010). The model allows for generation of meteotsunamis offshore, while various high-resolution (up to 5m) nearshore hydrodynamic models (such as ADCIRC - Luettich and Westerink, 1991; SELFE - Zhang et al., 2008 and GeoClaw - LeVeque, 2012) are setup to properly reproduce meteotsunami dynamics of the entire Croatian coastal areas, which are characterized by a great number of islands, channels and bays. The implementation and validation of each component of this modelling system is first undertaken for the well documented meteotsunami event (Šepić et al., 2016), which was recorded along the Croatian Adriatic coast on the 25th and the 26th of June 2014. The validation of the modelling strategy as well as the model results is presented and

  20. Analysis of polar organic contaminants in surface water of the northern Adriatic Sea by solid-phase extraction followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-QTRAP® MS using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Canuti, Elisabetta; Weissteiner, Christof

    2013-07-01

    Water-soluble polar organic contaminants are discharged by rivers, cities, and ships into the oceans. Little is known on the fate, pollution effects, and thresholds of toxic chemical mixtures in the marine environment. A new trace analytical method was developed for the multi-compound analysis of polar organic chemical contaminants in marine waters. The method is based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) of one-liter water samples followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTRAP(®) MS). Marine water samples from the open Adriatic Sea taken 16 km offshore from Venice (Italy) were analyzed. Method limits of quantification (LOQs) in the low picogram per liter (pg/l) concentration range were achieved. Among the 67 target chemicals analyzed, 45 substances could be detected above the LOQ. The chemicals detected at the highest concentrations were caffeine (up to 367 ng/l), nitrophenol (36 ng/l), 2,4-dinitrophenol (34 ng/l), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (18.5 ng/l), sucralose (11 ng/l), 1H-benzotriazole (9.2 ng/l), terbuthylazine (9 ng/l), alachlor (7.7 ng/l), atrazine-desisopropyl (6.6 ng/l), diethyltoluamide (DEET) (5.0 ng/l), terbuthylazine-desethyl (4.3 ng/l), metolachlor (2.8 ng/l), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.5 ng/l), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) (2.3 ng/l), linuron (2.3 ng/l), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (2.2 ng/l), diuron (2.0 ng/l), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (1.6 ng/l), simazine (1.6 ng/l), atrazine (1.5 ng/l), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (1.3 ng/l). Higher concentrations were detected during summer due to increased levels of tourist activity during this period.

  1. "Pittura Romeica" in Italy: Artistic transfers across the Adriatic sea (18th - 19th centuries

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    Eugenia Drakopoulou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex historical reality of the Adriatic region, an area located even today on the borderline between East and West, is reflected in the works of religious painting and in the painters’ geographical movements. The art of Orthodox regions was mainly influenced by Venice, but also by the rest of Italy, and, as a result, a unique art emerged in the Ionian Islands, which remained under Venetian control until the end of the eighteenth century. In the course of the eighteenth century, political and economic conditions contributed to the growth of the Orthodox communities in Italy. Their members were interested in the art of the country where they lived and prospered, but they simultaneously wished to preserve the “pittura romeica” in the decorations of churches and in the icons used for their personal worship. From Naples to the cosmopolitan Trieste, Orthodox painters, coming mainly from the Ionian Islands, produced artworks which were adapted to the new surroundings, thereby making the Adriatic region once again a privileged area for cultural exchanges.

  2. Near-surface wind pattern in regional climate projections over the broader Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic region is characterized by the complex coastline, strong topographic gradients and specific wind regimes. This represents excellent test area for the latest generation of the regional climate models (RCMs) applied over the European domain. The most famous wind along the Adriatic coast is bora, which due to its strength, has a strong impact on all types of human activities in the Adriatic region. The typical bora wind is a severe gusty downslope flow perpendicular to the mountains. Besides bora, in the Adriatic region, typical winds are sirocco (mostly during the wintertime) and sea/land breezes (dominantly in the warm part of the year) as a part of the regional Mediterranean wind system. Thus, it is substantial to determine future changes in the wind filed characteristics (e.g., changes in strength and frequencies). The first step was the evaluation of a suite of ten EURO- and MED-CORDEX models (at 50 km and 12.5 km resolution), and two additional high resolution models from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ, at 12.5 km and 2.2. km resolution) in the present climate. These results provided a basis for the next step where wind field features, in an ensemble of RCMs forced by global climate models (GCMs) in historical and future runs are examined. Our aim is to determine the influence of the particular combination of RCMs and GCMs, horizontal resolution and emission scenario on the future changes in the near-surface wind field. The analysis reveals strong sensitivity of the simulated wind flow and its statistics to both season and location analyzed, to the horizontal resolution of the RCM and on the choice of the particular GCM that provides boundary conditions.

  3. SURVEY ON V. CHOLERAE, V. VULNIFICUS AND V. PARAHAEMOLYTICUS IN BIVALVE MOLLUSCS OF THE ADRIATIC SEA AND PROPOSAL OF AN ANALYTICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Valeri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs from Adriatic sea were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae e V. vulnificus presence. The isolates on TCBS Agar and m-CPC Agar were selected on the basis of a new biochemical screening, that showed a good performance, because among 2344 strains from primary culture only 237 (10% were presumptively assigned to the species of interest. The PCR analyses was performed for the target genes toxR hlyA, ctxA, tcpI (V. cholerae, toxR, tl, tdh, trh (V. parahaemolyticus, vvhA and viuB (V. vulnificus. Among the 9 strains confirmed to belong to V. parahaemolyticus specie, 6 were sucrose positive. On 215 samples of molluscs only 5 resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus being toxR+, tl+, although non pathogenic (tdh-, trh-, and none for V. cholerae e V. vulnificus.

  4. Selenium and Mercury Interactions in Apex Predators from the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea

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    Jadran Faganeli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the environmental levels of selenium (Se can moderate the bioaccumulation and toxicity of mercury (Hg in marine organisms, their interactions were studied in seawater, sediments, plankton and the benthic (Bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus, Eagle ray Myliobatis aquila and the pelagic (Pelagic stingray Dasyiatis violacea rays, as apex predators in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea. Male and female rays showed no difference in the Se contents in muscle tissue. Pelagic species contained higher Se levels in muscle but slightly lower levels in the livers of both genders. The Hg/Se ratios in seawater dissolved and colloidal fractions, plankton and sediment were <0.5, while those in particulate matter were <1.3. In benthic ray species, a parallel increase in Se and Hg in muscle was observed, so that an increased in Hg (MeHg bioaccumulation results in Se coaccumulation. The Hg/Se ratios (molar in muscle and liver of pelagic and benthic rays were <1.4 and <0.7, respectively. The low levels of Hg in muscle and liver in all the ray species corresponded to low Hg/Se ratios and increases in muscle and liver to 1 at 7 µg/g, dry weight (dw and 5 µg/g dw, respectively, i.e., about 1.6 µg/g wet weight (ww.

  5. Spatially explicit risk approach for multi-hazard assessment and management in marine environment: The case study of the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elisa; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2018-03-15

    In the last few decades the health of marine ecosystems has been progressively endangered by the anthropogenic presence. Natural and human-made pressures, as well as climate change effects, are posing increasing threats on marine areas, triggering alteration of biological, chemical and physical processes. Planning of marine areas has become a challenge for decision makers involved in the design of sustainable management options. In order to address threats posed by climate drivers in combination with local to regional anthropogenic pressures affecting marine ecosystems and activities, a multi-hazard assessment methodology was developed and applied to the Adriatic Sea for the reference scenario 2000-2015. Through a four-stages process based on the consecutive analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk the methodology allows a semi-quantitative evaluation of the relative risk from anthropogenic and natural sources to multiple endpoints, thus supporting the identification and ranking of areas and targets more likely to be at risk. Resulting output showed that the higher relative hazard scores are linked to exogenic pressures (e.g. sea surface temperature variation) while the lower ones resulted from endogenic and more localized stressors (e.g. abrasion, nutrient input). Relatively very high scores were observed for vulnerability over the whole case study for almost all the considered pressures, showing seagrasses meadows, maërl and coral beds as the most susceptible targets. The approach outlined in this study provides planners and decision makers a quick-screening tool to evaluate progress towards attaining a good environmental status and to identify marine areas where management actions and adaptation strategies would be best targeted. Moreover, by focusing on risks induced by land-based drivers, resulting output can support the design of infrastructures for reducing pressures on the sea, contributing to improve the land-sea interface management

  6. Synecology of Cutandia maritima (L. Barbey, a rare psammophytic species along the Montenegrin Coast (East Adriatic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutandia maritima is a circum-Mediterranean species that inhabits sandy dunes along the coast line. It is fairly frequent on the western Adriatic coast but fairly rare and possibly even non-native in the east. In Croatia, it was discovered in 1990 in Crnika Bay on the island of Rab, which was considered until 2005 to be the only site on the eastern Adriatic coast from the Gulf of Trieste in the north to Corfu in the south. In 2009, the species was briefly reported for Velika plaža (Long Beach in Ulcinj (Montenegro but without details about the habitat type and synecology. The aim of this paper is thus to provide a deeper insight into the ecology and synecology of C. maritima in the eastern Adriatic part of the distribution area. On Velika plaža in Ulcinj, the species was found along the whole sea-inland gradient of sand dunes, in various types of vegetation: [1210] - annual vegetation of drift lines, [2110] - embryonic shifting dunes, [2120] - shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes, [2220] - dunes with Euphorbia terracina, [2130*] - fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes, and also [2190] - humid dune slacks.

  7. Numerical modelling of an oil spill in the northern Adriatic

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    Marin Paladin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical cases of oil spills, caused by ship failure in the northern Adriatic, are analysed with the aim of producing three-dimensional models of sea circulation and oil contaminant transport. Sea surface elevations, sea temperature and salinity fields are applied as a forcing argument on the model's open boundaries.The Aladin-HR model with a spatial resolution of 8 km and a time interval of 3 hours is used for atmospheric forcing. River discharges along the coastline in question are introduced as point source terms and are assumed to have zero salinity at their respective locations. The results of the numerical modelling of physical oceanography parameters are validated by measurements carried out in the ‘Adriatic Sea monitoring programme’ in a series of current meter and CTD stations in the period from 1 January 2008 to 15 November 2008.The oil spill model uses the current field obtained from a circulation model.Besides the convective dispersive transport of oil pollution (Lagrangian model of discrete particles, the model takes into account a number of reactive processes such as emulsification, dissolution, evaporation and heat balance between the oil,sea and atmosphere. An actual event took place on 6 February 2008,when the ship `Und Adriyatik' caught fire in the vicinity of the town of Rovinj (Croatia en route from Istanbul (Turkey to Trieste (Italy. At the time the fire broke out, the ship was carrying around 800 tons of oil. Thanks to the rapid intervention of the firedepartment, the fire was extinguished during the following 12 hours,preventing possible catastrophic environmental consequences. Based on this occurrence, five hypothetical scenarios of ship failure with a consequent spill of 800 tons of oil over 12 hours were analysed. The main distinction between the simulated scenarios is the time of the start of the oil spill, corresponding to the times when stronger winds were blowing (>7 m s-1 with a minimum duration of 24 h

  8. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  9. Messinian post-evaporitic paleogeography of the Po Plain-Adriatic region by 3D numerical modeling: implications for the Central Mediterranean desiccation during the MSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Chiara; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Di Giulio, Andrea; Fantoni, Roberto; Ghielmi, Manlio; Sternai, Pietro; Toscani, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    region (i.e PPAF) of the Mediterranean basin a lower sea-level drop is recorded, the heterogeneous Adriatic morphology controlled the connection/isolation with the rest of the Mediterranean water body, and previous models can still be locally valid. During Messinian time the central Mediterranean was characterized by the Adriatic basin made by an almost undeformed foreland margin to the east, by the Apennine chain and emerged/shallow carbonate platforms to the west. In this view the alternation of deep and shallow basins, the consequent basement vertical motions due to different sediment loading and the sea-level fall are all factors that played fundamental roles during MSC, possibly isolating marine portions that experienced different sea-level variation and facies deposition due to a local runoff/evaporation equilibrium.

  10. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

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    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences

  11. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

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    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  12. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean Sea: Types, occurrence and distribution along Adriatic shorelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Scoponi, Marco; Mistri, Michele

    2017-09-01

    Small plastic debris in sediments from five beaches were investigated to evaluate their occurrence and abundance in the Northern Adriatic coast for the first time. Plastic debris extracted from sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A total of 1345 items of debris (13.491g) were recorded, with a mean density of 12.1 items kg -1 d.w. and 0.12gkg -1 d.w. Fragments were the most frequent type of small plastics debris detected. In terms of abundance, microplastics (emergent and priority contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A geographical information system for the management of the aquaculture data in the Adriatic Sea – the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries experience: Present capabilities, tools and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Tora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission (EC regulation no. 854/2004 requires a systematic monitoring of chemical and microbiological contaminants in live bivalve molluscs, live echinoderms, live tunicates and live marine gastropods for human consumption through surveillance plans to be implemented in all European Union (EU countries.A consortium of five Adriatic countries was set up in the framework of the Instrument of Pre-accession Assistance Adriatic Cross-border Cooperation Programme (IPA Adriatic CBC 2007- 2013 with the aim of collecting data and distribute information on harvesting and production in mollusc areas. A web-based geographical information system (GIS application was developed to support the partners to manage data and to make these data available to final users, policy makers and to risk assessors. The GIS for the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries (CAPS2 is divided into two levels, the national and the supranational one, and it distributes spatial and epidemiological information coming from various data acquisition and management sites. The great innovation is the possibility for each country to use online drawing, modifying and change of the geographic areas according to national surveillance needs. Currently it hosts data coming from about 230 production and relay areas with more than 29,478 laboratory tests performed on collected samples since August 2014. Data collected are used by each national competent authority to classify production or relay areas according to the EC regulation mentioned and to conduct risk assessment studies to evaluate the level of consumers’ exposure to contaminants in the consumption of bivalve mollusc products.

  14. Surface drift prediction in the Adriatic Sea using hyper-ensemble statistics on atmospheric, ocean and wave models: Uncertainties and probability distribution areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72??h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches. ?? 2007 NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).

  15. Application of a bioeconomic model for supporting the management process of the small pelagic fishery in the Veneto Region, northern Adriatic Sea, Italy

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    Silvia Silvestri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the sustainability of the small pelagics fishery in the northern Adriatic sea, northeastern Italy, by means of a bioeconomic simulation model. This model reproduces the biological and economic conditions in which the fisheries occur. Starting from an initial condition (2004, the simulation model incorporates the biological and economic processes of the resources and the fishing fleet and computes the most probable future trajectory of the system under different management conditions. We analysed the projection of selected indicators (biomass, recruitment, catches, profits under four different management scenarios based on effort control, and we assessed the performance of these management measures against the current situation. The four scenarios were: i increase in fuel price, ii reduction in fuel price, iii limiting the number of days at sea, and iv extending the fishing period. Each management event was introduced in the third year of the simulation. For each scenario a stochastic simulation was carried out. Our results show that the impact of each management measure tested was not homogeneous across the fleet. In particular, comparatively smaller vessels generally display narrower profit margins and tend to be more sensitive to negative shocks, reinforcing the idea that management measures should be calibrated by stratifying the fleet before implementation.

  16. Survey of total mercury and methylmercury levels in edible fish from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R; Storelli, A; D'Addabbo, R; Palermo, C; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2003-12-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of different fish species from the Adriatic Sea to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. Large species-dependent variability was observed. The highest total mercury mean concentrations were in benthic (0.20-0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt) and demersal fish (0.22-0.73 microg g(-1) wet wt), while pelagic species showed the lowest levels (0.09-0.23 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 15% of frost fish, in 42% of skate and in 30% of angler fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt); for the species for which the maximum level was set to 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt, concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit were observed in 6.4% of bokkem, in 6.6% of pandora, in 20% of megrin, in 12.5% of four-spotted megrim, in 16% of striped mullet, in 5.0% of forkbeard and in 5.3% of picarel samples. In all the different species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with mean percentages between 70 and 100%. Weekly intake was estimated and compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A high exposure was associated with the consumption of only skates, frost fish and angler fish, thought the consumption of the other species, such as, megrim, four spotted megrim, red fish striped mullet and forkbeard, resulted in a weekly intake slightly below the established provisional tolerable weekly intake.

  17. Observational analysis of air-sea fluxes and sea water temperature offshore South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, X.; Huang, J.; Gao, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the air-sea fluxes (momentum flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) from eddy covariance method based on data collected at an offshore observation tower in the South China Sea from January 2009 to December 2016 and sea water temperature (SWT) on six different levels based on data collected from November 2011 to June 2013. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m. This study presents the in-situ measurements of continuous air-sea fluxes and SWT at different depths. Seasonal and diurnal variations in air-sea fluxes and SWT on different depths are examined. Results show that air-sea fluxes and all SWT changed seasonally; sea-land breeze circulation appears all the year round. Unlike winters where SWT on different depths are fairly consistent, the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea temperature at 10 m water depth fluctuates dramatically and the maximum value reaches 7 °C during summer.

  18. Concentrations of some elements in the coastal sea sediments. Bays with marinas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Kutle, A.; Valkovic, V.

    2006-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores from two bays in the Adriatic sea (Punat Bay and Soline Bay, Croatia) have been analyzed for a number of elements, in particular: Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, by using XRF. Maps of elemental distribution in surface sediments show increased concentrations for some elements present in antifouling paints (Cu, Zn, Pb) near the service areas in the villages or marinas. Core profiles for these elements were used to evaluate the environmental impact of newly constructed marinas. Source partition indicates the influence of other sources located in near by villages. The critical factor in these considerations was shown to be water exchange with the open sea. (author)

  19. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of ocean currents in the recruitment of commercially and ecologically important fish is an important step towards developing sustainable resource management guidelines. To this end, we attempt to elucidate the role of surface ocean transport in supplying recruits of sardine...... (Sardinus pilchardus) to the Gulf of Manfredonia, a known recruitment area in the Adriatic Sea. Sardine early life history stages (ELHS) were collected during two cruises to provide observational estimates of age-size relationship and of their passive pelagic larval duration (PPLD). We combine these PPLDs...... in the Gulf is characterized by repeated pulses from remote SAs. This is the first attempt to describe the processes related to Lagrangian connection to, and retention in, the Gulf of Manfredonia that will be complemented in the future using validated numerical ocean models and biophysical models....

  20. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  1. Evaporation of boric acid from sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gast, J A; Thompson, T G

    1959-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that the boron-chlorinity ratios of rain waters are many times greater than the boron-chlorinity ratio of sea water. The presence of boron in the atmosphere has been attributed to sea spray, volcanic activity, accumulation in dust, evaporation from plants, and industrial pollution. In this paper data are presented to demonstrate that boric acid in sea water has a vapor pressure at ordinary temperatures of the sea and, when sea water evaporates, boric acid occurs in the condensate of the water vapor. It is postulated that, while some of the boron in the atmosphere can be attributed to the sources mentioned above, most of the boric acid results from evaporation from the sea.

  2. Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated from Mollusks in the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Carraro, Roberta; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Meneguolo, Davide Boscolo; Martino, Maria Elena; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Barco, Lisa; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Fasolato, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging foodborne pathogen in the Mediterranean, usually associated with shellfish consumption. The increase in the number of outbreaks in Europe is primarily associated with the global warming of the ocean that has a great impact on the spread and genetic selection of waterborne pathogens. The primary role of Italy in Europe's mollusk production, together with the fact that cases of infections with V. parahaemolyticus are not always notified to the European community, highlighted the necessity of acquiring new information about the epidemiological involvement of shellfish products. The aim of the study was to provide useful insights into the first steps of the Risk Assessment associated with V. parahaemolyticus through the molecular characterization of isolates from commercialized mollusks. A total of 102 strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were investigated as part of a larger sampling (1-year survey) from several shellfish species collected from the Venice lagoon and the North Adriatic sea. All strains were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and tested for the presence of virulence genes (trh and tdh). The study of sampling/environmental factors and epidemiological analyses was performed to describe the behaviors of the different genetic populations. The population structure analysis highlighted three genetic clusters that could be subject to temperature selection during cold (≤15°C) and warm (>16°C) seasons. Moreover, other factors, such as molluscan species (clams/mussels), probably played a role in the distribution of genetic clusters. Although few strains carried the virulence factors (n = 6 trh + ), epidemiological links with clinical isolates and a local dissemination of some sequence types were underlined. This work provides a useful background on the genotype spread as a first step in the Hazard Identification in light of future climate changes.

  3. Spatial and seasonal variability of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the frontal region of the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. VADRUCCI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and seasonal patterns of variation of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production and their relationships with nutrient concentrations were analyzed along an inshore - offshore gradient and in relation to the presence of a frontal system in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Sampling was carried out in winter and summer during four oceanographic cruises (June 1996 and 1997, February 1997 and 1998 as part of the PRISMA II project. Water samples for determining nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (as Chla and primary production (as 14 C assimilation were collected at five optical depths. Sampling stations were located along 2 or 4 parallel transects arranged perpendicularly to the shoreline and the frontal system. The transects were located at such a distance from the coast that the frontal system crossed them at their halfway point. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and total dissolved phosphorus concentrations (TDP were 12.41 ± 3 .95 mM and 0.146 ± 0 .070 mM, respectively. The values in the two seasonal periods were similar, decreasing along the inshore-offshore gradient. Values for phytoplankton biomass and primary productionwere higher in the winter than the summer cruises, and decreased, in both seasonal periods, along the inshore / offshore gradient. Moreover, in both seasonal periods, picophytoplankton dominated both biomass and productivity, (56% and 44%, respectively at stations beyond the frontal system, while microphytoplankton was more important at stations inside it (44% and 44%, respectively. Total phytoplankton biomass and primary production were directly related to nutrient concentrations. Regarding size classes, significant patterns of variation with nutrients were observed particularly for biomass. The results indicate that the size structure and function of phytoplankton guilds seem to be mediated by nutrient inflow, as well as by competitive interaction among size fractions.

  4. Age, growth and utility of otolith morphometrics as a predictor of age in the wrasse Coris julis (Labridae from the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Škeljo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of Coris julis were determined by examining sagittal otoliths belonging to fish sampled between November 2008 and October 2009 in the eastern Adriatic Sea (north-central Mediterranean Sea. A total of 1102 specimens (528 males, 487 females and 87 individuals of indeterminate sex, ranging from 48 to 222 mm total length were analysed. Ninety-two per cent of the otoliths were readable and 68% of the specimens had two readings in agreement. Counting of daily rings revealed that the second opaque ring represents the first annulus (315.1±27.8 daily rings. The maximum observed age was 7 years for males and 5 years for females, with males dominating in higher age classes ( > 3 years and females in age classes 1+ and 2+. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth curves and significant differences were found between males (L∞=29.10 cm, k=0.12 and t0=–1.48 and females (L∞=21.27 cm, k=0.21 and t0=–1.08. Otolith mass, length, width and thickness were determined for the otoliths belonging to 465 fish and the utility of these morphometrics as a predictor of age was evaluated. The most precise age estimations were obtained from the otolith length data, followed by the otolith mass.

  5. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1000 to 1500 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  6. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1900 to 1980 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1900 to 1980 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  7. Hg, Pb and Cd in zooplankton from an area of the Adriatic opposite the Romagna coast line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisetig, G; Cattani, O; Massa, D; Poletti, R

    1982-09-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals Hg, Pb and Cd found in zooplankton samples collected in two stations off Cesenatico (Northern Adriatic Sea) from March 1978 to January 1979, have been reported. The Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations showed large variations which did not seem to be correlated with taxonomic composition. The detected levels of metals were higher at the offshore than the nearshore station, accordingly with the sediment pattern. The high concentration of Hg were apparently associated with sources of local industrial pollution.

  8. Formation of Barents Sea Branch Water in the north-eastern Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar S. Lien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barents Sea throughflow accounts for approximately half of the Atlantic Water advection to the Arctic Ocean, while the other half flows through Fram Strait. Within the Barents Sea, the Atlantic Water undergoes considerable modifications before entering the Arctic Ocean through the St. Anna Trough. While the inflow area in the south-western Barents Sea is regularly monitored, oceanographic data from the outflow area to the north-east are very scarce. Here, we use conductivity, temperature and depth data from August/September 2008 to describe in detail the water masses present in the downstream area of the Barents Sea, their spatial distribution and transformations. Both Cold Deep Water, formed locally through winter convection and ice-freezing processes, and Atlantic Water, modified mainly through atmospheric cooling, contribute directly to the Barents Sea Branch Water. As a consequence, it consists of a dense core characterized by a temperature and salinity maximum associated with the Atlantic Water, in addition to the colder, less saline and less dense core commonly referred to as the Barents Sea Branch Water core. The denser core likely constitutes a substantial part of the total flow, and it is more saline and considerably denser than the Fram Strait branch as observed within the St. Anna Trough. Despite the recent warming of the Barents Sea, the Barents Sea Branch Water is denser than observed in the 1990s, and the bottom water observed in the St. Anna Trough matches the potential density at 2000 m depth in the Arctic Ocean.

  9. River runoff influences on the Central Mediterranean overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Ciliberti, S. A.; Coppini, G.

    2018-03-01

    The role of riverine freshwater inflow on the Central Mediterranean Overturning Circulation (CMOC) was studied using a high-resolution ocean model with a complete distribution of rivers in the Adriatic and Ionian catchment areas. The impact of river runoff on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea basins was assessed by a twin experiment, with and without runoff, from 1999 to 2012. This study tries to show the connection between the Adriatic as a marginal sea containing the downwelling branch of the anti-estuarine CMOC and the large runoff occurring there. It is found that the multiannual CMOC is a persistent anti-estuarine structure with secondary estuarine cells that strengthen in years of large realistic river runoff. The CMOC is demonstrated to be controlled by wind forcing at least as much as by buoyancy fluxes. It is found that river runoff affects the CMOC strength, enhancing the amplitude of the secondary estuarine cells and reducing the intensity of the dominant anti-estuarine cell. A large river runoff can produce a positive buoyancy flux without switching off the antiestuarine CMOC cell, but a particularly low heat flux and wind work with normal river runoff can reverse it. Overall by comparing experiments with, without and with unrealistically augmented runoff we demonstrate that rivers affect the CMOC strength but they can never represent its dominant forcing mechanism and the potential role of river runoff has to be considered jointly with wind work and heat flux, as they largely contribute to the energy budget of the basin. Looking at the downwelling branch of the CMOC in the Adriatic basin, rivers are demonstrated to locally reduce the volume of Adriatic dense water formed in the Southern Adriatic Sea as a result of increased water stratification. The spreading of the Adriatic dense water into the Ionian abyss is affected as well: dense waters overflowing the Otranto Strait are less dense in a realistic runoff regime, with respect to no runoff experiment, and

  10. Record of an established population of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the Mediterranean Sea: confirming a prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. CUESTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The capture of larvae of Palaemon macrodactylus off Mallorca (Balearic Islands has been recently reported as evidence of a potential presence of a population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos of this species, taken during dives in the Sacca di Goro (northern Adriatic were published in the same year, but no specimen could be collected at that time. Herein we report the capture in 2013 of numerous individuals of the oriental shrimp, including ovigerous females, both in the Sacca di Goro and in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, confirming the existence of a well-established population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Developing and testing an Early Warning System for Non Indigenous Species and Ballast Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaletti, Erika; Garaventa, Francesca; David, Matej; Castriota, Luca; Kraus, Romina; Luna, Gian Marco; Silvestri, Cecilia; Forte, Cosmo; Bastianini, Mauro; Falautano, Manuela; Maggio, Teresa; Rak, Giulietta; Gollasch, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the methodological approach used for the development of an Early Warning System (EWS) for Non Indigenous Species (NIS) and ballast water management and summarizes the results obtained. The specific goals of the EWS are firstly to warn vessels to prevent loading of ballast water when critical biological conditions occur in ports and surrounding areas i.e. mass development or blooms of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP). Secondly, to warn environmental and health authorities when NIS or pathogens are present in ports or surrounding areas to enable an early response and an implementation of remediation measures. The EWS is designed to be used for implementing various parallel obligations, by taking into consideration different legal scopes, associated information and decision-making needs. The EWS was elaborated, tested in the Adriatic Sea and illustrated by two case studies. Although the EWS was developed with an Adriatic Sea focus, it is presented in a format so that it may be used as a model when establishing similar systems in other locations. The role of the various actors is discussed and recommendations on further developments of the EWS are presented. It was concluded that the EWS is a suitable tool to reduce the spread of potentially harmful and ballast water mediated species.

  12. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  13. Sea water pipeline for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    Heating coils, for example, are wound around sea water pipelines as a heater. The outer wall surface of the sea water pipelines is heated by the heating coils. The inner wall surfaces of the sea water pipelines can be warmed to higher than a predetermined temperature by heating the outer wall surfaces to die out marine organisms deposited at the inner surfaces. Further, thermocouples for the external wall and the internal wall are disposed so that the temperature at the inner wall surface of the sea water pipelines can be controlled. Further, a temperature keeping material is disposed at the external surface of the sea water system pipelines. With such a constitution, the marine organisms deposited on the internal wall surface of the sea water system pipelines are died out to suppress the deposition amount of the marine organisms. Accordingly, the maintenance and the operation reliability is improved after maintenance. (I.N.)

  14. Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zanuttigh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the oceans will be subjected to a massive development of marine infrastructures, including offshore wind, tidal and wave energy farms and constructions for marine aquaculture. The development of these facilities will unavoidably exert environmental pressures on marine ecosystems. It is therefore crucial that the economic costs, the use of marine space and the environmental impacts of these activities remain within acceptable limits. Moreover, the installation of arrays of wave energy devices is still far from being economically feasible due to many combined aspects, such as immature technologies for energy conversion, local energy storage and moorings. Therefore, multi-purpose solutions combining renewable energy from the sea (wind, wave, tide, aquaculture and transportation facilities can be considered as a challenging, yet advantageous, way to boost blue growth. This would be due to the sharing of the costs of installation and using the produced energy locally to feed the different functionalities and optimizing marine spatial planning. This paper focuses on the synergies that may be produced by a multi-purpose offshore installation in a relatively calm sea, i.e., the Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, and specifically offshore Venice. It analyzes the combination of aquaculture, energy production from wind and waves, and energy storage or transfer. Alternative solutions are evaluated based on specific criteria, including the maturity of the technology, the environmental impact, the induced risks and the costs. Based on expert judgment, the alternatives are ranked and a preliminary layout of the selected multi-purpose installation for the case study is proposed, to further allow the exploitation of the synergies among different functionalities.

  15. Comparison of benthic indices for the evaluation of ecological status of three Slovenian transitional water bodies (northern Adriatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Mavrič, Borut; Mistri, Michele; Munari, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    Benthic indicators are important tools for the classification of coastal and transitional water bodies. The aim of the work was to assess for the first time the Environmental Status (ES) of Slovenian transitional waters, comparing the following biotic indices: richness, Shannon-Weaver diversity, AMBI, M-AMBI, BENTIX and BITS indices. A total of 13 stations were sampled with a Van Veen grab, in three ecosystems in the northern Adriatic. Samples were sieved and sorted, invertebrates identified and counted. The anthropogenic impact was estimated with professional judgement. Richness and diversity showed a good response to anthropogenic pressure. Conversely, indices based on sensitivity/tolerance groups did not showed a clear distinction between more and less impacted ecosystems. In particular BENTIX underestimated the ES, while with BITS there was a overestimation. The best evaluation was obtained with M-AMBI, because even if based on a sensitivity/tolerance approach, it considered also the structural aspect of the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  17. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  18. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  19. Mitochondrial DNA reveals genetic structuring of Pinna nobilis across the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna

    Full Text Available Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic Mediterranean marine bivalve. During past centuries, various human activities have promoted the regression of its populations. As a consequence of stringent standards of protection, demographic expansions are currently reported in many sites. The aim of this study was to provide the first large broad-scale insight into the genetic variability of P. nobilis in the area that encompasses the western Mediterranean, Ionian Sea, and Adriatic Sea marine ecoregions. To accomplish this objective twenty-five populations from this area were surveyed using two mitochondrial DNA markers (COI and 16S. Our dataset was then merged with those obtained in other studies for the Aegean and Tunisian populations (eastern Mediterranean, and statistical analyses (Bayesian model-based clustering, median-joining network, AMOVA, mismatch distribution, Tajima's and Fu's neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots were performed. The results revealed genetic divergence among three distinguishable areas: (1 western Mediterranean and Ionian Sea; (2 Adriatic Sea; and (3 Aegean Sea and Tunisian coastal areas. From a conservational point of view, populations from the three genetically divergent groups found may be considered as different management units.

  20. Marine conservation and accession: the future for the Croatian Adriatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

  1. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Abu Alhaija, Rana; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  2. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  3. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  4. Air-sea flux of CO2 in arctic coastal waters influenced by glacial melt water and sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Annual air–sea exchange ofCO2 inYoung Sound,NEGreenlandwas estimated using pCO2 surface-water measurements during summer (2006–2009) and during an ice-covered winter 2008. All surface pCO2 values were below atmospheric levels indicating an uptake of atmospheric CO2. During sea ice formation...... and thereby efficiently blocked air–sea CO2 exchange. During sea ice melt, dissolution of CaCO3 combined with primary production and strong stratification of the water column acted to lower surface-water pCO2 levels in the fjord. Also, a large input of glacial melt water containing geochemically reactive...... year-to-year variation in annual gas exchange....

  5. Development of climate risk services under climate change scenarios in the North Adriatic coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Silvia, Torresan; Anna, Sperotto; Elisa, Furlan; Andrea, Critto; Antonio, Marcomini

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the challenge for coastal stakeholders and decision makers is to incorporate climate change in land and policy planning in order to ensure a sustainable integrated coastal zone management aimed at preserve coastal environments and socio-economic activities. Consequently, an increasing amount of information on climate variability and its impact on human and natural ecosystem is requested. Climate risk services allows to bridge the gap between climate experts and decision makers communicating timely science-based information about impacts and risks related to climate change that could be incorporated into land planning, policy and practice. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), a participatory Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was applied for the evaluation of water-related hazards in coastal areas (i.e. pluvial flood and sea-level rise inundation risks) taking into consideration future climate change scenarios in the case study of the North Adriatic Sea for the period 2040-2050. Specifically, through the analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk and the application of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the RRA methodology allowed to identify and prioritize targets (i.e. residential and commercial-industrial areas, beaches, infrastructures, wetlands, agricultural typology) and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood and sea-level rise impacts in the same region. From the early stages of the climate risk services development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the needs, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders dealing with the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), by means of questionnaires, workshops and focus groups organized within the project. Specifically, stakeholders were asked to provide their needs in terms of time scenarios, geographical scale and resolution, choice of receptors, vulnerability factors and thresholds that were considered in the

  6. Multilayer Approach for Characterization of Bacterial Diversity in a Marginal Sea: From Surface to Seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivana, Babic; Maja, Mucko; Ivica, Vilibic; Hrvoje, Mihanovic; Reffaella, Casotti; Zrinka, Ljubesic; Ivona, Cetinic; Cecilia, Balestra; Ines, Petric; Suncica, Bosak; hide

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria are the most important microorganisms in the world oceans, accounting for up to 75% of the total biomass. They are responsible for fundamental biogeochemical processes and therefore often used as ecological indicators. In this study, bacteria were quantified by flow cytometry and their diversity assessed by High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) in the southern Adriatic Sea. The most abundant bacterial groups were also quantified by qPCR. The samples were collected from the surface to the seabed over a total of 16 different depths at four stations during the late winter BIOTA (BIO-Tracing Adriatic water masses) cruise conducted in March 2016. The investigated area showed unusual water mass properties and was characterized by a shallow mixed layer, which differed from the usual winter convection conditions, typical of middle-altitude ecosystems and important for the seasonal picoplankton dynamics of this area. Heterotrophic bacteria were separated into HNA (relative High Nucleic Acid content) and LNA (Low Nucleic Acid content) subpopulations with abundances up to 1.8×10(exp 5) and 8.8×10(exp 5) cells/mL, respectively. HNA dominated at offshore stations reaching their maximum at depths below the euphotic zone. The bacterial community was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, accounting for greater than 40% of the total sequence reads and were mainly represented by the SAR11 clade (90.84%), followed by Marinimicrobia (18% of the total sequence reads), mainly represented by clade SAR406 (8.44%). Distinctive bacterial groups were found in the euphotic layer (Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria) and aphotic layer samples (Deltaproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes). Results of the qPCR analyses further confirmed HTS results with highest abundances obtained for Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The adopted multiple approach, combining different molecular tools, critically supported by optics and

  7. Evaluation and identification of histamine-forming bacteria on fish products of middle Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Mancusi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation EU 2073/2005 sets maximum concentration for histamine in fish and products thereof. To meet these criteria, manufacturers have to define performance objectives, such as the maximum allowed prevalence and number/activity of histamine-producing bacteria at relevant stage of production. In order to assess the presence and decarboxylase activity of contaminant bacteria we examined 51 samples of blue fish caught and processed in Emilia Romagna region. We collected 50 gr of fish (skin and gills or the entire product from 10 sample units from every lot. Analytical samples were cultured in Trypticase Soy Broth supplemented with histidine and pyridoxal HCl. Histamine was measured with an electrochemical biosensor after incubation at both 37°C for 24 h and 18-22°C for 48 h. Enrichments that showed relevant enzymatic activity were seeded on Niven agar to isolate suspected colonies and DNA extracts from these bacteria were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detecting specific sequences of the gene encoding pyridoxaldependent histidine decarboxylase (HDC. Overall, 29.4% samples showed relevant production of histamine in broth cultures (above a cut-off value set at 250 ng/mL and 53.3% of them (8 out of 15 samples allowed detection of HDC positive strains. All of them were typed as Morganella, which appears to be the most common of fish caught in middle Adriatic sea. Ten out of the twelve positive samples with enrichment cultures incubated at both 37 and 18-22°C (83% showed higher decarboxylase activity at room temperature, suggesting the presence of psychrotolerant strains. In addition, the prevalence of histamine-producing bacteria was higher at retail than at production level, probably as a consequence of manipulations and cross-contamination. The risk correlated to development of histamine-producing psychrotolerans bacteria cannot be controlled only with storage temperature: it is necessary for the food business operators to

  8. The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Carol M.

    1999-08-01

    I was asked to present a keynote paper on the socio-economic aspects of oceanographic research in the Mediterranean Sea in the Session on From Oceanographic Science to Policy at the International Conference on Progress in Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome November 1997. The session was unique in that it included papers from oceanographers, social scientists and economists. For this reason I have aimed this paper towards, what I consider to be, social and economic issues that may have important oceanographic outcomes and vice versa. I have attempted to express them in a manner that can be understood by economists, social scientists, policy makers and oceanographers alike. The Mediterranean is highly populated and the greatest tourist destination in the world, both of which are predicted by UNEP to rise substantially in the future. Its blue waters, however, include some of the most extreme oligotrophic waters in the world such that it is only capable of supplying 50% of its requirements for fish. The relatively clear, pigment poor surface waters of the Mediterranean have a general increasing oligotrophy eastward with substantially lower phytoplankton, benthic and fish production in the eastern basin. The Mediterranean Sea is highly sensitive to climatic changes; it has high evaporation rates, low land runoff from few rivers and seasonal rains resulting in a deficit in its hydrological balance. This has worsened with the damming of rivers such as the Nile. Nutrient depleted Atlantic water flows into the Mediterranean through the narrow Strait of Gibraltar and exits after circulating the basin with nearly 10% more salt content. This hydrological imbalance may have far-reaching consequences in the Atlantic, producing similar climate changes in Northern Europe, to that seen during the last glaciation, and may be linked to a hydrological deficit in the Mediterranean Sea resulting from a decline in the Nile outflow. The basin-wide circulation, hot-dry and

  9. Metals extraction from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssostomidis, C.; Larue, G.J.; Morgan, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    A method and system for continuously extracting metals from sea water by deploying adsorber sheets in a suitable current of sea water, recovering the adsorber sheets after they become loaded with metal and eluting the metal from the recovered sheets. The system involves the use of hollow, perforated bobbins on which the sheets are rolled as they are recovered and through which elutant is introduced

  10. Imposex levels and butyltin compounds (BTs) in Hexaplex trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy): Ecological risk assessment before and after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Boscolo Brusà, Rossella; Noventa, Seta; Antonini, Camilla; Moschino, Vanessa; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Gion, Claudia; Berto, Daniela; Gabellini, Massimo; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare imposex and butyltin compounds (BTs) data, collected before and after the organotin ban in 2008, in order to assess temporal and spatial variation of the phenomenon, the decline of BT contamination, and the effects on Hexaplex trunculus population in the coastal area of the northern Adriatic Sea, close to the Venice Lagoon. Both in marine and in lagoon sites, the results obtained in 2013-2015 showed a significant decline in the incidence of imposex in respect to those from the 2002 survey. In 2002, lagoon samples exhibited Relative Penis Size Index (RPSI) higher than marine samples, whereas no differences were detected in the recent survey, when all RPSI values were below 0.6%. Vas Deference Sequence Index (VDSI) mean values were over 4 before the ban introduction and below this value after that, indicating more critical conditions for gastropod population in 2002 rather than in 2013-15. Percentage of sterile females was up to 69% in 2002, whilst in the more recent survey no sterile female was found. Range of BT concentrations in gastropods decreased from 252 to 579 to 16-31ng∑BT/g d.w. BT body burdens varied according to a gender dependant pattern, with higher concentrations observed in females than in males. A first attempt to propose a classification based on BT impact on H. trunculus, according to the Water Framework Directive, revealed that most sites were in Bad ecological status before the ban and attained a Poor/Moderate status after that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Postacchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  12. Adsorption behavior of radionuclide in water containing sea salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamoshida, Mamoru; Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Waste water caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactor accident contains high level radioactive material with impurities of sea water origin, such as chloride, sodium and magnesium. These impurities have the potential to inhibit the adsorption reaction of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents. We have studied adsorption behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents to measure distribution coefficients (Kd) in the condition of different sea water concentrations. For cesium adsorption, the dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration was affected by the adsorption mechanism of adsorbent; the adsorbents which adsorbed cesium by intercalation showed less dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration, while those adsorbed cesium by ion exchange had smaller Kd with increasing the sea water concentration. For strontium adsorption, Kd decreased as the sea water concentration increased for both adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The inhibition of intercalation and ion exchange reaction of strontium by calcium ion, that exists high concentration in sea water (400 ppm) and similar hydrated ionic radius with strontium, will cause the decrease of Kd for strontium in the sea water with higher concentration. (author)

  13. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  14. ANALYSIS OF SEA WATER POLLUTION IN COASTAL MARINE DISTRICT TUBAN TO THE QUALITY STANDARDS OF SEA WATER WITH USING STORET METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdana Ixbal Spanton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea water is a component that interacts with the terrestrial environment, where sewage from the land will lead to the sea. Waste containing these pollutants will enter into coastal waters and marine ecosystems. Partially soluble in water, partially sinks to the bottom and was concentrated sediment, and partly into the body tissues of marine organisms. This study was conducted to determine the level of pollution of sea water on the coast in the district of Tuban. This research was conducted in the Coastal Water Tuban, East Java. The main material used in research on Analysis of Water Pollution in Coastal Sea on Tuban. The method used in this research is using storet method and compared to the quality standards of the Environment Decree No. 51 in 2004. Based on the analysis of testing at five sampling point’s seawater around Bodies Tuban, obtained by sea water quality measurement results either in physics, chemistry, and microbiology varied. The level of pollution of sea water around Coastal Tuban obtained by using Storet Method average value of analysis is -4.2 included in class B are lightly blackened, while using values obtained Pollution Index average pollution index of 3.60 is included in the category lightly blackened. Keywords: Analysis of the pollution level of seawater on the coast in Tuban, Quality Standards of Sea Water, Storet Method.

  15. Speciation studies of cobalt in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toteja, R.S.D.; Sudersanan, M.; Iyer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Recent results on the speciation of cobalt in simulated and actual sea water is reported using ion exchangers. The influence of magnesium ions in affecting the composition of ion exchangers and subsequent interpretation of the results is discussed. The results indicated that Co +2 may predominate in both the simulated and actual sea water and the presence of other constituents in sea water does not affect the nature of complex species present. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Preliminary study on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern related to the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratore, Patrizia; Zavatta, Emanuele; Fiocchi, Eleonora; Serafini, Emanuele; Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Bignami, Giorgia

    2017-10-20

    V. vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 V. vulnificus strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a Carretta carretta turtle (n=1), were utilized. All strains were positive for the species-specific genes vvh A and hsp , with high variability for other markers: 55% (22 out of 40) resulted of the environmental (E) genotype ( vcg E, 16S rRNA type A, CPS2 or CPS0), 10% (4 out of 40) of the clinical (C) genotype ( vcg C, 16S rRNA type B, CPS1), and 35% (14 out of 40) of the mixed (M) genotype, possessing both E and C markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed by the diffusion method on agar, according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), utilizing the following commercial disks (Oxoid): ampicillin (AMP), ampicillin- sulbactam (SAM), piperacillin (PRL), cefazolin (KZ), cefotaxime(CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), amikacin (AK), gentamicin(CN), tetracycline(TE), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). 75% of the strains, (n=30) including all C strains, was sensitive to all the tested antibiotics, whereas E strains showed intermediate sensitivity to AK (2 strains), CIP and CAZ (1 strain), TE (1 strain) and resistance to KZ (1 strain), and 4 M strains showed I to AK.

  17. Ecological characterization of toxic phytoplankton species (Dinophysis spp., Dinophyceae) in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and the implications for monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, Janja . E-mail france@mbss.org; Mozetic, Patricija

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events are often registered in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and are related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. The annual dynamic of this genus and succession of the most important species were studied at two shellfish farms during monitoring fieldwork in the period 1995-2003. Results indicate that the Dinophysis genus maintains a relatively stable inter-annual dynamic at both sites. The Dinophysis community is characterized by two surface maxima in June and September, while in the middle layer only the autumn peak is pronounced (peak median 92 cells l -1 ). Occasional abundance maxima of around 2000 cells l -1 in the surface layer indicate that potential outbursts of toxic species are less predictable than their seasonal dynamic. On the basis of multivariate analysis, Dinophysis sacculus was characterized as a typical late spring-early summer species, and Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis fortii as autumn species. Correlation analysis revealed the influence of stratified conditions only on the most abundant species, D. sacculus. Ecological characteristics of the species were combined with shellfish safety requirements towards a more effective monitoring

  18. Experimentally Based Model to Size the Geometry of a New OWC Device, with Reference to the Mediterranean Sea Wave Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This note presents the Seabreath wave energy converter, basically a multi-chamber floating oscillating water column device, and the lumped model used to size its chambers, the ducts and the turbine. The model is based on extensive testing carried out in the wave flume of the University of Padova using fixed and floating models with a dummy power take off and indirect measurement of the produced power. A map with the available energy in the Mediterranean Sea is also proposed, showing possible ideal application sites. The Seabreath is finally dimensioned for a quarter scale test application in the Adriatic Sea, with a 3 kW turbine, and a capacity factor of 40%.

  19. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  20. Uptake of uranium from sea water by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Horikoshi, Takao; Nakajima, Akira

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of uranium from aqueous systems especially from sea water by various microalgae was investigated. The freshwater microalgae, Chlorella regularis, Scenedesmus bijuga, Scenedesmus chloreloides, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlamydomonas angulosa, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, accumulated relatively large amounts of uranium from the solution containing uranium only. The concentration factors of the above mentioned algae were: Chlorella regularis 3930, Chlamydomonas 2330 - 3400, Scenedesmus 803 - 1920. The uptake of uranium from sea water by Chlorella regularis was inhibited markedly by the co-existence of carbonate ions. Chlorella cells could take up a great quantity of uranium from decarbonated sea water. The uptake of uranium was affected by the pH of sea water, and the amount of uranium absorbed was maximum at pH 5. The experiment was carried out to screen marine microalgae which have the ability to accumulate a large amount of uranium from sea water. The uptake of uranium from sea water by marine microalgae of different species turned out to be in the following decreasing order: Synechococcus > Chlamydomonas >> Chlorella > Dunaliella > Platymonas > Calothrix > Porphyridium. The amount of uranium absorbed differed markedly with different species of marine microalgae. (author)

  1. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  2. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  3. Formation rate of water masses in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideyuki; Ito, Toshimichi; Yoon, Jong-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Water masses in the subsurface and the intermediate layer are actively formed due to strong winter convection in the Japan Sea. It is probable that some fraction of pollution is carried into the layer below the sea surface together with these water masses, so it is important to estimate the formation rate and turnover time of water masses to study the fate of pollutants. The present study estimates the annual formation rate and the turnover time of water masses using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model and a particle chasing method. The total annual formation rate of water masses below the sea surface amounted to about 3.53±0.55 Sv in the Japan Sea. Regarding representative intermediate water masses, the annual formation rate of the Upper portion of the Japan Sea Proper Water (UJSPW) and the Japan Sea Intermediate Water (JSIW) were estimated to be about 0.38±0.11 and 1.43±0.16 Sv, respectively, although there was little evidence of the formation of deeper water masses below a depth of about 1500 m in a numerical experiment. An estimate of turnover time shows that the UJSPW and the JSIW circulate in the intermediate layer of the Japan Sea with timescales of about 22.1 and 2.2 years, respectively. (author)

  4. Re-initiation of bottom water formation in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Tae; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun; Rho, TaeKeun; Kang, Dong-Jin; Lee, Tongsup; Park, Kyung-Ae; Lobanov, Vyacheslav; Kaplunenko, Dmitry; Tishchenko, Pavel; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2018-01-25

    The East Sea (Japan Sea), a small marginal sea in the northwestern Pacific, is ventilated deeply down to the bottom and sensitive to changing surface conditions. Addressing the response of this marginal sea to the hydrological cycle and atmospheric forcing would be helpful for better understanding present and future environmental changes in oceans at the global and regional scales. Here, we present an analysis of observations revealing a slowdown of the long-term deepening in water boundaries associated with changes of water formation rate. Our results indicate that bottom (central) water formation has been enhanced (reduced) with more (less) oxygen supply to the bottom (central) layer since the 2000s. This paper presents a new projection that allows a three-layered deep structure, which retains bottom water, at least until 2040, contrasting previous results. This projection considers recent increase of slope convections mainly due to the salt supply via air-sea freshwater exchange and sea ice formation and decrease of open-ocean convections evidenced by reduced mixed layer depth in the northern East Sea, resulting in more bottom water and less central water formations. Such vigorous changes in water formation and ventilation provide certain implications on future climate changes.

  5. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. Environmental challenges for sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lončar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of the North Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted with problems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy, especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastal region where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Another environmental problem is the oil transportation by a pipeline which is planned to be built in the frames of Russian-Croatian project Družba-Adria.

  7. Sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Noriko; Mizutani, Akira; Hirako, Shizuka; Uchiyama, Yuichi; Oda, Atsushi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an improvement of a cooling sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of nuclear power plant. Namely, an existent sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments has at least two circulation water systems and three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments. In this case, a communication water channel is disposed, which connects the three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments mutually by an opening/closing operation of a flow channel partitioning device. With such a constitution, even when any combination of two systems among the three circulation water systems is in inspection at the same time, one system for cooling the reactor auxiliary equipments can be kept operated, and one system is kept in a stand-by state by the communication water channel upon periodical inspection of water take-up facility for cooling the auxiliary equipments. As a result, the sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of the present invention have operation efficiency higher than that of a conventional case while keeping the function and safety at the same level as in the conventional case. (I.S.)

  8. Recovery of uranium resources from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1980-01-01

    After the oil crisis in 1973, the development of atomic energy has become important as substitute energy, and the stable acquisition of uranium resources is indispensable, in order to promote smoothly the use of atomic energy. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has engaged actively in the project ''The survey on the technical development of the system for recovering uranium and others from sea water'' since 1974. 80% of the uranium resources in the world is distributed in USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Niger, and in near future, the price of uranium ores may be raised. Japan must promote powerfully the development of foreign uranium resources, but also it is very important to get domestic uranium by efficiently recovering the uranium dissolved in sea water, the amount of which was estimated at 4 billion tons, and its practical use is expected in 1990s. The uranium concentration in sea water is about 3 g in 1000 t sea water. The processes of separation and recovery are as follows: (1) adsorption of uranium to titanic acid powder adsorbent by bringing sea water in contact with it, (2) dissolving the collected uranium with ammonium carbonate, the desorption agent, (3) concentration of uranium solution by ion exchange method or ion flotation method to 2800 ppm. The outline of the model plant is explained. (Kako, I.)

  9. Important aspects of Eastern Mediterranean large-scale variability revealed from data of three fixed observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Manuel; Velaoras, Dimitris; Cardin, Vanessa; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Pethiakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Long-term variations of temperature and salinity observed in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas seem to be regulated by larger-scale circulation modes of the Eastern Mediterranean (EMed) Sea, such as the recently discovered feedback mechanisms, namely the BiOS (Bimodal Oscillating System) and the internal thermohaline pump theories. These theories are the results of interpretation of many years' observations, highlighting possible interactions between two key regions of the EMed. Although repeated oceanographic cruises carried out in the past or planned for the future are a very useful tool for understanding the interaction between the two basins (e.g. alternating dense water formation, salt ingressions), recent long time-series of high frequency (up to 1h) sampling have added valuable information to the interpretation of internal mechanisms for both areas (i.e. mesoscale eddies, evolution of fast internal processes, etc.). During the last 10 years, three deep observatories were deployed and maintained in the Adriatic, Ionian, and Aegean Seas: they are respectively, the E2-M3A, the Pylos, and the E1-M3A. All are part of the largest European network of Fixed Point Open Ocean Observatories (FixO3, http://www.fixo3.eu/). Herein, from the analysis of temperature and salinity, and potential density time series collected at the three sites from the surface down to the intermediate and deep layers, we will discuss the almost perfect anti-correlated behavior between the Adriatic and the Aegean Seas. Our data, collected almost continuously since 2006, reveal that these observatories well represent the thermohaline variability of their own areas. Interestingly, temperature and salinity in the intermediate layer suddenly increased in the South Adriatic from the end of 2011, exactly when they started decreasing in the Aegean Sea. Moreover, Pylos data used together with additional ones (e.g. Absolute dynamic topography, temperature and salinity data from other platforms) collected

  10. Tables of the velocity of sound in sea water

    CERN Document Server

    Bark, L S; Meister, N A

    1964-01-01

    Tables of the Velocity of Sound in Sea Water contains tables of the velocity of sound in sea water computed on a ""Strela-3"" high-speed electronic computer and a T-5 tabulator at the Computational Center of the Academy of Sciences. Knowledge of the precise velocity of sound in sea water is of great importance when investigating sound propagations in the ocean and when solving practical problems involving the use of hydro-acoustic devices. This book demonstrates the computations made for the velocity of sound in sea water, which can be found in two ways: by direct measurement with the aid of s

  11. Problems especially relating to sea water condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Raymond.

    1975-01-01

    Sea water forms a nearly unlimited cold source well adapted to the open circuit cooling of large nuclear power plants. As a counter-part, its physico-chemical and biological characteristics generally require complicated arrangements for preventing: - first, the sea water to enter accidentally, especially as a consequence of corrosions and erosion-corrosions. Indeed, certain materials used in modern plants very badly suffer any introduction of salted water into the cycle steam-water mixture: - secondly, damaging the flow conditions of the cooling water (increase in friction coefficients, restriction of passage cross sections, blocking) and heat exchange parameters (resisting deposits, circulation troubles...) [fr

  12. Implementation and test of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghilesi, R.; Catini, F.; Orasi, A.; Corsini, S.

    2010-09-01

    A coastal forecasting system has been implemented in order to provide a coverage of the whole Mediterranean Sea and of several enclosed coastal areas as well. The problem is to achieve a good definition of the small scale coastal processes which affect the propagation of waves toward the shores while retaining the possibility of selecting any of the possible coastal areas in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The system is built on a very high resolution parallel implementation of the WAM and SWAN models, one-way chain-nested in key areas. The system will shortly be part of the ISPRA SIMM forecasting system which has been operative since 2001. The SIMM sistem makes available the high resolution wind fields (0.1/0.1 deg) used in the coastal system. The coastal system is being tested on several Italian coastal areas (Ligurian Sea, Lower Tyrrenian Sea, Sicily Channel, Lower Adriatic Sea) in order to optimise the numerics of the coastal processes and to verify the results in shallow waters and complex bathymetries. The results of the comparison between hindcast and buoy data in very shallow (14m depth) and deep sea (150m depth) will be shown for several episodes in the upper Tyrrenian Sea.

  13. Trawl catch composition during different fishing intensity periods in two Mediterranean demersal fishing grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sánchez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in two fishing grounds on the Mediterranean continental shelf: one in the Adriatic Sea and one in the Catalan Sea. Samplings on board otter trawlers were performed from November 2002 to December 2003 in the Catalan Sea and from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic fishing ground was affected by high fishing intensity from January to June, while the Catalan area was highly exploited from September to February. Fishing activity in the Adriatic area was closed for 45 days, and 62 days in the Catalan area; both periods were in summer. Totals of 92 and 88 species were collected in the Adriatic and Catalan fishing grounds respectively. The species composition of the retained and discarded fractions showed close agreement between the two areas. Mullus barbatus showed very low discard rates in both areas, as well as Loligo vulgaris in the Catalan Sea and Merluccius merluccius in the Adriatic Sea. In both fishing grounds Squilla mantis showed high catch rates with low discards, except in March in the Catalan area. In the Adriatic Sea Liocarcinus depurator was characterized by large discard fractions. In both fishing grounds the retained fraction was slightly higher in the high fishing intensity periods than in the low intensity ones (Adriatic Sea: 0.613 vs 0.524; Catalan Sea: 0.597 vs 0.539, even though the Kruskall Wallis test revealed significant differences (p

  14. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: a multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti; Claudia, Virno Lamberti; Barbara, Pisanelli; Ginevra, Moltedo; Francesco, Regoli

    2009-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities.

  15. Arctic Intermediate Water in the Nordic Seas, 1991-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Jutterström, Sara

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the different types of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) in the Nordic Seas is evaluated and compared utilising hydro-chemical data from 1991 to 2009. It has been suggested that these waters are important components of the Norwegian Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (NSAIW), and of the dense overflows to the North Atlantic. Thus, it is important to understand how their properties and distribution vary with time. The AIWs from the Greenland and Iceland Seas, show different degrees of variability during the studied period; however, only the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (GSAIW) shows an increasing temperature and salinity throughout the 2000s, which considerably changed the properties of this water mass. Optimum multiparameter (OMP) analysis was conducted to assess the sources of the NSAIW. The analysis shows that the Iceland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (ISAIW) and the GSAIW both contribute to NSAIW, at different densities corresponding to their respective density range. This illustrates that they flow largely isopycnally from their source regions to the Norwegian Sea. The main source of the NSAIW, however, is the upper Polar Deep Water, which explains the lower concentrations of oxygen and chlorofluorocarbons, and higher salinity and nutrient concentrations of the NSAIW layer compared with the ISAIW and GSAIW. This shows how vital it is to include chemical tracers in any water mass analysis to correctly assess the sources of the water mass being studied.

  16. Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Hotels and Camps Along the Adriatic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents a possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast, through equipment modernisation, efficient use of various energy forms (electric energy, oil, gas) including solar energy. An elaborate quantitative analysis the greenhouse gas emissions and possible ways of reducing them have been carried out in 180 hotels with their own boiler rooms and 70 camps with solar hot water system. The representatives of the two specified groups were chosen in order to perform the quantitative analysis. Considering that the reduction of the carbon emission is the basic condition for the prevention of climate changes, the assumptions were made in line with their reducing. The starting point is that the combustion of a litre of fuel causes 2,5 kg CO 2 , while the generation of 1 kWh of electric energy and use of 1 m 3 of water emit 0,5 kg of CO 2 respectively. Thereby it is necessary to bear in mind that the reduction of emissions can be achieved directly in hotel boiler rooms and, in a wider perspective, in plants through the reduction of the electric energy and water consumption, i.e. solar energy consumption The article ends with a review of possible emission reductions which are to be carried out. According to the calculation presented, the share of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast principate with 1% in the obligatory 5% emission reduction of the Republic of Croatia till the year 2012 related to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  17. Impact of a coal fired power plant on 226Ra activity level in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with radioactivity contamination originating from a coal fired power plant which, due to its location, may present a remarkable environmental problem. The plant is situated in a bay of the Adriatic close to the densely populated area with highly developed touristic activity. Its operation may cause significant damage to rich marine ecosystem characteristic for this part of the Croatian Adriatic as well as endanger urban and touristic developmental prospects of the area. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustible ash and slag showed increased natural radioactivity levels which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic

  18. Studies on determination of stable elements in sea water and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    The existing conditions of stable elements including Co, Zn, Cs, Ce and Eu in sea water were determined by adding radioactive tracers, and determination methods were discussed. 60 Co added to sea water revealed to be kept in solution in 93 per cent of non-filtrated sea water, and in 98 per cent of filtrated sea water. 65 Zn also added to sea water showed to be kept in solution in 97 per cent of both non-filtrated and filtrated sea water. Both elements seemed to exist as particle or ion smaller than 0.45 μ, which solved in sea water. On the other hand, in both Ce and Eu of rare earth elements, about 80 per cent of them presented in the residue, but the treatment of sea water by hydrochroric acid solubilized 80 to 90 per cent of them in filtrated sea water. One of the instrumental analysis, irradiation analysis by nuclear reactor, was applied: each of preconcentration procedure by ion exchange method for Co and Zn in sea water and drying up sample marine organisms to ash content combined with irradiation analysis. Chemical recovery of both 60 Co and 65 Zn in sea water by preconcentration procedure reached more than 95 per cent. As to marine organisms, Co, Zn, and Cs could be determined with only 100 to 200 mg. of ash content obtained from sample marine organisms showing 80 per cent of chemical yield of the carrier through whole the procedure of analysis in almost all the samples. The chemical recovery of Ce and Eu in sea water and marine organisms by the preconcentration procedure reached about 85 per cent, and chemical yield through whole the procedure of analysis was more than 60 per cent. Concentration factor of Co and Zn in fishes and shells, especially that of muscles, obtained by stable elements determination method was almost 10 times that by RI tracer method. The difference of chemical forms between RI tracer and stable isotope affected not only to physiological metabolism but also to food chains. (Kanao, K.)

  19. Temporal and Spatial Scales of Labrador Sea Water Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Labrador Sea Water is an intermediate water found at the same density and depth range in the North Atlantic as the Mediterranean water. It is formed by convection from the sea surface to depths greather than 2 km in winter in the Western Labrador Sea. The processes leading to deep convection begin with the formation of a 200 km scale cyclonic circulation about denser than average upper layer water in the Western Labrador Sea. This circulation pattern is hypothesized to be driven by an ocean/atmosphere heat exchange that has its maximum in this region. By early March, if deep convection is taking place, one sees that this body of denser upper waters penetrates to the top of the deep temperature/salinity maximum marking the core of the North Atlantic Deep Water. We note that the horizontal scale of this body is still 100-200 km normal to the coastline.

  20. Definition of water exchange zone between the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and the effect of winter gale on it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jun; GUO Junru; LI Jing; MU Lin; LIU Yulong; WANG Guosong; LI Yan; LI Huan

    2017-01-01

    The marine dynamic environment of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in the winter of 2006 is simulated by the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) marine numerical model. Using the simulated temperature and salinity, the water exchange zone between the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is defined through the Spectral Mixture Model (SMM). The influence of winter gales on the water exchange is also discussed. It is found that the Yellow Sea water masses in winter are distributed in a “tongue” shape in the Bohai Strait region, the water exchange zone presents a zonal distribution along the margin of the “tongue”, with a tendency of running from northwest to southeast, and the water exchange is intensified at the tip of the “tongue”. Besides, the coastal area in the northernmost Yellow Sea does not participate in the water exchange between the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea. The result shows that the winter gale events play a role in enhancing the water exchange. It is specifically shown by the facts: the Yellow Sea warm current is enhanced to intrude the Bohai Sea by the gale process; the water exchange zone extends into the Bohai Sea; the water exchange belt in the southern part becomes wider; the mixture zone of river runoff with the Bohai Sea water upon its entry is enlarged and shifts northwards. Within two days after the gale process, the exchange zone retreats toward the Yellow Sea and the exchange zone resulted from the Huanghe River (Yellow River) runoff also shrinks back shoreward.

  1. Sea water desalination using nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first underlines the water shortage problem today and in the years to come when, around the time horizon 2020, two-thirds of the total world population would be without access to potable water. Desalination of sea-water (and, to a limited extent, that of brackish water) is shown to be an attractive solution. In this context, sea-water desalination by nuclear energy appears to be not only technically feasible and safe but also economically very attractive and a sustainable solution. Thus, compared to conventional fossil energy based sources, desalination costs by nuclear options could be 30 to 60% lower. The nuclear options are therefore expected to satisfy the fundamental water needs and electricity demands of human beings without in any way producing large amounts of greenhouse gases which any desalination strategy, based on the employment of fossil fuels, cannot fail to avoid. (author)

  2. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  3. Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B D; Reager, J T; Lo, M-H; Karnauskas, K B; Leben, R R

    2017-04-20

    Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both the detection and attribution of sea level rise. Here, we use a suite of observations to quantify and map the contribution of TWS variability to sea level variability on decadal timescales. In particular, we find that decadal sea level variability centered in the Pacific Ocean is closely tied to low frequency variability of TWS in key areas across the globe. The unambiguous identification and clean separation of this component of variability is the missing step in uncovering the anthropogenic trend in sea level and understanding the potential for low-frequency modulation of future TWS impacts including flooding and drought.

  4. Recovery of uranium from sea water - a laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayawant, D.V.; Iyer, N.S.; Koppiker, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    Sea water contains traces of uranium, but the volume of sea water being enormous, the total quantity of uranium available from the sources is very large. From time to time, claims have been made elsewhere that a breakthrough has been made in developing a technology to recovery this uranium at an economic cost. Studies have been carried out at Uranium Extraction Division over a few years to develop a suitable technique to separate the uranium from sea water. Studies were primarily directed towards preparation of suitable inorganic ion exchangers and studying their properties. In this paper preparation of ion exchangers based on hydrous titanium oxide and the data collected in laboratory trials on their application for uranium adsorption from sea water are presented. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Extraction of lithium from sea water with metallic aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Extraction of lithium from sea water was investigated. It was found that a corrosion product of metallic aluminum immersed in sea water extracts lithium from it selectively. Effects of the temperature and the pH of sea water, and of the initial concentration of lithium in it were examined. On the basis of the analysis of the surface deposit on aluminum, which is a corrosion product of aluminum, the selectivity coefficients were calculated. For the extraction of lithium from natural sea water, the values of K sub(Na)sup(Li), K sub(Mg)sup(Li), K sub(Ca)sup(Li) and K sub(K)sup(Li) were 9.9 x 10 2 , 1.1 x 10, 4.5 x 10 and 4.4 x 10 2 , respectively. (author)

  6. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisidi Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3, chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4. In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  7. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisidi, Dan; Heriyani, Okatrina

    2018-02-01

    Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3), chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4). In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  8. Intrusion of low-salinity water into the Yellow Sea Interior in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Seok; Pang, Ig-Chan

    2014-12-01

    Abnormally low-salinity water was detected in the surface layer of the central region of the Yellow Sea in August 2012. The presence of such low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior has never been reported previously. To understand the origin of this low-salinity water, oceanographic and wind data were analyzed, and the circulation of the surface layer was also examined in the Yellow and East China Seas using a numerical ocean model. The results confirmed that typhoons caused the low-salinity water. Two consecutive typhoons passed from east to west across the East China Sea, around the Changjiang Bank in early August 2012. Strong easterly and southeasterly winds created by the typhoons in the Yellow and East China Seas drove the low-salinity water to the north along the coast of China and northeastward toward the central region of the Yellow Sea, respectively. Usually, the northward drifting of Changjiang Diluted Water along the coast of China ends around the Jiangsu coast, where the drifting is blocked and is turned by the offshore Eulerian residual current. Therefore, the Changjiang Diluted Water does not intrude more into the Yellow Sea interior. However, in 2012, the low-salinity water drifted up to the Shandong Peninsula along the coast of China, and formed massive low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior combining with the other low-salinity water extended toward the central region of the Yellow Sea directly from the Changjiang Bank. Thus, the typhoons play a key role in the appearance of abnormally low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior and it means that the Yellow Sea ecosystem could be significantly influenced by the Changjiang Diluted Water.

  9. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The chemical composition of sea water and pore water in the manganese nodule area of the Central Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchig, V.; Gundlach, H.; Schnier, C.

    1981-11-01

    Analyses for the following elements were made on 118 samples of pore water and 23 samples of sea water from the radiolarian ooze area of the Central Pacific: Na, Ca, Br, Sr (major elements) and Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Eu, Ta, Hg, U. The average concentration of most of the elements analyzed is higher in the pore water than in the sea water. The enrichment of elements in both the pore water and the bottom near sea water relative to the average composition of the sea water depends on the residence times of the elements in the sea water - the shorter the residence time the greater the enrichment. The enrichment of an element in these sea and pore waters is also dependant on the chemical species in which it occurs in the sea water. The enrichment seems to be greater for hydroxides, less for complex chloride ions and there is no enrichment for simple ions. The enrichment of the elements occuring as hydroxides (Fe, Cu, Cr, Sc, Eu) or complex chlorides (Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Ag, Hg, Se) results in precipitation from the sea water, which contributes to the growth of the manganese nodules as well as to the genesis of metalliferous sediments in this area. The greater enrichment in the pore water relative to the sea water accounts for the remobilization of these elements from the sediment as the main source of the material for the growth of the manganese nodules. (orig.) [de

  11. Ripensare le “Piattaforme Logistiche”: il Caso del Gateway dell’Alto Adriatico Rethinking “Logistics Platforms”: the case of the North Adriatic Gateway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dean

    2011-11-01

    the wider network of European corridors.

    Until this moment, the logistics and strategic national plans have not been selective concerning the identification, along the TEN-T Corridors, of a few ports and freight villages which are able to become effective European gateways within the Italian territory and attract private investments. Moreover, these planning instruments, instead of basing their strategies on the most concrete corridors have preferred to conceive their policies on entirely “imaginary” ones. This is, for instance, the case of the Logistics Platform in the Nord-East area of Italy. This Platform has been organized around the uncertain Corridor V, rather than the more concrete (but not yet recognized in the European maps Adriatic-Baltic corridor. As a consequence, in this Region, several existing national infrastructures appear, at the moment, largely underused: 

    1. a freight village of considerable size and European standards such as the Interporto Alpe Adria in Cervignano del Friuli, and
    2. an international double railway such as the “Pontebbana” that links the North-East area of Italy with Austria, through the Alpine pass of Tarvisio, and which is already the southern segment of the Adriatic-Baltic corridor.

     

    On the other hand, these infrastructures might play a significant role in light of the positive estimates about the new trends of maritime trades, which would realize a renewed centrality to the Mediterranean Sea (Drewry Shipping Consultants, 2010, and important development programs regarding the Adriatic ports, involving both public (Venice, Rijeka and private (Monfalcone-Triest, Koper stakeholders. The aim of these projects is to increase the competitive capacity of the North Adriatic port system and establish a more effective connection between it and the central and eastern parts of Europe, through the Baltic-Adriatic Corridor, so as to constitute the so-called North Adriatic Gateway

  12. Halocline water formation in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael; Morison, James H.; Curtin, Thomas B.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrographic data from the first phase of the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX) are analyzed. The data consist of temperature and salinity measurements made by a ship-based conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument and by a drifting SALARGOS buoy. These data were collected in the autumn and early winter of 1988-1989 in the northern Barents Sea, mostly in ice-covered conditions and then across the marginal ice zone (MIZ). The data show that relatively warm, salty water of Atlantic origin is modified by air cooling and ice melting to produce lighter water that has properties identical to (lower) halocline water found in the Arctic Ocean. This occurs mostly at the MIZ and to a lesser degree within the ice pack itself. At the MIZ the halocline water subjects underneath the lighter meltwater that resides directly under the ice pack; geostrophic velocity calculations indicate that it then turns eastward and flows toward the Kara Sea, in keeping with previous chemical tracer analyses. A rough calculation reveals that the amount of halocline water formed in this way in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait is 30-50% of that formed by ice growth in eastern Arctic polynyas.

  13. Sources of the deep water masses in the northern Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Said, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrographic structure of the northern Red Sea indicated that, the surface waters of temperature around 22°C, salinity of 40.1OO%o and dt = 28.1 might sink to depths between 400-500 m by convective overturn, contributing to the formation of the mid-deep Red Sea waters. Below the 500 db depth down to the bottom the water column is stable. The geostrophic circulation clearly indicated an inflow of water from the Red Sea towards NNW, along the main axis of the sea. Arriving at the nort...

  14. Transuranic elements in the marine environment: A study on the concentrations of Pu radioisotopes in Greek seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danali-Cotsaki, S.; Florou-Gazi, H.

    1982-09-01

    The experimental methodology used for the determination of background levels of Pu in the Aegean Sea is described. Preliminary results have shown that Pu concentration levels in the examined areas are of the order of 1x10 -15 Ci/1(fCi/1). These results are compared to those from the North Adriatic Sea. Levels of mixed fission product concentrations in samples collected from the above areas are also reported and discussed. (T.A.)

  15. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  16. Wintertime Arctic Ocean sea water properties and primary marine aerosol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zábori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea spray aerosols are an important part of the climate system through their direct and indirect effects. Due to the diminishing sea ice, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most rapidly changing sea spray aerosol source areas. However, the influence of these changes on primary particle production is not known.

    In laboratory experiments we examined the influence of Arctic Ocean water temperature, salinity, and oxygen saturation on primary particle concentration characteristics. Sea water temperature was identified as the most important of these parameters. A strong decrease in sea spray aerosol production with increasing water temperature was observed for water temperatures between −1°C and 9°C. Aerosol number concentrations decreased from at least 1400 cm−3 to 350 cm−3. In general, the aerosol number size distribution exhibited a robust shape with one mode close to dry diameter Dp 0.2 μm with approximately 45% of particles at smaller sizes. Changes in sea water temperature did not result in pronounced change of the shape of the aerosol size distribution, only in the magnitude of the concentrations. Our experiments indicate that changes in aerosol emissions are most likely linked to changes of the physical properties of sea water at low temperatures. The observed strong dependence of sea spray aerosol concentrations on sea water temperature, with a large fraction of the emitted particles in the typical cloud condensation nuclei size range, provide strong arguments for a more careful consideration of this effect in climate models.

  17. Sea water pumping-up power plant system combined with nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Tanaka, Masayuki.

    1991-01-01

    It is difficult to find a site suitable to construction for a sea water pumping-up power plant at a place relatively near the electric power consumption area. Then, a nuclear power plant is set at the sea bottom or the land portion of a sea shore near the power consumption area. A cavity is excavated underground or at the bottom of the sea in the vicinity of the power plant to form a lower pond, and the bottom of the sea, as an upper pond and the lower pond are connected by a water pressure pipe and a water discharge pipe. A pump water turbine is disposed therebetween, to which electric power generator is connected. In addition, an ordinary or emergency cooling facility in the nuclear power plant is constituted such that sea water in the cavity is supplied by a sea water pump. Accordingly, the sea water pumping-up plant system in combination with the nuclear power plant is constituted with no injuring from salts to animals and plants on land in the suburbs of a large city. The cost for facilities for supplying power from a remote power plant to large city areas and power loss are decreased and stable electric power can be supplied. (N.H.)

  18. Corrosion and passivation of copper in artificial sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Jung Kyoon; Kim, Youn Kyoo

    2007-01-01

    Based on the cyclic voltammograms, potentiodynamic polarizations, transient and steady state Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, we proposed the copper redox mechanism of the corrosion and passivation in artificial sea water. The copper redox mechanism showed the dependence of the concentration of oxygen in artificial sea water and electrode potentials

  19. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  20. Optical measurements in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone. I. On the origin of the deep water in the Kattegat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højerslev, N. K.; Holt, N.; Aarup, T.

    1996-08-01

    In the North Sea-Baltic Sea region, several studies have shown that yellow substance can be treated as a quasi-conservative parameter that is negatively correlated with salinity. A review of more than 5000 historic and recently gathered yellow substance absorption and salinity measurements from the transition zone between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been analyzed for the purpose of water mass identification. Salinity-yellow substance scatter plots show that three water masses can be identified in the area: (1) North Sea water (high salinity, low yellow substance content); (2) Baltic Sea water (low salinity, intermediate-high yellow substance content); and (3) German Bight/Southern North Sea water (intermediate-high salinity, high yellow substance content). Based on the volume flow estimates used in a two-layer box-model of the Kattegat (Jørgensen, Continental Shelf Research, 12, 103-114, 1992) and conservation of yellow substance, it is argued that the long-term average composition of the bottom layer inflow to the Kattegat from the Skagerrak consists of about 90% North Sea/Atlantic water and 10% German Bight/Southern North Sea water. The German Bight content estimate is substantially lower than the ones given in earlier studies (50-67%) and implies that the Jutland Coastal Current only has a small impact on the water quality of the Kattegat.

  1. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Montagna, Paolo; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (∼ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14 C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14 C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T isol ) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14 C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ∼ 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in

  2. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  3. Rn 222 in the Black Sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzova, A.P.; Batrakov, G.F.; Eremeev, V.N.; Zemlyanoj, A.D.; Ivanova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of Rn 222 concentration measurements in the Black Sea waters obtained in the summer of 1986 during the expedition of the Akademik Vernadskij research ship are presented. It is ascertained that the intensity of vertical turbulent exchange produces the main effect on Rn 222 distribution in the sea surface waters. The vertical distribution in a 200 m layer is characterized by the growth of concentration with depth, which is caused by the presence of Ra 226 increased concentration region, that coincides with the boundary layer between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide

  4. Water Mass Classification on a Highly Variable Arctic Shelf Region: Origin of Laptev Sea Water Masses and Implications for the Nutrient Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, D.; Cherniavskaia, E.

    2018-03-01

    Large gradients and inter annual variations on the Laptev Sea shelf prevent the use of uniform property ranges for a classification of major water masses. The central Laptev Sea is dominated by predominantly marine waters, locally formed polynya waters and riverine summer surface waters. Marine waters enter the central Laptev Sea from the northwestern Laptev Sea shelf and originate from the Kara Sea or the Arctic Ocean halocline. Local polynya waters are formed in the Laptev Sea coastal polynyas. Riverine summer surface waters are formed from Lena river discharge and local melt. We use a principal component analysis (PCA) in order to assess the distribution and importance of water masses within the Laptev Sea. This mathematical method is applied to hydro-chemical summer data sets from the Laptev Sea from five years and allows to define water types based on objective and statistically significant criteria. We argue that the PCA-derived water types are consistent with the Laptev Sea hydrography and indeed represent the major water masses on the central Laptev Sea shelf. Budgets estimated for the thus defined major Laptev Sea water masses indicate that freshwater inflow from the western Laptev Sea is about half or in the same order of magnitude as freshwater stored in locally formed polynya waters. Imported water dominates the nutrient budget in the central Laptev Sea; and only in years with enhanced local polynya activity is the nutrient budget of the locally formed water in the same order as imported nutrients.

  5. Recovery of uranium from sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewelyn, G.I.W.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of extraction of uranium from sea-water on a sufficiently large scale to contribute significantly to national UK requirements is placed in perspective. It seems unlikely that there are sites around the UK coast where this could be achieved, and insufficient work has been done to be confident that sites exist anywhere to enable uranium extraction to be carried out on a large scale. Process techniques have been developed on a small scale, but extensive further research work would be necessary to reduce appreciably the present uncertainties. It would be unwise to expect uranium from sea-water to contribute significant amounts to the world's uranium demand for thermal reactors on an acceptable timescale. (author)

  6. Pliocene –Pleistocene geomorphological evolution of the Adriatic side of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentili Bernardino

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is a significant contribution to knowledge of the Quaternary and pre-Quaternary morphogenesis of a wide sector of central Italy, from the Apennine chain to the Adriatic Sea. The goal is achieved through a careful analysis and interpretation of stratigraphic and tectonic data relating to marine and continental sediments and, mostly, through the study of relict limbs of ancient landscapes (erosional surfaces shaped by prevailing planation processes. The most important scientific datum is the definition of the time span in which the modelling of the oldest morphological element (the “summit relict surface” occurred: it started during Messinian in the westernmost portion and after a significant phase during middle-late Pliocene, ended in the early Pleistocene. During the middle and late Pleistocene, the rapid tectonic uplift of the area and the climate fluctuations favoured the deepening of the hydrographic network and the genesis of three orders of fluvial terraces, thus completing the fundamental features of the landscape. The subsequent Holocene evolution reshaped the minor elements, but not the basic ones.

  7. The Irminger Sea and the Iceland Sea time series measurements of sea water carbon and nutrient chemistry 1983–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olafsson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ways and means of assembling and quality controling the Irminger Sea and Iceland Sea time-series biogeochemical data which are included in the CARINA data set. The Irminger Sea and the Iceland Sea are hydrographically different regions where measurements of sea water carbon and nutrient chemistry were started in 1983. The sampling is seasonal, four times a year. The carbon chemistry is studied with measurements of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater, pCO2, and total dissolved inorganic carbon, TCO2. The carbon chemistry data are for surface waters only until 1991 when water column sampling was initiated. Other measured parameters are salinity, dissolved oxygen and the inorganic nutrients nitrate, phosphate and silicate. Because of the CARINA criteria for secondary quality control, depth >1500 m, the IRM-TS could not be included in the routine QC and the IS-TS only in a limited way. However, with the information provided here, the quality of the data can be assessed, e.g. on the basis of the results obtained with the use of reference materials.

  8. Decomposition of dilute residual active chlorine in sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Tetsutaro; Kawano, Kentaro; Yanagase, Kenjiro; Shiga, Akira

    1985-01-01

    Coastal industries such as power stations require enormous quantities of sea-water for cooling, but the marine organisms in it often result in fouling and/or blockade of the circulating water condenser and pipeworks. To prevent this, chlorine, or hypochlorite by the direct electrolysis of sea-water have been added. Environmental concerns, however, dictate that the residual chlorine concentration at the outlet should be less than the regulated value (0.02 ppm). Methods for decomposing dilute residual chlorine solutions were therefore studied. It was found that: 1) The addition of (raw) sea-water to the sea-water which passed through the condenser lowered the residual chlorine concentration to an greater extent than could be expected by dilution only. 2) Ozonation of the residual chlorine solution led to degradation of OCl - , but in solutions with a residual chlorine concentrations of less than 3 -- 4 ppm, ozonation had no effect. 3) Irradiation with ultra violet light (254 nm) decomposed the residual chlorine. Under the present work conditions (25 0 C: pH 8; depth 10 mm), nearly first order kinetics were to hold [da/dt = ksub((1)) (1-a)sup(n)]. There is a proportional relationship between the kinetic constant (k) and illuminous intensity (L), i.e., ksub((1))[C 0 sup(Cl 2 ): 10 ppm] = 6.56 x 10 -5 L (L = 0 -- 1000 lx). Thus, the use of both sea-water addition and UV irradiation provides a probable method for decomposing a residual chlorine to the expected concentration. (author)

  9. Evaluation of sea water chlorine demand in condenser cooling water at TAPS 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papachan, Deepa; Gupta, P.K.; Patil, D.P.; Save, C.B.; Anilkumar, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    To prevent microbiological growth in the condenser tubes, condenser cooling water chlorination is very important. For effective chlorination, chlorine dose rate and frequency of dosing has to be determined on the basis of sea water chlorine demand. TAPS 1 and 2 is located near Arabian sea and draws water from this sea for its condenser cooling. The present practice of chlorine dosing at TAPS 1 and 2, based on the analysis carried out by GE in 1969, is 2500 kg/day/CWpump and 90 kg/day/SSWpump for a contact period of 25 minutes. Normal frequency of dosing is once per 8 hour and booster dose is once in a week at the same rate for 1 hour. The criteria of effective chlorination is to get residual chlorine of 2-3 ppm at the condenser water box outlet during chlorination at water box inlet/CW pump suction header in the recommended dose rate. The other option of chlorination was continuous dosing to get 0.5 ppm residual chlorine. This option has its own limitations as it is more expensive and also that micro organisms get immune to chlorine eventually due to continuous dosing. Nevertheless higher chlorine dosing is detrimental to AI-brass condenser tubes. Therefore the second option was not adopted at TAPS 1 and 2. Tarapur Atomic Power Station-1 is in the process of replacement of condenser tubes due to frequent condenser tube failures in the recent years. It was essential to analyse the present sea water chlorine demand and re-determine the chlorine dose rate because of development of industries under Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) and simultaneous population growth around this area over a period of three decades. This paper discusses the experimental observations regarding significant change in sea water chlorine demand over this period and the effect of seasonal changes on sea water chlorine demand. (author)

  10. Estimating the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget: impact of RCM design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, S.; Elguindi, N.; Sanchez-Gomez, E.; Herrmann, M.; Déqué, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Sea can be considered as a thermodynamic machine that exchanges water and heat with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the atmosphere through its surface. Considering the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget (MSWB) multi-year mean, the Mediterranean basin looses water at the surface due to an excess of evaporation over freshwater input (precipitation, river runoff, Black Sea input). Moreover the MSWB largely drives the Mediterranean Sea water mass formation and therefore a large part of its thermohaline circulation. This could even have an impact on the characteristics of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation through the Mediterranean Outflow Waters that flow into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 m. From a climate point of view, the MSWB acts as a water source for the Mediterranean countries and therefore plays an important role on the water resources of the region. The regional physical characteristics of the Mediterranean basin (complex orography, strong land-sea contrast, land-atmosphere coupling, air-sea coupling, river inflow, Gibraltar Strait constraint and complex ocean bathymetry) strongly influence the various components of the MSWB. Moreover extreme precipitation events over land and strong evaporation events over the sea due to local winds can play a non-negligible role on the mean MSWB despite their small spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, modelling the mean behaviour, the interannual variability and the trends of the MSWB is a challenging task of the Regional Climate Model community in the context of climate change. It is actually one of the highlighted issues of the HyMex project planned for the 2010-2020 period. We propose here to start investigating some key scientific issues of the regional modelling of the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget using a wide range of regional climate simulations performed at Météo-France or in the framework of FP6 European projects (ENSEMBLES, CIRCE). The addressed

  11. A Modeling Study of Deep Water Renewal in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.

    2016-02-01

    Deep water renewal processes in the Red Sea are examined in this study using a 50-year numerical simulation from 1952-2001. The deep water in the Red Sea below the thermocline ( 200 m) exhibits a near-uniform vertical structure in temperature and salinity, but geochemical tracer distributions, such as 14C and 3He, and dissolved oxygen concentrations indicate that the deep water is renewed on time scales as short as 36 years. The renewal process is accomplished through a deep overturning cell that consists of a southward bottom current and a northward returning current at depths of 400-600 m. Three sources regions are proposed for the formation of the deep water, including two deep outflows from the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez and winter deep convections in the northern Red Sea. The MITgcm (MIT general circulation model), which has been used to simulate the shallow overturning circulations in the Red Sea, is configured in this study with increased resolutions in the deep water. During the 50 years of simulation, artificial passive tracers added in the model indicate that the deep water in the Red Sea was only episodically renewed during some anomalously cold years; two significant episodes of deep water renewal are reproduced in the winters of 1983 and 1992, in accordance with reported historical hydrographic observations. During these renewal events, deep convections reaching the bottom of the basin occurred, which further facilitated deep sinking of the outflows from the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Ensuing spreading of the newly formed deep water along the bottom caused upward displacements of thermocline, which may have profound effects on the water exchanges in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and the functioning of the ecosystem in the Red Sea by changing the vertical distributions of nutrients.

  12. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  13. Corrosion Protection Of Mild Steel In Sea Water Using Chemical Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoyinbo, Alaba O.; Salleh, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd; Zulerwan Jusof, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The effect of sodium nitrite as a corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in sea water (i.e ASTM standard prepared sea water and sea water obtained from a local river) was investigated, using the weight loss technique. Different amount of sodium nitrite were prepared (i.e 2 % to 10 %) in the inhibition of the mild steel corrosion in sea water exposed to irradiation condition from sunlight exposure. The cut samples of mild steel were exposed to these corrosive media and the corresponding weight loss subsequently obtained was recorded at intervals of 1 to 4 weeks. It was observed that corrosion rate increases with the time of exposure to the corrosive medium exposed to sunlight and that sodium nitrite that was used at the chemical inhibitor was able to retard the corrosion rate of mild steel if the appropriate concentration is applied. The results obtained from the weight loss analysis shows that the optimum percentage of sodium nitrate in sea water that gives the optimum corrosion inhibition of mild steel is 4 %.

  14. Method of decommissioning nuclear reactor building by utilizing sea water buyoancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashima, Sumio; Ogoshi, Shigeru; Kobari, Shin-ichi.

    1989-01-01

    Upon dismantling nuclear reactor buildings, peripheral yards are excavated and channels leading to sea shore are formed. Since the outer walls of the reactor buildings are made of iron-reinforced concretes, the opening poritons are grouted with concretes to attain a tightly such closed structure that radioactive wastes, etc. in the inside are not flown out upon reactor discommisioning. Peripheral buildings at relatively low level of radiation contaminations are dismantled and withdrawn. The fundations of the nuclear reactor buildings were dug out and jacked to separate base rocks and the reactor buildings. Then, sea water is introduced into the water channels to entirely float up the buildings. A water gate is disposed in the water channel on the side of sea shore to control the level of sea water. The buildings are moved and guided to the sea shore and towed to a site optimum as a permanent storage area and then burried in that place. The operation period for the discommissioning work can greatly be shortened and the radiation dose and the amount of the wastes can be reduced. (T.M.)

  15. Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

    2012-11-01

    The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 μg g-1) to west (0.7 μg g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic δ13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous δ13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in

  16. Microplastics in the Baltic Sea water: fibers everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatmullina, Lilia; Bagaev, Andrey; Chubarenko, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Presence of thin synthetic fibres (microfibres, tens of micrometres in diameter) in the surface waters and sediments is documented in different studies; however, the data on their exact abundances in the marine environment are commonly not presented owing to the shortcomings of the sampling procedure and general absence of well-established methodology for microplastics data collection. Nevertheless, we made an attempt to qualitatively analyse the amounts of microplastic fibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Water samples acquired during 6 cruises over the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016 were filtered using 174 μm filters, which were subsequently analysed by microscope. From the total of 95 examined filters, 63% contained fibres. They were identified by colour and the reaction to the mechanical action of a thin needle: justification of anthropogenic origin was considered to be enough; any questionable objects were discarded. Fibres comprise more than 90% of the whole microplastic particles found in the near-bottom layers in the coastal zone and around 24% of microplastics in the surface and intermediate waters, with mean concentrations of 0.71 and 0.07 fibres per litre, respectively. Although the methodology still requires a lot of enhancement, even the preliminary results indicate ubiquitous distribution of the microfibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea with surface and bottom layers revealing higher abundances of microfibres in comparison with intermediate layers, and open-sea waters being less contaminated than the coastal ones. Apart from enhancing the sampling technics, we consider that it is crucial to understand principal physical features of fibers behavior in the marine environment (e.g., settling, entrainment by currents), as it would provide an opportunity to parameterize their transport and further on to model distribution of fibers in the water column. The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant number 15-17-10020.

  17. Uptake of uranium from sea water by Synechococcus elongatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Takao; Nakajima, Akira; Sakaguchi, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    Basic features of the uranium uptake by Synechococcus elongatus, and the factors affecting it were examined. Synechococcus elongatus was grown in Roux flasks containing 1 liter of culture solution in light (20,000 lux) and with aeration at 30 deg C. Synechococcus cells in the linear growth phase were collected by centrifugation at 6,000 x g for 5 minutes, washed with sea water, and used for the uranium-uptake experiments. The uptake of uranium from sea water containing 1 ppm of the element was strongly affected by the pH of sea water. The optimum uptake was at pH 5. Presence of carbonate ions markedly inhibited and decarbonation of sea water greatly enhanced the uptake. Absorption of uranium by Synechococcus cells was initially rapid, and reached a plateau within 24 hours. The uranium accumulation capacity of Synechococcus cells was increased by heat treatment, the capacity of scalded cells being about twice as much as that of living cells. Most of the uranium absorbed by Synechococcus was found in the inner space of the cells, and only a small amount was present in the cell walls. (Kaihara, S.)

  18. Interactive effects of vegetation and sediment properties on erosion of salt marshes in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, V B; Bouma, T J; van Belzen, J; Van Colen, C; Airoldi, L

    2017-10-01

    We investigated how lateral erosion control, measured by novel photogrammetry techniques, is modified by the presence of Spartina spp. vegetation, sediment grain size, and the nutrient status of salt marshes across 230 km of the Italian Northern Adriatic coastline. Spartina spp. vegetation reduced erosion across our study sites. The effect was more pronounced in sandy soils, where erosion was reduced by 80% compared to 17% in silty soils. Erosion resistance was also enhanced by Spartina spp. root biomass. In the absence of vegetation, erosion resistance was enhanced by silt content, with mean erosion 72% lower in silty vs. sandy soils. We found no relevant relationships with nutrient status, likely due to overall high nutrient concentrations and low C:N ratios across all sites. Our results contribute to quantifying coastal protection ecosystem services provided by salt marshes in both sandy and silty sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Combined EOF/Variational Approach for Mapping Radar-Derived Sea Surface Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    gaps in the gridded SST images, which was successfully applied in Adriatic ( Alvera - Azcarate et al., 2005). Kondrashov and Chil (2006) developed...velocities. Similar to SST analysis (Beckers and Rixen, 2003: Alvera -Azcarate et al.. 2005), these modes are used to fill the gaps in HFR...and selection of the time interval for estimating the covariances becomes important. In the present study the sea surface velocity Alvera -Azcarate

  20. Corrosion behaviour of non-ferrous metals in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birn, Jerzy; Skalski, Igor [Ship Design and Research Centre, Al. Rzeczypospolitej 8, 80-369 Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The most typical kinds of corrosion of brasses are selective corrosion (dezincification) and stress corrosion. Prevention against these kinds of corrosion lies in application of arsenic alloy addition and appropriate heat treatment removing internal stresses as well as in maintaining the arsenic and phosphorus contents on a proper level. The most typical corrosion of cupronickels is the local corrosion. Selective corrosion occurs less often and corrosion cracking caused by stress corrosion in sea water does not usually occur. Crevice corrosion is found especially in places of an heterogeneous oxidation of the surface under inorganic deposits or under bio-film. Common corrosive phenomena for brasses and cupronickels are the effects caused by sea water flow and most often the impingement attack. Alloy additions improve resistance to the action of intensive sea water flow but situation in this field requires further improvement, especially if the cheaper kinds of alloys are concerned. Contaminants of sea water such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide are also the cause of common corrosion processes for all copper alloys. Corrosion of copper alloys may be caused also by sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Galvanic corrosion caused by a contact with titanium alloys e.g. in plate heat exchangers may cause corrosion of both kinds copper alloys. Bronzes belong to copper alloys of the highest corrosion resistance. Failures that sometimes occur are caused most often by the cavitation erosion, by an incorrect chemical composition of alloys or at last by their inadequate structure. The main problems of aluminium alloys service in sea water are following phenomena: local corrosion (pitting and crevice corrosion), galvanic corrosion, exfoliation and corrosion in the presence of OH- ions. The cause of local corrosion are caused by presence of passive film on the alloy's surface and presence of chlorides in sea water which are able to damage the passive film. Galvanic corrosion is

  1. Proposal of a integrated system for the complete usage of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakao, Shin-ichi; Kato, Shigeru; Tsuji, Masamichi; Sugi, Jiro.

    1995-01-01

    Very severe troubles of scale formation might be expected to occur when recovery of water from sea water increases. The main constituents of the scale are CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, all of which are salts of alkaline earth metals. Therefore, if a key technology is developed by which the main constituents of the scale, alkaline earth metal ions mentioned above, can be removed and/or separated from sea water, the recovery of desalted water from raw sea water by high-pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) can be increased up to 75-80%, the solubility limit of the remaining scale components. Then it will be possible to make use of all valuable materials existing in sea water, by an integrated system which combines conventional recovery technologies with a set of the proposed technologies such as HPRO, alkaline earth metal ions removal process, inorganic ion-exchangers for recovery of trace elements and so on. Furthermore, almost complete usage of sea water may be accomplished by irrigation of the brackish water by-product for salt-resistant plants such as mangrove, salt bush and, if possible, gene-recombinated plants. (author)

  2. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  3. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  4. Impact of technologically natural radioactivity on marine environment in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Kovac, J.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with increased levels of radioactivity in the Kastela bay at the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea, which is due to geographical characteristics sensitive to any kind of pollution including the radioactivity. In the bay is situated a coal fired power plant. Investigations of used coal as well as slag and ash originating from the normal operations of showed increased concentrations of natural radioactivity spreading over the area and to the sea. There is a coal slag and ash pile which presents a considerable environmental problem: situated close to the seaside, slag and ash are accumulating in the littoral zone or are being filled up directly into the sea. The aim of this study was to determine radioactivity level at the ash and slag deposit and to assess the risk from increased radioactivity to the employees of the plant, to the inhabitants of the area and due to a direct contact of ash and slag with the sea water, to the Adriatic sea. (authors)

  5. Anion-exchange enrichment and spectrophotometric determination of uranium in sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Rokuro; Oguma, Koichi; Mukai, Noriko; Iwamoto, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of uranium in sea-water. The uranium is strongly sorbed on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin (Cl - form) from acidified sea-water containing sodium azide (0.3M) and is easily eluted with 1M hydrochloric acid. Uranium in the effluent can be determined spectrophotometrically with Arsenazo III. The combined method allows easy and selective determination of uranium in sea-water without using a sophisticated adsorbent. The overall recovery and precision are satisfactory at the 3 μg/1. level. (author)

  6. Multidecadal variations in the early Holocene outflow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S. J. A.; Ganssen, G. M.; Davies, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations at a decadal-centennial timescale. The amplitude of the decadal variations is 0.3‰ prior, and up to 0.6‰ subsequent, to ˜8.1 kyr B.P. We conclude from modeling experiments that the short-term δ18O variations between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. most likely document changes in the evaporation-precipitation balance in the central Red Sea. Changes in water temperature and salinity cause the outflowing Red Sea Water to settle roughly 800 m deeper than today.

  7. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  8. Mixing regime of the residual water basins of the Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhitskiy, Alexander; Zavialov, Peter; Kirillin, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    The Aral Sea, a terminal salt lake in western Central Asia situated at the border between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, was ranked as the fourth largest inland water body in the mid-20th century. However, in the early 1960s, the lake's volume started to decrease rapidly due to severe changes in the Aral's water balance. Thus, the present-day Aral Sea can be considered as a system of separate water bodies with a common origin but very different physical, chemical and biological features. Our previous studies showed that the Large Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas transformed into hyperhaline water bodies, while the Small Aral Sea was a brackish basin with rather similar to the pre-desiccation environment. On the other hand, the Small Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas exhibited a mixed vertical structure, whereas the Western Large Aral Sea (especially the Chernyshev Bay) was strongly stratified. The presented study is focused on the seasonal mixing regimes of the residual basins. Isolation of deep waters from the atmosphere together with low rates of photosynthesis produce deep anoxia observed in the Chernyshev Bay and in the Large Aral. The high amount of organic matter provides a rich source of nutrients for anoxic microorganisms favoring methanogenesis in the bottom layer of the basins. In the Small Aral, the water column remains well-oxygenated down to the bottom throughout most of the year and development of anoxia is unlikely. The mixing regimes of the recently formed residual lakes of the former Aral Sea will provide manifold effect on the ongoing development of the aquatic system in the following decades. The study is based on a field data collected during two surveys of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology to the Aral Sea, which took place in October, 2015 and June, 2016. In situ measurements including CTD profiling and water sampling were carried out in the northern extremity of the western Large Aral (the Chernyshev Bay), in Lake Tshchebas, and in the Small Aral Sea

  9. Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)

  10. Estimation of ultratrace level of uranium in sea water by laser fluorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Mohapatra, S.; Patra, A.C.; Lenka, P.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Uranium, a naturally occurring primordial radionuclide, is imperative in the present Indian Nuclear Power Programme. Seawater may be an alternate source of uranium to meet the future demand. The total estimated quantity of uranium in seawater is around four and a half billion tonnes. Estimation of uranium in sea water is cumbersome and tedious because of ultra-trace concentration of uranium with high salt content and other interfering elements of sea water. Mainly chloride interferes in sea water analysis for estimation of nanogram level uranium because the ion at high concentration in sea water depresses uranyl complex fluorescence. At 500 ppm of chloride, the fluorescence response from a given uranium level is reduced by nearly 50%. Dilution method may be used in order to minimize the interference effect but it can't be implemented in this case as sea water contains 19000 ppm chloride but only 2-3 ppb of uranium. Thus, the separation of the interfering elements is necessary to analyze nanogram level of uranium in sea water. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze uranium in sea water by laser fluorimeter. Sample was treated with potassium persulphate to remove chloride ion and subsequent measurement was carried out after pH adjustment. The method was used for analysis of uranium content in 23 seawater samples ranged from 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/l to 2.2 ± 0.4 μg/l with a mean value of 1.01 ± 0.11 μg/l

  11. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  12. Spectral analysis of optical emission of microplasma in sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleev, Vladislav; Morita, Hayato; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of optical emission spectra from microplasma in three types of liquid, namely artificial sea water composed of 10 typical agents (10ASW), reference solutions each containing a single agent (NaCl, MgCl2 + H2O, Na2SO4, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, KBr, NaHCO3, H3BO3, SrCl2 + H2O, NaF) and naturally sampled deep sea water (DSW). Microplasma was operated using a needle(Pd)-to-plate(Pt) electrode system sunk into each liquid in a quartz cuvette. The radius of the tip of the needle was 50 μm and the gap between the electrodes was set at 20 μm. An inpulse generator circuit, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the liquid between the electrodes, was used as a pulse current source for operation of discharges. In the spectra, the emission peaks for the main components of sea water and contaminants from the electrodes were detected. Spectra for reference solutions were examined to enable the identification of unassigned peaks in the spectra for sea water. Analysis of the Stark broadening of H α peak was carried out to estimate the electron density of the plasma under various conditions. The characteristics of microplasma discharge in sea water and the analysis of the optical emission spectra will be presented. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26600129.

  13. Uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westermark, T.; Forsberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalent situation in the field of uranium extraction from the oceans was reviewed from a scientific and technological standpoint and as to legality too. No international convention seems to limit the access to dissolved or suspended matter in free area of the oceans. All publications received through 1979 point to adsorption as the method of choice, at some form of hydrated titanium ''oxide'' as the most promising sorbent, and, generally spoken, at the cost of pumping water through the contacting system as a huge economical problem. A recent Swedish invention may circumvent the pumping problem by making available, in a previously unknown manner, some kind of self-renewing energy from the oceans. A simple economic calculus has resulted in costs from two to six times the present world market price of crude uranium oxide (which is assumed to be US dollar 43.-/1b), with a possibility to compete really after some technical and systematic developments. Results from a small-scale adsorption experiment in genuine sea water are presented: During a few weeks sea water was pumped through tiny, 10 cm high beds of sodium titanate ion exchangers, partly in the hydrogen form. The grain size was 250-500 μm, the flow rate 0.15-0.61 m/min. About 5% of the total amount of uranium passing the columns was retained, resulting in 8-11 μg/Ug. Also, large amounts of manganese, strontium, vanadium and zink were retained. Some of these elements and plankton as well may perhaps be recovered with an economic gain

  14. Changing patterns of migration in the Adriatic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzer, P

    1988-06-01

    International migration in the Adriatic countries of Albania, Greece, Italy, San Marino, and Yugoslavia is briefly examined using data from official and other published sources. The main types of migratory movements identified by the author within the region are "1) economically motivated migration (legal and clandestine); 2) immigration of refugees for resettlement; 3) immigration with the scope of final resettlement in a third country (transit movements); [and] 4) return migration by former emigrants." excerpt

  15. Domoic Acid - A New Toxin in the Croatian Adriatic Shellfish Toxin Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Marasović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis, Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus. Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g-1 in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1, therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.

  16. Absorption of labelled calcium-45Ca by prawn from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshimaru, Osamu; Kuroki, Katsunobu; Sakamoto, Syuichi; Yone, Yasuo.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the previous study of the mineral requirements of prawn, Penaeus japonicus, the absorption of radioactive calcium- 45 Ca from surrounding sea water by the prawn fed on a diet without supplemental calcium was compared with that of the prawn fed on a calcium-supplemented diet. The surrounding sea water was prepared to contain labelled calcium- 45 Ca-CaCl 2 . The prawn were first fed on each test diet in ordinary sea water, and one hour after the final mealtime were transferred to sea water in which 45 Ca-CaCl 2 was dissolved. One, four, and twentythree hours later, the prawn were analyzed for the radioactivity incorporated into their bodies. The radioactivity of 45 Ca accumulated in the prawn gradually increased with the lapse of time, and the group fed on the diet without supplemental calcium exhibited faster absorption and higher activity of 45 Ca than the group fed on the diet with calcium. (author)

  17. On the variability of sea drag in finite water depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, A.; Loffredo, L.; Le Roy, P.; LefèVre, J.-M.; Babanin, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    The coupling between the atmospheric boundary layer and the ocean surface in large-scale models is usually parameterized in terms of the sea drag coefficient, which is routinely estimated as a function of mean wind speed. The scatter of data around such parametric dependencies, however, is very significant and imposes a serious limitation on the forecasts and predictions that make use of sea surface drag parameterizations. The analysis of an atmospheric and wave data set collected in finite water depth at the Lake George measurement site (Australia) suggests that this variability relates to a number of parameters at the air-sea interface other than wind speed alone. In particular, results indicate that the sea drag depends on water depth and wave steepness, which make the wave profile more vertically asymmetric, and the concentration of water vapor in the air, which modifies air density and friction velocity. These dependencies are used to derive parametric functions based on the combined contribution of wind, waves and relative humidity. A standard statistical analysis confirms a substantial improvement in the prediction of the drag coefficient and sea surface roughness when additional parameters are taken into account.

  18. Characterization and distribution of organic matter using specific physico-chemical methods: A case study of the southeast Adriatic continental and shelf slope (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Marta; Strmečki, Slađana; Dautović, Jelena; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Olujić, Goran; Ćosović, Božena

    2012-05-01

    In May 2009, we characterized the organic matter in the area where Albanian shelf riverine plume waters enter the Southern Adriatic Pit region. Due to stable weather and hydrological conditions at the time of sampling a longitudinal thermal front was present around the Albanian shelf break. Our measurements point to the input of inorganic nutrients, including phosphorus (average P-PO4 concentration was 0.71 μg/L) and nitrogen (average as total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) concentration was 25.33 μg/L) due to the intrusion of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) through the Otranto Strait. The input of LIW brings high salinity (˜38.7) water that is poor in organic matter content. Low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (0.7 mg C/L) and particulate organic carbon (POC) (0.06 mg C/L), surface active substances (SAS) (in the range from 0.025 to 0.078 mg/L equiv. Triton-X-100) and copper complexing capacity (CuCC) (24 nmol Cu2+/L) were measured in the area. All the values for DOC, POC, SAS and CuCC were significantly lower in the Albanian coastal waters than in the North Adriatic. The measurable influence of the inflowing Albanian rivers was observed from the inverse dependance of the DOC concentrations and salinity data. The Albanian rivers contribute to the elevated nutrient concentrations especially those of silicate, which displayed concentrations up to 380 μg/L in the shallowest coastal station.

  19. Near-surface wind variability over the broader Adriatic region: insights from an ensemble of regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    Over the past few decades the horizontal resolution of regional climate models (RCMs) has steadily increased, leading to a better representation of small-scale topographic features and more details in simulating dynamical aspects, especially in coastal regions and over complex terrain. Due to its complex terrain, the broader Adriatic region represents a major challenge to state-of-the-art RCMs in simulating local wind systems realistically. The objective of this study is to identify the added value in near-surface wind due to the refined grid spacing of RCMs. For this purpose, we use a multi-model ensemble composed of CORDEX regional climate simulations at 0.11° and 0.44° grid spacing, forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, a COSMO convection-parameterizing simulation at 0.11° and a COSMO convection-resolving simulation at 0.02° grid spacing. Surface station observations from this region and satellite QuikSCAT data over the Adriatic Sea have been compared against daily output obtained from the available simulations. Both day-to-day wind and its frequency distribution are examined. The results indicate that the 0.44° RCMs rarely outperform ERA-Interim reanalysis, while the performance of the high-resolution simulations surpasses that of ERA-Interim. We also disclose that refining the grid spacing to a few km is needed to properly capture the small-scale wind systems. Finally, we show that the simulations frequently yield the accurate angle of local wind regimes, such as for the Bora flow, but overestimate the associated wind magnitude. Finally, spectral analysis shows good agreement between measurements and simulations, indicating the correct temporal variability of the wind speed.

  20. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Giacominelli Stuffler, R.; Ceci, E.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  1. Speciation of 137Cs in the Baltic sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Morkuniene, R.; Styra, D.

    1998-01-01

    A possibility of application of Filtrac 391 and Nuclepore filters, Ky-2-8-C exchanger and the Mtilon-T fiber impregnated with Fe, Co, Ni ferrocyanides for separation of particulate and ionic 137 Cs in the sea water was investigated. Physico-chemical forms of 137 Cs were investigated in the Baltic Sea water during 1995-1997. It was determined that 137 Cs was mainly present in ionic form (62-93 %) both in the near-shore and open waters. Concentration of particulate 137 Cs ranged from 255 to 625 Bq/kg (dry weight).The distribution coefficient (K d ) of radiocaesium reached values of 2100-9700. (author)

  2. Anisakis simplex complex: ecological significance of recombinant genotypes in an allopatric area of the Adriatic Sea inferred by genome-derived simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladineo, Ivona; Trumbić, Željka; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Hrabar, Jerko; Bušelić, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    The genus Anisakis includes nine species which, due to close morphological resemblance even in the adult stage, have previously caused many issues in their correct identification. Recently observed interspecific hybridisation in sympatric areas of two closely related species, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, has raised concerns whether a F1 hybrid generation is capable of overriding the breeding barrier, potentially giving rise to more resistant/pathogenic strains infecting humans. To assess the ecological significance of anisakid genotypes in the Adriatic Sea, an allopatric area for the two above-mentioned species, we analysed data from PCR-RFLP genotyping of the ITS region and the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) mtDNA locus to discern the parental genotype and maternal haplotype of the individuals. Furthermore, using in silico genome-wide screening of the A. simplex database for polymorphic simple sequence repeats or microsatellites in non-coding regions, we randomly selected potentially informative loci that were tested and optimised for multiplex PCR. The first panel of microsatellites developed for Anisakis was shown to be highly polymorphic, sensitive and amplified in both A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. It was used to inspect genetic differentiation of individuals showing mito-nuclear mosaicism which is characteristic for both species. The observed low level of intergroup heterozygosity suggests that existing mosaicism is likely a retention of an ancestral polymorphism rather than a recent recombination event. This is also supported by allopatry of pure A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii in the geographical area under study. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Climatology and decadal variability of the Ross Sea shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Russo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Ocean Database 2001 data located in the Ross Sea (named WOD01 and containing data in this region since 1928 are merged with recent data collected by the Italian expeditions (CLIMA dataset in the period November 1994-February 2004 in the same area. From this extended dataset, austral summer climatologies of the main Ross Sea subsurface, intermediate and bottom water masses: High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW, Ice Shelf Water (ISW and Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW have been drawn. The comparison between the WOD01_1994 climatologies (a subset of the WOD01 dataset until April 1994 and the CLIMA ones for the period 1994/95-2003/04 showed significant changes occurred during the decade. The freshening of the Ross Sea shelf waters which occurred during the period 1960-2000, was confirmed by our analysis in all the main water masses, even though with a spatially varying intensity. Relevant variations were found for the MCDW masses, which appeared to reduce their presence and to deepen; this can be ascribed to the very limited freshening of the MCDW core, which allowed an increased density with respect to the surrounding waters. Variations in the MCDW properties and extension could have relevant consequences, e.g. a decreased Ross Ice Shelf basal melting or a reduced supply of nutrients, and may also be indicative of a reduced thermohaline circulation within the Ross Sea. Shelf Waters (SW having neutral density γn > 28.7 Kg m-3, which contribute to form the densest Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW, showed a large volumetric decrease in the 1994/95-2003/04 decade, most likely as a consequence of the SW freshening.

  4. Air-sea heat flux control on the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass intensity and implications for its prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junying; Shi, Jie; Guo, Xinyu; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM), which occurs during summer in the central Yellow Sea, plays an important role in the hydrodynamic field, nutrient cycle and biological species. Based on water temperature observations during the summer from 1978 to 1998 in the western Yellow Sea, five specific YSCWM years were identified, including two strong years (1984 and 1985), two weak years (1989 and 1995) and one normal year (1992). Using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the YSCWM formation processes in these five years were simulated and compared with observations. In general, the YSCWM began forming in spring, matured in summer and gradually disappeared in autumn of every year. The 8 °C isotherm was used to indicate the YSCWM boundary. The modelled YSCWM areas in the two strong years were approximately two times larger than those in the two weak years. Based on the simulations in the weak year of 1995, ten numerical experiments were performed to quantify the key factors influencing the YSCWM intensity by changing the initial water condition in the previous autumn, air-sea heat flux, wind, evaporation, precipitation and sea level pressure to those in the strong year of 1984, respectively. The results showed that the air-sea heat flux was the dominant factor influencing the YSCWM intensity, which contributed about 80% of the differences of the YSCWM average water temperature at a depth of 50 m. In addition, the air-sea heat flux in the previous winter had a determining effect, contributing more than 50% of the differences between the strong and weak YSCWM years. Finally, a simple formula for predicting the YSCWM intensity was established by using the key influencing factors, i.e., the sea surface temperature before the cooling season and the air-sea heat flux during the cooling season from the previous December to the current February. With this formula, instead of a complicated numerical model, we were able to roughly predict the YSCWM intensity for the

  5. {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratio in marine alga Fucus virsoides from the North Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterc, Andrej [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stibilj, Vekoslava [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: vekoslava.stibilj@ijs.si

    2008-04-15

    The only stable iodine isotope is {sup 127}I and the natural {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the biosphere has increased from 10{sup -15}-10{sup -14} to 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9}, mainly due to emissions from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In Europe they are located at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (England), where the ratio of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I is up to 10{sup -4}. The marine environment, i.e. the oceans, is the major source of iodine with average concentrations of around 60 {mu}g L{sup -1} iodine in seawater. Brown algae accumulate iodine at high levels of up to 1.0% of dry weight, and therefore they are an ideal bioindicator for studying the levels of {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I in the marine environment. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) method, developed at our laboratory, was used for {sup 129}I determination in the brown alga Fucus virsoides (Donati) J. Agardh, and the same technique of RNAA was used for total {sup 127}I determination. The samples were collected along the coast of the Gulf of Trieste and the West coast of Istria in the North Adriatic Sea in the period from 2005 to 2006. Values of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio up to 10{sup -9} were found, which is in agreement with the present average global distribution of {sup 129}I. The levels of stable iodine found were in the range from 235 to 506 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the levels of {sup 129}I from 1.7 to 7.3 x 10{sup -3} Bq kg{sup -1} (2.6-10.9 x 10{sup -7} {mu}g g{sup -1}), on a dry matter basis.

  6. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. (AGIP, Milan (Italy))

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  7. Isolation and identification of radiation resistant yeasts from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Cheon; Jeong, Yong Uk; Kim, Du Hong; Jo, Eun A

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to isolate radiation-resistant yeasts from sea water for development of application technology of radiation-resistant microorganism. · Isolation of 656 yeasts from sea water and selection of 2 radiation-resistant yeasts (D 10 value >3) · Identification of isolated yeasts as Filobasidium elegans sharing 99% sequence similarity · Characterization of isolated yeast with ability to repair of the DNA damage and membrane integrity to irradiation

  8. Practical Application of Sea Water Quality Mathematical Model for the Black Sea Coast of Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Burunin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an application of the developed model of the sea water quality for forecasting of coastal waters indicators change in the artificial coastal water areas of Sochi. Results of the researches conducted in relation to yacht port «Grand Marina Sochi» are considered.

  9. COMPETITION BETWEEN CONTAINER PORTS IN THE NORTHERN ADRIATIC

    OpenAIRE

    Elen Twrdy; Milan Batista

    2014-01-01

    World trade has changed in the last decade such that container traffic flows are oriented towards more parts of the European continent. The European container port system is not a homogeneous set of ports; instead it consists of several big ports (e.g., Rotterdam, Hamburg, Algeciras...) and a large number of medium and small ports. Northern Adriatic (NA) ports, namely Rijeka, Koper, Trieste, Venice and Ravenna, are small ports. Each of these ports have different development plans but in varyi...

  10. Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Larry J.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September-October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study the formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) in the Red Sea. Analysis of inert tracers, potential vorticity distributions, and model results confirm that RSOW is formed through mixed-layer deepening caused by sea surface buoyancy loss in winter in the northern Red Sea and reveal more details on RSOW spreading rates, pathways, and vertical structure. The southward spreading of RSOW after its formation is identified as a layer with minimum potential vorticity and maximum CFC-12 and SF6. Ventilation ages of seawater within the RSOW layer, calculated from the partial pressure of SF6 (pSF6), range from 2 years in the northern Red Sea to 15 years at 17°N. The distribution of the tracer ages is in agreement with the model circulation field which shows a rapid transport of RSOW from its formation region to the southern Red Sea where there are longer circulation pathways and hence longer residence time due to basin wide eddies. The mean residence time of RSOW within the Red Sea estimated from the pSF6 age is 4.7 years. This time scale is very close to the mean transit time (4.8 years) for particles from the RSOW formation region to reach the exit at the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the numerical experiment.

  11. Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Jun; Zheng, Qian; Liu, Di; Chen, Yingjun; Zou, Yongde; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2013-01-01

    The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L −1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates ( −1 ). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 −1 . ► Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ► Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

  12. Combining litter observations with a regional ocean model to identify sources and sinks of floating debris in a semi-enclosed basin: The Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Visual ship transect surveys provide crucial information about the density, and spatial distribution of floating anthropogenic litter in a basin. However, such observations provide a 'snapshot' of local conditions at a given time and cannot be used to deduce the provenance of the litter or to pre...... results indicate that anthropogenic macro debris originates largely from coastal sources near population centers and is advected by the cyclonic surface circulation until it strands on the southwest (Italian) coast, exits the Adriatic, or recirculates in the southern gyre....

  13. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  14. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  15. Global change and relative sea level rise at Venice: what impact in term of flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognin, Laura; Tosi, Luigi [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); Teatini, Pietro [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University of Padova, Department of Mathematical Methods and Models for Scientific Applications, Padua (Italy); Tomasin, Alberto [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University Ca' Foscari in Venice, Venice (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Relative sea level rise (RSLR) due to climate change and geodynamics represents the main threat for the survival of Venice, emerging today only 90 cm above the Northern Adriatic mean sea level (msl). The 25 cm RSLR occurred over the 20th century, consisting of about 12 cm of land subsidence and 13 cm of sea level rise, has increased the flood frequency by more than seven times with severe damages to the urban heritage. Reasonable forecasts of the RSLR expected to the century end must be investigated to assess the suitability of the Mo.S.E. project planned for the city safeguarding, i.e., the closure of the lagoon inlets by mobile barriers. Here we consider three RSLR scenarios as resulting from the past sea level rise recorded in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the IPCC mid-range A1B scenario, and the expected land subsidence. Available sea level measurements show that more than 5 decades are required to compute a meaningful eustatic trend, due to pseudo-cyclic 7-8 year long fluctuations. The period from 1890 to 2007 is characterized by an average rate of 0.12 {+-} 0.01 cm/year. We demonstrate that linear regression is the most suitable model to represent the eustatic process over these 117 year. Concerning subsidence, at present Venice is sinking due to natural causes at 0.05 cm/year. The RSLR is expected to range between 17 and 53 cm by 2100, and its repercussions in terms of flooding frequency are associated here to each scenario. In particular, the frequency of tides higher than 110 cm, i.e., the value above which the gates would close the lagoon to the sea, will increase from the nowadays 4 times per year to a range between 20 and 250. These projections provide a large spread of possible conditions concerning the survival of Venice, from a moderate nuisance to an intolerable aggression. Hence, complementary solutions to Mo.S.E. may well be investigated. (orig.)

  16. The methods of cesium-137 determination in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeonov, L.I.; Krylov, V.N.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    New express procedures of Cs-137 determination in sea water using selective sorbents are described. One of them is based on the use of natural radioactive potassium-40 as internal standard. Another one allows to perform Cs-137 determination without use of any standards, by pumping a certain amount of water through several successive identical cells filled with sorbent. The positive feature of the procedures consists in that it is no longer necessary chemical treatment of samples in Cs-133 determination in the sorbent and sea water. The danger of polution of samples by alkali metals which can be introduced with reactive agents in the process of chemical treatment is reduced to minimum

  17. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ionescu

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  18. Seemingly divergent sea surface temperature proxy records in the central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-A. Sicre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs were reconstructed over the last 25 000 yr using alkenone paleothermometry and planktonic foraminifera assemblages from two cores of the central Mediterranean Sea: the MD04-2797 core (Siculo–Tunisian channel and the MD90-917 core (South Adriatic Sea. Comparison of the centennial scale structure of the two temperature signals during the last deglaciation period reveals significant differences in timing and amplitude. We suggest that seasonal changes likely account for seemingly proxy record divergences during abrupt transitions from glacial to interglacial climates and for the apparent short duration of the Younger Dryas (YD depicted by the alkenone time series, a feature that has already been stressed in earlier studies on the Mediterranean deglaciation.

  19. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  20. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, T; Buhagiar, D; Farrugia, R N

    2014-01-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units

  1. Importance of the Gulf of Aqaba for the formation of bottom water in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plähn, Olaf; Baschek, Burkard; Badewien, Thomas H.; Walter, Maren; Rhein, Monika

    2002-08-01

    Conductivity-temperature-depth tracer and direct current measurements collected in the northern Red Sea in February and March 1999 are used to study the formation of deep and bottom water in that region. Historical data showed that open ocean convection in the Red Sea can contribute to the renewal of intermediate or deep water but cannot ventilate the bottom water. The observations in 1999 showed no evidence for open ocean convection in the Red Sea during the winter 1998/1999. The overflow water from the Gulf of Aqaba was found to be the densest water mass in the northern Red Sea. An anomaly of the chlorofluorocarbon component CFC-12 observed in the Gulf of Aqaba and at the bottom of the Red Sea suggests a strong contribution of this water mass to the renewal of bottom water in the Red Sea. The CFC data obtained during this cruise are the first available for this region. Because of the new signal, it is possible for the first time to subdivide the deep water column into deep and bottom water in the northern Red Sea. The available data set also shows that the outflow water from the Gulf of Suez is not dense enough to reach down to the bottom of the Red Sea but was found about 250 m above the bottom.

  2. Cooling-water chlorination: the kinetics of chlorine, bromine, and ammonia in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.D.; Inman, G.W. Jr.; Trofe, T.W.

    1982-11-01

    The major inorganic reaction pathways for the chlorination of saline waters were measured by a variety of techniques including: (1) amperometric titration, (2) amperometric membrane covered electrode, (3) uv spectrophotometry, (4) conventional kinetics methods for slow reactions, and (5) stopped-flow kinetics measurements with a microcomputer data acquisition system. The major reactions studied were: (1) the competitive reactions of ammonia and bromide ion with hypochlorous acid, (2) bromide oxidation by hypochlorous acid, (3) monochloramine formation in sea water, (4) monobromamine formation and subsequent disproportionation to form dibromamine, and (5) monochloramine oxidation of bromide to form bromochloramine. Reaction rates were determined in sodium chloride and sea water as a function of reactant concentration, pH, salinity, and ammonia concentration. Rate constants and corresponding rate laws and mechanisms were developed for each reaction

  3. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  4. A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, E.G.; Schladow, S.G.; Perez-Losada, J.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2008-01-01

    A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed and applied to the Salton Sea. The hydrodynamic component is based on the one-dimensional numerical model, DLM. The water quality model is based on a new conceptual model for nutrient cycling in the Sea, and simulates temperature, total suspended sediment concentration, nutrient concentrations, including PO4-3, NO3-1 and NH4+1, DO concentration and chlorophyll a concentration as functions of depth and time. Existing water temperature data from 1997 were used to verify that the model could accurately represent the onset and breakup of thermal stratification. 1999 is the only year with a near-complete dataset for water quality variables for the Salton Sea. The linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was run for 1999, and by adjustment of rate coefficients and other water quality parameters, a good match with the data was obtained. In this article, the model is fully described and the model results for reductions in external phosphorus load on chlorophyll a distribution are presented. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Specific chelating reagent to extract uranium from the sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao; Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of uranyl ions as seen from the chemistry of complex as the object of molecule recognition was examined on the basis of the research of structure and equilibrium in solution, in an attempt for the search of specific ligands and the molecular design of adsorbents. What is the most essential for the extraction of uranyl ions from sea water is the development of an excellent adsorbent with rapid adsorption, large equilibrium adsorption and high physical-chemical stability. Based on this appreciation, attempt has been made to find out the molecular design of an excellent adsorbent, starting with the chemistry of complex of uranyl ions. For the purpose, the following matters are reviewed: uranium in nature, the chemistry of complex of uranyl ions, specific ligands for the uranyl ions in sea water, the adsorbent resins for sea-water uranium, the proposals for an adsorbent system. (Mori, K.)

  6. Aquifer Treatment of Sea Water to Remove Natural Organic Matter Before Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2016-10-18

    An investigation of a sea water reverse osmosis desalination facility located in western Saudi Arabia has shown that aquifer treatment of the raw sea water provides a high degree of removal of natural organic matter (NOM) that causes membrane biofouling. The aquifer is a carbonate system that has a good hydraulic connection to the sea and 14 wells are used to induce sea water movement 400 to 450 m from the sea to the wells. During aquifer transport virtually all of the algae, over 90% of the bacteria, over 90% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and high percentages of the humic substance, building blocks, and some of the low molecular weight fractions of NOM are removed. Between 44 and over 90% of the transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are removed with a corresponding significant reduction in concentration of the colloidal fraction of TEP. The removal rate for TEP appears to be greater in carbonate aquifers compared to siliciclastic systems. Although the production wells range in age from 4 months to 14 years, no significant difference in the degree of water treatment provided by the aquifer was found.

  7. Aquifer Treatment of Sea Water to Remove Natural Organic Matter Before Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Almashharawi, Samir; Ng, Kim Choon; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of a sea water reverse osmosis desalination facility located in western Saudi Arabia has shown that aquifer treatment of the raw sea water provides a high degree of removal of natural organic matter (NOM) that causes membrane biofouling. The aquifer is a carbonate system that has a good hydraulic connection to the sea and 14 wells are used to induce sea water movement 400 to 450 m from the sea to the wells. During aquifer transport virtually all of the algae, over 90% of the bacteria, over 90% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and high percentages of the humic substance, building blocks, and some of the low molecular weight fractions of NOM are removed. Between 44 and over 90% of the transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are removed with a corresponding significant reduction in concentration of the colloidal fraction of TEP. The removal rate for TEP appears to be greater in carbonate aquifers compared to siliciclastic systems. Although the production wells range in age from 4 months to 14 years, no significant difference in the degree of water treatment provided by the aquifer was found.

  8. Electrical guidance efficiency of downstream-migrating juvenile Sea Lamprey decreases with increasing water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution of Sea Lampreys shifted from right to left across the width of the flume toward the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active at water velocities less than 25 cm/s. The VEPDC appeared to have no effect on Sea Lamprey distribution in the flume at water velocities greater than 25 cm/s. We also conducted separate tests to determine the threshold at which Sea Lampreys would become paralyzed. Individuals were paralyzed at a mean power density of 37.0 µW/cm3. Future research should investigate the ability of juvenile Sea Lampreys to detect electric fields and their specific behavioral responses to electric field characteristics so as to optimize the use of this technology as a nonphysical guidance tool across variable water velocities.

  9. The Structure of Sea Water and Gelatinous Water in the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Wojciechowicz, M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    Gelatinous life forms are common in the deep sea and are able to maintain a careful combination of body integrity and easy fluidity of motion over a wide range of T and P. They accomplish this in part by modifying the molecular structure of water. Both the transparent body of the organism (the mesoglea) and the structure of the immediate surrounding sea water were investigated by in situ laser Raman spectroscopy at depths from 300m to 2,800m. The structure of water is reasonably well known; the basic unit is a hydrogen bonded pentamer with defined stretching and bending modes. The spectrum of the bending band is separable into two components while the stretching band spectrum is composed of five components representing both intra- and inter-molecular vibrations. The effect of temperature on the various vibrational modes is complex. While the effect of pressure on the bending modes is small, but the effect of temperature and pressure on the stretching modes is significant and can be modeled as a van `t Hoff function. Our in situ experiments were conducted using MBARI's ROV Ventana and ROV Doc Ricketts. We collected cnidarians and ctenophores into a 6 L glass detritus sampler fitted with a metal grid plate. Once the animal was captured, we introduced argon gas through the lid of the sampler displacing the contained sea water and leaving a motionless sea water free specimen for spectroscopy. The laser beam was focused through the glass wall of the container and the focal point adjusted to be inside the gelatinous body. Our results very clearly show that:i) The gelatinous mass effectively excludes salts with zero sulfate ion being detected.ii) The water bending modes are absent from the gelatinous spectra.iii) The water stretching modes are highly modified from the typical 5 band liquid pentamer structure with only 3 vibrational modes observable. These results stand in marked contrast to the familiar household gelatin which is typically derived from bovine sources

  10. Responses of three tomato cultivars to sea water salinity 1. Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sea water salinity (1500, 2500 and 3500 ppm) on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars (Trust, Grace and Plitz) was studied. The sea water salinity delayed seed germination and reduced germination percentage especially with increasing salinity level. Chlorophyll b content was higher than ...

  11. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  12. Adsorption of transuranic elements from large volume sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.

    1976-01-01

    Some years ago a sampler for concentrating radionuclides from large volumes of sea water was developed by Silker et al. of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories. They used pure A1 2 O 3 as the adsorbent. The device has been applied successfully to the determination of 238 Pu and 239 Pu in several sea water samples. Our experience on the application of an identical system for the determination of transuranics in Mediterranean sea water was not quite as satisfactory as we had hoped. The chemistry involved in leaching up to 1 kg Al 2 O 3 . with acid, followed by removal of dissolved aluminium from the transuranic fraction, is rather tedious and time-consuming for routine use. The adsorption efficiency of transuranics, checked by dual-bed adsorption did not give consistent results. However, since the principle of the device is attractive enough for handling large volume water samples, it was felt that it was worthwhile to test other types of adsorbents which are easier to handle than Al 2 O 3 . For this purpose, chitosan and manganese dioxide were chosen and series of experiments were conducted in order to examine the suitability of these materials as an adsorbent in the system

  13. Coccolithophore assemblage response to Black Sea Water inflow into the North Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Malinverno, E.; Lagaria, A.; Mara, P.; Archontikis, O.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to presents the species composition of living coccolithophore communities in the NE Aegean Sea, investigating their spatial and temporal variations along a north-south transect in the area receiving the inflowing surface Black Sea Water (BSW) over the deeper Levantine Water (LW) layer. Coccolithophores in the area were relatively diverse and a total of 95 species over 3 sampling periods studied were recognized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two coccolithophore Groups (I, IIa, IIb, IIc) with different ecological preferences. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species of Group I, whereas Syracosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp. and holococcolithophores were prevailing in the highly diversified Group II assemblages. Biometric analysis conducted on E. huxleyi coccoliths from Aegean water column and Black Sea sediment trap samples, indicated that during autumn, NE Aegean specimens in samples under BSW influence were featured by unimodal distribution concerning the coccolith relative tube width, with values similar to those provided by the Black Sea specimens. In early spring, coccoliths in the stations with increased BSW influx displayed a bimodal pattern of relative tube width with smaller values found mostly in the surface layers, while the distribution became again unimodal and dominated by larger values within the deeper LW layers. In the summer period, the typical LW holococcolithophore species (Group II) presented low cell numbers in the surface layer (huxleyi was almost absent in the NE Aegean during the summer sampling period.

  14. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  15. Formation and spreading of Arabian Sea high-salinity water mass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    The formation and seasonal spreading of the Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW) mass were studied based on the monthly mean climatology of temperature and salinity in the Arabian Sea, north of the equator and west of 80 degrees E, on a 2 degrees...

  16. BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.C. [BC Sustainable Energy Association, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although solar hot water heating is an environmentally responsible technology that reduces fossil fuel consumption and helps mitigate global climate change, there are many barriers to its widespread use. Each year, domestic water heating contributes nearly 6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of solar water heaters can eliminate up to 2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per household. The BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project was launched in an effort to demonstrate that the technology has the potential to be widely used in homes and businesses across British Columbia. One of the main barriers to the widespread use of solar hot water heating is the initial cost of the system. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the technology are other barriers. However, other jurisdictions around the world have demonstrated that the use of renewables are the product of conscious policy decisions, including low-cost financing and other subsidies that have created demand for these technologies. To this end, the BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project will test the potential for the rapid acceleration of solar water heating in pilot communities where barriers are removed. The objective of the project is to install 100 solar water systems in homes and 25 in businesses and institutions in communities in British Columbia by July 2007. The project will explore the financial barriers to the installation of solar hot water systems and produce an action plan to reduce these barriers. In addition to leading by example, the project will help the solar energy marketplace, mitigate climate change and improve energy efficiency.

  17. Concentration factors of 226 Ra in the mullet species Liza aurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, I.; Antovic, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of measured 226 Ra activity concentrations in whole individuals of the mullet species Liza aurata, its muscles and skeleton, concentration factors for transfer of radium from water and sediment to this mullet species from the South Adriatic Sea, have been determined. (author) [sr

  18. The Carbon Dioxide System in the Baltic Sea Surface Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesslander, Karin

    2011-05-15

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere is steadily increasing because of human activities such as fossil fuel burning. To understand how this is affecting the planet, several pieces of knowledge of the CO{sub 2} system have to be investigated. One piece is how the coastal seas, which are used by people and influenced by industrialization, are functioning. In this thesis, the CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea surface water has been investigated using observations from the last century to the present. The Baltic Sea is characterized of a restricted water exchange with the open ocean and a large inflow of river water. The CO{sub 2} system, including parameters such as pH and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), has large seasonal and inter-annual variability in the Baltic Sea. These parameters are affected by several processes, such as air-sea gas exchange, physical mixing, and biological processes. Inorganic carbon is assimilated in the primary production and pCO{sub 2} declines to approx150 muatm in summer. In winter, pCO{sub 2} levels increase because of prevailing mineralization and mixing processes. The wind-mixed surface layer deepens to the halocline (approx60 m) and brings CO{sub 2}- enriched water to the surface. Winter pCO{sub 2} may be as high as 600 muatm in the surface water. The CO{sub 2} system is also exposed to short-term variations caused by the daily biological cycle and physical events such as upwelling. A cruise was made in the central Baltic Sea to make synoptic measurements of oceanographic, chemical, and meteorological parameters with high temporal resolution. Large short-term variations were found in pCO{sub 2} and oxygen (O{sub 2}), which were highly correlated. The diurnal variation of pCO{sub 2} was up to 40 muatm. The CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea changed as the industrialization increased around 1950, which was demonstrated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the CO{sub 2} system

  19. 18O/16O ratios of the pore water of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Two cores of Baltic Sea sediment were collected in 1975. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water enclosed in the sediment (pore water) was measured after the separation of the liquid from the solid phase. The results may support the discussion about the history of the Baltic Sea. At the top of the core the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water represents the oxygen isotope composition of the sea water above. Towards the deeper parts of the sediment, independently of the salt content, the 18 O/ 16 O ratio decreases towards values observed in the precipitation of the surrounding land areas. (author)

  20. Influence of sea ice cover and icebergs on circulation and water mass formation in a numerical circulation model of the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinniman, Michael S.; Klinck, John M.; Smith, Walker O.

    2007-11-01

    Satellite imagery shows that there was substantial variability in the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea during 2001-2003. Much of this variability is thought to be due to several large icebergs that moved through the area during that period. The effects of these changes in sea ice on circulation and water mass distributions are investigated with a numerical general circulation model. It would be difficult to simulate the highly variable sea ice from 2001 to 2003 with a dynamic sea ice model since much of the variability was due to the floating icebergs. Here, sea ice concentration is specified from satellite observations. To examine the effects of changes in sea ice due to iceberg C-19, simulations were performed using either climatological ice concentrations or the observed ice for that period. The heat balance around the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP) shows that the dominant term in the surface heat budget is the net exchange with the atmosphere, but advection of oceanic warm water is also important. The area average annual basal melt rate beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is reduced by 12% in the observed sea ice simulation. The observed sea ice simulation also creates more High-Salinity Shelf Water. Another simulation was performed with observed sea ice and a fixed iceberg representing B-15A. There is reduced advection of warm surface water during summer from the RSP into McMurdo Sound due to B-15A, but a much stronger reduction is due to the late opening of the RSP in early 2003 because of C-19.

  1. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tamburini

    Full Text Available The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  2. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Moscoso, Luciano; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma Nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Păvălaş, Gabriela E; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J M; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G F; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  3. Comparison of growth rates estimated by otolith reading of Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena notata caught on artificial and natural reefs of the northern Adriatic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scarcella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high number of studies on fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs and offshore platforms, little information exists on the growth rates of fish living on artificial and natural substrates. Age and growth was determined throughout otolith reading on two commercial scorpionfishes (Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena notata caught in the surroundings of artificial structures (artificial reefs and gas platforms and natural habitats. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated for each species separately for each site. Age of S. porcus and S. notata ranged from 0 to 8 years and from 0 to 16 years, respectively. Kimura test applied to Von Bertalanffy growth curves indicated that the individuals of both species inhabiting the artificial structures had higher growth parameters than those caught in the natural habitat. The presence of artificial habitats in the northern Adriatic Sea positively affects growth rates and growth performance of both species, likely for the greater prey availability in respect to the natural open sea.Apesar do elevado número de estudos sobre as assembléias de peixes associadas a recifes artificiais e plataformas offshore, existe pouca informação sobre as taxas de crescimento dos peixes que vivem em substratos artificiais e naturais. A idade e crescimento foram determinados pela leitura de otólitos em dois peixes escorpião comerciais (Scorpaena porcus e Scorpaena notata capturados nas imediações de estruturas artificiais (recifes artificiais e plataformas de gás e habitats naturais. Parâmetros de crescimento de von Bertalanffy foram calculadoss separadamente para cada espécie e cada local. A idade de Scorpaena porcus e Scorpaena notata variou entre 0 e 8 anos e 0 e 16 anos, respectivamente. O teste Kimura aplicado às curvas de crescimento de Bertalanffy indicaram que os indivíduos das duas espécies que habitam as estruturas artificiais tinham parâmetros de crescimento mais elevados do que

  4. Measurements of distribution coefficient for U and Th on sand stone in synthesized sea water and distilled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kenichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed the sorption database for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation property of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. However, there are not enough distribution coefficient data for radioactive elements in saline type groundwater in the database. Thus the batch sorption tests were performed for uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in saline type groundwater. For these elements, there are little registration numbers in the JNC's sorption database, and also these elements are important to evaluate the safety of disposal system. The experiments for each radioactive element were performed on the following conditions; U: Kd measurements using the solutions (synthesized sea water and distilled water) reacted with sand stone as a function of carbonate concentration, under reducing conditions. Th: Kd measurements using the solutions (synthesized sea water and distilled water) reacted with sand stone. The results of the experiments are summarized below; In the case of U, Kd was approximately 6.5E-01 - 9.2E-01 m 3 /kg in synthesized sea water. On the other hand, Kd was 2.2E-02 - 2.4E-02 m 3 /kg in the high carbonate solution. And also, Kd was 6.5E-02 - 7.2E-02 m 3 /kg in synthesized sea water adjusted pH 10 and 3.4E-02 - 4.1E-02 m 3 /kg in distilled water adjusted pH 10, respectively. In the case of Th, Kd was measured in synthesized sea water adjusted to pH 10 and in distilled water adjusted to pH 10. At the sorption measurements of Th, precipitation might be occurred by very low solubility of Th. (author)

  5. The cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus (Pisces: Labridae: biological indices for life history and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matić-Skoko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus, is widely distributed in the moderate warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. Generally, labrids are small inshore coastal species susceptible to anthropogenic habitat degradation and, although without commercial importance, they make up a significant part of the by-catch and discard. Also, these fishes are intensively caught in recreational and subsistence fisheries. Basic biological information is required for their stock assessment and conservation. Studies of the age, growth, reproduction and feeding of L. mixtus have not been undertaken previously in the Adriatic Sea. The observed maximum age of the cuckoo wrasse was 10 years, although most of the sampled fish were 7 years old. The estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth model suggested that the growth of L. mixtus was relatively fast in the first four years of life. L. mixtus is a protogynous hermaphrodite and sex change occurred at 26 cm, while the greatest increase in gonadosomatic index in April confirmed spring as the spawning period. The cuckoo wrasse is an opportunistic predator, feeding primarily on crustaceans, gastropods and fishes. The information provided on biological indices is necessary for life history pathways and future conservation measures of this population in the Adriatic Sea.

  6. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface......3 or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3 and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3 and sulfide concentrations and enitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h1. Assuming...... area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132...

  7. Investigation of different coastal processes in Indonesian waters using SeaWiFS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendiarti, Nani; Siegel, Herbert; Ohde, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    SeaWiFS data were applied to investigate coastal processes in Indonesian waters around the most populated island of Java. Coastal processes due to wind forcing were studied the first time using SeaWiFS-derived chlorophyll and TSM concentrations in combination with AVHRR-derived SST in the period from September 1997 to December 2001. Upwelling events were studied along the southern coast of Java during the southeast monsoon (June to September). Satellite-derived chlorophyll concentrations higher than 0.8 mg/ m3 and sea-surface temperatures lower than 28°C are indications of upwelling. Upwelling events influence the distribution and growth of phytoplankton and provide by that good feeding condition for zooplankton, larvae, juvenile and adult of pelagic fish. Coastal discharge into the western Java Sea contains organic and inorganic materials originating from different sources. Diffuse impacts, particularly from fish farms and aquaculture, as well as coastal erosion influence large coastal areas during the rainy season (December to March), and to a lesser extent during the dry season. Strong Citarum river discharge was observed during the transition phase from the rainy to the dry season (March and April), when the maximum amount of transported material reaches the sea. The river plume is evident from chlorophyll concentrations higher than 2.5 mg/ m3, and suspended particulate matter concentrations of more than 8 mg/dm3. The Sunda Strait is seasonally influenced by water transport from the Java Sea and from the Indian Ocean. The satellite data show that water transport from the Java Sea occurs during the pre-dominantly easterly winds period (June to September). This is characterized by warm water (SST higher than 29.5°C) and chlorophyll concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/ m3. This water transport influences the fish abundance in the Sunda Strait. High fish catches coincide with the presence of Java Sea water, while the surface currents lead to the migration of

  8. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  9. Combined effects of the herbicide terbuthylazine and temperature on different flagellates from the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Emanuela; Mazzotti, Matilde; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-03-15

    The triazinic herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) is becoming an emergent contaminant in Italian rivers and in coastal and groundwater. A preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of marine flagellates to TBA was performed by monitoring the photosynthetic efficiency of nine species (belonging to the Dinophyceae or Raphidophyceae class) isolated from the Adriatic Sea. Different sensitivity levels for each flagellate were observed and the most sensitive microalgae, based on PSII inhibition, were: Gonyaulax spinifera>Fibrocapsa japonica>Lingulodinium polyedrum while the most resistant were two species belonging to the Prorocentrum genus. Then the response of two microalgae to drivers, such as temperature and terbuthylazine, applied in combination was also investigated. Two potentially toxic flagellates, Prorocentrum minimum and G. spinifera, were exposed, under different temperature conditions (15, 20 and 25°C), to TBA concentrations that did not completely affect PSII. For both flagellates, effects of TBA on algal growth, measured through cell density and carbon analysis, as well as on the photosynthetic activity are reported. All parameters analyzed showed a negative effect of TBA from the exponential phase. TBA effect on algal growth was significantly enhanced at the optimal temperature conditions (20 and 25°C), while no difference between control and herbicide treatments were detected for G. spinifera grown at 15°C, which represented a stress condition for this species. The maximum inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency was found at 20°C for both organisms. Both flagellates increased cell carbon and nitrogen content in herbicide treatments compared to the control, except G. spinifera grown at 15°C. Chlorophyll-a production was increased only in G. spinifera exposed to 5 μg L(-1) of TBA and the effect was enhanced with the increase of temperature. Herbicide-induced variations in cellular components determined changes in cellular carbon:nitrogen (C:N) and

  10. Variability of mesoscale features in the Mediterranean Sea from XBT data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fusco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1998–2000, the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project, aiming to build a forecasting system for the physical state of the sea, has been carried out. A ship-of-opportunity programme sampled the Mediterranean upper ocean thermal structure by means of eXpendable Bathy-Thermographs (XBTs, along seven tracks, from September 1999 to May 2000. The tracks were designed to detect some of the main circulation features, such as the stream of surface Atlantic water flowing from the Alboran Sea to the Eastern Levantine Basin. The cyclonic gyres in the Liguro-Provenal Basin, the southern Adriatic and Ionian Seas and the anticyclonic gyres in the Levantine Basin were also features to be detected. The monitoring system confirmed a long-term persistence of structures (at least during the entire observing period, which were previously thought to be transient features. In particular, in the Levantine Basin anticyclonic Shikmona and Ierapetra Gyres have been observed during the monitoring period. In order to identify the major changes in the thermal structures and the dynamical implications, the XBT data are compared with historical measurements collected in the 1980s and 1990s. The results indicate that some thermal features are being restored to the situation that existed in the 1980s, after the changes induced by the so-called "Eastern Mediterranean Transient". Key words. Oceanography: physical (eddies and mesoscale processes; general circulation; instruments and techniques

  11. Distribution of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments of Maslinica Bay, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic, Nenad; Orescanin, Visnja; Elez, Loris; Pavicic, Ljiljana; Pezelj, Durdica; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Lulic, Stipe

    2008-02-01

    Spatial distributions of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments and water of Maslinica Bay (Southern Adriatic), Croatia and possible changes in marine flora and foraminifera communities due to pollution were investigated. Macro, micro and trace elements’ distributions in five granulometric fractions were determined for each sediment sample. Bulk sediment samples were also subjected to leaching tests. Elemental concentrations in sediments, sediment extracts and seawater were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Concentrations of the elements Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb in bulk sediment samples taken in the Maslinica Bay were from 2.1 to over six times enriched when compared with the background level determined for coarse grained carbonate sediments. A low degree of trace elements leaching determined for bulk sediments pointed to strong bonding of trace elements to sediment mineral phases. The analyses of marine flora pointed to higher eutrophication, which disturbs the balance between communities and natural habitats.

  12. Water transparency measurements in the deep Ionian Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Anassontzis, E G; Belias, A; Fotiou, A; Grammatikakis, G; Kontogiannis, H; Koske, P; Koutsoukos, S; Lykoussis, V; Markopoulos, E; Psallidas, A; Resvanis, L K; Siotis, I; Stavrakakis, S; Stavropoulos, G; Zhukov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A long optical base line spectrophotometer designed to measure light transmission in deep sea waters is described. The variable optical path length allows measurements without the need for absolute or external calibration. The spectrophotometer uses eight groups of uncollimated light sources emitting in the range 370–530 nm and was deployed at various depths at two locations in the Ionian Sea that are candidate sites for a future underwater neutrino telescope. Light transmission spectra at the two locations are presented and compared.

  13. Potential Osteoporosis Recovery by Deep Sea Water through Bone Regeneration in SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hen-Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic potential of deep sea water (DSW on osteoporosis. Previously, we have established the ovariectomized senescence-accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8 and demonstrated strong recovery of osteoporosis by stem cell and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Deep sea water at hardness (HD 1000 showed significant increase in proliferation of osteoblastic cell (MC3T3 by MTT assay. For in vivo animal study, bone mineral density (BMD was strongly enhanced followed by the significantly increased trabecular numbers through micro-CT examination after a 4-month deep sea water treatment, and biochemistry analysis showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was decreased. For stage-specific osteogenesis, bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs were harvested and examined. Deep sea water-treated BMSCs showed stronger osteogenic differentiation such as BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, and OCN, and enhanced colony forming abilities, compared to the control group. Interestingly, most untreated OVX-SAMP8 mice died around 10 months; however, approximately 57% of DSW-treated groups lived up to 16.6 months, a life expectancy similar to the previously reported life expectancy for SAMR1 24 months. The results demonstrated the regenerative potentials of deep sea water on osteogenesis, showing that deep sea water could potentially be applied in osteoporosis therapy as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.

  14. Development of Speciality polymer to extract uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    Polymer adsorbents were designed to extract uranium efficiently from sea water. The unique coordination structure of uranyl ion was suggested from x-ray crystallography and determining factors influencing equilibrium constants were elucidated. A quantitative estimation of the ligand efficiency was obtained. Based on these considerations on the coordination chemistry of uranyl ion, new polymer adsorbents were prepared and found to show excellent adsorption characteristics. The macrocyclic ligands mimicking crystallographic structure of the complex: planer headentate, were found to show large equilibrium constants as well as high selectivities toward metal ions. Direct usage of sea current was proposed as a most economical way of treating a huge amount of sea water. The polymer adsorbent could recover uranium with large adsorption rate just by immersing the resin into Kuroshio. (author)

  15. Needs and processes for the sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2007-11-01

    The author shows the needs of the sea water desalination for the dry countries. The main technique is the reverse osmosis. It requires electricity and its development needs big electric power plants. For economical and ecological reasons, the nuclear energy seems well appropriate. Libya is for instance very interested in this technique, because of their water shortage problem. (A.L.B.)

  16. Water balance of Slovenia 1971 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantar, P; Dolinar, M; Kurnik, B

    2008-01-01

    The water is becoming more and more valuable natural resource. The increasing water demand and climate changes are making water a precious and not always available valuable. The water balance is the most appropriate way to make a full overview of water cycle in Slovenia, to find general information about hydrological characteristics of drainage basins, precipitation, evaporation and runoff. The article presents the methodology and the results of the Water balance project of Slovenia. Slovenia has the geographical position at the juncture of 4 main European georegions: The Alps, the Panonian Basin, the Mediterranean and the Dinaric Mountains. This makes the territory very diverse also from a hydrological point of view. Our major watershed divides the precipitation runoff into two watershed areas - the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea. Due to this watershed almost all the Slovenia's rivers have headwaters in our territory. Water balance is calculation of water inputs and outputs over the defined area. The basic elements of the water balance include all the inflows and outflows for a given basin and serve for the computation of the water regime of a catchment area. It is defined by the parameters precipitation (P), evaporation (E), discharge (Q) and the change of the water reserves (dS). Main results of the water balance elements for the 1971 - 2000 period for Slovenia are: Average annual precipitation in Slovenia is 1579 mm, average annual evapotranspiration is 717 mm and calculated runoff is 862 mm. Compared to water amounts in the World, where the average precipitation is 750 mm, evapotranspiration is 480 mm and runoff is 270 mm, Slovenia shows an abundance of water quantities. Also the runoff coefficient with 55 % is much higher as 36 % of the world. The major questions remain if we are capable to live with this water amounts within the limits of sustainable development and what will be the effects of climate change to water balance.

  17. Trace elements and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in fish from deep-waters of the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Kubota, Reiji; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Ramu, Karri; Nishida, Shuhei; Ohta, Suguru; Yeh, Hsin-ming; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) and stable isotope ratios (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) were analyzed in fish from deep-water of the Sulu Sea, the Celebes Sea and the Philippine Sea. Concentrations of V and Pb in pelagic fish from the Sulu Sea were higher than those from the Celebes Sea, whereas the opposite trend was observed for δ 13 C. High concentrations of Zn, Cu and Ag were found in non-migrant fish in deep-water, while Rb level was high in fish which migrate up to the epipelagic zone, probably resulting from differences in background levels of these TEs in each water environment or function of adaptation to deep-water by migrant and non-migrant species. Arsenic level in the Sulu Sea fish was positively correlated with δ 15 N, indicating biomagnification of arsenic. To our knowledge, this is the first study on relationship between diel vertical migration and TE accumulation in deep-water fish.

  18. RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT. A STUDY ON THE CONCENTRATION OF MIXED FISSION PRODUCTS IN GREEK SEA WATERS AND OF 137CS IN FISH AND SEA PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANALI-KOTSAKI, S.; FLOROU-GAZI, H.

    1982-12-01

    Full text: The concentrations of mixed fission products in sea water and of 137 Cs in fish and sea plants are different for samples collected from different sampling areas. This difference is more remarkable the year where the level of the world wide fall-out is higher, especially with regards to M. F. P. concentrations in sea water samples. Increases or decreases to M.F.P. concentrations in sea water samples result to increases or decreases of 137 Cs in fish and sea plants. (author)

  19. Radiation influence on heterogenous processes in stainless steel contact with sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agayev, T.N.; Garibov, A.A.; Velibekova, G.Z.; Aliyev, A.Q.; Aliyev, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Austenitic stainless steel (s.s.) with Cr content 16 %, Ni - 15 % is widely used in nuclear reactors as construction material, for fuel cladding production and also is used in oil and gas production and transportation. They possess comparatively large section of slow neutron capture and as a result high corrosion resistance. In real exploitation condition of nuclear reactors s.s. are exposed to ionizing radiation influence in contact of different media. That's why during their corrosion and destruction processes the surface defect formation processes and further heterogenous processes with their participation are of great importance. The research results of mechanism during radiation-heterogenous processes in nuclear reactor stainless steel contact with sea-water under the influence of γ-radiation in temperature interval 300-1074 K are represented in the given work. Radiolytic processes in water are comprehensively studied and therefore it was taken as model system for dating the surface defects and secondary electrons emitted from metal. The same model system was applied also in sea-water radiolysis processes. It's been established that radiation processes in s.s. lead to molecular hydrogen yield increase and at T=300 K up to 6.5 molec./100 eV. With the temperature increase molecular hydrogen yield increase up to 25.3 molec./100 eV at T≤773 K. During the further temperature increase up to 1073 K radiation constituent of radiation-thermal process in comparison with thermal becomes unnoticeable and W T (H 2 )≅W p (H 2 ). The kinetics of oxide phase formation of investigated sample surface in the result of thermal and radiation-thermal processes in their contact with sea-water has been studied. At that it's been shown that radiation leads to protective oxidation process rate increase and promotes the beginning of stainless steel destruction oxidation in contact with sea-water. At T≥573 K insoluble oxide phase is formed on metal surface that promotes

  20. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    X. Carton; P. L'Hegaret

    2011-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this ...

  1. Seasonal variability of sea surface chlorophyll-a of waters around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    days during 1978--1986 are processed to produce sea surface chlorophyll maps ... shallow water areas, in particular waters in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar, should be carried out in order .... The circulation penetrates deeper, affecting the.

  2. Remote sensing of coastal area near Bari : results of marine campaign performed with lidar fluorosensor; Rapporto sulla campagna di misura con LIDAR fluorosensore effettuate sul mare di Bari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    The lidar fluorosensor, built at ENEA Frascati to remotely monitor the sea-water quality by collecting the water Raman back scattering and induced fluorescence from dispersed oils, suspended matter and chlorophyll, has been employed in a marine campaign in the southern Adriatic sea. To this aim, the lidar fluorosensor has been installed on a coastal guard boat and operated during the cruise. Extensive calibration measurements have been undertaken by using this system, both in laboratory and during the campaigns, to analyze sea water samples taken at several places along the Italian coasts. Absolute values of organic matter, chlorophyll concentrations have been obtained by calibrating the locally and remotely sensed lidar data with standard physical-chemical methods.

  3. Recovery of uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao; Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    1984-01-01

    The present status of technology for the recovery of uranium has been reviewed. Adsorbent qualities were discussed in terms of three important criteria: adsorption rate, equilibrium adsorption and chemical as well as physical stability. It was elucidated that a significant improvement of the adsorption rate is most important. Efforts were made to clarify factors influencing the adsorption rate. A method to treat a tremendous amount of sea water is of much importance as well. Pumping-up and direct use of sea currents were compared with each other. It has been emphasized that the active utilization of the various advantages of the latter method is crucial for the realization of the recovery project. The physical capability of the method was illustrated. Some composite systems with electric power generation plants were also discussed. (author)

  4. Performance of Control System Using Microcontroller for Sea Water Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani, A.; Witanto, Y.; Pratama, A. S.; Supriyadi; Hendra; Tanjung, A.

    2018-02-01

    Now a day control system is very important rule for any process. Control system have been used in the automatic system. Automatic system can be seen in the industrial filed, mechanical field, electrical field and etc. In industrial and mechanical field, control system are used for control of motion component such as motor, conveyor, machine, control of process made of product, control of system and soon. In electrical field, control system can met for control of electrical system as equipment or part electrical like fan, rice cooker, refrigerator, air conditioner and etc. Control system are used for control of temperature and circulation gas, air and water. Control system of temperature and circulation of water also can be used for fisher community. Control system can be create by using microcontroller, PLC and other automatic program [1][2]. In this paper we will focus on the close loop system by using microcontroller Arduino Mega to control of temperature and circulation of sea water for fisher community. Performance control system is influenced by control equipment, sensor sensitivity, test condition, environment and others. The temperature sensor is measured using the DS18S20 and the sea water clarity sensor for circulation indicator with turbidity sensor. From the test results indicated that this control system can circulate sea water and maintain the temperature and clarity of seawater in a short time.

  5. Assessment of sea water inundation along Daboo creek area in Indus Delta Region, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.

    2017-12-01

    Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.

  6. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  7. Proposal and technological breakthrough of an integrated system for the complete usage of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakao, Shin-ichi; Kato, Shigeru; Tsuji, Masamichi; Sugi, Jiro.

    1996-01-01

    Serious troubles regarding scale formation may occur when the amount of recovered water from sea water increases. The main constituents of the scale are CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, all of which are salts of alkaline earth metals. Therefore, if a key technology is developed with which the main constituents of the scale, alkaline earth metal ions such as CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, can be removed and/or separated from sea water the recovery of desalted water from raw sea water using high-pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) can be increased up to 75-80%, the solubility limit of the remaining scale components. Then it will be possible to make use of all valuable materials that exist in sea water, using an integrated system that combines conventional recovery technologies with a set of the proposed technologies such as HPRO, an alkaline earth metal ions removal process, inorganic ion exchangers for recovering trace elements and so on. Furthermore, almost complete utilization of sea water may be accomplished by using of the brackish water by product for salt-resistant plants such as mangrove, salt bush and, if possible, gene-recombinated plants. (author)

  8. 137Cs inventories in the water column collected from the South and South China Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Wang, Z.-L.; Zheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    Seawater samples were collected in the Sulu and South China Seas and their 137 Cs activities were determined by γ spectrometry. A significant difference in intermediate water 137 Cs activities in the 750-1500 m depth was observed between the Sulu and South China Seas. The 137 Cs inventories in the Sulu Sea was 5.7 times higher than that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude of 0-10degN. A possible mechanism controlling this extremely high 137 Cs inventories may be inflows of 137 Cs rich North Pacific Tropical Water and upper North Pacific Intermediate Water through the Luzon Straight from the West Philippine Sea, and lateral transport across the Mindoro Strait into the Sulu Sea, then conveyance into the deep layer in the Sulu Sea basin. (author)

  9. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange from North Sea coastal waters and the Atlantic Meridional Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R.

    2016-02-01

    Suppression of gas transfer velocity (kw) by surfactants are well established, both in laboratory wind flumes and purposeful oceanic releases. However, the effects on kw of time and space varying concentrations of natural surfactant are inadequately studied. We have developed an automated gas exchange tank for simultaneous high precision measurement of kw in unmodified seawater samples. Here we present data from two studies along a coastal North Sea transect during 2012-2013 and the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) 24 from September to November 2014. Measurements of surfactant activity (SA), CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a have enabled us to characterize the effects of variable amounts of natural surfactant on kw. North Sea coastal waters range in k660 (kw normalized to the value for CO2 in freshwater at 20oC) was 6.8-24.5 cm hr-1 (n=20), with the ranges of SA, total CDOM absorbance (200-450 nm) and chlorophyll-a measured in the surface microlayer (SML) of our seawater samples were 0.08-0.38 mg l-1 T-X-100, 0.13-4.7 and 0.09-1.54 µg l-1, respectively. The AMT k660 ranged from 7.0-23.9 cm hr-1 (n=22), with SA measured in the SML and subsurface water (SSW) of our seawater samples ranging from 0.15-1.08 mg l-1 T-X-100 and 0.07-0.43 mg l-1 T-X-100, respectively. Importantly, we found 12-45% (North Sea) and 1-43% (AMT) k660 suppression relative to Milli-Q water that relate to seasonal and spatial differences in SA. The North Sea demonstrated notable seasonal influences on k660 suppression that were related to CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a. The degree of k660 suppression was highest in summer consistent with k660 control by natural surfactant. The degree of k660 suppression decreased with distance offshore in the North Sea and displayed a strong relationship with SA (r2 = 0.51-0.64, p = 0.02, n = 20). The AMT demonstrated notable differences in k660 suppression between hemispheres and across the Longhurst Provinces but the overall relationship between k660

  10. Studies of deep water formation and circulation in the Weddell Sea using natural and anthropogenic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Peter; Bayer, Reinhold

    1991-01-01

    The application of natural and anthropogenic trace substances in oceanographic studies of the Weddell Sea is reviewed. The potential of some steady-state and transient tracers (tritium, CFC-11 and CFC-12, 18 O, and helium isotopes) for studies of deep water formation and circulation is discussed on the basis of data sets collected mainly on cruises of R/V 'Polastern' to the Weddell Sea during the 1980s. CFC/ tritium ratio dating of young water masses is applied to estimate mean age and transit times of water involved in Weddell Sea Bottom Water formation. The history of the CFC-11/tritium ratio through time is derived for Weddell Sea shelf waters. (author). 36 refs.; 18 figs

  11. Concentration of mercury and selenium in tissues of five cetacean species from Croatian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and selenium (Se concentrations were measured in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of five cetacean species, three dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus and two whale species (Balaenoptera physalus and Ziphius cavirostris, stranded along the Croatian coast during the period 1999-2002. Statistically significant differences in Hg concentrations in muscle, spleen and lung, and Se in liver and lung of the different dolphin species were observed. Mercury levels in liver and spleen and Se levels in liver differed between young and adult T. truncatus species. A significant positive correlation between different tissue types for Hg and Se concentrations was observed. In all tissues tested, the lowest Hg and Se concentrations were found in B. physalus. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with Se in all tissues. The results present one of few studies related to lung and spleen tissues in these mammals, particularly in the Adriatic Sea. Since very little data are available, this research provides new data on concentrations of Hg and Se in five cetacean species from the Adriatic Sea basin.

  12. Management-focused approach to investigating coastal water-quality drivers and impacts in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, G.; Destouni, G.; Chen, Y.; Bring, A.; Jönsson, A.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal areas link human-driven conditions on land with open sea conditions, and include crucial and vulnerable ecosystems that provide a variety of ecosystem services. Eutrophication is a common problem that is not least observed in the Baltic Sea, where coastal water quality is influenced both by land-based nutrient loading and by partly eutrophic open sea conditions. Robust and adaptive management of coastal systems is essential and necessitates integration of large scale catchment-coastal-marine systems as well as consideration of anthropogenic drivers and impacts, and climate change. To address this coastal challenge, relevant methodological approaches are required for characterization of coupled land, local coastal, and open sea conditions under an adaptive management framework for water quality. In this paper we present a new general and scalable dynamic characterization approach, developed for and applied to the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas. A simple carbon-based water quality model is implemented, dividing the Baltic Sea into main management basins that are linked to corresponding hydrological catchments on land, as well as to each other though aggregated three-dimensional marine hydrodynamics. Relevant hydrodynamic variables and associated water quality results have been validated on the Baltic Sea scale and show good accordance with available observation data and other modelling approaches. Based on its scalability, this methodology is further used on coastal zone scale to investigate the effects of hydrodynamic, hydro-climatic and nutrient load drivers on water quality and management implications for coastal areas in the Baltic Sea.

  13. NOAA NDBC SOS, 2006-present, sea_water_temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_temperature data. Because of the nature of SOS requests,...

  14. Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, Andreas; Cornetti, Luca; Gandolfi, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    The definition of conservation units is crucial for the sustainable management of endangered species, though particularly challenging when recent and past anthropogenic and natural gene flow might have played a role. The conservation of the European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of anthropogenic disturbance, intensive stocking and potentially widespread genetic introgression. We provide mtDNA sequence and microsatellite data of 683 grayling from 30 sites of Adriatic as well as Danubian and Atlantic origin. We apply Bayesian clustering and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to detect microgeographic population structure and to infer the demographic history of the Adriatic populations, to define appropriate conservation units. Varying frequencies of indigenous genetic signatures of the Adriatic grayling were revealed, spanning from marginal genetic introgression to the collapse of native gene pools. Genetic introgression involved multiple exotic source populations of Danubian and Atlantic origin, thus evidencing the negative impact of few decades of stocking. Within the Adige River system, a contact zone of western Adriatic and eastern Danubian populations was detected, with ABC analyses suggesting a historical anthropogenic origin of eastern Adige populations, most likely founded by medieval translocations. Substantial river-specific population substructure within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit points to the definition of different conservation units. We finally propose a catalog of management measures, including the legal prohibition of stocking exotic grayling and the use of molecular markers in supportive- and captive-breeding programs.

  15. The circulation of deep water in the Tasman and Coral seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The physical oceanography of the Tasman and Coral Seas is reviewed with an emphasis on the deep currents. There are many uncertainties in the deep circulation pattern. The available data are used to develop an idealised circulation to estimate the likely path taken by water flowing from a depth of 5000 m in the Tasman Sea. The model suggests that the water would finally reach the surface layers south of the Antarctic Convergence with a median delay of 600 years. (author)

  16. A study on evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anezaki, S.

    1998-03-01

    Sea/fresh-water boundary caused by density and concentration balance of sea-water and fresh-water is an important item for groundwater flow evaluation in deep underground near the coast. Also, in order to evaluate groundwater quality, it is important to understand the characteristics of sea/fresh-water boundary, for example boundary shape, salt distribution. In order to establish the evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary, we investigated the following items in this study. (1) Literature survey and data collection. (2) Investigation of analytical methods. (3) Planning of further study. (author). 78 refs

  17. The path of the Levantine intermediate water to the Alboran sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Jordi

    1987-10-01

    The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) traditionally has been assumed to reach the Alboran Sea as a counter-current along the North African coast. Here data are presented that confirm the LIW flow through the sill that separates the Balearic Islands from the mainland, after contouring cyclonically the western Mediterranean along the continental slope. This seems to be a seasonal phenomenon related to the process of deep water formation in the northwestern Mediterranean and to fluctuations in the Ligurian Current. In winter the LIW can circulate across the Catalan Sea without remarkable dilution, while in summer the intermediate outflow has almost lost the LIW water mass characteristics.

  18. Sea truth validation of sea WiFS ocean colour sensor in the coastal waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.

    In this paper we report bio-optical measurements made during an ocean colour validation cruise SK 149C in November 1999 of the research vessel Sagar Kanya in the coastal waters of the Eastern Arabian Sea. The chlorophyll concentration...

  19. Influence of surface condition on the corrosion resistance of copper alloy condenser tubes in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S; Nagata, K; Yamauchi, S

    1979-07-01

    Investigation was made on the influence of various surface conditions of aluminum brass tube. The corrosion behavior of aluminum brass tube, with nine kinds of surface conditions, was studied in stagnant 0.1N NaHCo/sub 3/ solution and flowing sea water (natural, Fe/sup + +/ containing and S/sup - -/ containing water). Surface treatments investigated contained bright annealing, special annealing to form carbon film, hot oxidizing and pickling. Anodic polarization measurements in 0.1N NaHCO/sub 3/ solution showed that the oxidized surface was superior and that the pickled surface was inferior. However, relation between these characteristics and corrosion resistance in sea water has not been established. Electrochemical characteristics in flowing sea water were dependent on the surface conditions in the very beginning of immersion time; nobler corrosion potential for the surface with carbon film, higher polarization resistance for the bright annealed and the oxidized surface, and faster decrease of polarization resistance in S/sup - -/ containing sea water for the pickled surface. However, these differences disappeared in the immersion time of only 2 to 7 days. It was revealed, by the statistical analysis on the corrosion depth in corrosion test in flowing sea water and in jet impingement test, that the corrosion behavior was not influenced by surface conditions, but was significantly influenced by quality of sea water and sponge ball cleaning. Sulfide ion of 0.05 ppm caused severe pitting corrosion, and sponge ball cleaning of 5 chances a week caused erosion corrosion. From above results, it was concluded that surface conditions of aluminum brass were not important to sea water corrosion, and that quality of sea water and operating condition such as sponge ball cleaning were more significant.

  20. Optimizing desalinated sea water blending with other sources to meet magnesium requirements for potable and irrigation waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Noa; Eben-Chaime, Moshe; Oron, Gideon

    2013-05-01

    Sea water desalination provides fresh water that typically lacks minerals essential to human health and to agricultural productivity. Thus the rising proportion of desalinated sea water consumed by both the domestic and agricultural sectors constitutes a public health risk. Research on low-magnesium water irrigation showed that crops developed magnesium deficiency symptoms that could lead to plant death, and tomato yields were reduced by 10-15%. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported on a relationship between sudden cardiac death rates and magnesium intake deficits. An optimization model, developed and tested to provide recommendations for Water Distribution System (WDS) quality control in terms of meeting optimal water quality requirements, was run in computational experiments based on an actual regional WDS. The expected magnesium deficit due to the operation of a large Sea Water Desalination Plant (SWDP) was simulated, and an optimal operation policy, in which remineralization at the SWDP was combined with blending desalinated and natural water to achieve the required quality, was generated. The effects of remineralization costs and WDS physical layout on the optimal policy were examined by sensitivity analysis. As part of the sensitivity blending natural and desalinated water near the treatment plants will be feasible up to 16.2 US cents/m(3), considering all expenses. Additional chemical injection was used to meet quality criteria when blending was not feasible. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and arsenic on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic Sea using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Mikelic, Luka; Barisic, Delko; Matasin, Zeljka; Lulic, Stipe; Pezelj, Durdica

    2006-01-01

    Results of two years monitoring of heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in soft tissue of Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are presented. Samples were taken at six localities (five exposed to various pollution sources and one control site) on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic in October 2003 and 2004 and in April 2004 and 2005. All measurements were carried out with source excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Method (EDXRF). Measured concentrations were in the following ranges: Pb (2-7 mg/kg); As (4-30 mg/kg); Cr (1-2.9 mg/kg); Mn (2-13 mg/kg); Fe (53.4-719 mg/kg); Ni (0.8-5 mg/kg); Cu (3.7-11.1 mg/kg) and Zn (59.1-273 mg/kg). Maximum values of the most elements were measured in samples from the most polluted Vranjic region. Statistically significant difference among six localities (p = 0.05) was found for As, Fe and Zn while Mn, Fe and Cu showed significantly higher concentrations in spring period. None of the selected elements showed significant difference between the control and exposed regions

  2. The collection of uranium from sea water with hydrous metal oxide, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hisao; Nakajima, Fumito; Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Murata, Toshifumi.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of diverse ions present in sea water on the uranium adsorption is elucidated in the present paper. The uranium-adsorption experiments were conducted using sea water and a solution containing 0.72 mol dm -3 NaCl and 2.3 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 NaHCO 3 . The uranium uptake was about ten times larger from the NaCl-NaHCO 3 solution than from sea water. The ions which depressed the uranium uptake were the calcium, magnesium, and fluoride present in sea water. Among these ions, calcium had the largest effect on the uranium uptake. The analysis of calcium and carbonate in the adsorbent after the adsorption experiment has revealed that the molar ratio between calcium and carbonate was about one. It was considered that calcium carbonate was deposited on the adsorbent during the uranium adsorption. The specific surface area and the pore volume decreased after the deposition of calcium carbonate. It was supposed that the decrease in the uranium uptake was caused by the coverage of the surface of hydrous titanium(IV) oxide with calcium carbonate. Magnesium ions depressed the uranium uptake in the same manner as calcium ions. The effect of the magnesium ions, however, was relatively small compared with that of the calcium ions. (author)

  3. Sea water desalination by horizontal tubes evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, H.K.; Mohit, M.

    1986-01-01

    Desalinated water supplies are one of the problems of the nuclear power plants located by the seas. This paper explains saline water desalination by a Horizontal Tube Evaporator (HTE) and compares it with flash evaporation. A thermo compressor research project using HTE method has been designed, constructed, and operated at the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center ENTC. The poject's ultimate goal is to obtain empirical formulae based on data gathered during operation of the unit and its subsequent development towards design and construction of desalination plants on an industrial scale

  4. Modelling biogeochemical processes in sediments from the north-western Adriatic Sea: response to enhanced particulate organic carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigolin, Daniele; Rabouille, Christophe; Bombled, Bruno; Colla, Silvia; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Pastres, Roberto; Pranovi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    This work presents the result of a study carried out in the north-western Adriatic Sea, by combining two different types of biogeochemical models with field sampling efforts. A longline mussel farm was taken as a local source of perturbation to the natural particulate organic carbon (POC) downward flux. This flux was first quantified by means of a pelagic model of POC deposition coupled to sediment trap data, and its effects on sediment bioirrigation capacity and organic matter (OM) degradation pathways were investigated constraining an early diagenesis model by using original data collected in sediment porewater. The measurements were performed at stations located inside and outside the area affected by mussel farm deposition. Model-predicted POC fluxes showed marked spatial and temporal variability, which was mostly associated with the dynamics of the farming cycle. Sediment trap data at the two sampled stations (inside and outside of the mussel farm) showed average POC background flux of 20.0-24.2 mmol C m-2 d-1. The difference of organic carbon (OC) fluxes between the two stations was in agreement with model results, ranging between 3.3 and 14.2 mmol C m-2 d-1, and was primarily associated with mussel physiological conditions. Although restricted, these changes in POC fluxes induced visible effects on sediment biogeochemistry. Observed oxygen microprofiles presented a 50 % decrease in oxygen penetration depth (from 2.3 to 1.4 mm), accompanied by an increase in the O2 influx at the station below the mussel farm (19-31 versus 10-12 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) characterised by higher POC flux. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and NH4+ concentrations showed similar behaviour, with a more evident effect of bioirrigation underneath the farm. This was confirmed through constraining the early diagenesis model, of which calibration leads to an estimation of enhanced and shallower bioirrigation underneath the farm: bioirrigation rates of 40 yr-1 and irrigation depth of 15 cm were

  5. Modelling biogeochemical processes in sediments from the north-western Adriatic Sea: response to enhanced particulate organic carbon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brigolin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the result of a study carried out in the north-western Adriatic Sea, by combining two different types of biogeochemical models with field sampling efforts. A longline mussel farm was taken as a local source of perturbation to the natural particulate organic carbon (POC downward flux. This flux was first quantified by means of a pelagic model of POC deposition coupled to sediment trap data, and its effects on sediment bioirrigation capacity and organic matter (OM degradation pathways were investigated constraining an early diagenesis model by using original data collected in sediment porewater. The measurements were performed at stations located inside and outside the area affected by mussel farm deposition. Model-predicted POC fluxes showed marked spatial and temporal variability, which was mostly associated with the dynamics of the farming cycle. Sediment trap data at the two sampled stations (inside and outside of the mussel farm showed average POC background flux of 20.0–24.2 mmol C m−2 d−1. The difference of organic carbon (OC fluxes between the two stations was in agreement with model results, ranging between 3.3 and 14.2 mmol C m−2 d−1, and was primarily associated with mussel physiological conditions. Although restricted, these changes in POC fluxes induced visible effects on sediment biogeochemistry. Observed oxygen microprofiles presented a 50 % decrease in oxygen penetration depth (from 2.3 to 1.4 mm, accompanied by an increase in the O2 influx at the station below the mussel farm (19–31 versus 10–12 mmol O2 m−2 d−1 characterised by higher POC flux. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and NH4+ concentrations showed similar behaviour, with a more evident effect of bioirrigation underneath the farm. This was confirmed through constraining the early diagenesis model, of which calibration leads to an estimation of enhanced and shallower bioirrigation underneath the farm

  6. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  7. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  8. On the dense water spreading off the Ross Sea shelf (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budillon, G.; Gremes Cordero, S.; Salusti, E.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, current meter and hydrological data obtained during the X Italian Expedition in the Ross Sea (CLIMA Project) are analyzed. Our data show a nice agreement with previous data referring to the water masses present in this area and their dynamics. Here, they are used to further analyze the mixing and deepening processes of Deep Ice Shelf Water (DISW) over the northern shelf break of the Ross Sea. In more detail, our work is focused on the elementary mechanisms that are the most efficient in removing dense water from the shelf: either classical mixing effects or density currents that interact with some topographic irregularity in order to drop to deeper levels, or also the variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) which, in its meandering, can push the dense water off the shelf, thus interrupting its geostrophic flow. We also discuss in detail the (partial) evidence of dramatic interactions of the dense water with bottom particulate, of geological or biological origin, thus generating impulsive or quasi-steady density-turbidity currents. This complex interaction allows one to consider bottom particular and dense water as a unique self-interacting system. In synthesis, this is a first tentative analysis of the effect of bottom particulate on the dense water dynamics in the Ross Sea.

  9. Water mass census in the Nordic seas using climatological and observational data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacsek, S.; Allard, R.; McClean, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have compared and evaluated the water mass census in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (Gin) Sea area from climatologies, observational data sets and model output. The four climatologies evaluated were: the 1998 and 2001 versions of the World Ocean Atlas (WOA98, WOA01), and the United States Navy's GDEM90 (Generalized Digital Environmental Model) and MODAS01 (Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System) climatologies. Three observational data sets were examined: the multidecadal (1965-1995) set contained on the National Oceano- graphic Data Centre's (NODC) WOD98 (World Ocean Data) Cd-Rom, and two seasonal data sets extracted from observations taken on six cruises by the SACLANT Research Center (SACLANTCEN) of NATO/Italy between 1986-1989. The model data is extracted from a global model run at 1/3 degree resolution for the years 1983-1997, using the Pop (Parallel Ocean Program) model of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The census computations focused on the Norwegian Sea, in the southern part of the Gin Sea, between 10 0 W-10 0 E and 60 0 N-70 0 N, especially for comparisons with the hydro casts and the model. Cases of such evaluation computations included: (a) short term comparisons with quasi-synoptic CTD surveys carried out over a 4-year period in the southeastern Gin Sea; (b) climatological comparisons utilizing all available casts from the WOD98 Cd-Rom, with four climatologies; and (c) a comparison between the WOA01 climatology and the Pop model output ending in 1997. In this region in the spring, the fraction of ocean water that has salinity above 34.85 is ∼94%, and that has temperatures above 0 0 C is ∼33%. Three principal water masses dominated the census: the Atlantic water A W, the deep water D W and an intermediate water mass defined as Lower Arctic Intermediate Water (LAIW). Besides these classes, both the climatologies and the observations exhibited the significant presence of deep water masses with T-S characteristics that do not fall into the named

  10. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  11. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning

    1986-01-01

    Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were co...

  12. Analysis of Polluted Oily Water Management in Klaipėda Sea Port Klaipėda sea port contaminated oily water management analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goda Zobėlaitė; Jolanta Dvarionienė; Gediminas Stonkus

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania is one of the countries that have ratified the Marpol 73/78 Convention which foresees the tools of reduction and prevention of sea pollution with bilge water and other substances. The Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/59/EB is addressed to the reduction of waste on board of ships and its wash overboard..
    Analysis of the ships entering Klaipėda Sea Port has estimated that oil waste comprises about 74 % of the whole collected waste amount. The analysis o...

  13. Desalination of brackish and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Dilip R.

    2005-01-01

    In Pali, Rajasthan, a population of 4 lacs gets about 6 million liters of water. Only 34 out of 116 municipalities in AP get regular water. Desalination found acceptance because of the decreasing water table leading to high salinity and making conventional treatment methods irrelevant. While choosing amongst the competitive desalination techniques that are available today for conversion of large quantities of saline water, Reverse Osmosis (RO) and distillation techniques stand out. RO rules the brackish water market where feed salinity is over 700 mg/L. Waste heat is nowadays a non-entity in power plants due to the developments of waste heat recovery systems in power plant technology. Most of the large plants tend to choose thermal desalination. Improved RO economics have in turn increased the attractiveness and use of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) technology for many large drinking water projects through out the world. Energy cost is the single largest factor in the cost of Sea Water System (usually 20 to 30% of total cost of water). Nuclear Power Corporation, Kudankulam proposed to build a SW desalination system based on RO technology to meet the water requirement of the Anu Vijay Nagar township and Nuclear Power Station. Energy recovery turbine helps reduce the overall system energy requirement. (author)

  14. Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Venables, Hugh J.; Whitehouse, Michael J.; Korb, Rebecca E.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of sea ice melt on the carbonate chemistry of surface waters in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean, was investigated during January 2008. Contrasting concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) were observed in and around the receding sea ice edge. The precipitation of carbonate minerals such as ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in sea ice brine has the net effect of decreasing DIC and TA and increasing the fCO2 in the brine. Deficits in DIC up to 12 +/- 3 μmol kg-1 in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were consistent with the release of DIC-poor brines to surface waters during sea ice melt. Biological utilization of carbon was the dominant processes and accounted for 41 +/- 1 μmol kg-1 of the summer DIC deficit. The data suggest that the combined effects of biological carbon uptake and the precipitation of carbonates created substantial undersaturation in fCO2 of 95 μatm in the MIZ during summer sea ice melt. Further work is required to improve the understanding of ikaite chemistry in Antarctic sea ice and its importance for the sea ice carbon pump.

  15. The role of solar and wind energy in sustainable development of the Adriatic Marco region in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrastnik, B.

    1999-01-01

    Aggregated energy demand in the Adriatic region, as well as the specific demand of individual sectors like industry, tourism, residential and commercial sector and agriculture has been assessed. Seasonal and daily load characteristics of the thermal and electric energy consumption in the Adriatic macro-region, as applied for heating, cooling and electrical appliances are discussed. Optimal mix of energy carrier (fossil and renewable) covering thermal and electric demand in the region is proposed. It has been shown that present regional energy mix, particularly for thermal applications based on electric energy, can be modified in favor of other energy carriers like LPG, LNG, hydropower, solar and wind energy, which are more appropriate for the sustainable development of the region. The expected market penetration of flat plate collectors, power plants with line focusing collectors, wind parks, photovoltaic power plants (off grid and grid connected) and passive use of solar radiation in commercial and residential buildings is given in the outlines. Based on the low energy consumption and seasonal/daily load characteristics, latest by the year 2050, it could be expected that renewables, at least for a number of Adriatic islands, could by nearly 100% substitute the present use of fossil sources, supplying electricity and thermal energy. (author)

  16. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  17. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  18. Sea water strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in sea water at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the sea water strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  19. Combining urbanization and hydrodynamics data to evaluate sea level rise impacts on coastal water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. R.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of the potential for salt water intrusion due to sea level rise require consideration of both coastal hydrodynamic and human activity thresholds. In siliciclastic systems, sea level rise may cause salt intrusion to coastal aquifers at annual or decadal scales, whereas in karst systems salt intrudes at the tidal scalse. In both cases, human activity impacts the freshwater portion of the system by altering the water demand on the aquifer. We combine physicochemical and human activity data to evaluate impact of sea level rise on salt intrusion to siliclastic (Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA) and karst (Puerto Morelos, Yucatan, Mexico) systems under different sea level rise rate scenarios. Two hydrodynamic modeling scenarios are considered; flux controlled and head controlled. Under a flux controlled system hydraulic head gradients remain constant during sea level rise while under a head controlled system hydraulic graidents diminish, allowing saltwater intrusion. Our model contains three key terms; aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity were calculated based on high frequency (karst system) and decadal (siliciclastic system) field measurements. Aquifer recharge is defined as precipitation less evapotranspiration and water demand was evaluated based on urban planning data that provided the regional water demand. Water demand includes agricultural area, toursim, traffic patterns, garbage collection and total population. Water demand was initially estimated using a partial leaset squares regression based on these variables. Our model indicates that water demand depends most on agricultural area, which has changed significantly over the last 30 years. In both systems, additional water demand creates a head controlled scenario, thus increaseing the protential fo salt intrusion with projected sea level rise.

  20. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  1. Distribution of total alkalinity and pH in the Ross Sea (Antarctica waters during austral summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rivaro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of total alkalinity (AT and pH were made in the Ross Sea in January–February 2008 in order to characterize the carbonate system in the Ross Sea and to evaluate the variability associated with different water masses. The main water masses of the Ross Sea, Antarctic Surface Water, High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Deep Ice Shelf Water, Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW and Antarctic Bottom Water, were identified on the basis of the physical and chemical data. In particular, the AT ranged between 2275 and 2374 µmol kg−1 with the lowest values in the surface waters (2275–2346 µmol kg−1, where the influence of the sea-ice melting and of the variability of the physical properties was significant. In the deep layers of the water column, the AT maxima were measured in correspondence to the preferential pathways of the spreading HSSW. The pH had variable values in the surface layer (7.890–8.033 with the highest values in Terra Nova Bay and Ross Sea polynyas. A low pH (7.969±0.025 traced the intrusion of the CDW in the Ross Sea shelf area. All samples revealed waters that were oversaturated with respect to both calcite and aragonite, but near corrosive levels of aragonite saturation state (Ω ca. 1.1–1.2 were associated with the entrainment of CDW over the slope. Aragonite undersaturation is of particular concern for the zooplankton species comprising to calcifying organisms such as pteropods. The partial pressure of CO2 at the sea surface was undersaturated with respect to the atmospheric value, particularly in Terra Nova Bay and the Ross Sea polynyas, but a large variability in the sea–air CO2 fluxes was observed associated with different responses in the strength of the biological and physical processes.

  2. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  3. 3D Architecture and evolution of the Po Plain-Northern Adriatic Foreland basin during Plio-Pleistocene time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Chiara; Toscani, Giovanni; Ghielmi, Manlio; Maesano, Francesco Emanuele; D'Ambrogi, Chiara; Lombardi, Stefano; Milanesi, Riccardo; Panara, Yuri; Di Giulio, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the eastern Po Plain and northern Adriatic Foreland Basin (PPAF) (extended ca. 35,000 km2) was the consequence of severe Northern Apennine compressional activity and climate-driven eustatic changes. According with the 2D seismic interpretation, facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy approach by Ghielmi et al. (2013 and references therein), these tectono-eustatic phases generated six basin-scale unconformities referred as Base Pliocene (PL1), Intra-Zanclean (PL2), Intra-Piacenzian (PL3), Gelasian (PL4), Base Calabrian (PS1) and Late Calabrian (PS2). We present a basin-wide detailed 3D model of the PPAF region, derived from the interpretation of these unconformities in a dense network of seismic lines (ca. 6,000 km) correlated with more than 200 well stratigraphies (courtesy of ENI E&P). The initial 3D time-model has been time-to-depth converted using the 3D velocity model created with Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D depth conversions and then validated and integrated with depth domain dataset from bibliography and well log. Resultant isobath and isopach maps are produced to inspect step-by-step the basin paleogeographic evolution; it occurred through alternating stages of simple and fragmented foredeeps. Changes in the basin geometry through time, from the inner sector located in the Emilia-Romagna Apennines to the outermost region (Veneto and northern Adriatic Sea), were marked by repeated phases of outward migration of two large deep depocenters located in front of Emilia arcs on the west, and in front of Ferrara-Romagna thrusts on the east. During late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, the inner side of the Emilia-Romagna arcs evolved into an elongated deep thrust-top basin due to a strong foredeep fragmentation then, an overall tectono-stratigraphic analysis shows also a decreasing trend of tectonic intensity of the Northern Apennine since Pleistocene until present.

  4. Application of anion-exchange techniques to the determination of traces of molybdenum in sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, T.; Kuroda, R.

    1984-01-01

    A combined ion-exchange spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of molybdenum in sea-water. Molybdenum is sorbed strongly on Amberlite CG 400 (Cl - ) at pH 3 from sea-water containing ascorbic acid and is easily eluted with 6 M nitric acid. Molybdenum in the effluent can be determined spectrophotometrically with potassium thiocyanate and stannous chloride. The combined method allows selective and sensitive determination of traces of molybdenum in sea-water. The precision of the method is 2% at a molybdenum level of approx. 10 μg/l. (author)

  5. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea.

  6. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of data base of IAEA-MEL (International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory) and other organizations, the distribution and behavior of anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 3 H, are explained. 137 Cs (β - , γ: 30.2 y half life) is the most important pollution source and tracer to make clear mixture and diffusion process in seawater. The concentration of 137 Cs in surface seawater of Northern Hemisphere is larger than that of Southern Hemisphere, because many inner space nuclear tests were carried out in the Northern Hemisphere. Especially, the concentration of Northern-east Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are 21 Bq/m 3 and 13 Bq/m 3 , respectively, ten times as much as the other, because of discharge of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and Chernobyl accident. 2.5 Bq/m 3 137 Cs was observed in North Atlantic Ocean. Behavior of 90 Sr (β - : 29.0 y half life) is the same as 137 Sr in seawater. Secular change of 137 Sr and 90 Sr in seawater in coastal areas of Japan shows decrease of the values from 1964 and reached to 2 to 4 mBq/l and 1 to 3 mBq/l, respectively. 239+240 Pu is the most large load of transuranic elements (TRU) in the earth and originated from nuclear tests. The concentration of 239+240 Pu is 20 to 30 (10 -4 pCi/l, 1968) in the Pacific Ocean and 2.5 to 10.0 μBq/l (1982 to 1993). 241 Am (α: 433 y half life) is generated by decay of 241 Pu. Accordingly, the maximum value is observed after about 100 years. 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu showed less than about 0.3 of fall out, so that emission of 241 Am increases much more than 239+240 Pu. 3 H (β - : 12.3 y half life) has the most short half life in the anthropogenic radionuclides and exists the form as water (HTO) in the sea. The origin of 3 H is hydrogen bomb tests during 1952 and 1975. The concentration of 3 H in sea is average 3.6 TU (1994). The vertical profile of 137 Cs and 90 Sr is similar to each other since both nuclides become ions such

  7. Sedimentary noise and sea levels linked to land-ocean water exchange and obliquity forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Hinnov, Linda A; Huang, Chunju; Ogg, James G

    2018-03-08

    In ancient hothouses lacking ice sheets, the origins of large, million-year (myr)-scale sea-level oscillations remain a mystery, challenging current models of sea-level change. To address this mystery, we develop a sedimentary noise model for sea-level changes that simultaneously estimates geologic time and sea level from astronomically forced marginal marine stratigraphy. The noise model involves two complementary approaches: dynamic noise after orbital tuning (DYNOT) and lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient (ρ 1 ). Noise modeling of Lower Triassic marine slope stratigraphy in South China reveal evidence for global sea-level variations in the Early Triassic hothouse that are anti-phased with continental water storage variations in the Germanic Basin. This supports the hypothesis that long-period (1-2 myr) astronomically forced water mass exchange between land and ocean reservoirs is a missing link for reconciling geological records and models for sea-level change during non-glacial periods.

  8. Caspian Sea water balance and dynamics studies using anthropogenic radionuclides: Implications for environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oregioni, B.; Gastaud, J.; Pham, M.K.; Povinec, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Environmental changes in the Caspian Sea have recently become of great interest in connection with fluctuations in sea level changes. Radioactive and stable isotopes have been used as powerful tracers to investigate water balance and dynamics and have contributed significantly to understanding climatically driven environmental changes in the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the world largest inland water body with a surface area of about 386000 km 2 and a volume of about 67000 km 3 , located in a large continental depression about 28 m below sea level. With no surface outlet, the Caspian Sea is particularly sensitive to climatic variations. The drainage area of the Caspian Sea is approximately 3.7 million square kilometers. The Volga, Ural and Terek empty into the North Caspian, with their combined annual flow accounting for 88% of all water entering the sea. The Sulak, Samur, Kura and a number of small rivers contribute about 7% of the inflow, the remainder comes from the rivers of the Iranian shore. The Caspian Sea is divided into three basins with approximately the same surface. The North Caspian Basin, maximum depth 15 m, average depth 5 m, contains 1% of the total water. The Middle Caspian (or Central) Basin has a maximum depth of 800 m and contains 22% of the total water. The South Caspian Basin, maximum depth 1024 m, average depth 330 m, contains 77% of the total Caspian Sea water. Recently there have been concerns over the environmental conditions of the Caspian Sea, especially over observed sea level changes, which have had a strong impact on the region. Anthropogenic radionuclides like 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are particularly useful tracers for the investigation of water dynamics. Two research-training cruises were carried out in September 1995 and August-September 1996. At every station, 60-70 liters samples of seawater from different depths were processed for sequential separation of plutonium, cesium and strontium isotopes. This was

  9. Use of adsorption colloidal flotation for sea water microelement extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Barannik, V.P.; Lyashenko, S.V.; Kirchanova, A.I.; Kobylyanskaya, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    The colloidal flotation is studied of copper, molybdenum and uranium from sea water, a hydrated iron oxide being used as a sorbent. Used as particle collectors are octadecanoic and indolyloleic acids, and as foamers-''Stearox 6''. Optimal conditions for the separation of copper, uranium and molybdenum from sea water have been found. The sorption isotherm equation is shown as being suitable for the description of the flotation process as regards these elements. The colloidal flotation process for the case under study is shown to obey the law of mass action in the pH range 0.5 to 0.7 and on the sorbent mass variation from 0.1 to 5.0 mg

  10. Extraction of uranium from sea water with the granular composite adsorbent by using the fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Kitamura, Takao

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the technical problems existing in the extraction process of uranium from sea water, uranium was extracted from natural sea water, with the granulated C-Ti-OH composite adsorbent. The adsorption of uranium from sea water was carried out by using the fixed bed that had been designed in our laboratory. The uranium recovery from the sea water was 13.9% in the adsorption process of 56 d. The adsorbed uranium was eluted from the adsorbent with 0.5 N NaHCO 3 -0.5N Na 2 CO 3 soln. at 70 0 C. The elution recovery was 97.4% for 35 h. The uranium contained in the eluate was concentrated twenty times as much as in the anion exchange process, and then 100 times in the solvent extraction process with oxine-chloroform and TOA-kerosene. About 0.7 g of yellow cake was prepared from natural sea water, and it was identified to be pure 2UO 2 .NH 3 .3H 2 O by X-ray diffraction method and X-ray fluorometry. (author)

  11. Genetic connectivity between land and sea: the case of the beachflea Orchestia montagui (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Laura; Tiedemann, Ralph; De Matthaeis, Elvira; Ketmaier, Valerio

    2013-04-25

    We examined patterns of genetic divergence in 26 Mediterranean populations of the semi-terrestrial beachflea Orchestia montagui using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I), microsatellite (eight loci) and allozymic data. The species typically forms large populations within heaps of dead seagrass leaves stranded on beaches at the waterfront. We adopted a hierarchical geographic sampling to unravel population structure in a species living at the sea-land transition and, hence, likely subjected to dramatically contrasting forces. Mitochondrial DNA showed historical phylogeographic breaks among Adriatic, Ionian and the remaining basins (Tyrrhenian, Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea) likely caused by the geological and climatic changes of the Pleistocene. Microsatellites (and to a lesser extent allozymes) detected a further subdivision between and within the Western Mediterranean and the Tyrrhenian Sea due to present-day processes. A pattern of isolation by distance was not detected in any of the analyzed data set. We conclude that the population structure of O. montagui is the result of the interplay of two contrasting forces that act on the species population genetic structure. On one hand, the species semi-terrestrial life style would tend to determine the onset of local differences. On the other hand, these differences are partially counter-balanced by passive movements of migrants via rafting on heaps of dead seagrass leaves across sites by sea surface currents. Approximate Bayesian Computations support dispersal at sea as prevalent over terrestrial regionalism.

  12. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  13. An Excel Macro to Plot the HFE-Diagram to Identify Sea Water Intrusion Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Sánchez San Román, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) is a multirectangular diagram, which is a useful tool in the interpretation of sea water intrusion processes. This method note describes a simple method for generating an HFE-D plot using the spreadsheet software package, Microsoft Excel. The code was applied to groundwater from the alluvial coastal plain of Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy), which is characterized by a complex salinization process in which sea water mixes with sulfate or bicarbonate recharge water. © 2014, National GroundWater Association.

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water; April, 1978 to March, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The samples of rain and dry fallout, air-borne dust, service water and fresh water, soil, sea water, sea sediment, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfishes and seaweed, and fresh water fishes, their sampling and prior treatment are described. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 and their measurement are explained. The estimations of stable Sr, K and Ca are made by atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame spectrophotometry and potassium permanganate titration, respectively. The general plan of radioactivity survey in Japan is shown. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea water obtained from April, 1978, to March, 1979, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months and the locations of sampling, Cl (%), sample volume analyzed (l), and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/l) are shown. The maximum values are 0.21 pCi/l of Sr-90 found in Osaka Bay in August, 1978, and 0.19 pCi/l of Cs-137 off Niigata Port in July, 1978. (Kako, I.)

  15. Extraction of uranium from sea water by means of fibrous complex adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamatsu, Tokuhisa; Oguchi, Noboru; Kanchiku, Yoshihiko; Aoyagi, Takanobu

    1982-01-01

    Fibrous complex adsorbents for uranium extraction from sea water were prepared by introducing titanic acid or basic zinc carbonate as effective constituents into fibrous ion exchangers. A fibrous chelate type adsorbent was also tested. Among the adsorbents examined, the following ones demonstrated excellent properties for the recovery of uranium from sea water. a) A fibrous, weakly acidic cation exchanger was treated with titanyl sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solution, which was followed by neutralization to afford a fibrous adsorbent containing titanic acid (QC-1f(Ti)). The adsorption capacity for uranium in sea water was estimated by extrapolation to be 50μg-U/g-Ad or 1170 μg-U/g-Ti. b) A fibrous, strongly acidic cation exchanger was treated in a similar way to afford another type of fibrous adsorbent with titanic acid incorporated (QCS-Ti). The adsorption capacity was estimated by extrapolation to be 20-30 μg-U/g-Ad. (author)

  16. How to boost shallow geothermal energy exploitation in the adriatic area: the LEGEND project experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesco, Tinti; Annamaria, Pangallo; Martina, Berneschi; Dario, Tosoni; Dušan, Rajver; Simona, Pestotnik; Dalibor, Jovanović; Tomislav, Rudinica; Slavisa, Jelisić; Branko, Zlokapa; Attilio, Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation, monitoring and reduction of the heating and cooling consumptions are topics of increasing importance. One promising technology is the geothermal heat pump. Despite its undoubted advantages compared to fossil fuels in terms of RES production, CO_2 reduction and primary energy savings, there are still significant barriers for the creation of sustainable local markets. Many regions present similar conditions in terms of climate, geology, hydrogeology, infrastructure and political conditions. Because of the context-driven nature of shallow geothermal systems, similarities should be taken into account and strategies shared across borders to foster the introduction and exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. Focusing on the results of the LEGEND Project, this paper presents an attempt at creating an interregional strategy for the widespread introduction of geothermal heat pumps in the Adriatic area, which includes EU and non-EU countries. The multi-level approach adopted (a combination of desk studies on the transferability potential, pilot plants across the regions and programs to involve, educate and train stakeholders) allowed to set up the strategy. Therefore, different actions are proposed to stimulate the development of the market, whose interconnection across the Adriatic can accelerate the achievement of the main energy and climate targets for all the countries involved. - Highlights: •The Interregional Adriatic strategy for shallow geothermal energy is presented. •The strategy speeds up renewable energy introduction in border countries. •Geological, climate, market and political similarities must be taken into account. •The preparatory action is the creation of trained market and supply chain.

  17. Air-sea heat exchange, an element of the water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and variation of water vapor, clouds and precipitation are examined. Principal driving forces for these distributions are energy exchange and evaporation at the air-sea interface, which are also important elements of air-sea interaction studies. The overall aim of air-sea interaction studies is to quantitatively determine mass, momentum and energy fluxes, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms controlling them. The results of general circulation simulations indicate that the atmosphere in mid-latitudes responds to changes in the oceanic surface conditions in the tropics. This correlation reflects the strong interaction between tropical and mid-latitude conditions caused by the transport of heat and momentum from the tropics. Studies of air-sea exchanges involve a large number of physica, chemical and dynamical processes including heat flux, radiation, sea-surface temperature, precipitation, winds and ocean currents. The fluxes of latent heat are studied and the potential use of satellite data in determining them evaluated. Alternative ways of inferring heat fluxes will be considered.

  18. Contrasting trends in North Atlantic deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas during the Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renssen, H.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Holocene North Atlantic deep-water formation is studied in a 9,000-year long simulation with a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity, forced by changes in orbital forcing and atmospheric trace gas concentrations. During the experiment, deep-water formation in the Nordic Seas is

  19. NOAA NDBC SOS, 2007-present, sea_water_practical_salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_practical_salinity data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  20. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTURING BIG SEA CRABS (LOBSTERS, SPINY LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19 th century an experimental work on culturing big sea crabs began in Europe and North America. Great demand for their flesh as well as their high price urged many institutions to explore the possibilities of a commercial production in varios parts of the world. Lobsters (Homarus sp. were mainly used for experimenting, so that the most data available refer to them. Because of the complicated larva stage spiny lobster culturing is mainly being carried out in experimental circumstances. Despite the promissing results this aquacultural activity faces many problems (long time until they achieve a commercial size, loss of eggs due to stress sensitivity during the process of moulting, canibalism. In order to minimize these problems various researches are being carried out, like temperature influence, influence of light, way of feeding, hormonal regulation of moulting frequency. Although both lobster and spiny lobsters live in the Adriatic Sea, there are no data on their culturing in our contry. Concernig conditions in our sea there are realistic possibilities for crabs production development. In this way this delicacy would be more affordable to broader population and could be a highly rated export product.

  1. The Change in Black Sea Water Composition and Hydrology during Deglaciation from Multiproxy Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchilina, A.; Ryan, W. B. F.; McManus, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of changes in the water column from the last glacial into the early Holocene using stable isotope, 87Sr/86Sr, 14C, and trace element ratios from mollusks from the shelf area and ostracods from the basin of the Black Sea. The stable isotope record is compared to a thoroughly U/Th dated terrestrial stable isotope record of a nearby cave, Sofular cave in northwestern Turkey. The combination of deep, surface, and terrestrial signals gives valuable insight towards the behavior of the lake water during the deglaciation in multiple dimensions, specifically the water column stratification and hydrological dynamics. The comparison of the stable isotope records of two independent proxies allows to make inferences on the changes in the 14C reservoir of the Black Sea-Lake. Results show that during the glacial period, water from the Black Sea-Lake was outflowing to the Sea of Marmara but the ventilation of the water column was weak as old 14C was not removed and allowed to accumulate giving the lake a large 14C reservoir age. A deglacial pulse of meltwater released from the Eurasian Fennoscandian pro-glacial lakes increased ventilation of the water column. This is seen in lighter δ18O and a spike in radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr in both deep and shallow parts of the water column. The dynamic ventilation and outflow of water into the Sea of Marmara continued until the onset of the Bolling/Allerod as the radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr was almost completely flushed out in a couple hundred years time. During the Bolling/Allerod and Preboreal warming, δ18O got heavier whereas the 87Sr/86Sr stayed constant and the 14C again accumulated and contributed to an older reservoir age. The Younger Dryas period, sandwiched in between the two warming periods, shows a return to glacial conditions in the δ13C and that the water outflowed to the Sea of Marmara as the δ18O only showed a slight change towards a more heavy value.

  2. Pronounced anomalies of air, water, ice conditions in the Barents and Kara Seas, and the Sea of Azov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Matishov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the anomalous hydrometeorological situation that occurred at the beginning of 2012 in the seas of the Russian Arctic and Russian South. Atmospheric blocking in the temperate zone and the extension of the Siberian High to the Iberian Peninsula (known as the Voeikov et al. axis led to a positive anomaly of air and water temperatures and a decrease in the ice extent in the Barents and Kara Seas. At the same time a prolonged negative air temperature anomaly was recorded in central and southern Europe and led to anomalously severe ice conditions in the Sea of Azov. Winter hydrographic conditions in the Barents and Kara Seas are illustrated by a unique set of observations made using expendable bathythermosalinographs (XCTD.

  3. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  4. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from DERWENT, HOBART and other platforms in the Coral Sea, Tasman Sea and other waters from 1984-09-02 to 1993-01-31 (NODC Accession 9300047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected in Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Tasman Sea from multiple Australian and New Zealand ships by...

  5. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, Georg; Oberhänsli, Hedi; Hahne, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 222 Rn and 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226 Ra-analysis based on 222 Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226 Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222 Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222 Rn and 226 Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222 Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO 4 ) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226 Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226 Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the

  6. Environmental challenges for the sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region = Okoljski izzivi trajnostnega razvoja v hrvaškem delu Severnega Jadrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Maradin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of theNorth Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted withproblems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy,especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastalregion where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Anotherenvironmental problem is the oil transportation by a pipeline which is planned to be built inthe frames of Russian-Croatian project Družba-Adria.

  7. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the globalocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Sea of Marmara, a transit point for waters from theMediterranean Sea. In addition, expansive phytoplankton blooms

  8. Bacterial activity in sea ice and open water of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: A microautoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, S

    1994-07-01

    Metabolic activity of bacteria was investigated in open water, newly forming sea ice, and successive stages of pack ice in the Weddell Sea. Microautoradiography, using [(3)H]leucine as substrate, was compared with incorporation rates of [(3)H]leucine into proteins. Relation of [(3)H]leucine incorporation to the biomass of active bacteria provides information about changes of specific metabolic activity of cells. During a phytoplankton bloom in an ice-free, stratified water column, total numbers of bacteria in the euphotic zone averaged 2.3 × 10(5) ml(-1), but only about 13% showed activity via leucine uptake. Growth rate of the active bacteria was estimated as 0.3-0.4 days(-1). Total cell concentration of bacteria in 400 m depth was 6.6 × 10(4) ml(-1). Nearly 50% of these cells were active, although biomass production and specific growth rate were only about one-tenth that of the surface populations. When sea ice was forming in high concentrations of phytoplankton, bacterial biomass in the newly formed ice was 49.1 ng C ml(-1), exceeding that in open water by about one order of magnitude. Attachment of large bacteria to algal cells seems to cause their enrichment in the new ice, since specific bacterial activity was reduced during ice formation, and enrichment of bacteria was not observed when ice formed at low algal concentration. During growth of pack ice, biomass of bacteria increased within the brine channel system. Specific activity was still reduced at these later stages of ice development, and percentages of active cells were as low as 3-5%. In old, thick pack ice, bacterial activity was high and about 30% of cells were active. However, biomass-specific activity of bacteria remained significantly lower than that in open water. It is concluded that bacterial assemblages different to those of open water developed within the ice and were dominated by bacteria with lower average metabolic activity than those of ice-free water.

  9. Installation of deep water sub-sea equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Jack; Demian, Nabil [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)

    2004-07-01

    Offshore oil developments are being planned in water depths exceeding 2000 m. Lowering and positioning large, heavy sub sea hardware, using conventional methods, presents new technical challenges in these ultra deep waters. In 3000 m a safe lift using conventional steel cables will require more capacity to support the cable self weight than the static payload. Adding dynamic loads caused by the motions of the surface vessel can quickly cause the safe capacity of the wire to be exceeded. Synthetic ropes now exist to greatly reduce the lowering line weight. The lower stiffness of these synthetic ropes aggravate the dynamic line tensions due to vessel motions and relatively little is known about the interaction of these ropes on the winches and sheaves required for pay-out and haul-in of these lines under dynamic load. Usage of conventional winches would damage the synthetic rope and risk the hardware being deployed. Reliable and economic installation systems that can operate from existing installation vessels are considered vital for ultra deep-water oil development. The paper describes a Deep Water Sub-Sea Hardware Deployment system consisting of a buoy with variable, pressure-balanced buoyancy, which is used to offset most of the payload weight as it is lowered. The buoyant capacity is controlled by air pumped into the tank from the surface vessel through a reinforced hose. The buoy and payload motion are isolated from the deployment line surface dynamics using a simple passive heave compensator mounted between the buoy and the bottom of the deployment rope. The system components, functionality and dynamic behavior are presented in the paper. (author)

  10. The caesium 137 content in the water of the North Sea during the years 1969 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautsky, H.

    1976-01-01

    In April 1975, about 34,000 Ci Caesium 137 in a water mass of about 30,500 km 3 was found in the area of the North Sea that we investigated between 51 0 N to 60 0 N and 4 0 W to 10 0 E. This represented a mean concentration of about 1.1 Ci/km 3 or 1.1 pCi/l water. Concentration variations of between 0.44 to 2.2 pCi/l in the different areas of the North Sea were measured. As compared with ICRP Standards, 137 Cs concentrations in sea water of up to some 900 pCi/l may be viewed as a still permissible limit (IAEA, 1970). The development of the 137 Cs content in the North Sea from 1969 to 1975 is discussed. Especially, the temporal changes in concentrations in different sections of the North Sea will be compared. These clearly show the different influence in different sections of the radioactive waste waters of the three coastal European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on the content of radioactive fission products as well as their spreading in the water of the North Sea. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Coupling of sea level and tidal range changes, with implications for future water levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Adam T; Jay, David A; Talke, Stefan A; Zaron, Edward D; Pan, Jiayi; Lin, Hui

    2017-12-05

    Are perturbations to ocean tides correlated with changing sea-level and climate, and how will this affect high water levels? Here, we survey 152 tide gauges in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and statistically evaluate how the sum of the four largest tidal constituents, a proxy for the highest astronomical tide (HAT), changes over seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that the variability in HAT is significantly correlated with sea-level variability; approximately 35% of stations exhibit a greater than ±50 mm tidal change per meter sea-level fluctuation. Focusing on a subset of three stations with long records, probability density function (PDF) analyses of the 95% percentile exceedance of total sea level (TSL) show long-term changes of this high-water metric. At Hong Kong, the increase in tides significantly amplifies the risk caused by sea-level rise. Regions of tidal decrease and/or amplification highlight the non-linear response to sea-level variations, with the potential to amplify or mitigate against the increased flood risk caused by sea-level rise. Overall, our analysis suggests that in many regions, local flood level determinations should consider the joint effects of non-stationary tides and mean sea level (MSL) at multiple time scales.

  12. Implementation and validation of the ISMAR High Frequency Coastal Radar Network in the Gulf of Manfredonia (Mediterranean Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Carlo; Griffa, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network is described, established and maintained by the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) for the measurement of surface current velocities in the Gulf of Manfredonia, located in the semi......-enclosed Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea), during the period 2013-2015. The network consisted of four HF radars that provided hourly sea surface velocity data in real-time mode in a netCDF format compliant to the Climate and Forecast Metadata Conventions CF-1.6 and to the INSPIRE directive. The hourly netCDF files...... are disseminated via a THREDDS catalog supporting OGC compliant distributions and protocols for data visualization, metadata interrogation and data download. HF radar velocity data were validated using in situ velocity measurements by GPS-tracked surface drifters deployed within the radar footprint. The results...

  13. Effect of climate change on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Mohsen M.; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-06-01

    There is increasing debate these days on climate change and its possible consequences. Much of this debate has focused in the context of surface water systems. In many arid areas of the world, rainfall is scarce and so is surface runoff. These areas rely heavily on groundwater. The consequences of climate change on groundwater are long term and can be far reaching. One of the more apparent consequences is the increased migration of salt water inland in coastal aquifers. Using two coastal aquifers, one in Egypt and the other in India, this study investigates the effect of likely climate change on sea water intrusion. Three realistic scenarios mimicking climate change are considered. Under these scenarios, the Nile Delta aquifer is found to be more vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise.

  14. Calibration and Validation of A One-dimensional Complex Marine Biogeochemicalfluxes Model In Different Areas of The Northern Adriatic Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, M.; Oddo, P.; Zavatarelli, M.; Coluccelli, A.; Coppini, G.; Celio, M.; Fonda Umani, S.; Pinardi, N.

    In this contribution we show results from numerical simulations carried out with a complex biogeochemical fluxes model coupled with a one-dimensional high-resol ution hydrodynamical model and implemented at three different locations of the north- ern Adriatic shelf . One location is directly affected by Po river influence, one has more open-sea characteristics and one is located in the Gulf of Trieste with an in- termediate behavior; emphasis is put on the comparison with observations and on the functioning of the northern Adriatic ecosystem in the three areas. The work has been performed in a climatological context and has to be considered as preliminary to the development of three-dimensional numerical simulations. Biogeochemical model parameterizations have been ameliorated with a detailed description of bacterial sub- strate utilization associated to the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in order to improve model skill in capturing the observed DOM dynamics in the basin. The coupled model has been calibrated and validated at the three locations by means of climatological datasets. Results show satisfactory model behavior in simulating local seasonal dynamics in the limit of the available boundary conditions and the one-dimensional implementation. Comparisons with available in situ measurements of primary and bacterial production and bacterial abundances have been performed in all locations. Model simulated rates and bacterial dynamics are in the same order of magnitude of observations and show a qualitatively correct time evolution. The importance of temperature as a factor controlling bacteria efficiency is investigated with sensitivity experiments on the model parameterizations. The different model be- havior and pelagic ecosystem structure developed by the model at the three location can be attributed to the local hydrodynamical features and interactions with external inputs of nutrients. The onset of the winter/spring bloom in the climatological

  15. Mitochondrial DNA reveals unexpected diversity of chubs (genus Squalius; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Squalius comprises more than 40 species inhabiting various freshwater habitats. They are distributed in Europe and Asia, with particularly high diversity recorded in the Mediterranean area. The taxonomic status of many populations is still matter of debate. With this investigation we aimed to help in resolving taxonomic uncertainties of the chubs distributed in the Adriatic basin in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b revealed high diversity of chubs in the investigated area. Two evolutionary independent lineages are revealed: the first one comprising species Sq. svallize, Sq. tenellus, Sq. illyricus and Sq. zrmanjae; whereas the second lineage corresponds with Sq. squalus. High intraspecific structuring of Sq. squalus was detected, implying necessity of taxonomic revision of that species. Based on the obtained results, most important aspects of the evolutionary history of the genus Squalius in the Adriatic basin will be discussed and evolutionary significant units identified.

  16. Desorption of cesium ions from vermiculite with sea water by hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiangbiao; Takahashi, Hideharu; Inaba, Yusuke; Takeshita, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Cesium ions (Cs + ) strongly intercalated in vermiculite clay (Verm) had been effectively removed using sea water for its free utility, totally environmental friendly feature, and within containing numerous salt by the hydrothermal treatment process (HTT), which can help significantly promote desorption by the cation-exchange mechanism in subcritical condition. >74-100% removal was achieved to the interacted Cs + for a loading capacity of 4.8-50 mg g −1 . XRD results indicated that cation exchange proceeded between the intercalated Cs + and various cations in sea water during HTT. (author)

  17. Radiochemical analysis of radio-nuclides in sea water collected near Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Sugiura, Y

    1955-01-01

    A radiochemical analysis of sea water containing fission materials collected near Bikini Atoll in June, 1954, was performed. The sea water was boiled with hydrochloric acid, iron and lanthanum salts each 5 mg as Fe and La were added to it. They were precipitated as hydroxide, which was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride was extracted with ethyl ether. The remaining solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Using the latter solution the group separation was done with cation exchanger resins.

  18. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  19. Use of reactor plants of enhanced safety for sea water desalination, industrial and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.; Polunichev, V.; Zverev, K.

    1997-01-01

    Russian designers have developed and can deliver nuclear complexes to provide sea water desalination, industrial and district heating. This paper provides an overview of these designs utilizing the ABV, KLT-40 and ATETS-80 reactor plants of enhanced safety. The most advanced nuclear powered water desalination project is the APVS-80. This design consists of a special ship equipped with the distillation desalination plant powered at a level of 160 MW(th) utilizing the type KLT-40 reactor plant. More than 20 years of experience with water desalination and reactor plants has been achieved in Aktau and Russian nuclear ships without radioactive contamination of desalinated water. Design is also proceeding on a two structure complex consisting of a floating nuclear power station and a reverse osmosis desalination plant. This new technology for sea water desalination provides the opportunity to considerably reduce the specific consumption of power for the desalination of sea water. The ABV reactor is utilized in the ''Volnolom'' type floating nuclear power stations. This design also features a desalinator ship which provides sea water desalination by the reverse osmosis process. The ATETS-80 is a nuclear two-reactor cogeneration complex which incorporates the integral vessel-type PWR which can be used in the production of electricity, steam, hot and desalinated water. (author). 9 figs

  20. Effects of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise.

  1. Deep and intermediate mediterranean water in the western Alboran Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, Gregorio; Kinder, Thomas H.; Preller, Ruth H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrographic and current meter data, obtained during June to October 1982, and numerical model experiments are used to study the distribution and flow of Mediterranean waters in the western Alboran Sea. The Intermediate Water is more pronounced in the northern three-fourths of the sea, but its distribution is patchy as manifested by variability of the temperature and salinity maxima at scales ≤10 km. Current meters in the lower Intermediate Water showed mean flow toward the Strait at 2 cm s -1. A reversal of this flow lasted about 2 weeks. A rough estimate of the mean westward Intermediate Water transport was 0.4 × 10 6 m 3 s -1, about one-third of the total outflow, so that the best estimates of the contributions of traditionally defined Intermediate Water and Deep Water account for only about one-half of the total outflow. The Deep Water was uplifted against the southern continental slope from Alboran Island (3°W) to the Strait. There was also a similar but much weaker banking against the Spanish slope, but a deep current record showed that the eastward recirculation implied by this banking is probably intermittent. Two-layer numerical model experiments simulated the Intermediate Water flow with a flat bottom and the Deep Water with realistic bottom topography. Both experiments replicated the major circulation features, and the Intermediate Water flow was concentrated in the north because of rotation and the Deep Water flow in the south because of topographic control.

  2. EVALUATING THE COMPETITION DYNAMICS OF CONTAINER PORTS IN THE NORTH ADRIATIC

    OpenAIRE

    Twrdy, Elen; Batista, Milan

    2014-01-01

    World trade has changed in the last decade and the container traffic flows are oriented towards several parts of the European continent. A European container port system is not a homogenous set of ports, but is established of several large ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg, Algeciras...) and a large number of medium- and small-sized ports. North Adriatic (NA) ports belong to this category of ports and in this paper we have analysed the container flows and the throughput attained in these ports.

  3. Sea water Corrosion of Nickel based Plasma Spray Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Different types of erosion resistant coatings are applied/deposited on aero components, depending on the operating/working temperatures. Nickel based coating are applied on the air craft (compressor) components, which can sustain up to working temperature of 650°C. In the present investigation, to improve the compatibility between substrate (i.e. the machine component) and the top coat, application of bond coat is there. The application of Nickel based coating by thermal plasma spray technique has proven to be a satisfactory means of producing acceptable sealing surface with excellent abradability. Before the corrosion study, coated sample is subjected to hardness, thickness and porosity testing. Hence the result is being evaluated. The corrosion behavior of coating was studied by sea water immersion with a time period of 16 weeks. It is observed that, up to 9 weeks increase in weight of coating occurs in a sharp trend and then takes a decreasing trend. The weight gain of the samples has varied from 37.23% (with one week immersion in sea water) to a maximum of about 64.36% for six weeks immersion. Coating morphology and composition analysis of the coatings are studied using SEM and EDS. This behavior shows adsorption/deposition of the foreign particles with polygonal shape on the coating surface by sea water interaction. Foreign particles with polygonal shape deposited on the coating and with increase in immersion/treatment time, washing out of the deposited materials starts, which reflects the decreasing trend of weight gain of the specimen.

  4. Sea Cucumber Resources At Tanjung Pai Waters Padaido Biak Numfor Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Yusron

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation on sea cucumber diversity was carried out at coastal waters of Pai and Imbeyomi Islands in the Padaido Island Biak Numfor. Sampling was done by using a transect quadrant of 1 m x 1 m. This sampling and observation on its microhabitat were conducted by snorkling. Analyses on the sea cucumber community structure were based on its frequency of occurance, diversity, and density. The results showed that at both locations 10 species of sea cucumber were found where Holothuria edulis, H. atra, and H. nobilis were predominant common and more evenly distributed than the other species.

  5. Forecasting Sea Water Levels at Mukho Station, South Korea Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Kisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of three different data-driven methods, namely, Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, is investigated for hourly sea water level prediction at the Mukho Station in the East Sea (Sea of Japan. Current and four previous level measurements are used as input variables to predict sea water levels up to 1, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours ahead. Three statistical evaluation parameters, namely, the correlation coefficient, the root mean square error and the scatter index are used to assess how the models perform. Investigation results indicate that, when compared to measurements, for +1h prediction interval, all three models perform well (with average values of R = 0.993, RMSE = 1.3 cm and SI = 0.04, with slightly better results produced by the ANNs and ANFIS, while increasing the prediction interval degrades model performance.

  6. Structures for the release of sea water from the nuclear plants of Paluel and Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliskin, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear plants necessitate large amounts of cooling water. This explains why Electricite de France, the French Electricity Authority, is currently building several such plants along the Channel coast, using sea water. This paper describes the design and the beginning of the construction of the discharge outlets of the nuclear plants of Paluel and Flamanville. These outlets consist in vertical shafts 40 to 60 m deep bored at a distance of about 1000 m from the shore in the open sea. The shafts are covered with a light concrete diffusor whose function is to spread out the hot water flow into sea water. The paper puts emphasis on the tool used for the construction of these shafts which is a small movable gravity platform made of a concrete caisson supporting a self-elevating steel deck [fr

  7. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ability of sea-water bacterial consortium to produce electricity and denitrify water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruvada, Nagasamrat V. V.; Tommasi, Tonia; Kaza, Kesava Rao; Ruggeri, Bernardo

    Sea is a store house for varied types of microbes with an ability to reduce and oxidize substances like iron, sulphur, carbon dioxide, etc. Most of these processes happen in the sea water environment, but can be applied for purification of wastewater. In the present paper, we discuss the use of a consortium of seawater bacteria in a fuel cell to produce electricity by oxidizing organic matter and reducing nitrates. We also discuss how the growth of the bacterial consortium can lead to an increased electricity production and decreased diffusional resistance in the cell. The analysis was done using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Here, we use bicarbonate buffered solution, which is the natural buffering agent found in sea. We show that the seawater bacterial consortium can be used in both the anode and cathode parts of the cell. The results confirm the adaptability of the seawater bacteria to different environments and can be used for various applications. Heritage, Erasmus Mundus Programme, European Commission.

  9. Mesozoic Compressional Folds of the Nansha Waters, Southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R.; Liu, H.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As an important part of the South China Sea, the southern margin of the South China Sea is fundamental to understand the interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific and Indian-Australian plates and the evolution of the South China Sea. Some multi-channel seismic profiles of the Nansha waters together with published drillings and dredge data were correlated for interpretation. The strata of the study region can be divided into the upper, middle and lower structural layers. The upper and middle structural layers with extensional tectonics are Cenozoic; the lower structural layer suffered compression is Mesozoic. Further structural restoration was done to remove the Cenozoic tectonic influence and to calculate the Mesozoic tectonic compression ratios. The results indicate that two diametrically opposite orientations of compressive stress, S(S)E towards N(N)W orientation and N(N)W towards S(S)E orientation respectively, once existed in the lower structural layer of the study area and shared the same variation trend. The compression ratio values gradually decrease both from the north to the south and from the west to the east in each stress orientation. The phenomena may be related to the opening of the proto-South China Sea (then located in south of the Nansha block) and the rate of the Nansha block drifted northward in Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, which had pushed the Nansha block drifted northward until it collided and sutured with the Southern China Margin. Thus the opening of the present-day South China Sea may be related to this suture zone, which was tectonically weakness zone.Key words: Mesozoic compression; structural restoration; proto-South China Sea; Nansha waters; Southern South China Sea; Acknowledgements: The work was granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41476039, 91328205, 41576068 and 41606080).

  10. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  11. Evidence of Brucella strain ST27 in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetnić, Željko; Duvnjak, Sanja; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Reil, Irena; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Špičić, Silvio

    2016-11-30

    Marine mammal brucellosis has been known for more than 20 years, but recent work suggests it is more widespread than originally thought. Brucella (B.) pinnipedialis has been isolated from pinnipeds, while B. ceti strains have been associated with cetaceans. Here we report a Brucella strain isolated from multiple lymph nodes of one bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) during routine examination of dolphin carcasses found in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea during the summer of 2015. Classical bacteriological biotyping, PCR-based techniques (single, multiplex, PCR-RFLP) and 16S rRNA DNA sequencing were used to identify Brucella spp. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 loci and multilocus sequence typing of 9 loci were used for genotyping and species determination. The combination of bacteriological, molecular and genotyping techniques identified our strain as ST27, previously identified as a human pathogen. This report provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of ST27 in the Adriatic Sea in particular and in European waters in general. The zoonotic nature of the strain and its presence in the Adriatic, which is inhabited by bottlenose dolphins, suggest that the strain may pose a significant threat to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction of uranium (VI) from sea water using hydrous metalic oxide binded with hydrophilic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigetomi, Yasumasa; Kojima, Takehiro; Kamba, Hideaki

    1978-01-01

    In the past five years, many researches have been made to extract U(VI) from sea water. This is a report of the extraction of U(VI) from sea water using hydrous titanium oxide binded with hydrophilic polymers, the apparatus for the adsorption and the separation of U(VI) by means of ion exchange. (author)

  13. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-06-29

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling.

  14. Method for recovering uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwochau, K.; Astheimer, L.; Schenk, H.J.; Schmitz, J.

    1977-04-01

    In view of the augmenting uranium demand for energy supply and of the anticipated depletion of the actually assured and economic uranium resources the possibility of recovering uranium from sea water receives increasing attention. It is the purpose of the present report to give a detailed discussion of fundamental problems involved and a critical survey of hitherto proposed processes of recovery and to recommend some general directives for further work. (orig.) [de

  15. Holocene evolution of a drowned melt-water valley in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Svinth, Steffen; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Cores from the salt marshes along the drowned melt-water valley of river Varde Å in the Danish Wadden Sea have been dated and analysed (litho- and biostratigraphically) to reconstruct the Holocene geomorphologic evolution and relative sea level history of the area. The analysed cores cover...... the total post-glacial transgression, and the reconstructed sea level curve represents the first unbroken curve of this kind from the Danish Wadden Sea, including all phases from the time where sea level first reached the Pleistocene substrate of the area. The sea level has been rising from - 12 m below...... the present level at c. 8400 cal yr BP, interrupted by two minor drops of sea level rise, and the Holocene sequence consists in most places of clay atop...

  16. Measurement and Elemental Analysis of Muria Sea Water for Primary Water of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Biyantoro; Kris Tri Basuki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment process of water of free mineral and study area of processing of sea water t