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Sample records for adriatic sea dinamica

  1. Population dynamics of toxic phytoplankton and bacterial flora in the waters of the low Adriatic sea; Dinamica di popolazione di fitoplancton tossico e flora batterica nel basso Adriatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroppo, C.; Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R.A.; Pastore, M. [CNR, Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico Attlio Cerruti, Taranto (Italy); Marchiori, E. [Rome Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Organica; Bruno, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The coastal areas of the Southern Adriatic Sea, in particular the Apulian ones, may be considered an example of intact ecosystem and represent an ideal term of comparison to other marine ecosystems having higher levels of pollution (Northern Adriatic Sea). In order to evaluate the sanitary levels of this environment, four transect were investigated during two years monitoring (April 1995-March 1997) along the Otranto Channel coasts, by joint research groups of the Environmental Hygiene Laboratory of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' and the Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti of CNR in Taranto. The study underlines the phytoplanktic and bacterial population dynamics, and the detection of the microbiological water quality along the coast tract Brindisi-Lecce-Otranto-S. Maria di Leuca. The results acquired pointed out population dynamics of some potantially toxic species of Dinophysis genus and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. These depended on the winter nutrient loads due to the ASW (Adriatic Superficial Waters) and to the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Waters). The bacterial community was mainly constituted by genera Aeromonas, Photobacterium, Cytophaga and Pseudomonas. Also the presence of Enterobacteriaceae family was relevant. Among the pathogenic vibrios the most frequently isolated species were Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. [Italian] Considerando che le zone del basso Adriatico, in particolare quelle pugliesi, costituiscono un biotopo ancora relativamente inalterato, esse sono state oggetto di un'indagine sperimentale condotta in 24 mesi di attivita' (aprile 1995-marzo 1997) lungo le coste del Canale di Otranto, ad opera di un gruppo congiunto del Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' e dei laboratori dell'Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti del CNR di Taranto, ai fini di valutare lo stato di salute di questo ambiente, che fornisce, con buona probabilita', un

  2. Demands for Modern Shipping and SUiveillance of the Adriatic Sea

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    Martin Lakota

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work modem navigation and Adriatic control demandcharacteristics are developed. It correlates the modemnavigation characteristics and the Adriatic sea control. Thepresent operating procedures used for sea control are mentionedas well as the new systems and procedures based on newcomputer and communication technologies (automatic identificationsystems, GPS, computer networks, Internet/Intranetstandards. It discusses unmanned aerial vehicles characteristicsaccording to demands and grading standards for picture/scene interpretation (NIIRS grading scale.

  3. Response of the Adriatic Sea to the atmospheric anomaly in 2003

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    B. Grbec

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Unusual weather conditions over the southern Europe and the Mediterranean area in 2003 significantly impacted the oceanographic properties of the Adriatic Sea. To document these changes, both in the atmosphere and the sea, anomalies from the normal climate were calculated. The winter 2003 was extremely cold, whereas the spring/summer period was extremely warm. The air temperature in June was more than 3 standard deviations above the average. On the other hand, precipitation and river runoff were extremely low between February and August. The response of the sea was remarkable, especially in surface salinity during spring and summer, with values at least one standard deviation above the average. Analysis of thermohaline properties in the middle Adriatic showed the importance of two phenomena responsible for the occurrence of exceptionally high salinity: (1 enhanced inflow of saline Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW in the Adriatic, and (2 extremely low precipitation and river runoff, accompanied with strong evaporation. Two large-scale atmospheric indices: NAOI (North Atlantic Oscillation Index and MOI (Mediterranean Oscillation Index, although generally correlated to the Adriatic climate, failed to describe anomalies in 2003. The air pressure gradients used for the definition of both indices significantly decreased in 2003 due to the presence of the high pressure areas over most of Europe and the northern Atlantic, and were actually responsible for the observed anomalies above and in the Adriatic.

  4. Linear and non-linear sea-level variations in the Adriatic Sea from tide gauge records (1872-2012

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    Gaia Galassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed tide gauge data from the Adriatic Sea in order to assess the secular sea-level trend, its acceleration and the existence of possible cyclic variation. Analyzing the sea-level stack of all Adriatic tide gauges, we have obtained a trend of (1.25±0.04 mm yr-1, in agreement with that observed for the last century in the Mediterranean Sea, and an acceleration that is negligibile compared to the average global values. By means of the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition technique, we have evidenced an energetic oscillation with a period of ∼20 years that we relate with the recurrence of opposite phases in the Atlantic Multi–decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation indices. We suggest that anomalously high sea-level values observed at all the Adriatic tide gauges during 2010 and 2011 can be explained by the rising phase of this 20 years cycle.

  5. First records of two planktonic Indo-Pacific diatoms: Chaetoceros bacteriastroides and C. pseudosymmetricus in the Adriatic Sea

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    Marijeta Čalić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual occurrence of planktonic diatom species, Chaetoceros bacteriastroides and Chaetoceros pseudosymmetricus, was noticed in three different marine ecosystems of Adriatic Sea: the Krka Estuary and Telaščica Bay in the Central Adriatic, and in southern Adriatic offshore. From 2010 to 2015, these two Chaetoceros species were recorded in heterogeneous environmental conditions and in a very low abundances. Both species are regarded as very rare in world oceans, and consequently knowledge of their distribution and ecology is rather poor. Primarily described from tropical waters and showing Indo-Pacific distribution, C. bacteriastroides and C. pseudosymmetricus findings in Adriatic represent the northernmost records in world's oceans and seas. For C. pseudosymmetricus this is also the first occurrence in European seas. Areal expansion and introduction of new phytoplankton species in the Adriatic Sea might be related to different circulation regimes in the Ionian Sea and the concurrent rise in sea temperature in the Mediterranean in the last decade. Recent investigations have shown that entering currents, of either Atlantic/Western Mediterranean or Eastern Mediterranean origin, modify the composition of the plankton community in the Adriatic by bringing different newcomers.

  6. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

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    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  7. Adriatic storm surges and related cross-basin sea-level slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međugorac, Iva; Orlić, Mirko; Janeković, Ivica; Pasarić, Zoran; Pasarić, Miroslava

    2018-05-01

    Storm surges pose a severe threat to the northernmost cities of the Adriatic coast, with Venice being most prone to flooding. It has been noted that some flooding episodes cause significantly different effects along the eastern and western Adriatic coasts, with indications that the difference is related to cross-basin sea-level slope. The present study aims to determine specific atmospheric conditions under which the slope develops and to explore connection with increased sea level along the two coastlines. The analysis is based on sea-level time series recorded at Venice and Bakar over the 1984-2014 interval, from which 38 most intensive storm-surge episodes were selected, and their meteorological backgrounds (ERA-Interim) were studied. The obtained sea-level extremes were grouped into three categories according to their cross-basin sea-level slope: storm surges that slope strongly westward (W type), those that slope eastward (E type) and ordinary storm surges (O type). Results show that the slope is controlled by wind action only, specifically, by the wind component towards a particular coast and by the cross-basin shear of along-basin wind. Meteorological fields were used to force an oceanographic numerical model in order to confirm the empirically established connection between the atmospheric forcing and the slope. Finally, it has been found that the intensity of storm surges along a particular Adriatic coast is determined by an interplay of sea-level slopes in the along and cross-basin directions.

  8. Intense air-sea exchanges and heavy orographic precipitation over Italy: The role of Adriatic sea surface temperature uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, Paolo; Davolio, Silvio

    2017-11-01

    Strong and persistent low-level winds blowing over the Adriatic basin are often associated with intense precipitation events over Italy. Typically, in case of moist southeasterly wind (Sirocco), rainfall affects northeastern Italy and the Alpine chain, while with cold northeasterly currents (Bora) precipitations are localized along the eastern slopes of the Apennines and central Italy coastal areas. These events are favoured by intense air-sea interactions and it is reasonable to hypothesize that the Adriatic sea surface temperature (SST) can affect the amount and location of precipitation. High-resolution simulations of different Bora and Sirocco events leading to severe precipitation are performed using a convection-permitting model (MOLOCH). Sensitivity experiments varying the SST initialization field are performed with the aim of evaluating the impact of SST uncertainty on precipitation forecasts, which is a relevant topic for operational weather predictions, especially at local scales. Moreover, diagnostic tools to compute water vapour fluxes across the Italian coast and atmospheric water budget over the Adriatic Sea have been developed and applied in order to characterize the air mass that feeds the precipitating systems. Finally, the investigation of the processes through which the SST influences location and intensity of heavy precipitation allows to gain a better understanding on mechanisms conducive to severe weather in the Mediterranean area and in the Adriatic basin in particular. Results show that the effect of the Adriatic SST (uncertainty) on precipitation is complex and can vary considerably among different events. For both Bora and Sirocco events, SST does not influence markedly the atmospheric water budget or the degree of moistening of air that flows over the Adriatic Sea. SST mainly affects the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer, thus influencing the flow dynamics and the orographic flow regime, and in turn, the precipitation pattern.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of the model for estimation of the Adriatic sea turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable data on the turnover time of water in the Adriatic Sea (approximately 35000 cubic kilometres) is extremely important for any risk analysis involving various economic activities, tourism, etc. Water exchange through the Strait of Otranto between the Adriatic and the Ionian seas has been the subject of a series of experimental investigations and more recently, of some numerical studies, is extensively presented by Cushman-Roisin et al. [1]. The turnover time of the Adriatic sea water can be easily calculated from the data on water fluxes through the Strait by calculating annual water mass flowing through the Strait and dividing it by the total volume of the Adriatic sea. Literature data on the Adriatic Sea water turnover time range from minimal 0.7 to maximal 5.0 years. Using a model describing the rate of change of 9 0S r activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water by function minimisation to long-term experimental data, the turnover time for 9 0S r in the Adriatic was calculated to be 3.3±0.4 years. The uncertainty was estimated by Monte Carlo analysis. As 9 0S r is a reliable radiotracer for seawater, this value also reflects the sea water turnover time. Sensitivity analysis of the model, applied by varying critical parameters over their nominal values, showed that ±25% uncertainty in the estimation of the Adriatic sea water activity results in approximately ±10% change in 9 0S r mean residence time. On the other hand, a larger input of 9 0S r, either by fallout or water influx from the Ionian Sea may lead to a shorter mean residence time.Direct proportionality between 9 0S r input into the Adriatic sea and its mean residence time in the sea water suggests that 3.3 years is the upper limit of the Adriatic sea water turnover time. Namely, re-suspension from sediments could affect 9 0S r activity concentrations, acting as additional input, especially in the northern, relatively shallow part of the Adriatic.(author)

  10. The Henetus wave forecast system in the Adriatic Sea

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    L. Bertotti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the Henetus wave forecast system in the Adriatic Sea. Operational since 1996, the system is continuously upgraded, especially through the correction of the input ECMWF wind fields. As these fields are of progressively improved quality with the increasing resolution of the meteorological model, the correction needs to be correspondingly updated. This ensures a practically constant quality of the Henetus results in the Adriatic Sea since 1996. After suitable and extended validation of the quality of the results at different forecast ranges, the operational range has been recently extended to five days. The Henetus results are used also to improve the tidal forecast on the Venetian coasts and the Venice lagoon, particularly during the most severe events. Extensive statistics on the model performance are provided, both as analysis and forecast, by comparing the model results versus both satellite and buoy data.

  11. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS FARMED IN ADRIATIC SEA

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    Tibor Janči

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of fresh and cold smoked rainbow trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in the Adriatic sea by measuring water, fat, protein, salt and ash content, fatty acid profile with an emphasis on eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids. Physical characteristics were determined by pH and color measurements. Analysis was performed on homogenized fish muscles without skin and bones. Determination of moisture, ash, fat and protein was conducted according to AOAC (1995. Determination of fatty acid content of previously prepared methyl esters (HRN EN ISO 5509, 2004 was conducted by gas chromatography according to HRN EN ISO 5508 (1999. Results showed that fresh rainbow trout farmed in the Adriatic sea is an excellent protein source (21.21% but has slightly lower fat (5.21% and omega-3 fatty acid content (12.52 % compared to the results of other studies. Fat and omega-3 fatty acid content was not decreased by the process of cold smoking. Overall, fresh and smoked trout farmed in the Adriatic may be regarded as food high in nutritional value.

  12. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    30m), depends on the freshwater inflow as well ... The Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean) and location of satellite pigment data (cross marks) ..... landings of small pelagic fish in the eastern Adriatic– ... and North America (1858–1980).

  13. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

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    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  14. The importance of modeling nonhydrostatic processes for dense water reproduction in the Southern Adriatic Sea

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    Bellafiore, Debora; McKiver, William J.; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2018-05-01

    Dense water (DW) formation commonly occurs in the shallow Northern Adriatic Sea during winter outbreaks, when there is a combination of the cooling of surface waters by the winds and high salinity as a result of reduced river inputs. These DWs subsequently propagate southwards over a period of weeks/months, eventually arriving in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The investigation is based on a new nonhydrostatic (NH) formulation of the 3D finite element model SHYFEM that is validated for a number of theoretical test cases. Subsequently this model is used to simulate, through high-resolution numerical simulations, an extreme DW event that occurred in the Adriatic Sea in 2012. We perform both hydrostatic (HY) and NH simulations in order to explicitly see the impact of NH processes on the DW dynamics. The modeled results are compared to observations collected in the field campaign of March-April 2012 in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The NH run correctly reproduces the across isobath bottom-trapped gravity current characterizing the canyon DW pathways. It also more accurately captures the frequency and intensity of dense water cascading pulsing events, as the inclusion of NH processes produces stronger currents with different DW mixing characteristics. Finally, the NH run simulates internal gravity waves (IGW), generated during the cascading at the edge of the canyon, which propagate downslope. This IGW activity is not captured in the HY case.

  15. Benthic foraminifera from the Adriatic Sea : principles of phenotypic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and morphology of the benthic foraminifera in the Adriatic Sea appear to be strongly dependent on two primary controlling environmental parameters, oxygen concentration and food availability. These factors are both governed by the runoff from the Po and other Italian rivers, and

  16. Comparison of SeaWiFS and MODIS time series of inherent optical properties for the Adriatic Sea

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    F. Mélin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Time series of inherent optical properties (IOPs derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS are compared for the Adriatic Sea. The IOPs are outputs of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm and include total absorption a, phytoplankton absorption aph, absorption associated with colored detrital material (CDM acdm, and particle backscattering coefficient bbp. The average root-mean square difference Δ computed for log-transformed distributions decreases for $a$ from 0.084 at 412 nm to 0.052 at 490 nm, is higher for aph(443 (0.149 than for acdm(443 (0.071, and is approximately 0.165 for bbp at various wavelengths. The SeaWiFS a at 443 and 490 nm, aph at 443 nm and bbp are on average higher than the MODIS counterparts. Statistics show significant variations in space and time. There is an overall increasing gradient for Δ associated with the absorption terms from the open southern and central Adriatic to the northwest part of the basin, and a reversed gradient for the particulate backscattering coefficient. For time series analysis, only a(412 and acdm(443 currently present an unbiased continuity bridging the SeaWiFS and MODIS periods for the Adriatic Sea.

  17. Distribution of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in the Eastern Adriatic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantić, D.; Šestanović, S.; Vrdoljak, A.; Šolić, M.; Kušpilić, G.; Ninčević Gladan, Ž.; Koblížek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 134-141 ISSN 0141-1136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs * Adriatic sea * Picoplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  18. The Radiological Condition of 137 Cs in the Northern Adriatic Sea (2006-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic-Hamer, D.; Lulic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Croatian Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research Rovinj has studied the levels and distribution of long-lived radionuclides in different marine samples. Artificial radioactivity in the northern Adriatic Sea was assessed by analysis of the concentration of 137Cs in seawater, sediment and marine organisms. A comparison of radioactive contamination was made between different ecosystems including in front of the river Po delta, the protected area of Lim bay and the Rovinj coastal area from 2006 to 2007. At the station which was under the direct influence of the Po river discharge the concentrations of 137Cs in seawater were back to pre-Chernobyl values (2.65 Bq m-3), although in sediment values were slightly higher (9.06 Bq/kg). Inside Lim bay the concentrations of 137Cs in seawater were low (1.99 Bq m -3 ) and in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were undetectable in this period. The concentrations of 137Cs in seawater in the surface layer in the Rovinj coastal area remained constant (2.43 Bq m-3), as were found within the top sediment layer (2.15 Bq/kg). The concentrations of 137Cs were detectable at very low levels in Mugil cephalus and Sardina pilchardus. Fucus virsoides and Mullus barbatus can be considered a good bio indicator of monitoring radio contamination in the Adriatic Sea. The radiological status of 137Cs in the Adriatic Sea has returned to the pre-accident level, taking into consideration their natural fluctuations due to physico-chemical and hydrological parameters in the investigated area. Such knowledge of radioactive contamination could be useful in the estimation of the state of the environment and as an input to plans for the protection of the Adriatic Sea.(author)

  19. Measurements of Sediment Transport in the Western Adriatic Sea

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    Sherwood, C. R.; Hill, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    Instrumented bottom tripods were deployed at two depths (10 and 20 m) off the mouth of the Chienti River in the western Adriatic Sea from November 2002 to May 2003 as part of the EuroSTRATAFORM Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) Experiment. Waves, currents, and proxies for suspended-sediment concentrations were measured with upward-looking acoustic Doppler current meters, downward looking pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profilers, single-point acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and acoustic and optical backscatter sensors. Flow was dominated by the western Adriatic coastal current (WACC) during the experiment. Mean southward alongshore velocity 2 m below the surface was 0.10 m/s at the 10-m site and 0.23 m/s at the 20-m site, and flow was modulated by tides, winds, and fluctuating riverflow. The largest waves (3 m significant height) were generated by winds from the southeast during a Sirocco event in late November that generated one of the few episodes of sustained northward flow and sediment transport. Most of the time, however, sediment resuspension and transport was dominated by Bora events, when downwelling-favorable winds from the northeast generated waves that resuspended sediment and simultaneously enhanced southward flow in the WACC. Mean flow near the bottom was slightly offshore at the 20-m site (0.01 m/s at 3 m above the bottom), but there was no significant correlation between downwelling and wave-induced resuspension, and cross-shelf sediment fluxes were small. The combination of persistent southward flow with low rates of cross-shelf leakage makes the WACC an efficient conduit for sediment past the Chienti region. If these observations are representative of typical winter conditions along the entire western Adriatic, they may help explain the enigmatic development of Holocene shelf-edge clinoforms that have formed hundreds of kilometers south of the Po River, which provides most of the sediment to the Adriatic Sea. Future data

  20. Fundamental Adriatic seiche recorded by current meters

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    N. Leder

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Currents recorded at two stations positioned at the Adriatic shelf break between 17 February and 6 March 1989 were considered. They provided the first evidence of current variability related to the Adriatic-wide seiches. Current spectra were dominated by a peak at 21.1h – a well-known period of the fundamental Adriatic mode. Amplitudes of oscillations were considerable, occasionally greater than 30cm/s. Both along- and cross-basin currents were recorded, thus signalling the importance of rotational effects. Comparison of the current data with the sea-level measurements performed simultaneously along the east Adriatic coast showed that the 21-h currents flowing in the Adriatic preceded sea levels by a quarter of a cycle, as would be expected from a simple model of bay seiches. Sea-level amplitudes reached 40cm in the North Adriatic, thus marking the event as one of the strongest on record. Seiching was triggered by a suddenly changing sirocco wind, as is usually the case in the Adriatic. The most important features of the seiche event were reproduced with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Adriatic Sea, forced by the sea-level residuals measured at Otranto and the air pressure and wind data recorded at Lastovo. The model showed that the seiche-related currents were relatively strong in the area where the current measurements were performed and further north – between Zadar and Ancona. Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes – Oceanography: physical (sea-level variations, currents

  1. Oil spill model coupled to an ultra-high-resolution circulation model: implementation for the Adriatic Sea

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    Korotenko, K.

    2003-04-01

    An ultra-high-resolution version of DieCAST was adjusted for the Adriatic Sea and coupled with an oil spill model. Hydrodynamic module was developed on base of th low dissipative, four-order-accuracy version DieCAST with the resolution of ~2km. The oil spill model was developed on base of particle tracking technique The effect of evaporation is modeled with an original method developed on the base of the pseudo-component approach. A special dialog interface of this hybrid system allowing direct coupling to meteorlogical data collection systems or/and meteorological models. Experiments with hypothetic oil spill are analyzed for the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results (animations) of mesoscale circulation and oil slick modeling are presented at wabsite http://thayer.dartmouth.edu/~cushman/adriatic/movies/

  2. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Beran, Alfred; Ivesa, Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp

  3. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Marina [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mmonti@inogs.it; Minocci, Marco [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Beran, Alfred [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Ivesa, Ljiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research, G. Paliaga 5, 52210 Rovinj (Croatia)

    2007-05-15

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp.

  4. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  5. POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE (IMTA IN THE ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Kanski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, scientific interest for investigating ecological, economical and social effects of Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA has increased worldwide. Its development in the Mediterranean, including the Adriatic Sea, is still in the early stages. The main obstacle preventing IMTA to be commercially adopted is the lack of scientific information on choosing compatible species, knowing the carrying capacity of a production area and interactions between species feeding at different trophic levels, as well as its socio–economic impacts. Current experience in the area is based on smaller experimental studies of local importance but they generally give a good insight into potential of IMTA and its interactions with the environment. The aim of this paper was to overview current literature and experiences worldwide and to review the potential for adopting IMTA principles in the Adriatic Sea.

  6. Review of Development of Adriatic Marine Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branica, G.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.; Petrinec, B.; Hanzek, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview and some research results of radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea and coastal areas caused by natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, with emphasis on the eastern Adriatic coast. The results of the first known survey of radioactivity of the Adriatic Sea have been published in 1909, by Prof. Dr. Peter Salcher from the Imperial and Royal Naval Academy (k.u.k. Marine Akademie) in the city of Rijeka. These were compared with similar studies conducted in the Atlantic Ocean. Systematic radioecological research of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea that began in 1961 at three locations (Rovinj, Split and Dubrovnik) have been organized by the Directorate for Civil Protection of the State Secretariat for people's defence, targeting the activity concentrations of fission products 90Sr and 137Cs in seawater. Editing and standardization of data has been coordinated by the engineer Velimir Popovic, an associate of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health.Nowadays, contemporary radieocological monitoring in the Republic of Croatia related to the Adriatic Sea today is conducted by Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health within the framework of 'Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in the Republic of Croatia' and the scientific project R adioecology of the Adriatic sea and Coastal Areas , project no. 022-0222882-2823 funded by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia.(author)

  7. Wintertime dynamics in the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea: the NAdEx 2015 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vilibić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the wintertime dynamics of the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea and is based on numerical modelling and in situ data collected through field campaigns executed during the winter and spring of 2015. The data were collected with a variety of instruments and platforms (acoustic Doppler current profilers, conductivity–temperature–depth probes, glider, profiling float and are accompanied by the atmosphere–ocean ALADIN/ROMS modelling system. The research focused on the dense-water formation (DWF, thermal changes, circulation, and water exchange between the coastal and open Adriatic. According to both observations and modelling results, dense waters are formed in the northeastern coastal Adriatic during cold bora outbreaks. However, the dense water formed in this coastal region has lower densities than the dense water formed in the open Adriatic due to lower salinities. Since the coastal area is deeper than the open Adriatic, the observations indicate (i balanced inward–outward exchange at the deep connecting channels of denser waters coming from the open Adriatic DWF site and less-dense waters coming from the coastal region and (ii outward flow of less-dense waters dominating in the intermediate and surface layers. The latter phenomenon was confirmed by the model, even if it significantly underestimates the currents and transports in the connecting channels. The median residence time of the coastal area is estimated to be approximately 20 days, indicating that the coastal area may be renewed relatively quickly by the open Adriatic waters. The data that were obtained represent a comprehensive marine dataset that can be used to calibrate atmospheric and oceanic numerical models and point to several interesting phenomena to be investigated in the future.

  8. Wintertime dynamics in the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea: the NAdEx 2015 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Janeković, Ivica; Denamiel, Cléa; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Orlić, Mirko; Dunić, Natalija; Dadić, Vlado; Pasarić, Mira; Muslim, Stipe; Gerin, Riccardo; Matić, Frano; Šepić, Jadranka; Mauri, Elena; Kokkini, Zoi; Tudor, Martina; Kovač, Žarko; Džoić, Tomislav

    2018-03-01

    The paper investigates the wintertime dynamics of the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea and is based on numerical modelling and in situ data collected through field campaigns executed during the winter and spring of 2015. The data were collected with a variety of instruments and platforms (acoustic Doppler current profilers, conductivity-temperature-depth probes, glider, profiling float) and are accompanied by the atmosphere-ocean ALADIN/ROMS modelling system. The research focused on the dense-water formation (DWF), thermal changes, circulation, and water exchange between the coastal and open Adriatic. According to both observations and modelling results, dense waters are formed in the northeastern coastal Adriatic during cold bora outbreaks. However, the dense water formed in this coastal region has lower densities than the dense water formed in the open Adriatic due to lower salinities. Since the coastal area is deeper than the open Adriatic, the observations indicate (i) balanced inward-outward exchange at the deep connecting channels of denser waters coming from the open Adriatic DWF site and less-dense waters coming from the coastal region and (ii) outward flow of less-dense waters dominating in the intermediate and surface layers. The latter phenomenon was confirmed by the model, even if it significantly underestimates the currents and transports in the connecting channels. The median residence time of the coastal area is estimated to be approximately 20 days, indicating that the coastal area may be renewed relatively quickly by the open Adriatic waters. The data that were obtained represent a comprehensive marine dataset that can be used to calibrate atmospheric and oceanic numerical models and point to several interesting phenomena to be investigated in the future.

  9. Adriatic Sea surface temperature and ocean colour variability during the MFSPP

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    E. Böhm

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years and six months of night-time Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST and daytime Sea viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS data collected during the MFSPP have been used to examine spatial and temporal variability of SST and chlorophyll (Chl in the Adriatic Sea. Flows along the Albanian and the Italian coasts can be distinguished year-round in the monthly averaged Chl but only in the colder months in the monthly averaged SST’s. The Chl monthly-averaged fields supply less information on circulation features away from coastal boundaries and where conditions are generally oligotrophic, except for the early spring bloom in the Southern Adriatic Gyre. To better characterise the year-to-year and seasonal variability, exploratory data analysis techniques, particularly the plotting of multiple Chl-SST histograms, are employed to make joint quantitative use of monthly-averaged fields. Modal water mass (MW, corresponding to the Chl-SST pairs in the neighbourhood of the maximum of each monthly histogram, are chosen to represent the temporal and spatial evolution of the prevalent processes and their variability in the Adriatic Sea. Over an annual cycle, the MW followed a triangular path with the most pronounced seasonal and interannual variations in both Chl-SST properties and spatial distributions of the MW in the colder part of the year. The winter of 1999 is the colder (by at least 0.5°C and most eutrophic (by 0.2 mg/m 3. The fall of the year 2000 is characterised by the lack of cooling in the month of November that was observed in the previous year. In addition to characterising the MW, the two-dimensional histogram technique allows a distinction to be made between different months in terms of the spread of SST values at a given Chl concentration. During spring and summer, the spread is minimal indicating surface homothermal conditions. In fall and winter, on the other hand, a spread of points

  10. Sea level variability at Adriatic coast and its relationship to atmospheric forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergant, K. [Centre for Atmospheric Research, Nova Gorica Polytechnic, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Susnik, M.; Strojan, I. [Dept. of Hydrology, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Shaw, A.G.P. [James Rennel Div., National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Sea level (SLH) variability at the Adriatic coast was investigated for the period 1872-2001 using monthly average values of observations at 13 tide gauge stations. Linear trends and seasonal cycles were investigated first and removed afterwards from the data. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis was used further on remaining anomalies (SLA) to extract the regional intermonthly variability of SLH. It was found that the leading EOF and its principal component (PC) explain a major part of SLA variability (92%). The correlation between the reconstructed SLA, based on leading EOF and its PC, and overlapping observed SLA values for selected tide gauge stations is between 0.93 and 0.99. Actual SLH values at tide gauge stations can be reconstructed and some gaps in the data can be filled in on the basis of estimated SLA values if reasonable estimates of long-term trends and seasonal cycles are also available. A strong, seasonally dependent relationship between SLA at the Adriatic coast and atmospheric forcing, represented by sea level pressure (SLP) fields, was also found. Comparing the time series of leading PC and gridded SLP data for the period 1948-2001, the highest correlation coefficients (r) of -0.92 in winter, -0.84 in spring, -0.66 in summer, and -0.91 in autumn were estimated for a SLP grid point located in northern Italy. The SLP variability on this grid point contains information about the isostatic response of the sea level at the Adriatic coast, but can also be treated as a sort of teleconnection index representing the large-scale SLP variability across central and southern Europe. To some extent the large-scale SLP variability that affects the SLA at the Adriatic coast can be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), because significant correlations were found between the NAO index and the first PC of SLA (r{sub winter}=-0.56, r{sub spring}=-0.45, r{sub summer}=-0.48, and r{sub autumn}=-0.43) for the period 1872-2001. The use of partial least

  11. Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea

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    G. Siani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Holocene paleohydrology reconstruction is derived combining planktonic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, sea surface temperatures (SSTs and oxygen isotope composition of seawater (δ18Ow from a high sedimentation core collected in the South Adriatic Sea (SAS. Core chronology is based on 10 AMS 14C measures on planktonic foraminifera and tephra layers. Results reveal two contrasted paleohydrological periods that reflect (i a marked lowering of δ18Ow/salinity during the early to mid-Holocene (11.5 ka to 6.3 ka, including the two-step sapropel S1 deposition, followed during the mid- to upper Holocene by (ii a prevailing period of increased salinity and enhanced arid conditions in the South Adriatic Basin. Superimposed on these trends, short-term centennial-scale hydrological events punctuated the Holocene period in the SAS. During the early to mid-Holocene, two main SST coolings together with prominent δ18Ow/salinity lowering delineate the sapropel S1 interruption and the post-sapropel phase between 7.3 to 6.3 ka. After 6 ka, centennial-scale δ18Ow and G. bulloides δ13C lowering, mostly centered between 3 to 0.6 ka, reflect short-term hydrological changes related to more intensive runoff of the Po and/or Apennine rivers. These short-term events, even of lesser amplitude compared to the early to mid-Holocene period, may have induced a lowering of sea surface density and consequently reduced and/or inhibited the formation of deep bottom waters in the SAS. Comparison of the emerging centennial- to millennial-scale hydrological record with previous climatic records from the central Mediterranean area and north of the Alps reveal possible synchronicities (within the radiocarbon-dating uncertainty between phases of lower salinity in the SAS and periods of wetter climatic conditions around the north-central Adriatic Sea. Finally, wavelet analyses provide new clues about the potential origin of climate variability in the SAS, confirming

  12. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

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    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  13. On the record of Red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel,1843 (Osteichthyes: Sparidae in the Adriatic Sea

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    Jakov Dulcic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of red seabream Pagrus major, 44.9 cm total length, was caught in the eastern middle Adriatic (Island Molat, Cape Bonaster by long-line hook at a depth of about 20 m on a hard rocky bottom on 25 September 2004. It is the first record of this species in the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean area.

  14. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassan, S.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps

  15. Fluxes and burial of particulate organic carbon along the Adriatic mud-wedge (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, T.; Langone, L.; Giani, M.; Ravaioli, M.; Miserocchi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Clinoform-shaped deposits are ubiquitous sedimentological bodies of modern continental margins, including both carbonate and silicoclastic platforms. They formed after the attainment of the modern sea level high-stand (mid-late Holocene) when river outlets and shoreline migrated landward. As clinoform-shape deposits are essential building blocks of the infill of sedimentary basins, they are sites of intense organic carbon (OC) deposition and account for a significant fraction of OC burial in the ocean during interglacial periods. In this study, we focused on sigmoid clinoforms that are generally associated with low-energy environments. In particular, we characterized the modern accumulation and burial of OC along the late-Holocene sigmoid in the Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). This sedimentary body consists of a mud wedge recognizable on seismic profiles as a progradational unit lying on top the maximum flooding surface that marks the time of maximum landward shift of the shoreline attained around 5.5 kyr cal BP. In the last two decades, several projects have investigated sediment dynamics and organic geochemistry along the Adriatic mud wedge (e.g., PRISMA, EURODELTA, EuroSTRATAFORM, PASTA, CIPE, VECTOR). All these studies increased our understanding of strata formation and organic matter cycling in this epicontinental margin. The overarching goal of this study was to combine the results gained during these projects with newly acquired data to assess fluxes to seabed and burial efficiency of organic carbon along the uppermost strata of the Adriatic mud-wedge. Our study benefited of an extensive number of radionuclide-based (Pb-210, and Cs-137) sediment accumulation rates and numerous biogeochemical data of surface sediments and sediment cores (organic carbon, total nitrogen, radiocarbon measurements, carbon stable isotopes, and biomarkers). In addition, because the accumulation of river-borne sediment may or may not be linked to a specific source, another

  16. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  17. First record of small tropical calanoid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris (Copepoda, Calanoida, Paracalanidae in the Adriatic Sea

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    O. VIDJAK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In December 2014 the adult females and copepodites of alien paracalanid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris were identified in the Central Adriatic port of Šibenik. The most probable transmission vector for this small copepod were ballast waters from the cargo ships that are regularly discharged at these locations. This paper is focused on P. crassirostris morphology and the state of population in the port of Šibenik. The possible path of introduction of Parvocalanus crassirostris into the Adriatic Sea is also discussed.

  18. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

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    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea is its most northern part which occupies approximately 200 km2 and is a part of the wider Gulf of Trieste. Slovenian coast consists of 47 kilometers of mostly steep, abrasive marl and sandstone coast. Low accumulation coast is located only at the mouths of the watercourses and represents but a smaller portion, whereas the smallest part is occupied by the limestone abrasion coast. Mainland coastal region is mostly hillside and has a very diverse relief, while plains, in smaller numbers, are located only in the lower parts of the river valleys. Slovenian sea indents the mainland by two larger gulfs: the Gulf of Koper and of Piran and is predominately very shallow. The average depth is around 18 m and the largest depth is 38 m at the Madona cape near Piran. Sea bottom is mostly covered by the thick layer of sediments deposited after the abrasion of the steep cliff coast and by the accumulation of the river alluvium. Due to its shallowness the sea is exposed to high temperature fluctuations and due to the fresh water influx also to the changes of its salinity. The circulation of the sea water is mainly induced by the tide and wind activities, mostly the Bora (strong north-easterly wind which significantly influences the vertical circulation of the water. Water current is weak and unstable. There is a large influx of nutrients into the Slovenian sea, resulting from the soil erosion, surface water influx, watercourses and direct emissions of waste waters into the sea. The consequence of the mentioned sea characteristics is a great landscape sensitivity of the coastal sea ecosystem. During summer the sea warms intensely and when accompanied by the weak water circulation, we are often witnessing the lack of oxygen in the deeper layers of the water, intensive algae growth and sea blooming, which points to exceeded self-cleaning (assimilation capacities of the marine ecosystem. The major polluters are the coastal towns

  19. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea is its most northern part which occupies approximately 200 km2 and is a part of the wider Gulf of Trieste. Slovenian coast consists of 47 kilometers of mostly steep, abrasive marl and sandstone coast. Low accumulation coast is located only at the mouths of the watercourses and represents but a smaller portion, whereas the smallest part is occupied by the limestone abrasion coast. Mainland coastal region is mostly hillside and has a very diverse relief, while plains, in smaller numbers, are located only in the lower parts of the river valleys. Slovenian sea indents the mainland by two larger gulfs: the Gulf of Koper and of Piran and is predominately very shallow. The average depth is around 18 m and the largest depth is 38 m at the Madona cape near Piran. Sea bottom is mostly covered by the thick layer of sediments deposited after the abrasion of the steep cliff coast and by the accumulation of the river alluvium. Due to its shallowness the sea is exposed to high temperature fluctuations and due to the fresh water influx also to the changes of its salinity. The circulation of the sea water is mainly induced by the tide and wind activities, mostly the Bora (strong north-easterly wind which significantly influences the vertical circulation of the water. Water current is weak and unstable. There is a large influx of nutrients into the Slovenian sea, resulting from the soil erosion, surface water influx, watercourses and direct emissions of waste waters into the sea. The consequence of the mentioned sea characteristics is a great landscape sensitivity of the coastal sea ecosystem. During summer the sea warms intensely and when accompanied by the weak water circulation, we are often witnessing the lack of oxygen in the deeper layers of the water, intensive algae growth and sea blooming, which points to exceeded self-cleaning (assimilation capacities of the marine ecosystem. The major polluters are the coastal towns

  20. Verification of an ensemble prediction system for storm surge forecast in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel, Riccardo; Lionello, Piero

    2014-12-01

    In the Adriatic Sea, storm surges present a significant threat to Venice and to the flat coastal areas of the northern coast of the basin. Sea level forecast is of paramount importance for the management of daily activities and for operating the movable barriers that are presently being built for the protection of the city. In this paper, an EPS (ensemble prediction system) for operational forecasting of storm surge in the northern Adriatic Sea is presented and applied to a 3-month-long period (October-December 2010). The sea level EPS is based on the HYPSE (hydrostatic Padua Sea elevation) model, which is a standard single-layer nonlinear shallow water model, whose forcings (mean sea level pressure and surface wind fields) are provided by the ensemble members of the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) EPS. Results are verified against observations at five tide gauges located along the Croatian and Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Forecast uncertainty increases with the predicted value of the storm surge and with the forecast lead time. The EMF (ensemble mean forecast) provided by the EPS has a rms (root mean square) error lower than the DF (deterministic forecast), especially for short (up to 3 days) lead times. Uncertainty for short lead times of the forecast and for small storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty of the initial condition of the hydrodynamical model. Uncertainty for large lead times and large storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty in the meteorological forcings. The EPS spread increases with the rms error of the forecast. For large lead times the EPS spread and the forecast error substantially coincide. However, the EPS spread in this study, which does not account for uncertainty in the initial condition, underestimates the error during the early part of the forecast and for small storm surge values. On the contrary, it overestimates the rms error for large surge values. The PF (probability forecast) of the EPS

  1. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships

  2. Biodiversity of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in the Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in water samples from the Southern Adriatic Sea of Italy was examined. Water samples were collected monthly, for a year, at 16 stations along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca. The results obtained described the heterotrophic bacterial community over an annual cycle. Mean values of bacterial densities were 5.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Brindisi, 5.8 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. Cataldo, 4.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Otranto and 6.7 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. M. di Leuca. The differences in bacterial densities between the sites considered were estimated. The hydrodynamic circulation, the trophism and the geographical position of the examined sites contribute to justify the different bacterial density trends. The bacterial community consisted mainly of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae represented a considerable fraction of the bacterial community in the Southern Adriatic Sea. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram positive bacteria. The enzymatic versatility of the observed genera suggest their importance in organic matter turnover of this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  3. Spatio-temporal reproducibility of the microbial food web structure associated with the change in temperature: Long-term observations in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolić, Mladen; Grbec, Branka; Matić, Frano; Šantić, Danijela; Šestanović, Stefanija; Ninčević Gladan, Živana; Bojanić, Natalia; Ordulj, Marin; Jozić, Slaven; Vrdoljak, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Global and atmospheric climate change is altering the thermal conditions in the Adriatic Sea and, consequently, the marine ecosystem. Along the eastern Adriatic coast sea surface temperature (SST) increased by an average of 1.03 °C during the period from 1979 to 2015, while in the recent period, starting from 2008, a strong upward almost linear trend of 0.013 °C/month was noted. Being mainly oligotrophic, the middle Adriatic Sea is characterized by the important role played by the microbial food web in the production and transfer of biomass and energy towards higher trophic levels. It is very important to understand the effect of warming on microbial communities, since small temperature increases in surface seawater can greatly modify the microbial role in the global carbon cycle. In this study, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) procedure was used to analyse the time series of a number of microbial parameters at two stations with different trophic status in the central Adriatic Sea. The results show that responses of the microbial food web (MFW) structure to temperature changes are reproducible in time. Furthermore, qualitatively similar changes in the structure of the MFW occurred regardless of the trophic status. The rise in temperature was associated with: (1) the increasing importance of microbial heterotrophic activities (increase bacterial growth and bacterial predator abundance, particularly heterotrophic nanoflagellates) and (2) the increasing importance of autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in the MFW.

  4. Towards integrated assessment of the northern Adriatic Sea sediment budget using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramelli, A.; Filipponi, F.; Valentini, E.; Zucca, F.; Gutierrez, O. Q.; Liberti, L.; Cordella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sediment fluxes is a key issue to interpret the evolution of coastal sedimentation under natural and human impact and relevant for the natural resources management. Despite river plumes represent one of the major gain in sedimentary budget of littoral cells, knowledge of factors influencing complex behavior of coastal plumes, like river discharge characteristics, wind stress and hydro-climatic variables, has not been yet fully investigated. Use of Earth Observation data allows the identification of spatial and temporal variations of suspended sediments related to river runoff, seafloor erosion, sediment transport and deposition processes. Objective of the study is to investigate sediment fluxes in northern Adriatic Sea by linking suspended sediment patterns of coastal plumes to hydrologic and climatic forcing regulating the sedimentary cell budget and geomorphological evolution in coastal systems and continental shelf waters. Analysis of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product, derived from 2002-2012 MERIS time series, was done to map changes in spatial and temporal dimension of suspended sediments, focusing on turbid plume waters and intense wind stress conditions. From the generated multi temporal TSM maps, dispersal patterns of major freshwater runoff plumes in northern Adriatic Sea were evaluated through spatial variability of coastal plumes shape and extent. Additionally, sediment supply from river distributary mouths was estimated from TSM and correlated with river discharge rates, wind field and wave field through time. Spatial based methodology has been developed to identify events of wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity, occurring during intense wind stress and extreme metocean conditions, especially in the winter period. The identified resuspension events were qualitatively described and compared with to hydro-climatic variables. The identification of spatial and

  5. Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Gulf of Trieste (GOT) in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, D.; McGillis, W. R.; Malacic, V.; Degrandpre, M.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal marine regions such as the Gulf of Trieste GOT in the Northern Adriatic Sea serve as the link between carbon cycling on land and the ocean interior and potentially contribute large uncertainties in the estimate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. This system may be either a sink or a source for atmospheric CO2. Understanding the sources and sinks as a result of biological and physical controls for air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes in coastal waters may substantially alter the current view of the global carbon budget for unique terrestrial and ocean regions such as the GOT. GOT is a semi-enclosed Mediterranean basin situated in the northern part of Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most productive regions in the Mediterranean and is affected by extreme fresh river input, phytoplankton blooms, and large changes of air-sea exchange during Bora high wind events. The unique combination of these environmental processes and relatively small size of the area makes the region an excellent study site for investigations of air-sea interaction, and changes in biology and carbon chemistry. However, there is a dearth of current data or information from the region. Here we present the first measurements of air and water CO2 flux in the GOT. The aqueous CO2 was measured at the Coastal Oceanographic buoy Piran, Slovenia using the SAMI CO2 sensor during spring and late summer and fall 2007. CO2 measurements were combined with hydrological and biological observations to evaluate the processes that control carbon cycling in the region.

  6. Histological and Morphological Aspects of Reproduction in Male Blackspotted Smooth-Hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    Romana Gračan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on reproductive biology of male blackspotted smooth-hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea and first histological examination of gonads at different maturation stages and seasonal cycles for this species. We collected samples from 117 male specimens of M. punctulatus ranging in length from 44.6 to 126.5 cm, caught by commercial bottom trawls in the North-Central Adriatic Sea. Microscopic observation revealed a diametric development of testes, in which round-shaped spermatocysts have zonal arrangement, showing seven different stages of development. Males began to mature when they were between 61 and 88 cm body length, which was indicated by the presence of functional claspers or appearance of the spermatogenic cysts. While the smallest mature shark was only 80 cm long, all animals longer than 89 cm were sexually mature. The seasonal analysis of the testes indicated that mature spermatozoa dominated in testes during the first half of the year with a peak in May and June, after which followed less active period during July and August.

  7. Fish and fishery historical data since the 19th century in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Libralato, Simone; Arneri, Enrico; Giovanardi, Otello; Solidoro, Cosimo; Raicevich, Saša

    2017-09-01

    Historic data on biodiversity provide the context for present observations and allow studying long-term changes in marine populations. Here we present multiple datasets on fish and fisheries of the Adriatic Sea covering the last two centuries encompassing from qualitative observations to standardised scientific monitoring. The datasets consist of three groups: (1) early naturalists' descriptions of fish fauna, including information (e.g., presence, perceived abundance, size) on 255 fish species for the period 1818-1936 (2) historical landings from major Northern Adriatic fish markets (Venice, Trieste, Rijeka) for the period 1902-1968, Italian official landings for the Northern and Central Adriatic (1953-2012) and landings from the Lagoon of Venice (1945-2001) (3) trawl-survey data from seven surveys spanning the period 1948-1991 and including Catch per Unit of Effort data (kgh-1 and/or nh-1) for 956 hauls performed at 301 stations. The integration of these datasets has already demonstrated to be useful to analyse historical marine community changes over time, and its availability through open-source data portal will facilitate analyses in the framework of marine historical ecology.

  8. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

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    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011 and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a

  9. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas), two interdisciplinary surveys were carried out in April 2013 and April 2014 in the middle Adriatic Sea along the Pescara-Sibenik transect (Jabuka Pits area) and Vieste-Split transect (Palagruza Sill area) with Croatian research vessel "Bios II" and the Italian research vessel "G. Dallaporta", respectively. The main objective of these research cruises was the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in the Adriatic region for collecting physical, chemical and biological data in order to get a better understanding of whole Adriatic ecosystem. The two transects are already recognised as a key areas for the interception and the study of dense water modification (Zore-Armanda, 1963; Marini et al., 2006; Grilli et al., 2013). Due to seasonal circulation patterns, they are characterized by high temporal variability of the thermohaline structure (Grbec and Morović, 1997; Vilibić, et al., 2004) and other oceanographic parameters. Long term oceanographic records from the Middle Adriatic enable better understanding of the ecosystem response to changes of atmospheric and sea conditions through physical, chemical and biological processes (Marasović et al., 1995). Several oceanographic parameters relevant and useful for the ecosystem assessment of the two areas (temperature, salinity, density, fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, phyto- and zoo-plankton as well as selected pollutants , trace metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-PAHs in sediments) were collected. In the present work, the variations of PAHs and trace metals concentration in the marine sediments are presented in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer. A constant influx of metal induces more intense accumulation of anthropogenic metals, especially Cd, in sediment from Jabuka Pit, and the metal content slightly increases

  10. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  11. Long-Term Trends, Variability and Extremes of In Situ Sea Surface Temperature Measured Along the Eastern Adriatic Coast and its Relationship to Hemispheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbec, Branka; Matić, Frano; Beg Paklar, Gordana; Morović, Mira; Popović, Ružica; Vilibić, Ivica

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines long-term series of in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data measured at nine coastal and one open sea stations along the eastern Adriatic Sea for the period 1959-2015. Monthly and yearly averages were used to document SST trends and variability, while clustering and connections to hemispheric indices were achieved by applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. Both PCA and SOM revealed the dominance of temporal changes with respect to the effects of spatial differences in SST anomalies, indicating the prevalence of hemispheric processes over local dynamics, such as bora wind spatial inhomogeneity. SST extremes were connected with blocking atmospheric patterns. A substantial warming between 1979 and 2015, in total exceeding 1 °C, was preceded by a period with a negative SST trend, implying strong multidecadal variability in the Adriatic. The strongest connection was found between yearly SST and the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, while North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic/West Russia (EAWR) patterns were found to also affect February SST values. Quantification of the Adriatic SST and their connection to hemispheric indices allow for more precise projections of future SST, considered to be rather important for Adriatic thermohaline circulation, biogeochemistry and fisheries, and sensitive to ongoing climate change.

  12. Coastal boundary layers in ocean modelling: an application to the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanotte Rizzoli, P.; Dell'Orto, F.

    1981-01-01

    Boundary layers play an important role in modelling geophysical fluid-dynamical flows, in as much as they constitute regions of ageostrophic dynamics in which the physical balances characterizing the main interior of the water mass break down. A short synopsis is given of important boundary layers in ocean circulation modelling with specific emphasis drawn upon side wall boundary layers, namely those adjacent to the coastlines of the considered basin. Application of boundary layer analysis is thereafter made for one specific phenomenological situation, namely the Northern Adriatic Sea and the problem posed by its wintertime seasonal circulation. The analysis furnishes a mathematical model fo the coastal strip adjacent to the Italian shoreline, treated as a boundary layer in the density field, starting from general model equations valid throughout the interior of the Northern Adriatic. The boundary layer model is consequently used to modify the side wall boundary condition for the interior density field. Related numerical experiments are shown and compared with previous standard experiments in which the boundary layer contribution to the density field has not been considered. (author)

  13. Searching for a stock structure in Sardina pilchardus from the Adriatic and Ionian seas using a microsatellite DNA-based approach

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    Paolo Ruggeri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the genetic variability of European sardine from Adriatic and Ionian seas was investigated in order to detect the occurrence of genetic structure within and between these basins. In several samples the analysis of genetic variability at eight microsatellite loci showed a number of homozygote individuals higher than expected at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The inter-population differentiation level estimated by AMOVA, qST and rRST and Bayesian descriptors detected no signs of population differentiation between the samples analysed. These results are consistent with previous studies based on allozymes and several mitochondrial DNA markers and add further evidence contradicting the early identification, based on morphological and reproductive data, of two sub-populations in the Adriatic Sea.

  14. Investigating the potential and feasibility of an offshore wind farm in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Joerg; Antonini, Alessandro; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Archetti, Renata; Supino, Enrico; Berretta, Claudia; Casadei, Carlo; Ozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First feasibility study for an offshore wind farm in the Northern Adriatic Sea. • Field wind and wave data collected at the site. • Site-specific design of transition piece and foundation. • Economical and technical feasibility applied to four different scenarios. - Abstract: The use of offshore wind power is becoming increasingly important towards a sustainable growth worldwide. In Italy, as well as in other countries where wind energy is provided only by onshore plants, the interest in the deployment of offshore wind resources is rapidly growing, despite relatively modest average wind speeds, compared to typical wind conditions in the North Sea. Research efforts have, so far, addressed the exploration of the most promising locations, based on wind characteristics; however, more extended evidence of technical and economic feasibility is now needed to raise awareness in the decision makers and secure to this source of renewable energy a proper role in the future energy policies. Within such a context, the paper presents the first feasibility study for the development of an offshore wind farm off the coast of Rimini, in the Northern Adriatic Sea. The study is based on an anemometric campaign started at the site in 2008 to provide a statistical assessment of the wind characteristics and the related wind energy potential, and on a 10-year wave measurement record next to the area, together with a thorough analysis of the site geological and environmental characteristics. Environmental data are interpreted with a proper consideration of the extreme events distribution and relevant results are used to select the most appropriate commercially available wind turbine and to design the site-specific support structure. A comprehensive evaluation of the investment costs and revenues is then carried out with reference to two wind farm layouts (a first smaller, constituted of 15 elements, and another one, featuring up to 60 elements) and in relation to two

  15. Marine radioecology and waste management in the Adriatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko

    2006-09-01

    This paper gives a review of marine radioecology research in the Adriatic area carried out by the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. Measurements of radioactivity in the Adriatic started in 1963 as a part of an extended monitoring programme of radioactivity in Croatian environment. The main sources of radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea are the fallout from past nuclear weapon testing conducted in the atmosphere and the Chernobyl accident. In 2005, the activity concentrations of fission radionuclides were detectable at very low levels in all environmental samples collected on the Adriatic. The 90Sr data obtained from long-term monitoring were used to estimate the upper limit of the Adriatic seawater turnover time, which turned out to be (3.4 +/- 0.4) years. Detailed knowledge about seawater circulation, including the turnover time is essential for planning an overall communal and other wastewater management on the Adriatic coast. The paper concludes with the prospects for future marine radioecological investigations.

  16. Upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian sea-level rise and its consequences on the Adriatic-Dinaric carbonate platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gušić, I.; Jelaska, V.

    1993-12-01

    The Adriatic carbonate platform existed throughout most of the Mesozoic as an isolated (‘intraoceanic’) carbonate platform. It is characterized by what has been traditionally labelled a ‘continuous’ shallow marine carbonate sedimentation, without terrigenous influences. However, global sea-level changes left unequivocal imprints in the ‘continuous’ carbonate record, thus proving that the carbonate platform sensitively responded to sea-level fluctuations. This paper focuses on the relatively short Cenomanian — Turonian drowning event, which temporarily submerged the platform below the euphotic zone, and which is related here to the well known global Cenomanian — Turonian sea-level highstand. This drowning episode is characterized by the abrupt disappearance of numerous shallow water benthic invertebrate taxa and by an abundant occurrence of planktonic organisms, including calcispheres and ‘primitive’ planktonic foraminifera. Near the middle of the Turonian, the platform regime was re-established, correlating with the global fall in sea level. The situation is different only at the south-west margin of the platform, where pelagic sedimentation, initiated near the end of the Cenomanian, continues into the Santonian and probably marks the Adriatic trough. The drowning began earlier (in the Middle Cenomanian) in those areas nearer to the north-east margin of the platform (the area of what is today central Croatia) and then progressed gradually towards the more interior areas of the platform (the middle Dalmatian islands), which were drowned near the end of the Cenomanian.

  17. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  18. Comparison of hydrothermal activity between the Adriatic and the Red Sea rift margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip; Incerpi, Nicolò; Birkle, Peter; Lacsamana, Elizabeth; Manatschal, Gianreto; Agar, Susan; Zhang, Shuo; Borsato, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Detailed field studies, and access to high-quality seismic reflection and refraction data have led to an improved understanding of the architecture and evolution of magma poor and magma rich margins. Associated with the spatial-temporal evolution of the rift, it is evident that there are evolving, extensive, fluid-rock interactions due to the infiltration of fluids within the sediment, basement and lithospheric mantle. Key questions therefore arise: What are the different fluid-rock reactions that can be typed to different geodynamic stages of the rift evolution? What are their compositions and how do they interact with their environment (basement, sediments, evaporites, hydrosphere, and magmatism)? What are the implications for the evolution of the margin rheology, thermal structure, depositional environments/organic matter maturity, and reservoir quality? The Adriatic paleo-rifted margin is preserved in both SE Switzerland and northern Italy. The field exposures provide a unique opportunity to study the fluid flow history of a hyperextended magma poor extensional margin. Analysis of breccias, cement veins and replacement minerals reveal that the margin records a complex, long-lasting history of dolomitization, calcification and silicification during the Jurassic rifting. The Red Sea by contrast is a young rifted margin. It differs from the paleo-Adriatic margin by several characteristics: volcanism is more evident, and syn-tectonic sediments, including evaporites (halite and anhydrite) are thicker. Several core and fluid samples are available from both onshore and offshore wells, which reveal rift-related hydrothermal alteration. In addition, we find evidence for the presence of an extreme dynamic hydraulic system with infiltration of surface water into sub-salt units during Late Pleistocene. In this study we present results from petrographic and geochemical analysis of basement and sedimentary rocks from Adriatic field-derived samples and core/subsurface fluid

  19. Elasmobranch bycatch in the Italian Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Moro, Fabrizio; Sala, Antonello

    2018-01-01

    Elasmobranchs are among the most threatened long-lived marine species worldwide, and incidental capture is a major source of mortality. The northern central Adriatic Sea, though one of the most overfished basins of the Mediterranean Sea, supports a very valuable marine biodiversity, including elasmobranchs. This study assesses the impact of the northern central Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery on common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), common eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), and pelagic stingray (Pteroplatytrygon violacea) by examining incidental catches recorded between 2006 and 2015. The distribution of bycatch events was evaluated using geo-referenced data. Generalized Linear Models were computed to standardize the catch of the four species and to predict the relative abundance of bycatch events. Data analysis shows that most bycatch events involving all four species occurred in the northern Adriatic Sea. The models predicted significant, distinct temporal patterns of standardized catches in line with previous investigations. Water depth, season, and fishing region were the best predictors to explain bycatch events. The present data suggest that the northern Adriatic may be an important nursery area for several elasmobranchs. They also highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the interactions between elasmobranchs and fisheries to develop and apply suitable, ad hoc management measures. PMID:29377920

  20. Elasmobranch bycatch in the Italian Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bonanomi

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs are among the most threatened long-lived marine species worldwide, and incidental capture is a major source of mortality. The northern central Adriatic Sea, though one of the most overfished basins of the Mediterranean Sea, supports a very valuable marine biodiversity, including elasmobranchs. This study assesses the impact of the northern central Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery on common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus, spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias, common eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila, and pelagic stingray (Pteroplatytrygon violacea by examining incidental catches recorded between 2006 and 2015. The distribution of bycatch events was evaluated using geo-referenced data. Generalized Linear Models were computed to standardize the catch of the four species and to predict the relative abundance of bycatch events. Data analysis shows that most bycatch events involving all four species occurred in the northern Adriatic Sea. The models predicted significant, distinct temporal patterns of standardized catches in line with previous investigations. Water depth, season, and fishing region were the best predictors to explain bycatch events. The present data suggest that the northern Adriatic may be an important nursery area for several elasmobranchs. They also highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the interactions between elasmobranchs and fisheries to develop and apply suitable, ad hoc management measures.

  1. Spatial variations of scavenging rates within the central and northern Adriatic Sea: Use of U-Th disequilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Heilmann, J.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Dissolved and particulate concentrations of 234 Th, 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured in surface waters of the central and northern Adriatic Sea. The half-lives and biogeochemistry of 234 Th (t 1/2 = 24.1 days), 210 Po (t 1/2 = 138.4 days) and 210 Pb (t 1/2 = 22.3 years) are ideal for studying particle dynamics in the upper water column. It has been observed that the residence time of dissolved 234 Th with respect to removal on biogenic particles is inversely proportional to primary productivity and may be used to predict export from or new production in the euphotic zone. Model-derived 234 Th fluxes can also be used to help validate sediment trap collections in the upper water column. The aim of the present study was to gain an insight into the intensity and variability of active scavenging and particle removal processes in the central and northern Adriatic Sea. This semi-enclosed sea is strongly influenced by fresh water runoff from rivers carrying large quantities of dissolved nutrients and suspended particles. These inputs of nutrients and suspended particles are expected to give rise to large biological and biogeochemical gradients across the Continental Shelf and offer a range of environments for studying particle scavenging and removal processes. The authors have examined the relationships between 234 Th scavenging rates and residence times of dissolved and particulate phases as a function of other physical and biological parameters (primary productivity, POC, chlorophyll, C/N and total suspended matter). Particular reference is made to the two contrasting environments of the Adriatic--a eutrophic zone near the Po River outflow and in the largely oligotrophic waters of the Jabuka Pit

  2. On the fecundity of the Black Sea bream, Spondyliosoma cantharus (L. , from the Adriatic Sea (Croatian coast

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    Jakov Dulcic

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The fecundity of the Black Sea bream from the eastern middle Adriatic (Croatian coast was assessed by the volumetric method using 59 ovaries in pre-spawning stage from fish between 18.5 and 33.5 cm total length. Estimates of total potential annual fecundity varied between 31,670 and 554,070 eggs per female. Relationships between total potential fecundity and total length (TL, total weight (TW and age (A were established using the multiplicative regression model. Relative fecundity is constant, reaching a maximum of 850 eggs per g in the 30.5 cm to 31.0 cm length class.

  3. An Empirical Ocean Colour Algorithm for Estimating the Contribution of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in North-Central Western Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Campanelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of empirical band ratio models were evaluated for the estimation of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM using MODIS ocean colour sensor images and data collected on the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea. Relationships between in situ measurements (2013–2016 of CDOM absorption coefficients at 355 nm (aCDOM355 with several MODIS satellite band ratios were evaluated on a test data set. The prediction capability of the different linear models was assessed on a validation data set. Based on some statistical diagnostic parameters (R2, APD and RMSE, the best MODIS band ratio performance in retrieving CDOM was obtained by a simple linear model of the transformed dependent variable using the remote sensing reflectance band ratio Rrs(667/Rrs(488 as the only independent variable. The best-retrieved CDOM algorithm provides very good results for the complex coastal area along the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea where the Po River outflow is the main driving force in CDOM and nutrient circulation, which in winter mostly remains confined to a coastal boundary layer, whereas in summer it spreads to the open sea as well.

  4. Recent changes in the marine ecosystems of the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Michele; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo; Cozzi, Stefano; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umani, Serena Fonda

    2012-12-01

    This review of studies on long term series on river discharges, oceanographic features, plankton, fish and benthic compartments, collected since the 1970s revealed significant changes of mechanisms and trophic structures in the northern Adriatic ecosystems. A gradual increase of eutrophication pressure occurred during the 1970s until the mid 1980s, followed by a reversal of the trend, particularly marked in the 2000s. This trend was ascribed to the combination of a reduction of the anthropogenic impact, mainly due to a substantial decrease of the phosphorus loads, and of climatic modifications, resulting in a decline of atmospheric precipitations and, consequently, of the runoff in the northern Adriatic Sea. Significant decreases of the phytoplankton abundances were observed after the mid 1980s, concurrently with changes in the species composition of the communities, with an evident shift toward smaller cells or organism sizes. Moreover, changes in the zooplankton community were also observed. A decrease of demersal fishes, top predators and small pelagic fishes was ascribed to both overfishing and a demise of eutrophication. Macrozoobenthic communities slowly recovered in the last two decades after the anoxia events of the 1970s and 1980s. An increasing number of non-autochthonous species has been recorded in the last decades moreover the increasing seawater temperature facilitated the spreading of thermophilic species.

  5. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century – a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maramai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  6. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1988-11-17 to 1988-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0144306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144306 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean...

  7. 210Pb dating of sediments from the central and the northern Adriatic Sea: The deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.; La Rosa, J.

    1996-04-01

    A central goal of the ELNA project is to assess the carbon assimilation capacity of the Northern Adriatic Sea. This requires fundamental quantitative information on budgets and sinks of organic carbon. Any change in carbon production in the water column should be reflected in the underlying sediments. Moreover, the fraction of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor which is subsequently preserved in the sediment will be strongly coupled to sediment accumulation and mixing. In this study a series of box cores were collected in order to characterize a hypothetical eutrophication gradient extending from the Po River outflow region in the north down to the shallow meso-Adriatic depression (Jabuka Pit). The main tasks assigned to IAEA-MEL were to provide 210 Pb derived sedimentation and dry-mass accumulation rates and to examine the possible correlations between sedimentary processes, the deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon and pelagic primary productivity

  8. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2011-04-05 to 2011-04-28 (NODC Accession 0108079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108079 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea,...

  10. An Empirical Ocean Colour Algorithm for Estimating the Contribution of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in North-Central Western Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Campanelli; Simone Pascucci; Mattia Betti; Federica Grilli; Mauro Marini; Stefano Pignatti; Stefano Guicciardi

    2017-01-01

    The performance of empirical band ratio models were evaluated for the estimation of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) using MODIS ocean colour sensor images and data collected on the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Relationships between in situ measurements (2013–2016) of CDOM absorption coefficients at 355 nm (aCDOM355) with several MODIS satellite band ratios were evaluated on a test data set. The prediction capability of the different linear models was assess...

  11. 137Cs and 40K activity in individuals of the mullet (Mugilidae) species Liza aurata from the South Adriatic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, I.; Antovic, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the 137 Cs i 40 K activity measurements in whole individuals and some organs of the mullet species Liza aurata from the South Adriatic Sea, are presented. The measurements were performed in the non-coincidence mode of counting of the multidetector spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. (author) [sr

  12. Internal Tidal Hydrodynamics and Ambient Characteristics of the Adriatic (ITHACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    document atmospheric conditions along the line extending from the coast to the open sea. 2.1. Measuring sites Position of meteorological measuring sites...idealized case, they are perpendicular to the straight shoreline. However, along the eastern Adriatic irregularly shaped coast there is a number of...Cvitan, 2003; Belusic et al., 2004; Belusic and Klaic, 2004, 2006), southwestward, downslope windstorm , which frequently blows over the Adriatic

  13. Studies on phycobiliproteins in Algae. VI. Light-harvesting phycobiliprotein pigments in some Rhodophyta from the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phycobiliprotein content in 5 species of red algae from the coast of the Adriatic Sea' was studied by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The phycobiliproteins, R-phycoerythrin, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were identified. The total content of phycobiliproteins ranged from 0.152 (Phyllophora nervosa to 1.874 mg•g-1 dry wt. (Plocamium cartilagineum. The dominant phycobiliproteins were found to belong to the phycocyanin group, this resulting from complementary chromatic adaptation.

  14. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from UNKNOWN in the Adriatic Sea from 1948-03-19 to 1991-11-16 (NODC Accession 9800082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, nutrients, and other data were collected from CTD and bottle casts in the Adriatic Sea from 19 March 1948 to 16 November 1991. Data include...

  15. Changes in the Adriatic oceanographic properties induced by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vilibić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term time series of physical and chemical parameters collected between 1960 and 2010 along the Palagruža Sill transect, Middle Adriatic Sea, have been investigated in terms of average water properties and their variability. Nutrients, especially orthophosphates, reached rather high levels of concentration below the euphotic zone between 1991 and 1998, the highest levels in the investigated period. Simultaneously, the N:P ratio, which is normally higher than 25:1, decreased to values less than 16:1 in the euphotic zone, indicating a switch from typical phosphorus to nitrogen- limited preconditioning for the primary production. Higher-than-usual nutrient levels peaking in the mid-1990s, coupled with lower-than-usual temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH values, are presumably related to the flow of the nutrient richer Western Mediterranean waters to the Adriatic below the euphotic layer. These waters, which keep their footprint in the N:P ratio, enter the Adriatic during the anticyclonic phase of the Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS, which has been uniquely strengthened by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient occurring in the early 1990s. This hypothesis should be confirmed through targeted research and modelling exercises, as it is highly relevant for the biogeochemistry of the Adriatic Sea.

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2014-03-09 to 2015-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0160489)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160489 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Arabian...

  17. New data on Eimeria dicentrarchi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a common parasite of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the mid-eastern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study extends the original description of Eimeria dicentrarchi Daoudi and Marquès, 1987, a common coccidian parasite of European sea bass from the mid-eastern Adriatic, by providing insights into the parasite’s site of infection, development and pathogenicity. E. dicentrarchi was found in vario...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and OXYGEN - APPARENT UTILIZATION (AOU) collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1874-10-11 to 2000-04-26 (NODC Accession 0117350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117350 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea,...

  19. Modeling land subsidence due to shallow-water hydrocarbon production: A case study in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambolati, G.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Janna, C.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    One major environmental concern of subsurface fluid withdrawal is land subsidence. The issue of a reliable estimate and prediction of the expected anthropogenic land subsidence is particularly important whenever the production of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) occurs from large reservoirs located close to deltaic zones (e.g., Mississippi, Po, Nile, Niger, Yellow rivers) or shallow-water with low-lying coastlands (e.g., Northern Caspian sea, Dutch Wadden Sea). In such cases even a small reduction of the ground elevation relative to the mean sea level may impact seriously on human settlements and natural environment. The monitoring of the ongoing land subsidence has been significantly improved over the last decade by SAR-based interferometry. These measurements can be quite effectively used to map the process and calibrate geomechanical models for predicting the future event. However, this powerful methodology cannot be implemented off-shore. Although permanent GPS stations can be established to monitor the movement of the production facilities usually installed above the gravity center of a reservoir, an accurate characterization of the settlement bowl affecting the sea bottom, with a possible migration toward the shore, is a challenge still today. In the present communication the case study of the Riccione gas reservoir is discussed. The field is located in the near-shore northern Adriatic Sea, approximately 15 km far from the coastline, where the seawater height is about 20 m. The gas-bearing strata are 1100 m deep and are hydraulically connected to a relatively weak aquifer. Production of 70% of the cumulative reserves as of 2006 yielded a pore pressure decrease of 60 bars. Reliable geometry and geomechanical properties of the depleted formations were detected with the aid of a 3D seismic survey and a borehole equipped with radioactive markers, respectively. The latter pointed out that the Riccione formations are characterized by an unusually high oedometer

  20. Severe flooding along the eastern Adriatic coast: the case of 1 December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međugorac, Iva; Pasarić, Miroslava; Orlić, Mirko

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses an extraordinary storm surge in the Northern Adriatic that was more pronounced on the eastern than on the western shore. On 1 December 2008, Adriatic monitoring stations detected exceptionally high sea levels; the oldest Croatian tide gauge station recorded the highest water level in its operating history at the time. Apart from the Northern Adriatic, large portion of the Dalmatian Coast was also exposed to high water levels, while Venice experienced a less-dramatic event. This marine storm was different from the capital storm of 4 November 1966 during which the surge had the highest impact ahead of Venice and along the north-western coastline. The 2008 event is studied here in detail, and the mechanisms that resulted in the different flooding of the two shores are identified. The study is based on hourly sea level, air pressure and wind data measured along both basin sides together with ECMWF reanalysis fields. Four components of sea-level evolution are identified: the storm surge, tide, Adriatic seiche and, low-frequency variability. The 2008 event was the outcome of a fine interplay between the first three components, which were all superimposed on the raised sea level due to low-frequency variability. The marine storm differed from the 1966 storm in the atmospheric forcing and relative timing of all contributing processes. The 2008 flooding of the eastern coast was mainly due to the Sirocco-wind shear, whereas the 1966 flooding of the western coast was due to the combined effect of almost uniform Sirocco and bottom slope.

  1. Characteristic carotenoids in some phytobenthos species in the coastal area of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the presence of various carotcnoids in some phytobenthos species (20 species representative of Chlorophytn, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The presence of following carotenoids has been determined 1 in Chlorophyta lycopene, α-, β-, γ- , ε-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein and astaxanthin esier; 2 in Phorophyta: α-, β-, γ- , ε- carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diataxanthin, fucoxanthin, fucoxanthol, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and rhodoxanthin-like: 3 in Rhodophyta α-, β-, γ-carotene,α-, β-,cryptoxanthin, lutein lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, anthcraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, fucoxanthin neoxanthin and violaxanthin The total carotenoid content ranged from 1.197 ( Cystoseira corniculata to 16 748 mg g-1 dry weight (Chaetomorpha aerea.

  2. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic Species in Rays from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Šlejkovec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The difference in arsenic concentration and speciation between benthic (Pteromylaeus bovinus, Myliobatis aquila and pelagic rays (Pteroplatytrygon violacea from the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste in relation to their size (age was investigated. High arsenic concentrations were found in both groups with tendency of more efficient arsenic accumulation in benthic species, particularly in muscle (32.4 to 362 µg·g−1 of total arsenic. This was attributed to species differences in arsenic access, uptake and retention. In liver most arsenic was present in a form of arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenoipids, whereas in muscle mainly arsenobetaine was found. The good correlations between total arsenic/arsenobetaine and size reflect the importance of accumulation of arsenobetaine with age. Arsenobetaine is an analogue of glycine betaine, a known osmoregulator in marine animals and both are very abundant in mussels, representing an important source of food for benthic species P. bovinus and M. aquila.

  3. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2012-01-01 to 2012-12-31 (NODC Accession 0059946)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0059946 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2016-01-02 to 2017-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157264 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea,...

  6. Mortality of red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 on the Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mullet, Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758, is an economically very important species in trawl fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. Material for analysis was collected from October 2002 until May 2004 with a bottom trawl net from commercial trawlers on the Montenegrin shelf. Mortality of this species was analyzed for the first time in this area, sepa­rately for males and females and for both sexes together. Until now, only the spatial distribution and catch per unit of effort (CPUE of Mullus barbatus have been studied in Montenegrin waters. Estimated total mortality rates were Zmales = 0.653 and Zfemales = 0.712. The average mortality rate for both sexes was Z m+f = 0.749, while the natural mortality rate was Mm+f = 0.342. Values of Z in the Montenegrin shelf area are considerably lower than Z values for the Croatian and Italian parts of the Adriatic Sea, indicating that on the Montenegrin shelf fishing of this species is significantly less intensive than in other trawl-fishing areas of the Adriatic Sea.

  7. {sup 137}Cs Distribution in the Northern Adriatic Sea (2006-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicic-Hamer, D. [' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Centre for Marine Research, Rovinj (Croatia); Barisic, D., E-mail: pavicic@cim.irb.hr [' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-07-15

    Artificial radioactivity in the northern Adriatic Sea was assessed by analysis of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in seawater, sediment and marine organisms. A comparison of radioactive contamination was made between different parts of the marine ecosystem including the area of the Po river delta, the protected area of the Lim bay and the Rovinj coastal area in the period from 2006 to 2010. In the area of the Po river delta {sup 137}Cs concentrations in seawater had decreased back to pre-Chernobyl values (2.48 Bq/m), although in sediment they were slightly higher (8.70 Bq/kg). Inside the Lim bay area {sup 137}Cs concentrations in surface water were low (1.93 Bq/m) and, in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, even undetectable in this period. In the Rovinj coastal area {sup 137}Cs concentrations in surface water remained constant (2.23 Bq/m), as well as in the surface sediment (1.88 Bq/kg). {sup 137}Cs concentrations were detectable at very low activity levels in Mugil cephalus and Sardina pilchardus. The data indicate that some species such as the intertidal brown algae Fucus virsoides and the benthic fish Mullus barbatus are better bio-accumulators of {sup 137}Cs than others. These species should be used as bio-indicators in future monitoring schemes in the A driatic Sea. (author)

  8. Environmental control of asexual reproduction and somatic growth of Aurelia spp. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) polyps from the Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hubot, Nathan; Lucas, Cathy H.; Piraino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A.relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21 °C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind‾¹ week‾¹) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favo...

  9. Comparative Morphometric Analysis of the Smallscaled Scorpionfish, Scorpaena Porcus (Scorpaenidae, Scorpaeniformes, from the Southern Coast of the Crimea and Eastern Part of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manilo L. G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of morphometric characters of small-scaled scorpionfish from the Black Sea (near the southern coast of the Crimea and from the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea showed significant differences in males and females on thirteen plastic and three meristic characters. These differences may be due to unequal abiotic and biotic habitat conditions, and refer about the geographical variability of the species, indicating the presence of two different populations in the study area.

  10. Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the central Mediterranean inferred from a high-resolution marine pollen record (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Combourieu-Nebout

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution multiproxy study of the Adriatic marine core MD 90-917 provides new insights to reconstruct vegetation and regional climate changes over the southcentral Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas (YD and Holocene. Pollen records show the rapid forest colonization of the Italian and Balkan borderlands and the gradual installation of the Mediterranean association during the Holocene. Quantitative estimates based on pollen data provide Holocene precipitations and temperatures in the Adriatic Sea using a multi-method approach. Clay mineral ratios from the same core reflect the relative contributions of riverine (illite and smectite and eolian (kaolinite contributions to the site, and thus act as an additional proxy with which to evaluate precipitation changes in the Holocene. Vegetation climate reconstructions show the response to the Preboreal oscillation (PBO, most likely driven by changes in temperature and seasonal precipitation, which is linked to increasing river inputs from Adriatic rivers recorded by increase in clay mineral contribution to marine sediments. Pollen-inferred temperature declines during the early–mid Holocene, then increases during the mid–late Holocene, similar to southwestern Mediterranean climatic patterns during the Holocene. Several short vegetation and climatic events appear in the record, indicating the sensitivity of vegetation in the region to millennial-scale variability. Reconstructed summer precipitation shows a regional maximum (170–200 mm between 8000 and 7000 similar to the general pattern across southern Europe. Two important shifts in vegetation occur at 7700 cal yr BP (calendar years before present and between 7500 and 7000 cal yr BP and are correlated with increased river inputs around the Adriatic Basin respectively from the northern (7700 event and from the central Adriatic borderlands (7500–7000 event. During the mid-Holocene, the wet summers lead to permanent moisture all year

  11. Isotopic characteristics of shells Mytilus galloprovincialis from eastern coastal area of Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from entire Eastern Adriatic coast to determine δ18O and δ13C performed on calcite and aragonite shell layers. The aim of this work was to check whether shells of M. galloprovincialis are good environmental indicators (water temperature, salinity. Based on measured isotopic composition of oxygen in shell layers and assumed isotopic composition in water temperatures of calcite and aragonite of shell layers were calculated. The calculated temperatures for M. galloprovincialis shell growth of calcite and aragonite shell layer are in good agreement with measured temperatures of sea water. According to our results of δ18O and δ13C in shell layers we canseparate the locations of the investigated area into three groups: those with more influence of fresh water, those with less influence of fresh water and those of marine environments.

  12. Decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SANTELLI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge on the distribution of decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef positioned on sandy-mud bottoms in the central Adriatic Sea. The reef is constituted of concrete modules assembled in pyramids and concrete poles. Hard and soft bottom samples were collected from 2001, just after reef construction, to 2005 (4 surveys per year. Regarding the soft seabed, three sites close to a pyramid, three inside the reef area at a distance of 10-15 m from the structures, and three 200 m outside the reef (control sites were randomly sampled during each survey. At the same time, three pyramids (vertical and horizontal walls and three poles were also investigated. After taxonomical analysis, decapod crustaceans were analysed using abundance and species richness. Sites and years were compared using a balanced, fixed effect, 2-way ANOVA and PERMANOVA. In addition, SIMPER analysis was performed to identify those species typifying each community inhabiting both the soft bottom and the artificial substrates. The results showed that the artificial reef induced an increase in both abundance and diversity of the decapods of the natural habitat. In fact, man-made substrates may offer new available space for biological colonization and allow the settlement of new species usually living on hard bottoms, thus increasing the complexity of the original benthic communities.

  13. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  14. Population genomics meet Lagrangian simulations: Oceanographic patterns and long larval duration ensure connectivity among Paracentrotus lividus populations in the Adriatic and Ionian seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Marta; Schiavina, Marcello; Aglieri, Giorgio; Ben Souissi, Jamila; Boscari, Elisa; Casagrandi, Renato; Chassanite, Aurore; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Congiu, Leonardo; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Kruschel, Claudia; Macic, Vesna; Marino, Ilaria A M; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Melià, Paco

    2017-04-01

    Connectivity between populations influences both their dynamics and the genetic structuring of species. In this study, we explored connectivity patterns of a marine species with long-distance dispersal, the edible common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus , focusing mainly on the Adriatic-Ionian basins (Central Mediterranean). We applied a multidisciplinary approach integrating population genomics, based on 1,122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from 2b-RAD in 275 samples, with Lagrangian simulations performed with a biophysical model of larval dispersal. We detected genetic homogeneity among eight population samples collected in the focal Adriatic-Ionian area, whereas weak but significant differentiation was found with respect to two samples from the Western Mediterranean (France and Tunisia). This result was not affected by the few putative outlier loci identified in our dataset. Lagrangian simulations found a significant potential for larval exchange among the eight Adriatic-Ionian locations, supporting the hypothesis of connectivity of P. lividus populations in this area. A peculiar pattern emerged from the comparison of our results with those obtained from published P. lividus cytochrome b (cytb) sequences, the latter revealing genetic differentiation in the same geographic area despite a smaller sample size and a lower power to detect differences. The comparison with studies conducted using nuclear markers on other species with similar pelagic larval durations in the same Adriatic-Ionian locations indicates species-specific differences in genetic connectivity patterns and warns against generalizing single-species results to the entire community of rocky shore habitats.

  15. Quantification of Dissolved and Particulate Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Casotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA are supposed to play critical roles in chemically-mediated plankton interactions. Laboratory studies suggest that they act as mediators of chemical defense and chemical communication. PUA are oxylipins containing an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element and are mainly found in diatoms. We present here a detailed surface mapping of PUA during a spring bloom of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi in the Adriatic Sea. We monitored dissolved PUA, as well as particulate PUA, which are produced by phytoplankton after cell disintegration. Our survey revealed a patchy distribution of PUA and shows that at most stations S. marinoi is the major contributor to the overall PUA. Our data also suggest that lysis of a diatom bloom can contribute significantly to the dissolved PUA concentrations and that other producers, which are smaller in cell size compared to diatoms, have to be taken into account as well if the total PUA content of marine samples is considered. The analyses of samples collected in deeper water suggests that diatom contribution to PUA decreases with depth, while smaller-sized unidentified organisms take place as dominant contributors to the PUA concentrations.

  16. 226Ra activity in the mullet species Liza aurata and South Adriatic sea marine environment of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N. M.; Antovic, I.; Svrkota, N.

    2010-01-01

    226 Ra activity in the South Adriatic Sea-water, surface sediment, mud with detritus, sea-grass (Posidonia oceanica) samples and the mullet (Mugilidae) species Liza aurata, as well as soil and sand from the Montenegrin Coast-was measured using the six-crystal gamma-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. The results are used for calculation of the absorbed (and annual effective) dose rates in air due to the 226 Ra gamma radiation. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 5.94 to 97.16 nGy h -1 (soil) and from 0.65 to 7.65 nGy h -1 (sand). In seawater 226 Ra activity is found to be from 0.08 to 0.15 Bq l -1 , while in whole L. aurata individuals from 0.58 to 1.97 Bq kg -1 . Annual intake of 226 Ra by human consumers of this fish species has been estimated to provide an effective dose of 0.006 mSv y -1 . (authors)

  17. Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

    2012-04-01

    An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic

  18. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  19. Reproductive cycle and sexual maturation of the musky octopus Eledone moschata (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in the northern and central Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Krstulović Šifner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationships, sex ratio, maturity patterns, reproductive outputs, fecundity and spawning period of the musky octopus Eledone moschata (Lamarck, 1798 in the northern and central Adriatic Sea are presented for the first time. Samples were collected on a monthly basis by commercial bottom trawls between October 2001 and June 2003. A total of 1552 specimens were analysed (779 males, 764 females, 9 undetermined. The overall sex ratio was close to 1:1, but during summer males were dominant. Length-weight relationships calculated for each sex and the whole sample showed negative allometric growth (b

  20. An Amphibious Seismic Study of the Crustal Structure of the Adriatic Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannowski, A.; Kopp, H.; Schurr, B.; Improta, L.; Papenberg, C. A.; Krabbenhoeft, A.; Argnani, A.; Ustaszewski, K. M.; Handy, M.; Glavatovic, B.

    2016-12-01

    The present-day structure of the southern Adriatic area is controlled by two oppositely-vergent fold-and-thrust belt systems (Apennines and Dinarides). The Adriatic continental domain is one of the most enigmatic segments of the Alpine-Mediterranean collision zone. It separated from the African plate during the Mesozoic extensional phase that led to the opening of the Ionian Sea. Basin widening and deepening peaked during Late Triassic-Liassic extension, resulting in the formation of the southern Adriatic basin, bounded on either side by the Dinaric and Apulian shallow water carbonate platforms. Because of its present foreland position with respect to the Dinaric part of orogenic belt, the southern Adriatic basin represents the only remnant of the Neotethyan margin and offers the unique opportunity to image a segment of Mesozoic passive margin in the Mediterranean. To study the deep crustal structure, the upper mantle and the shape of the plate margin, the German research vessel Meteor acquired 2D seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data during an onshore-offshore experiment (cruise M86-3). We present two profiles: Profile P03 crossed Adria from the Gargano Promontory into Albania. A second profile (P01) was shot parallel to the coastlines, extending from the southern Adriatic basin to a possible mid-Adriatic strike-slip fault that purportedly segments the Adriatic microplate. Two different approaches of travel time tomography are applied to the data set: A non-linear approach is used for the shorter profile P01. A linear approach is applied to profile P03 (360 km length) and allows for the integration of the 36 ocean bottom stations and 19 land stations. First results show a good resolution of the sedimentary part of the Adriatic region. The depth of the basement as well as the depth of the Moho discontinuity vary laterally and deepen towards the North-East, consistent with the notion of flexural loading of the externally propagating orogenic wedge of the

  1. Southern Adriatic sea as a potential area for CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, V.; Forlin, F.; Donda, F.; Civile, D.; Facchin, L.; Sauli, L.; Merson, B.; Sinza-Mendieta, K.; Shams, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO 2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7) European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO 2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO 2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene). In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick cap-rock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO 2 emitter) where a pilot plant for CO 2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO 2 emissions. (authors)

  2. A P-Vector Approach to Absolute Geostrophic Currents in the Adriatic Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinto, Renato

    1998-01-01

    .... As part of this project, the OGEX1 cruise was conducted between 19 and 24 May 1995 with focus in the Otranto Strait, through which the Adriatic is connected to the rest of the Mediterranean basin...

  3. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methylmercury in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea: From Microbial Sources to Seafood Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Hines

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea is one of the most mercury-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and in the world due to the past mining activity in the Idrija region (western Slovenia. The link between microbial production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg, and its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in marine food webs of the gulf is at present rather poorly characterized but is critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels, such as fish, that are ultimately vectors of human and wildlife exposure. This overview explores three major topics: (i the microbial biogeochemical cycling of Hg in the area, (ii the trophic transfer and bioaccumulation of MeHg in pelagic and benthic marine food webs, and (iii human exposure to Hg through marine fish and shellfish consumption. These are important goals since the Gulf of Trieste is an area of great economical importance.

  5. Dispersal of Sediment in the Western Adriatic during Energetic Wintertime Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. K.; Sherwood, C. R.; Mullenbach, B. L.; Pullen, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    EuroSTRATAFORM aims to relate sediment delivery and reworking to seabed morphology and stratigraphy through observations and modeling of water column transport. The Po River dominates buoyancy and sediment input into the Adriatic Sea, but small Apeninne rivers (the Chienti, Pescara, etc.) may produce locally important signals. Sedimentation is influenced by fluvial supply, resuspension by waves and currents, and transport by oceanographic currents forced by winds and buoyancy. Transport is likely highest during times of energetic forcing; including Bora events with northeasterly winds and Sirocco events with southeasterly winds. It is difficult, from field measurements alone, to characterize dispersal and convergence patterns over the relevant spatial scales. We applied a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that includes fluvial delivery, transport, resuspension, and deposition of sediment to quantify sediment dispersal with a 2-km resolution over the entire Adriatic. Circulation calculations were driven by spatially- and temporally-varying wind fields for the Fall / Winter of 2002 / 2003 and realistic Po and Apennine river discharges. Waves were hindcast with the SWAN model. Dispersion of both resuspended and river-derived sediment was estimated for periods that contained intense Bora and Sirocco winds. Predicted sediment dispersal rates and patterns are sensitive to forcing winds, buoyancy flux, and wave patterns. Higher sediment flux was predicted during Bora conditions than during Sirocco conditions. Sirocco winds weaken the Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC), and because they tend to concentrate over the Eastern Adriatic, they often fail to create especially energetic waves in the Western Adriatic. Bora wind conditions, on the other hand, intensify the WACC and can build high wave energies over the northwestern Adriatic. Most of the sediment transport occurs during Bora, with a net southward flux. These predictions will be compared to field observations

  6. Dissolved lipid production in the Northern Adriatic (Mediterranean) in response to sea surface warmin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparovic, Blazenka; Novak, Tihana; Godrijan, Jelena; Mlakar, Marina; MAric, Daniela; Djakovac, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (OM) represents one of the largest active pools of organic carbon in the global carbon cycle. Oceans and seas are responsible for half of global primary production. Ocean warming caused by climate change is already starting to impact the marine life that necessary will have impact on ocean productivity. The partition of OM production by phytoplankton (major OM producer in seas and ocens) in the conditions of rising temperatures may considerably change. This has implications for the export of organic matter from the photic zone. In this study, we set out to see how annual temperature changes between 10 and 30 C in the Northern Adriatic (Mediterranean) affect production of DOM and particularly dissolved lipids and lipid classes. We have sampled at two stations being oligotrophic and mesotrophic where we expected different system reaction to temperature changes. In addition, we performed microcosm incubations covering temperature range of the NA with nutrient amendments to test whether changes in the available nutrients would reflect those of dissolved OM in the NA. We have selected to work with extracellular OM produced during growth of diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus cultures according to the criteria that genera Chaetoceros are important component of the phytoplankton in the NA and are often among bloom-forming taxa. Details on the dissolved lipid and lipid classes production as plankton responce to rising temperature will be discussed.

  7. Border Reconstruction of Bosnia and Herzegovina's Access to the Adriatic Sea at Sutorina by Consulting Old Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Tuno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research into the former southernmost Bosnian border by analyzing historical maps. In cartographic representations of the area (created between the mid-17th and mid-20th centuries, state and administrative boundary lines are clearly demarcated. They provide indisputable proof that the Sutorina area belonged to Bosnia and Herzegovina through many centuries, providing access to the Adriatic Sea. The maps presented follow the course of the historical changes in the area which shaped its borders. The extent of the narrow Sutorina corridor was observed by combining data on boundary lines taken from historical maps with the current situation in the area. The technique of georeferencing old maps based on a genetic algorithm was developed for this purpose. 

  8. Variability of currents in front of the Venice Lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosoli, S.; Gacic, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS, Sgonico (Trieste) (Italy); Mazzoldi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - ISMAR-CNR, Venice (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Marine

    2008-07-01

    Time scales and modes of variability of the flow in the water column in the Northern Adriatic Sea for late summer 2002 are described based on current record from a single bottom-mounted ADCP in the shallow-water area in front of the Venice Lagoon. The time averaged flow was directed 277 E (CCW), roughly aligned with the coastline, with typical magnitudes in the range 4-6 cm/s and a limited, not significant clockwise veering with depth. Tidal forcing was weak and mainly concentrated in the semidiurnal frequency band, with a barotropic (depth-independent) structure. On a diurnal time scale, tidal signal was biased by the sea-breeze regime and was characterized by a clockwise veering with depth according to the Ekman spiral. A complex EOF analysis on the velocity profile time series extracted two dominant spatial modes of variability, which explained more than 90% of the total variance in the current field. More than 78% of the total variance was accounted for by the first EOF mode, with a barotropic structure that contained the low-frequency components and the barotropic tidal signal at semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies. The second mode had a baroclinic structure with a zero-crossing at mid-depth, which was related with the response of the water column to the high-frequency wind-driven diurnal sea breeze variability. The response of low-passed non-tidal currents to local wind stress was fast and immediate, with negligible temporal lag up to mid-depth. Currents vectors were pointing to the right of wind stress, as expected from the surface Ekman veering, but with angles smaller than the expected ones. A time lag in the range 10 to 11 h was found below 8 m depth, with current vectors pointing to the left of wind stress and a counterclockwise veering towards the bottom. The delay was consistent with the frictional adjustment time scale describing the dynamics of a frictionally dominated flow in shallow water, thus suggesting the importance of bottom friction on the

  9. Harmful algae records in Venice lagoon and in Po River Delta (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Sfriso, Adriano; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide "updated reference conditions" for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance.

  10. Spatial distribution of microphytobenthos, meiofauna and macrofauna in the north-western Adriatic Sea: a synoptic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Franzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the general paucity of integrated information on offshore benthic communities in the Adriatic Sea and given the vulnerability of this particular coastal system, microphytobenthos, meiofauna and macrofauna were synoptically investigated in front of the Emilia-Romagna coast (northern Adriatic Sea in September 2010 and March 2011. As required by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which extends its action beyond the territorial waters (within 12 nmi of the Member States, our findings could help to fill the gap of knowledge on the environmental status in offshore areas since the study was carried out also at >12 nmi from the coastline. In fact, sediment samples for the analysis of the benthic communities were collected from a 10-point-station grid that covered an area of about 400 km2 with water depths ranging from 13 to 50 m. The variability of the sediment grain size and other chemical variables in the sediment suggests the presence of two distinct environmental contexts that enhance the proliferation of different benthic communities. At the inshore stations (depth <20 m the higher sand percentages and the maxima of dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations indicate the presence of hydrodynamic perturbations and the influence of nutrient loads of terrestrial origin. Inshore, both meio- and macrofaunal communities were poorly structured and dominated by relatively more opportunistic taxa, such as nematodes and the bivalve Corbula gibba. Offshore stations (depth >20 m had muddier sediments, which likely exerted a greater retention of sediment-bound organic matter. These conditions seemed to favour benthic deposit feeders like meio- and macrofaunal annelids. Surprisingly, a conspicuous microphytobenthic community, mainly represented by the diatom Paralia sulcata, has been observed even at remarkable depths (~50 m opening new questions regarding the role of these organisms in dim-light conditions. Although the investigated benthic

  11. Coding early naturalists' accounts into long-term fish community changes in the Adriatic Sea (1800-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso Fortibuoni

    Full Text Available The understanding of fish communities' changes over the past centuries has important implications for conservation policy and marine resource management. However, reconstructing these changes is difficult because information on marine communities before the second half of the 20(th century is, in most cases, anecdotal and merely qualitative. Therefore, historical qualitative records and modern quantitative data are not directly comparable, and their integration for long-term analyses is not straightforward. We developed a methodology that allows the coding of qualitative information provided by early naturalists into semi-quantitative information through an intercalibration with landing proportions. This approach allowed us to reconstruct and quantitatively analyze a 200-year-long time series of fish community structure indicators in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea. Our analysis provides evidence of long-term changes in fish community structure, including the decline of Chondrichthyes, large-sized and late-maturing species. This work highlights the importance of broadening the time-frame through which we look at marine ecosystem changes and provides a methodology to exploit, in a quantitative framework, historical qualitative sources. To the purpose, naturalists' eyewitness accounts proved to be useful for extending the analysis on fish community back in the past, well before the onset of field-based monitoring programs.

  12. The Adriatic response to the bora forcing. A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachev, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the bora wind effect on the Adriatic Sea circulation as simulated by a 3-D numerical code (the DieCAST model). The main result of this forcing is the formation of intense upwelling along the eastern coast in agreement with previous theoretical studies and observations. Different numerical experiments are discussed for various boundary and initial conditions to evaluate their influence on both circulation and upwelling patterns

  13. Variability of currents in front of the Venice Lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cosoli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time scales and modes of variability of the flow in the water column in the Northern Adriatic Sea for late summer 2002 are described based on current record from a single bottom-mounted ADCP in the shallow-water area in front of the Venice Lagoon.

    The time averaged flow was directed 277° E (CCW, roughly aligned with the coastline, with typical magnitudes in the range 4–6 cm/s and a limited, not significant clockwise veering with depth. Tidal forcing was weak and mainly concentrated in the semidiurnal frequency band, with a barotropic (depth-independent structure. On a diurnal time scale, tidal signal was biased by the sea-breeze regime and was characterized by a clockwise veering with depth according to the Ekman spiral.

    A complex EOF analysis on the velocity profile time series extracted two dominant spatial modes of variability, which explained more than 90% of the total variance in the current field. More than 78% of the total variance was accounted for by the first EOF mode, with a barotropic structure that contained the low-frequency components and the barotropic tidal signal at semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies. The second mode had a baroclinic structure with a zero-crossing at mid-depth, which was related with the response of the water column to the high-frequency wind-driven diurnal sea breeze variability.

    The response of low-passed non-tidal currents to local wind stress was fast and immediate, with negligible temporal lag up to mid-depth. Currents vectors were pointing to the right of wind stress, as expected from the surface Ekman veering, but with angles smaller than the expected ones. A time lag in the range 10 to 11 h was found below 8 m depth, with current vectors pointing to the left of wind stress and a counterclockwise veering towards the bottom. The delay was consistent with the frictional adjustment time scale describing the dynamics of a frictionally dominated flow in shallow water, thus

  14. Variability of currents in front of the Venice Lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cosoli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time scales and modes of variability of the flow in the water column in the Northern Adriatic Sea for late summer 2002 are described based on current record from a single bottom-mounted ADCP in the shallow-water area in front of the Venice Lagoon. The time averaged flow was directed 277° E (CCW, roughly aligned with the coastline, with typical magnitudes in the range 4–6 cm/s and a limited, not significant clockwise veering with depth. Tidal forcing was weak and mainly concentrated in the semidiurnal frequency band, with a barotropic (depth-independent structure. On a diurnal time scale, tidal signal was biased by the sea-breeze regime and was characterized by a clockwise veering with depth according to the Ekman spiral. A complex EOF analysis on the velocity profile time series extracted two dominant spatial modes of variability, which explained more than 90% of the total variance in the current field. More than 78% of the total variance was accounted for by the first EOF mode, with a barotropic structure that contained the low-frequency components and the barotropic tidal signal at semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies. The second mode had a baroclinic structure with a zero-crossing at mid-depth, which was related with the response of the water column to the high-frequency wind-driven diurnal sea breeze variability. The response of low-passed non-tidal currents to local wind stress was fast and immediate, with negligible temporal lag up to mid-depth. Currents vectors were pointing to the right of wind stress, as expected from the surface Ekman veering, but with angles smaller than the expected ones. A time lag in the range 10 to 11 h was found below 8 m depth, with current vectors pointing to the left of wind stress and a counterclockwise veering towards the bottom. The delay was consistent with the frictional adjustment time scale describing the dynamics of a frictionally dominated flow in shallow water, thus suggesting the importance of

  15. Picoplankton distribution influenced by thermohaline circulation in the southern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilović, Tina; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Batistić, Mirna; Radić, Iris Dupčić; Hrustić, Enis; Najdek, Mirjana

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we focus on the interactive dynamics between physico-chemical processes and picoplankton distribution in order to advance our current understanding of the roles of various parameters in regulating picoplankton community structure in highly dynamic marine system such as the South Adriatic Sea. The research was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 along the transect in the northern part of the South Adriatic Pit. The deep water convection occurred in the southern Adriatic during February 2012, with vertical mixing reaching the depth of 500 m. The picoplankton community was highly affected by this mixing event, whilst its compartments each responded differently. During deep water convection low nucleic acid heterotrophic bacteria (LNA HB) and Synechococcus had their lowest abundances (4 × 105 cell ml-1 and 8 × 102 cell ml-1, respectively), picoeucaryotes had their highest abundances (104 cell ml-1), while Prochlorococcus was absent from the area, most likely due to intense cooling and vertical mixing. In March 2012 Eastern Adriatic Current (EAC) brought warm and saline water with more nutrients, which resulted in the proliferation of high nucleic acid heterotrophic bacteria (HNA HB), having maximal abundance (4 × 105 cell ml-1). The re-establishment of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) intrusion after the deep water convection resulted in the re-appearance of Prochlorococcus and maximal abundances of Synechococcus (4 × 104 cell ml-1) in May 2012. The distribution of picoheterotrophs was mainly explained by the season, while the distribution of picophytoplankton was explained by the depth. Aside from nutrients, salinity was an important parameter, affecting particularly Prochlorococcus. The re-appearance of Prochlorococcus in the southern Adriatic during the period of LIW intrusion, together with their correlation with salinity, indicates their potential association with LIW. The relationship between Prochloroccocus distribution and

  16. La dinamica tra appartenere e differenziarsi: elementi della trasformazione nella terapia ‘a geometria variabile’ con adolescenti migranti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana Mangiacavallo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In questo lavoro sarà affrontata la dinamica tra processo di appartenenza e differenziazione in età adolescenziale, attraverso l’esemplificazione di un caso clinico. Tale dinamica è resa complessa dal fatto che il caso in oggetto, rimanda a trame culturali della migrazione. Tale lavoro prende in esame la possibilità dell’utilizzo di strategie integrate, come la consultazione culturale, alla luce del modello a ‘geometria variabile.

  17. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Civitarese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the Southern Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, it is documented that nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that generally the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. As shown earlier, North Ionian Gyre (NIG changes its circulation sense on a decadal scale due to the Bimodal Oscillating System, i.e. the feedback mechanism between the Adriatic and Ionian. Cyclonic circulation causes a downwelling of the nitracline along the borders of the NIG and a decrease in the nutrient content of the water flowing into the Adriatic across the Otranto Strait, and vice versa. In addition, the highly oligotrophic central area of the Ionian shows annual blooms only during cyclonic NIG circulation. Inversion of the sense of the NIG results in the advection of Modified Atlantic Water or of the Levantine/Eastern Mediterranean waters in the Adriatic. Here, we show that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concurrent with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations of the NIG, respectively. On the basis of the results presented, a revision of the theory of Adriatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.

  18. Downwelling dynamics of the western Adriatic Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, W. R.; Mullenbach, B. L.; Kineke, G. C.; Sherwood, C. R.; Signell, R. P.; Ogston, A. S.; Puig, P.; Traykovski, P.

    2004-12-01

    The western Adriatic coastal current (WACC) flows for hundreds of kilometers along the east coast of Italy at speeds of 20 to 100 cm/s. It is fed by the buoyancy input from the Po River and other rivers of the northern Adriatic Sea, with typical freshwater discharge rates of 2000 m**3/s. The Bora winds provide the dominant forcing agent of the WACC during the winter months, resulting in peak southeastward flows reaching 100 cm/s. The energy input of the Bora is principally in the northern Adriatic, and the coastal current response is due mainly to the set up of the pressure field, although there is sometimes an accompanying local component of down-coast winds that further augments the coastal current. Downwelling conditions occur during Bora, with or without local wind-forcing, because the bottom Ekman transport occurs in either case. Downwelling results in destratification of the coastal current, due to both vertical mixing and straining of the cross-shore density gradient. The relative contributions of mixing and straining depends on the value of the Kelvin number K=Lf/(g_Oh)**1/2, where L is the width of the coastal current, f is the Coriolis parameter, g_O is reduced gravity, and h is the plume thickness. For a narrow coastal current (KWACC during Bora events, with strain-induced destratification occurring in less than 24 hours. The straining process limits vertical mixing of the coastal current with the ambient Adriatic water, because once the isopycnals become vertical, no more mixing can occur. This limitation of mixing may explain the persistence of the density anomaly of the coastal current in the presence of high stresses. The straining process also has important implications for sediment transport: destratification allows sediment to be distributed throughout the water column during Bora events, resulting in enhanced down-coast fluxes. The influence of the downwelling dynamics on cross-shore sediment transport is still under examination.

  19. On the dense water cascading in the Southern Adriatic Sea during 2012: Setup of a Rapid Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    In the North Adriatic, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) forms during cold and dry winters by cooling and evaporation. DSW spreads southward along the western shelf reaching the southern Adriatic basin (1200 m deep) after 1-2 months, where sinks through cascading events. In February 2012, a large Siberian High caused blocking of the Atlantic flow and a westward flow of dry and cold air masses from eastern Russia toward Europe. The North Adriatic experienced a cold spell with large decrease of surface temperature (3° -6° C) associated to severe cold and dry Bora wind. The result was the formation of extremely dense shelf water, further made possible by the very limited discharge of the Po river in the preceding autumn. As contribution to the Italian research programme RITMARE (Italian Research for the Sea), CNR-ISMAR set up a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiment to study the occurrence, amount, timing and properties of the newly formed DSW. Setting up REA strategies is crucial for several scientific and practical reasons: (i) capturing extreme events to improve our understanding of natural systems in a global-change scenario; (ii) to evaluate their impact on marine systems and the biota; (iii) to address issues related to fluctuating fish stocks as well as (iv) C export and sequestration in the deep sea. The experiment was designed with an integrated approach, including modeling simulations, mooring deployments and quick-response oceanographic cruises. Based on numerical model ensemble, the arrival time of the DSW at the Gargano Cape was forecasted likely starting after March 15, 2012, thus moorings were deployed few days before. Five moorings were deployed in sites selected on the basis of modelling predictions and geology-driven inferences defining areas where the passage of dense shelf water is most likely to occur. Moorings were equipped with down-looking ADCPs, automatic sediment traps, temperature loggers, recorders of temperature, conductivity and

  20. Trends of anchovy (Engraulis encrasilocus, L. biomass in the northern and central Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santojanni

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L. is one of the most important commercial species of the northern and central Adriatic Sea. The mean annual catch of anchovy estimated by IRPEM for these areas, in the time interval 1975-1996, is equal to 25,000 tonnes. Estimates of anchovy stock biomass at sea in the time interval 1975-1996 were obtained using two population dynamics methods based on different data inputs: Virtual Population Analysis (VPA and the DeLury model with recruitment index. VPA was carried out tuning the estimated fishing mortality rate at age by fitting on corresponding Catch Per Unit of fishing Effort (CPUE. Both VPA and the DeLury model yielded sensible results. The effect on the assessments due to the use of a different birth date and thus of split-year data was investigated. Biomass values as well as patterns over time so estimated were similar on the basis of both assessment methods and calendar year versus split-year data. In particular, the biomass in more recent years (around 100,000 tonnes was lower than in the second half of the 1970s and first half of the 1980s (over 200,000 tonnes. The minimum value (lower than 50,000 tonnes was always estimated in 1987, when a strong drop in the catch and crisis of the anchovy fishery took place. Though high values of both fishing effort and fishing mortality/exploitation rate were obtained for some years before 1987, very low levels of recruitment in 1986 and 1987 seem to be mainly responsible for the collapse of the stock.

  1. Coccolithophore diversity and dynamics at a coastal site in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Fornasaro, Daniela; Kralj, Martina; Cabrini, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Two years-data (May 2011-February 2013) obtained from a monthly sampling carried out at the coastal long term Ecological Research station C1-LTER in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were analysed to describe the seasonal dynamics and diversity of coccolithophore assemblages and to assess their relationship with environmental forcing. Coccolithophores represented 10.7% of the total Utermöhl phytoplankton that were mainly dominated by small (Emiliania huxleyi, and a secondary peak in May-June (0.7-15.0 · 104 coccospheres L-1), coinciding with the increase of the light intensity and the beginning of the seasonal stratification, dominated by holococcolithophores and small Syracosphaera species. The most abundant taxa were E. huxleyi and holococcolithophores, followed by Acanthoica quattrospina, Syracosphaera species and other minor species. Statistical analyses recognized four distinct groups, corresponding to seasonal variations of environmental conditions. Considering the two years, some species displayed a recurrent seasonal pattern highlighting possible species-specific ecological requirements, while others showed an interannual variability probably due to local factors.

  2. Limited impact of beach nourishment on macrofaunal recruitment/settlement in a site of community interest in coastal area of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Nepote, Ettore; Martire, Marco Lo; Ciotti, Claudia; De Grandis, Gianluca; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Carugati, Laura; Cerrano, Carlo; Pica, Daniela; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Dell'Anno, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Beach nourishment is a widely utilized solution to counteract the erosion of shorelines, and there is an active discussion on its possible consequences on coastal marine assemblages. We investigated the impact caused by a small-scale beach nourishment carried out in the Western Adriatic Sea on macrofaunal recruitment and post-settlement events. Artificial substrates were deployed in proximity of nourished and non-manipulated beaches and turbidity and sedimentation rates were measured. Our results indicate that sedimentation rates in the impacted site showed a different temporal change compared to the control sites, suggesting potential modifications due to the beach nourishment. The impact site was characterized by subtle changes in terms of polychaete abundance and community structure when compared to controls, possibly due to beach nourishment, although the role of other factors cannot be ruled out. We conclude that small-scale beach nourishments appear to be an eco-sustainable approach to contrast coastal erosion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Radioactivity of fission products in cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater from roofs etc. with fission products have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium.After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were detected again, cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated 90 Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the mean residence time of 90 Sr in cistern waters being order of magnitude several years was similar to that calculated for fallout.Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, S r mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time.Therefore, the pre-Chernobyl) and the post-Chernobyl mean residence times of 90 Sr in cistern waters reflect the mechanism by which strontium was released to the atmosphere. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 90 Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be a few per cent of the dose from natural background radiation. (authors)

  4. A multidisciplinary environmental integrated approach to better understand the Tegnue Reefs formation, offshore Chioggia, Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Donnici, Sandra; Tosi, Luigi; Tagliapietra, Davide; Zaggia, Luca; Bonaldo, Davide; Braga, Federica; Da Lio, Cristina; Keppel, Erica; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Franceschini, Gianluca; Giovanardi, Otello; Carol, Eleonora; Fornaro, Elena; Grant, Carley

    2014-05-01

    , and benthic invertebrates like bryozoans, mollusks, serpulids and corals also contribute to the final building of the status of Tegnue's environment, but we want to demonstrate that the in first stage of consolidation abiotic phenomena could have played a major role. In order to prove our thesis a series of ground water sampling as well as rock sampling and sediment cores were carried out. The poster illustrates the overall ongoing program as well as some work in progress and first results from field cruise. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Municipality of Chioggia through the Tegnue Project and partially by the Flagship Project RITMARE - The Italian Research for the Sea - coordinated by the Italian National Research Council and funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research within the National Research Program 2011-2013, and by the Scientific Cooperation Agreement between the CONICET (Argentina) - CNR (Italy), Program 2013-2014, Project 'Fresh-saltwaters in high-value coastlands: from the hydrogeophysical/geochemical characterization of the present interactions to the modeling quantification of the expected effects of climate changes'. References - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L. 2000. Indagini preliminari su alcune formazioni di sabbie cementate nella laguna di Venezia. In: La Ricerca Scientifica Per Venezia. Il Progetto Sistema Lagunare Veneziano, Modellistica del Sistema Lagunare Studio di Impatto Ambientale. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Vol. II, Tomo II, p. 967-974, Venezia, ISBN: 88-86166-82-6. - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L., Rizzetto, F., Brancolini, G., Baradello, L. 2006. Effects of climate changes on the late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39, 279-284. - Casellato S., Stefanon A. 2008. Coralligenous habitat in the northern Adriatic Sea: an overview. Marine Ecology, 29: 321-341. - Gabbianelli, G., Colantoni, P., Degetto, S., Dinelli, E., Lucchini, F. 1997

  5. Bora-induced currents corresponding to different synoptic conditions above the Adriatic

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    G. Beg Paklar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bora wind field is characterised by strong vorticity and divergence. Several numerical experiments, in which an oceanographic model was forced with northeasterly winds having climatological alongshore variability, were performed in order to study the influence of spatial variability in the bora wind field on the surface currents in the northern Adriatic. Numerical model results showed that during bora episodes with lower speeds and fast offshore decay surface currents along transect Rovinj - Po River are predominantly in the downwind direction. On the other hand, during bora episodes with strong intensity and slow offshore decay, a cyclonic gyre due to the pronounced bora alongshore variability is formed in the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea and the studied transect is influenced by the counter currents. Moreover, bora having a high speed and a short offshore range produces the same effect in the eastern part of the Rovinj - Po River transect as low-speed bora characterised by slow offshore decay. Eulerian current measurements performed in the northern Adriatic during bora episodes characterised by different synoptic conditions supported the numerical model findings. Surface currents during the bora episode of 8-11 February 1984 were directed downwind, whereas during the episode of 12-19 February 1984 they were directed upwind. The first episode was characterised by a deep bora layer with cyclonic activity over the western Mediterranean and Genoa Bay, whereas the second one was accompanied by temperature inversion and a southwesterly tropospheric wind above a shallow bora layer. According to the hydraulic theory developed by Smith (1985, an observed descent of isentropes during the second bora episode led to the stronger acceleration in the bora layer and its larger offshore extent. Different offshore bora decays during studied events were confirmed by a comparison of the wind data originating from the meteorological stations

  6. Differences and similarities of the Eocene to recent Sphaerogypsina tests collected from the Pannonian basin to the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Katica; Ćosović, Vlasta; Čretnik, Janko; Turk, Janez; Briguglio, Antonino; Rögl, Fred; Praprotnik, Anton

    2017-04-01

    With a new series of shots in the X-ray tomographic techniques (CT), the study of fossil (Eocene and Miocene) and recent tests of Sphaerogypsina globulus (Reuss, 1848) sensu lato, sampled in the Adriatic Sea and adjacent coastal areas, have continued. The Eocene, Lutetian samples collected at the NW margin of the Central Neotethys (Benkovac) contain tests up to 2 mm in diameters, while specimens found in Priabonian deposits from the southern outskirts of the Eastern Alps (Šuštarica, Ravna Gora) and in the central Pannonian basin (Eger) are smaller, with diameters of 1.2 mm. In the Oligocene, Rupelian, sediments, deposited in the Slovenian corridor, area south of the E. Alps, known as representing transition between recessing Neotethys and emerging Pannonian Sea, (Gornji grad, Nova Štifta), foraminiferal tests are of 1.1 mm in diameter. Globular tests of Miocene, Badenian, specimens (Nussdorf, north of the E. Alps), originally described as bryozoan Ceriopora globulus by Reuss 1848, attained 1.2 mm in diameter. Comparison of tests diameters shows that Middle Eocene sphaerogypsinids had the largest tests among fossil taxa, implying that warm temperatures suited them a lot. The Oligocene tests, were smaller and the trend of decreasing in size persisted in the Miocene. Recent tests, although collected over decades from different places in the Adriatic Sea, just recently have been systematically sampled at Pakleni Is. (Hvar), Kornati archipelago and Mali Čutin Is., and studied.The tests, with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 mm (an average of 0.6 to 0.8 mm), are very small in comparison with fossil forms. The life habitats, as type of substrate, light (sunny vs. shadowed areas) have been investigated, revealing that sphaerogypsinids prefer to live at water depth up to 50 - 60 m. Special attention is payed to find live specimens, which would provide the basis for DNA analysis. The application of micro- tomography contributed significantly in studying test internal

  7. Copper complexing ligands and organic matter characterization in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Marta; Gašparović, Blaženka; Strmečki, Slađana; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Tepić, Nataša

    2009-11-01

    The study on dissolved organic ligands capable to complex copper ions (L T), surface-active substances (SAS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Northern Adriatic Sea station (ST 101) under the influence of Po River was conducted in period from 2006-2008. The acidity of surface-active organic material (Ac r) was followed as well. The results are compared to temperature and salinity distributions. On that way, the contribution of the different pools of ligands capable to complex Cu ions could be determined as well as the influence of aging and transformation of the organic matter. The L T values in the investigated period were in the range of 40-300 nmol l -1. The range of DOC values for surface and bottom samples were 0.84-1.87 mg l -1 and 0.80-1.30 mg l -1, respectively. Total SAS concentrations in the bottom layer were 0.045-0.098 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100 while those in the surface layer were 0.050-0.143 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100. The majority of organic ligands responsible for Cu binding in surface water originate from new phytoplankton production promoted by river borne nutrients. Older, transformed organic matter, possessing higher relative acidity, is the main contributor to the pool of organic ligands that bind copper in the bottom samples. It was estimated that ˜9% of DOC in surface samples and ˜12% of DOC in the bottom samples are present as ligands capable to complex copper ions.

  8. Age and growth of Crystallogobius linearis (von Düben, 1845 (Teleostei: Gobiidae from the Adriatic Sea

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    M. La Mesa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of the crystal goby Crystallogobius linearis (von Düben, 1845 were investigated by means of daily growth increment counts on the sagittal otoliths. Samples of C. linearis, obtained as by-catch of the Aphia minuta fishery, were collected in a coastal area of the central Adriatic Sea between March and September 1996. Otolith age-readings were carried out on 167 specimens, ranged from 14 to 41 mm of total length, and indicated that the population was composed of individuals from two to seven months old. Growth of both males and females appeared practically linear over the whole size range studied, although in females a slight decrease in growth rate of older specimens was observed. Furthermore, the hatch date distribution of C. linearis, obtained by the backcalculation of the ageing data, indicated a long breeding season of at least eight months. The results of this study indicated that, as reported from literature for most nektonic gobies, the crystal goby is also characterised by a short life span, during which a high reproductive effort is displayed throughout a long breeding season.

  9. Tectonic Interpretation of CHAMP Geopotential Data over the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. T.; Kim, H. R.; Mayer-Gürr, T.

    2006-05-01

    Recent aeromagnetic anomaly compilations (Chiappini et al., 2000 and Tontini et al., 2004) show a large positive (>700 nT) northwest-southeast trending magnetic anomaly off the Dalmatian coast. Unfortunately these aeromagnetic data cover only a part of this anomaly. We wanted to investigate if this large magnetic anomaly could be detected at satellite altitude and what is the extent and source of this feature. Therefore, magnetic and gravity anomaly maps were made from the CHAMP geopotential data, measured at the current low altitude of 345-350 km over the northern Adriatic Sea. We made the magnetic anomaly map over this relatively small region using 36 descending and 85 ascending orbits screened to be at the lowest altitude and the most magnetically quietest data. We removed the main field component (i.e., IGRF-10 up to degree and order 13) and then demeaned individual tracks and subtracted a second order polynomial to remove regional and/or un-modeled external field features. The resulting map from these well-correlated anomalies revealed a positive magnetic anomaly (>2 nT). Reduction-to-the pole brought these CHAMP anomaly features into coincidence with the aeromagnetic data. Previously Cantini et al. (1999) compared the surface magnetic data with MAGSAT by continuing upward the former and downwards the latter to 100 km and found a good correlation for wavelengths of 300-500 km. We also investigated the CHAMP gravity data. They were reduced using the kinematic short-arc integration method (Ilk et al., 2005 and Mayer Gürr et al., 2005). However, no corresponding short-wavelength gravity anomaly was observed in our study area. This tectonically complex region is under horizontal stress and the source of the large magnetic anomaly can be modelled by an associated ophiolite melange.

  10. Towards the Adriatic meteotsunami early warning system: modelling strategy and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denamiel, Clea; Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica

    2017-04-01

    Destructive meteotsunamis are known to occur along the eastern Adriatic coastal areas and islands (Vilibić and Šepić, 2009). The temporal lag between the offshore generation of meteotsunamis due to specific atmospheric conditions and the arrival of a dangerous nearshore propagating wave at known locations is of the order of tens of minutes to a couple of hours. In order to reduce the coastal risk for the coastal communities, an early warning system must rely on the ability to detect these extreme storms offshore with in-situ measurements and to predict the hydrodynamic response nearshore via numerical models within this short time lag. However, the numerical modelling of meteotsunamis requires both temporal and spatial high-resolution atmospheric and ocean models which are highly demanding concerning time and computer resources. Furthermore, both a multi-model approach and an ensemble modelling strategy should be used to better forecast the distribution of the nearshore impact of meteotsunamis. The modelling strategy used in this study thus rely on the development of an operational atmosphere-ocean model of the Adriatic Sea at 1km spatial resolution based on the state-of-the-art fully coupled COAWST model (Warner et al., 2010). The model allows for generation of meteotsunamis offshore, while various high-resolution (up to 5m) nearshore hydrodynamic models (such as ADCIRC - Luettich and Westerink, 1991; SELFE - Zhang et al., 2008 and GeoClaw - LeVeque, 2012) are setup to properly reproduce meteotsunami dynamics of the entire Croatian coastal areas, which are characterized by a great number of islands, channels and bays. The implementation and validation of each component of this modelling system is first undertaken for the well documented meteotsunami event (Šepić et al., 2016), which was recorded along the Croatian Adriatic coast on the 25th and the 26th of June 2014. The validation of the modelling strategy as well as the model results is presented and

  11. Water resources vulnerability assessment in the Adriatic Sea region: the case of Corfu Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakoudis, Vasilis; Tsitsifli, Stavroula; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Karleusa, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Cross-border water resources management and protection is a complicated task to achieve, lacking a common methodological framework. Especially in the Adriatic region, water used for drinking water supply purposes pass from many different countries, turning its management into a hard task to achieve. During the DRINKADRIA project, a common methodological framework has been developed, for efficient and effective cross-border water supply and resources management, taking into consideration different resources types (surface and groundwater) emphasizing in drinking water supply intake. The common methodology for water resources management is based on four pillars: climate characteristics and climate change, water resources availability, quality, and security. The present paper assesses both present and future vulnerability of water resources in the Adriatic region, with special focus on Corfu Island, Greece. The results showed that climate change is expected to impact negatively on water resources availability while at the same time, water demand is expected to increase. Water quality problems will be intensified especially due to land use changes and salt water intrusion. The analysis identified areas where water resources are more vulnerable, allowing decision makers develop management strategies.

  12. "Pittura Romeica" in Italy: Artistic transfers across the Adriatic sea (18th - 19th centuries

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    Eugenia Drakopoulou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex historical reality of the Adriatic region, an area located even today on the borderline between East and West, is reflected in the works of religious painting and in the painters’ geographical movements. The art of Orthodox regions was mainly influenced by Venice, but also by the rest of Italy, and, as a result, a unique art emerged in the Ionian Islands, which remained under Venetian control until the end of the eighteenth century. In the course of the eighteenth century, political and economic conditions contributed to the growth of the Orthodox communities in Italy. Their members were interested in the art of the country where they lived and prospered, but they simultaneously wished to preserve the “pittura romeica” in the decorations of churches and in the icons used for their personal worship. From Naples to the cosmopolitan Trieste, Orthodox painters, coming mainly from the Ionian Islands, produced artworks which were adapted to the new surroundings, thereby making the Adriatic region once again a privileged area for cultural exchanges.

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of thermohaline properties in the Bay of Koper (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soczka Mandac, Rok; Žagar, Dušan; Faganeli, Jadran

    2013-04-01

    In this study influence of fresh water discharge on the spatial and temporal variability of thermohaline (TH) conditions is explored for the Bay of Koper (Bay). The Bay is subject to different driving agents: wind stress (bora, sirocco), tidal and seiches effect, buoyancy fluxes, general circulation of the Adriatic Sea and discharge of the Rizana and Badaševica rivers. These rivers have torrential characteristics that are hard to forecast in relation to meteorological events (precipitation). Therefore, during episodic events the spatial and temporal variability of TH properties in the Bay is difficult to determine [1]. Measurements of temperature, salinity and turbidity were conducted monthly on 35 sampling points in the period: June 2011 - December 2012. The data were processed and spatial interpolated with an objective analysis method. Furthermore, empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) [2] was applied to investigate spatial and temporal TH variations. Strong horizontal and vertical stratification was observed in the beginning of June 2011 due to high fresh water discharge of the Rizana (31 m3/s) and Badaševica (2 m3/s) rivers. The horizontal gradient (ΔT = 6°C) was noticed near the mouth of the Rizana river. Similar pattern was identified for salinity field on the boundary of the front where the gradient was ΔS = 20 PSU. Vertical temperature gradient was ΔT = 4°C while salinity gradient was ΔS = 18 PSU in the subsurface layer at depth of 3 m. Spatial analysis of the first principal component (86% of the total variance) shows uniform temperature distribution in the surface layer (1m) during the studied period. Furthermore, temporal variability of temperature shows seasonal variation with a minimum in February and maximum in August. This confirms that episodic events have a negligible effect on spatial and temporal variation of temperature in the subsurface layer. Further analysis will include application of EOF on the salinity, density and total

  14. Near-surface wind pattern in regional climate projections over the broader Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic region is characterized by the complex coastline, strong topographic gradients and specific wind regimes. This represents excellent test area for the latest generation of the regional climate models (RCMs) applied over the European domain. The most famous wind along the Adriatic coast is bora, which due to its strength, has a strong impact on all types of human activities in the Adriatic region. The typical bora wind is a severe gusty downslope flow perpendicular to the mountains. Besides bora, in the Adriatic region, typical winds are sirocco (mostly during the wintertime) and sea/land breezes (dominantly in the warm part of the year) as a part of the regional Mediterranean wind system. Thus, it is substantial to determine future changes in the wind filed characteristics (e.g., changes in strength and frequencies). The first step was the evaluation of a suite of ten EURO- and MED-CORDEX models (at 50 km and 12.5 km resolution), and two additional high resolution models from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ, at 12.5 km and 2.2. km resolution) in the present climate. These results provided a basis for the next step where wind field features, in an ensemble of RCMs forced by global climate models (GCMs) in historical and future runs are examined. Our aim is to determine the influence of the particular combination of RCMs and GCMs, horizontal resolution and emission scenario on the future changes in the near-surface wind field. The analysis reveals strong sensitivity of the simulated wind flow and its statistics to both season and location analyzed, to the horizontal resolution of the RCM and on the choice of the particular GCM that provides boundary conditions.

  15. Diversity of rare and abundant bacteria in surface waters of the Southern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia Marina; Luna, Gian Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria are fundamental players in the functioning of the ocean, yet relatively little is known about the diversity of bacterioplankton assemblages and the factors shaping their spatial distribution. We investigated the diversity and community composition of bacterioplankton in surface waters of the Southern Adriatic sub-basin (SAd) in the Mediterranean Sea, across an environmental gradient from coastal to offshore stations. Bacterioplankton diversity was investigated using a whole-assemblage genetic fingerprinting technique (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis, ARISA) coupled with 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing. The main physico-chemical variables showed clear differences between coastal and offshore stations, with the latter displaying generally higher temperature, salinity and oxygen content. Bacterioplankton richness was higher in coastal than offshore waters. Bacterial community composition (BCC) differed significantly between coastal and offshore waters, and appeared to be influenced by temperature (explaining up to 30% of variance) and by the trophic state. Pyrosequencing evidenced dominance of Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 cluster), uncultured Gammaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) and Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus). Members of the Bacteroidetes phylum were also abundant, and accounted for 25% in the station characterized by the higher organic carbon availability. Bacterioplankton assemblages included a few dominant taxa and a very large proportion (85%) of rare (diversity, particularly evident at the level of the rare taxa, suggests to direct future investigations toward larger spatial or temporal scales, to better understand the role of bacterioplankton in the ecosystem functioning and the biogeochemistry of the basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SURVEY ON V. CHOLERAE, V. VULNIFICUS AND V. PARAHAEMOLYTICUS IN BIVALVE MOLLUSCS OF THE ADRIATIC SEA AND PROPOSAL OF AN ANALYTICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Valeri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs from Adriatic sea were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae e V. vulnificus presence. The isolates on TCBS Agar and m-CPC Agar were selected on the basis of a new biochemical screening, that showed a good performance, because among 2344 strains from primary culture only 237 (10% were presumptively assigned to the species of interest. The PCR analyses was performed for the target genes toxR hlyA, ctxA, tcpI (V. cholerae, toxR, tl, tdh, trh (V. parahaemolyticus, vvhA and viuB (V. vulnificus. Among the 9 strains confirmed to belong to V. parahaemolyticus specie, 6 were sucrose positive. On 215 samples of molluscs only 5 resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus being toxR+, tl+, although non pathogenic (tdh-, trh-, and none for V. cholerae e V. vulnificus.

  17. Selenium and Mercury Interactions in Apex Predators from the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea

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    Jadran Faganeli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the environmental levels of selenium (Se can moderate the bioaccumulation and toxicity of mercury (Hg in marine organisms, their interactions were studied in seawater, sediments, plankton and the benthic (Bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus, Eagle ray Myliobatis aquila and the pelagic (Pelagic stingray Dasyiatis violacea rays, as apex predators in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea. Male and female rays showed no difference in the Se contents in muscle tissue. Pelagic species contained higher Se levels in muscle but slightly lower levels in the livers of both genders. The Hg/Se ratios in seawater dissolved and colloidal fractions, plankton and sediment were <0.5, while those in particulate matter were <1.3. In benthic ray species, a parallel increase in Se and Hg in muscle was observed, so that an increased in Hg (MeHg bioaccumulation results in Se coaccumulation. The Hg/Se ratios (molar in muscle and liver of pelagic and benthic rays were <1.4 and <0.7, respectively. The low levels of Hg in muscle and liver in all the ray species corresponded to low Hg/Se ratios and increases in muscle and liver to 1 at 7 µg/g, dry weight (dw and 5 µg/g dw, respectively, i.e., about 1.6 µg/g wet weight (ww.

  18. The addition of hydrodynamic variables to predictive cold water coral habitat modeling: The Bari Canyon case-study, southwestern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglini, Federica; Bargain, Annaëlle; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Taviani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Predictive habitat modeling is gaining momentum because of its usefulness to recognize potential distributional patterns of ecosystems thus facilitating their proper governance when required, as it is for instance the case of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This holds particularly true for the deep-sea in front of its overwhelming areal extent on a global scale and intrinsic technological difficulties (with related costs) for its direct exploration. Cold Water Corals (CWC) is one emblematic, virtually cosmopolitan, ecosystem in the deep, that is under international attention because of its multifaceted ecological importance. CWC is currently represented in the Mediterranean basin by habitats engineered by the arborescent scleractinians Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa associated with a number of other benthic invertebrates. One major CWC hotspot located on the southwestern Adriatic margin, the Bari Canyon cold water coral province, has been targeted for producing habitat suitability maps. Initially the evaluation of the theoretical distribution of CWC in this area has been based upon visual observations, mainly extracted from geo-referenced underwater ROV imagery, coupled with the eco-geographic information derived from bathymetry. This approach relies upon the compilation and comparison of presence-only models (MaxEnt and ENFA), but also presence-absence model (GLMs). However, the pivotal role played by oceanographic factors has been soon added in order to achieve more robust predictive models. In fact, the Bari Canyon CWC province is situated on the main path of the North Adriatic Dense Water cascading, and hypothesized to be sensitive to hydrological factors. Accordingly, the statistical models to assess potential habitat extent have been implemented using hydrodynamic fields provided by ROMS for ocean currents, coupled with SWAN within the COAWST modelling system to account for wave-current interactions. The integration of results is

  19. Spatially explicit risk approach for multi-hazard assessment and management in marine environment: The case study of the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elisa; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2018-03-15

    In the last few decades the health of marine ecosystems has been progressively endangered by the anthropogenic presence. Natural and human-made pressures, as well as climate change effects, are posing increasing threats on marine areas, triggering alteration of biological, chemical and physical processes. Planning of marine areas has become a challenge for decision makers involved in the design of sustainable management options. In order to address threats posed by climate drivers in combination with local to regional anthropogenic pressures affecting marine ecosystems and activities, a multi-hazard assessment methodology was developed and applied to the Adriatic Sea for the reference scenario 2000-2015. Through a four-stages process based on the consecutive analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk the methodology allows a semi-quantitative evaluation of the relative risk from anthropogenic and natural sources to multiple endpoints, thus supporting the identification and ranking of areas and targets more likely to be at risk. Resulting output showed that the higher relative hazard scores are linked to exogenic pressures (e.g. sea surface temperature variation) while the lower ones resulted from endogenic and more localized stressors (e.g. abrasion, nutrient input). Relatively very high scores were observed for vulnerability over the whole case study for almost all the considered pressures, showing seagrasses meadows, maërl and coral beds as the most susceptible targets. The approach outlined in this study provides planners and decision makers a quick-screening tool to evaluate progress towards attaining a good environmental status and to identify marine areas where management actions and adaptation strategies would be best targeted. Moreover, by focusing on risks induced by land-based drivers, resulting output can support the design of infrastructures for reducing pressures on the sea, contributing to improve the land-sea interface management

  20. Sources of CO{sub 2} in the Gulf of Trieste (N. Adriatic). Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, N.; Zavadlav, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Turk, D. [Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, NY (United States); Faganeli, J. [Marine Biological Station National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study the influence of freshwater intrusions on the net carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated. Carbonate mineral weathering dominates the inorganic carbon geochemical flux of the N Adriatic rivers and thus the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the gulf seawater. Based on {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values and isotopic mass balance it was estimated that rivers represents about 20% of DIC in spring, while the riverine contribution in autumn is less pronounced probably due to intensive water mixing. The results, therefore, suggest that river inputs play a significant role in the carbon cycling in the Gulf of Trieste due to mixing of higher DIC riverine water with lower seawater DIC. The observed higher summer {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values were due to more pronounced photosynthetic carbon fractionation. (author)

  1. Synecology of Cutandia maritima (L. Barbey, a rare psammophytic species along the Montenegrin Coast (East Adriatic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutandia maritima is a circum-Mediterranean species that inhabits sandy dunes along the coast line. It is fairly frequent on the western Adriatic coast but fairly rare and possibly even non-native in the east. In Croatia, it was discovered in 1990 in Crnika Bay on the island of Rab, which was considered until 2005 to be the only site on the eastern Adriatic coast from the Gulf of Trieste in the north to Corfu in the south. In 2009, the species was briefly reported for Velika plaža (Long Beach in Ulcinj (Montenegro but without details about the habitat type and synecology. The aim of this paper is thus to provide a deeper insight into the ecology and synecology of C. maritima in the eastern Adriatic part of the distribution area. On Velika plaža in Ulcinj, the species was found along the whole sea-inland gradient of sand dunes, in various types of vegetation: [1210] - annual vegetation of drift lines, [2110] - embryonic shifting dunes, [2120] - shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes, [2220] - dunes with Euphorbia terracina, [2130*] - fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes, and also [2190] - humid dune slacks.

  2. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  3. Numerical modelling of an oil spill in the northern Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Paladin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical cases of oil spills, caused by ship failure in the northern Adriatic, are analysed with the aim of producing three-dimensional models of sea circulation and oil contaminant transport. Sea surface elevations, sea temperature and salinity fields are applied as a forcing argument on the model's open boundaries.The Aladin-HR model with a spatial resolution of 8 km and a time interval of 3 hours is used for atmospheric forcing. River discharges along the coastline in question are introduced as point source terms and are assumed to have zero salinity at their respective locations. The results of the numerical modelling of physical oceanography parameters are validated by measurements carried out in the ‘Adriatic Sea monitoring programme’ in a series of current meter and CTD stations in the period from 1 January 2008 to 15 November 2008.The oil spill model uses the current field obtained from a circulation model.Besides the convective dispersive transport of oil pollution (Lagrangian model of discrete particles, the model takes into account a number of reactive processes such as emulsification, dissolution, evaporation and heat balance between the oil,sea and atmosphere. An actual event took place on 6 February 2008,when the ship `Und Adriyatik' caught fire in the vicinity of the town of Rovinj (Croatia en route from Istanbul (Turkey to Trieste (Italy. At the time the fire broke out, the ship was carrying around 800 tons of oil. Thanks to the rapid intervention of the firedepartment, the fire was extinguished during the following 12 hours,preventing possible catastrophic environmental consequences. Based on this occurrence, five hypothetical scenarios of ship failure with a consequent spill of 800 tons of oil over 12 hours were analysed. The main distinction between the simulated scenarios is the time of the start of the oil spill, corresponding to the times when stronger winds were blowing (>7 m s-1 with a minimum duration of 24 h

  4. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  5. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Distribution and morphological abnormalities of recent foraminifera in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (North Adriatic Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MELIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Marano and Grado Lagoon, is a northern Adriatic wetland system of relevant naturalistic and economic value, that is constantly under quality control in accordance with the current environmental directives. Benthic foraminifers community with its morphological abnormalities were investigated in the recent sediments (about 10 years old of 21 stations collected in the framework of the “MIRACLE” Project which aimed at testing the coexistence of clam farming with high Hg contamination. Euryhaline foraminifers, well known in Mediterranean brackish-waters, mainly characterizes the total assemblage. A. tepida dominates in areas characterized by low salinity, high clay and Corg content, but also to anthropogenic pressure. E. gunteri and H. germanica are recorded in the western sector of the lagoon, which is more affected by salinity variations and agricultural activities. Slightly higher values of assemblage diversity appear in less restricted areas of the lagoon or, at least, where physical parameters such as temperature and salinity are less variable. The test abnormalities, carried out on total assemblage, shows that the FAI (Foraminiferal Abnormality Index values always exceed 1% of the total assemblage, with clear decreasing gradients from inland to the sea (from N to S and from W to E in the studied area.

  7. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean Sea: Types, occurrence and distribution along Adriatic shorelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Scoponi, Marco; Mistri, Michele

    2017-09-01

    Small plastic debris in sediments from five beaches were investigated to evaluate their occurrence and abundance in the Northern Adriatic coast for the first time. Plastic debris extracted from sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A total of 1345 items of debris (13.491g) were recorded, with a mean density of 12.1 items kg -1 d.w. and 0.12gkg -1 d.w. Fragments were the most frequent type of small plastics debris detected. In terms of abundance, microplastics (emergent and priority contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A geographical information system for the management of the aquaculture data in the Adriatic Sea – the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries experience: Present capabilities, tools and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Tora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission (EC regulation no. 854/2004 requires a systematic monitoring of chemical and microbiological contaminants in live bivalve molluscs, live echinoderms, live tunicates and live marine gastropods for human consumption through surveillance plans to be implemented in all European Union (EU countries.A consortium of five Adriatic countries was set up in the framework of the Instrument of Pre-accession Assistance Adriatic Cross-border Cooperation Programme (IPA Adriatic CBC 2007- 2013 with the aim of collecting data and distribute information on harvesting and production in mollusc areas. A web-based geographical information system (GIS application was developed to support the partners to manage data and to make these data available to final users, policy makers and to risk assessors. The GIS for the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries (CAPS2 is divided into two levels, the national and the supranational one, and it distributes spatial and epidemiological information coming from various data acquisition and management sites. The great innovation is the possibility for each country to use online drawing, modifying and change of the geographic areas according to national surveillance needs. Currently it hosts data coming from about 230 production and relay areas with more than 29,478 laboratory tests performed on collected samples since August 2014. Data collected are used by each national competent authority to classify production or relay areas according to the EC regulation mentioned and to conduct risk assessment studies to evaluate the level of consumers’ exposure to contaminants in the consumption of bivalve mollusc products.

  9. Surface drift prediction in the Adriatic Sea using hyper-ensemble statistics on atmospheric, ocean and wave models: Uncertainties and probability distribution areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72??h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches. ?? 2007 NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).

  10. Regulatory Framework on Exploration and Exploitation of Croatian Part of Adriatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudric, M.

    2015-01-01

    As the prelude to the regulation of marine exploration and exploitation activities in the Croatian Adriatic waters, the new Mining Act and Act on exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons have provided a general legal framework for the natural resources exploration and exploitation. The latter Act also appropriated the establishment of the independent regulatory body, the Hydrocarbon Agency. It is important to mention the Decree on Fees for exploration and production of hydrocarbons, and the Decree on main technical requirements on safety and security of offshore exploration and production of hydrocarbons in the Republic of Croatia, that are of special relevance for the current activities with regard the proposed project of exploration and exploitation of the Croatian waters in search for gas and oil sea-bed deposits. The Hydrocarbon Agency has published the Strategic Study of the Likely Significant Environmental Impact of the Framework Plan and Program of Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons in the Adriatic, a document receiving a lot of criticism from the legal experts and general public. At the same time, the experts tend to support the general idea of sea-bed exploration and exploitation, with the major antagonism still being present in the general public, with several initiatives introducing the possibility of a public referenda to oppose the sea-bed exploration and exploitation. The Government is currently preparing the Act on the Safety of Offshore Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production Operations, based on the Directive 94/22/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 1994 on the conditions for granting and using authorizations for the prospection, exploration and production of hydrocarbons, the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1112/2014 of 13 October 2014 determining a common format for sharing of information on major hazard indicators by the operators and owners of offshore oil and gas installations and a common format

  11. Application of a bioeconomic model for supporting the management process of the small pelagic fishery in the Veneto Region, northern Adriatic Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Silvestri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the sustainability of the small pelagics fishery in the northern Adriatic sea, northeastern Italy, by means of a bioeconomic simulation model. This model reproduces the biological and economic conditions in which the fisheries occur. Starting from an initial condition (2004, the simulation model incorporates the biological and economic processes of the resources and the fishing fleet and computes the most probable future trajectory of the system under different management conditions. We analysed the projection of selected indicators (biomass, recruitment, catches, profits under four different management scenarios based on effort control, and we assessed the performance of these management measures against the current situation. The four scenarios were: i increase in fuel price, ii reduction in fuel price, iii limiting the number of days at sea, and iv extending the fishing period. Each management event was introduced in the third year of the simulation. For each scenario a stochastic simulation was carried out. Our results show that the impact of each management measure tested was not homogeneous across the fleet. In particular, comparatively smaller vessels generally display narrower profit margins and tend to be more sensitive to negative shocks, reinforcing the idea that management measures should be calibrated by stratifying the fleet before implementation.

  12. Levels of 232Th activity in the South Adriatic Sea marine environment of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    232 Th activities in the South Adriatic Sea-water, surface sediment, mud with detritus, seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) samples, and the mullet (Mugilidae) species Mugil cephalus, as well as soil and sand from the Montenegrin Coast, were measured using the six-crystal spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M, which has relatively high detection efficiency and a good sensitivity, and allows a short acquisition time, and measuring samples of any shape, without preliminary preparation and calibration measurements for different sample geometries. An average 232 Th activity concentration in surface soil layer is found to be 40.33 Bq kg -1 , while in sand-4.7 Bq kg -1 . The absorbed dose rate in air due to 232 Th gamma radiation from surface soil layer ranged from 11.76 to 63.39 nGy h -1 , with a mean of 24.06 nGy h -1 . Corresponding average annual effective dose rate has been found to be 0.03 mSv y -1 . The absorbed dose rates due to the thorium gamma radiation in air at 1 m above sand surface on the Montenegrin beaches have been found to be from 0.41 to 9.08 nGy h -1 , while annual effective dose rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.011 mSv y -1 . 232 Th activity concentration in seawater ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 Bq L -1 , as in the mullet (Mugil cephalus) whole individuals from 0.63 to 1.67 Bq kg -1 . Annual intake of 232 Th by human consumers of this fish species has been estimated to provide an effective dose of about 0.003 mSv y -1 . (author)

  13. Survey of total mercury and methylmercury levels in edible fish from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R; Storelli, A; D'Addabbo, R; Palermo, C; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2003-12-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of different fish species from the Adriatic Sea to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. Large species-dependent variability was observed. The highest total mercury mean concentrations were in benthic (0.20-0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt) and demersal fish (0.22-0.73 microg g(-1) wet wt), while pelagic species showed the lowest levels (0.09-0.23 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 15% of frost fish, in 42% of skate and in 30% of angler fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt); for the species for which the maximum level was set to 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt, concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit were observed in 6.4% of bokkem, in 6.6% of pandora, in 20% of megrin, in 12.5% of four-spotted megrim, in 16% of striped mullet, in 5.0% of forkbeard and in 5.3% of picarel samples. In all the different species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with mean percentages between 70 and 100%. Weekly intake was estimated and compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A high exposure was associated with the consumption of only skates, frost fish and angler fish, thought the consumption of the other species, such as, megrim, four spotted megrim, red fish striped mullet and forkbeard, resulted in a weekly intake slightly below the established provisional tolerable weekly intake.

  14. Cadmium, lead and organic matter distribution in coastal sediment from the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujevic, I.; Bogner, D.; Baric, A.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Cd, and Pb has been studied in surface sediments of the eastern Adriatic coastal region. In addition, Pb concentration has been determined in long sediment cores dating back to pre-industrial time. The results indicate that trace metal concentrations in surface sediment layer depend both on pollution sources, and on local characteristics of the marine and terrestrial environment. Generally, most of the concentrations are not high revealing that the coastal area is not heavily polluted. Granulometric and geochemical data indicate the existence of some differences between sediments formed in the vicinity of fresh water input and sediments from areas without fresh water input. (author)

  15. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of ocean currents in the recruitment of commercially and ecologically important fish is an important step towards developing sustainable resource management guidelines. To this end, we attempt to elucidate the role of surface ocean transport in supplying recruits of sardine...... (Sardinus pilchardus) to the Gulf of Manfredonia, a known recruitment area in the Adriatic Sea. Sardine early life history stages (ELHS) were collected during two cruises to provide observational estimates of age-size relationship and of their passive pelagic larval duration (PPLD). We combine these PPLDs...... in the Gulf is characterized by repeated pulses from remote SAs. This is the first attempt to describe the processes related to Lagrangian connection to, and retention in, the Gulf of Manfredonia that will be complemented in the future using validated numerical ocean models and biophysical models....

  16. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; pmercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated from Mollusks in the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Carraro, Roberta; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Meneguolo, Davide Boscolo; Martino, Maria Elena; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Barco, Lisa; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Fasolato, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging foodborne pathogen in the Mediterranean, usually associated with shellfish consumption. The increase in the number of outbreaks in Europe is primarily associated with the global warming of the ocean that has a great impact on the spread and genetic selection of waterborne pathogens. The primary role of Italy in Europe's mollusk production, together with the fact that cases of infections with V. parahaemolyticus are not always notified to the European community, highlighted the necessity of acquiring new information about the epidemiological involvement of shellfish products. The aim of the study was to provide useful insights into the first steps of the Risk Assessment associated with V. parahaemolyticus through the molecular characterization of isolates from commercialized mollusks. A total of 102 strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were investigated as part of a larger sampling (1-year survey) from several shellfish species collected from the Venice lagoon and the North Adriatic sea. All strains were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and tested for the presence of virulence genes (trh and tdh). The study of sampling/environmental factors and epidemiological analyses was performed to describe the behaviors of the different genetic populations. The population structure analysis highlighted three genetic clusters that could be subject to temperature selection during cold (≤15°C) and warm (>16°C) seasons. Moreover, other factors, such as molluscan species (clams/mussels), probably played a role in the distribution of genetic clusters. Although few strains carried the virulence factors (n = 6 trh + ), epidemiological links with clinical isolates and a local dissemination of some sequence types were underlined. This work provides a useful background on the genotype spread as a first step in the Hazard Identification in light of future climate changes.

  18. Age, growth and utility of otolith morphometrics as a predictor of age in the wrasse Coris julis (Labridae from the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Škeljo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of Coris julis were determined by examining sagittal otoliths belonging to fish sampled between November 2008 and October 2009 in the eastern Adriatic Sea (north-central Mediterranean Sea. A total of 1102 specimens (528 males, 487 females and 87 individuals of indeterminate sex, ranging from 48 to 222 mm total length were analysed. Ninety-two per cent of the otoliths were readable and 68% of the specimens had two readings in agreement. Counting of daily rings revealed that the second opaque ring represents the first annulus (315.1±27.8 daily rings. The maximum observed age was 7 years for males and 5 years for females, with males dominating in higher age classes ( > 3 years and females in age classes 1+ and 2+. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth curves and significant differences were found between males (L∞=29.10 cm, k=0.12 and t0=–1.48 and females (L∞=21.27 cm, k=0.21 and t0=–1.08. Otolith mass, length, width and thickness were determined for the otoliths belonging to 465 fish and the utility of these morphometrics as a predictor of age was evaluated. The most precise age estimations were obtained from the otolith length data, followed by the otolith mass.

  19. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1000 to 1500 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  20. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1900 to 1980 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1900 to 1980 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  1. Hg, Pb and Cd in zooplankton from an area of the Adriatic opposite the Romagna coast line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisetig, G; Cattani, O; Massa, D; Poletti, R

    1982-09-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals Hg, Pb and Cd found in zooplankton samples collected in two stations off Cesenatico (Northern Adriatic Sea) from March 1978 to January 1979, have been reported. The Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations showed large variations which did not seem to be correlated with taxonomic composition. The detected levels of metals were higher at the offshore than the nearshore station, accordingly with the sediment pattern. The high concentration of Hg were apparently associated with sources of local industrial pollution.

  2. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  3. Record of an established population of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the Mediterranean Sea: confirming a prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. CUESTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The capture of larvae of Palaemon macrodactylus off Mallorca (Balearic Islands has been recently reported as evidence of a potential presence of a population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos of this species, taken during dives in the Sacca di Goro (northern Adriatic were published in the same year, but no specimen could be collected at that time. Herein we report the capture in 2013 of numerous individuals of the oriental shrimp, including ovigerous females, both in the Sacca di Goro and in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, confirming the existence of a well-established population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. On the Isotopic Altitude Effect of Precipitation in the Northern Adriatic (Croatia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roller-Lutz, Z.; Mance, D.; Hunjak, T., E-mail: Roller@medri.hr [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Rijeka (Croatia); Lutz, H. O. [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Rijeka (Croatia); Physics Faculty, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The upper (northern) Adriatic is very rich in precipitation. This input into the water system and its stable isotope composition is a basic factor, knowledge of which is required for proper use and management of water resources. The geomorphology of the region (e.g., mountains of 1400 m next to the sea) can cause specific local conditions. The isotopic composition of precipitation has been measured in various locations at different altitudes. For {delta}{sup 18}O this 'altitude effect' is found to lie around -0.2 per mille /100 m; its exact value depends on the specific location and the season. The {delta}{sup 2}H values and the d-excess vary correspondingly. (author)

  5. Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zanuttigh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the oceans will be subjected to a massive development of marine infrastructures, including offshore wind, tidal and wave energy farms and constructions for marine aquaculture. The development of these facilities will unavoidably exert environmental pressures on marine ecosystems. It is therefore crucial that the economic costs, the use of marine space and the environmental impacts of these activities remain within acceptable limits. Moreover, the installation of arrays of wave energy devices is still far from being economically feasible due to many combined aspects, such as immature technologies for energy conversion, local energy storage and moorings. Therefore, multi-purpose solutions combining renewable energy from the sea (wind, wave, tide, aquaculture and transportation facilities can be considered as a challenging, yet advantageous, way to boost blue growth. This would be due to the sharing of the costs of installation and using the produced energy locally to feed the different functionalities and optimizing marine spatial planning. This paper focuses on the synergies that may be produced by a multi-purpose offshore installation in a relatively calm sea, i.e., the Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, and specifically offshore Venice. It analyzes the combination of aquaculture, energy production from wind and waves, and energy storage or transfer. Alternative solutions are evaluated based on specific criteria, including the maturity of the technology, the environmental impact, the induced risks and the costs. Based on expert judgment, the alternatives are ranked and a preliminary layout of the selected multi-purpose installation for the case study is proposed, to further allow the exploitation of the synergies among different functionalities.

  6. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  7. Mitochondrial DNA reveals genetic structuring of Pinna nobilis across the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna

    Full Text Available Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic Mediterranean marine bivalve. During past centuries, various human activities have promoted the regression of its populations. As a consequence of stringent standards of protection, demographic expansions are currently reported in many sites. The aim of this study was to provide the first large broad-scale insight into the genetic variability of P. nobilis in the area that encompasses the western Mediterranean, Ionian Sea, and Adriatic Sea marine ecoregions. To accomplish this objective twenty-five populations from this area were surveyed using two mitochondrial DNA markers (COI and 16S. Our dataset was then merged with those obtained in other studies for the Aegean and Tunisian populations (eastern Mediterranean, and statistical analyses (Bayesian model-based clustering, median-joining network, AMOVA, mismatch distribution, Tajima's and Fu's neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots were performed. The results revealed genetic divergence among three distinguishable areas: (1 western Mediterranean and Ionian Sea; (2 Adriatic Sea; and (3 Aegean Sea and Tunisian coastal areas. From a conservational point of view, populations from the three genetically divergent groups found may be considered as different management units.

  8. Marine conservation and accession: the future for the Croatian Adriatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

  9. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Abu Alhaija, Rana; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  10. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  11. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  12. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  13. Evaluation and identification of histamine-forming bacteria on fish products of middle Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Mancusi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation EU 2073/2005 sets maximum concentration for histamine in fish and products thereof. To meet these criteria, manufacturers have to define performance objectives, such as the maximum allowed prevalence and number/activity of histamine-producing bacteria at relevant stage of production. In order to assess the presence and decarboxylase activity of contaminant bacteria we examined 51 samples of blue fish caught and processed in Emilia Romagna region. We collected 50 gr of fish (skin and gills or the entire product from 10 sample units from every lot. Analytical samples were cultured in Trypticase Soy Broth supplemented with histidine and pyridoxal HCl. Histamine was measured with an electrochemical biosensor after incubation at both 37°C for 24 h and 18-22°C for 48 h. Enrichments that showed relevant enzymatic activity were seeded on Niven agar to isolate suspected colonies and DNA extracts from these bacteria were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detecting specific sequences of the gene encoding pyridoxaldependent histidine decarboxylase (HDC. Overall, 29.4% samples showed relevant production of histamine in broth cultures (above a cut-off value set at 250 ng/mL and 53.3% of them (8 out of 15 samples allowed detection of HDC positive strains. All of them were typed as Morganella, which appears to be the most common of fish caught in middle Adriatic sea. Ten out of the twelve positive samples with enrichment cultures incubated at both 37 and 18-22°C (83% showed higher decarboxylase activity at room temperature, suggesting the presence of psychrotolerant strains. In addition, the prevalence of histamine-producing bacteria was higher at retail than at production level, probably as a consequence of manipulations and cross-contamination. The risk correlated to development of histamine-producing psychrotolerans bacteria cannot be controlled only with storage temperature: it is necessary for the food business operators to

  14. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN FISH FARMS ALONG THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of net phytoplankton composition were performed at three fish farms situated at the northern, middle and southern part of the eastern Adriatic Sea coast, respectively. In the northern part investigations were conducted in the Limski kanal, in the middle part at the Ugljan island and in the southern part in the place Drače on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure 1. At all three localities fish culture included mostly two species: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Beside some physico–chemical parameters (sea water temperature, salinity special attention was placed on the examination of qualitative net phytoplankton composition, which was conducted in the period of May and November 2004 and May and October 2005. Samples were collected at the depths of 0. 5 and 4 meters. According to the physico–chemical parameters, sea water temperature was influenced by the temperature of the environment. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition consisted of 153 microphytic species belonging to the systematic compartments of Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta (Table 1. The most numerous algal group were diatoms or Bacillarophyceae (84 species or 55% with relative frequencies of species from 1 to 7. Taxonomic composition of diatoms showed the community Chaetoceros–Rhizosolenia (Proboscia as the dominant one. The second numerically most dominant compartment were Dinophyta (62 species or 401% with dominant the species of the genera Ceratium and Protoperidinium. Relative frequencies of species was ranging from 1 to 7 (mass presence of specimens in the water column. From Cyanobacteria (4 species or 3%, only filamentous algae were determined, with individual presence in net phytoplankton composition. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition suggests the similarity of species composition in the water column at all investigated fish farms. From the obtained characteristics of net phytoplankton composition

  15. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Postacchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  16. Ecological characterization of toxic phytoplankton species (Dinophysis spp., Dinophyceae) in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and the implications for monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, Janja . E-mail france@mbss.org; Mozetic, Patricija

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events are often registered in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and are related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. The annual dynamic of this genus and succession of the most important species were studied at two shellfish farms during monitoring fieldwork in the period 1995-2003. Results indicate that the Dinophysis genus maintains a relatively stable inter-annual dynamic at both sites. The Dinophysis community is characterized by two surface maxima in June and September, while in the middle layer only the autumn peak is pronounced (peak median 92 cells l -1 ). Occasional abundance maxima of around 2000 cells l -1 in the surface layer indicate that potential outbursts of toxic species are less predictable than their seasonal dynamic. On the basis of multivariate analysis, Dinophysis sacculus was characterized as a typical late spring-early summer species, and Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis fortii as autumn species. Correlation analysis revealed the influence of stratified conditions only on the most abundant species, D. sacculus. Ecological characteristics of the species were combined with shellfish safety requirements towards a more effective monitoring

  17. Messinian post-evaporitic paleogeography of the Po Plain-Adriatic region by 3D numerical modeling: implications for the Central Mediterranean desiccation during the MSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Chiara; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Di Giulio, Andrea; Fantoni, Roberto; Ghielmi, Manlio; Sternai, Pietro; Toscani, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) has been the topic of a number of studies, in particular in onshore areas, as they offer a unique opportunity to analyze the controlling factors and the geological consequences of the estimated 1.5 km sea-level drop. During the MSC, the geometry of western and eastern sides of the Mediterranean basin was similar to the present day basin while, important changes took place in the central portion as a consequence of the (still ongoing) tectonic activity of the Apennine domain. Recent high-resolution 2D seismo-stratigraphic and 1D backstripping analysis by Eni E&P group described a step-wise sea-level lowering during evaporitic and post-evaporitic MSC phases in the Po Plain-Northern Adriatic foreland (PPAF), with a sea-level drop not exceeding 900 m. Thanks to a dense grid of 2D seismic profiles, integrated with ca. 200 well logs (confidential data, courtesy of ENI E&P), a 3D reconstruction of the entire northern PPAF basin geometry and the facies distribution during the Latest Messinian time has been carried out. In this study, we performed a 3D backstripping and lithospheric scale uplift calculations of the northern PPAF basin testing the 800-900m of sea-level draw down. The resulted restored Latest Messinian paleotopography (corresponding to the bottom Pliocene in the most of the study area) and related shoreline position, strongly fit with the recentmost continental/marine facies distribution maps. The latest Messinian morphology shows deep marine basins persisting during the entire MSC period, filled by clastic turbiditic sediments and a wide emerged area along the Southern Alps margin and Friulian-Venetian basin. A 3D reconstruction of the Latest Messinian surface shows peculiar river incisions along the Southern Alps margin; these V-shape canyons perfectly fit with the present day fluvial network, dating back the drainage origin at least at the Messinian acme. Moreover, if in a well-constrained marginal

  18. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  19. Sediment Resuspension and Transport During Bora in the Western Adriatic Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, B. L.; Geyer, W. R.; Sherwood, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    The Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC) is an important agent for along-shelf transport of sediment and fresh water in the western Adriatic Sea. The WACC is driven by a combination of buoyancy forcing from the Po River (northern Adriatic) and wind forcing from northeasterly Bora winds. The large seasonal pulse of freshwater (during the winter) from the Po River influences WACC strength; however, preliminary results from current measurements and model runs indicate that the WACC responds quickly and strongly to Bora wind events, with a strengthening of the current moving southward. Along-margin sediment transport to the south is significantly increased as a result of Bora wind events, presumably because of enhanced wave resuspension and WACC velocity. Elevated sediment fluxes have been observed in both the upper water column (i.e., core of the WACC) and bottom boundary layer (BBL) during these events, which suggests that wind-driven currents may be coupled with the near-bottom transport. This study addresses the interaction of the WACC with the BBL and the impact of this interaction on sediment transport in the western Adriatic. Two benthic tripods were deployed from November 2002 to June 2003 on an across-shelf transect near the Chienti River (at 10 and 20-m water depth), in the region where WACC begins to intensify (200 km south of Po River). Continuous measurements of suspended sediment concentration and current velocity were recorded in the upper-water column and BBL to document sediment transport events. A time series of sediment fluxes and shear velocities (from currents only, u*c; from waves and currents, u*wc) were calculated from these data. Results show that suspended sediment concentrations near the seabed (few cmab) during Bora wind events are strongly correlated with u*wc, which supports a previous hypothesis that wave resuspension (rather than direct fluvial input) is responsible for much of the suspended sediment available for transport southward

  20. Strong copper(II) species in estuarine and sea waters investigated by a method with high detection window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Scarponi, Giuseppe; Pesavento, Maria

    2007-02-15

    The distribution of copper(II) in species of different stability in some estuarine and sea water samples (Adriatic Sea) was investigated by a method based on the sorption of the metal ion on a strongly sorbing resin, Chelex 100, whose sorbing properties have been previously characterized. From them, it is possible to predict very high values of detection windows at the considered conditions, for example side reaction coefficient as high as 10(10) at pH 7.5. Strong copper(II) species in equilibrium with Chelex 100 were detected, at concentration 2-20nM, with a reaction coefficient approximately 10(10.6) at pH 7.45 in sea water, strictly depending on the acidity. They represent 50-70% of the total metal ion and are the strongest copper(II) complexes found in sea water. Weak complexes too were detected in all the samples, with reaction coefficient lower than ca. 10(9) at the same pH. The method applied, named resin titration (RT), was described in a previous investigation, and is here modified in order to be carried out on oceanographic boat during a cruise in the Adriatic Sea.

  1. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Trawl catch composition during different fishing intensity periods in two Mediterranean demersal fishing grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sánchez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in two fishing grounds on the Mediterranean continental shelf: one in the Adriatic Sea and one in the Catalan Sea. Samplings on board otter trawlers were performed from November 2002 to December 2003 in the Catalan Sea and from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic fishing ground was affected by high fishing intensity from January to June, while the Catalan area was highly exploited from September to February. Fishing activity in the Adriatic area was closed for 45 days, and 62 days in the Catalan area; both periods were in summer. Totals of 92 and 88 species were collected in the Adriatic and Catalan fishing grounds respectively. The species composition of the retained and discarded fractions showed close agreement between the two areas. Mullus barbatus showed very low discard rates in both areas, as well as Loligo vulgaris in the Catalan Sea and Merluccius merluccius in the Adriatic Sea. In both fishing grounds Squilla mantis showed high catch rates with low discards, except in March in the Catalan area. In the Adriatic Sea Liocarcinus depurator was characterized by large discard fractions. In both fishing grounds the retained fraction was slightly higher in the high fishing intensity periods than in the low intensity ones (Adriatic Sea: 0.613 vs 0.524; Catalan Sea: 0.597 vs 0.539, even though the Kruskall Wallis test revealed significant differences (p

  3. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences

  4. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  6. Ripensare le “Piattaforme Logistiche”: il Caso del Gateway dell’Alto Adriatico Rethinking “Logistics Platforms”: the case of the North Adriatic Gateway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dean

    2011-11-01

    the wider network of European corridors.

    Until this moment, the logistics and strategic national plans have not been selective concerning the identification, along the TEN-T Corridors, of a few ports and freight villages which are able to become effective European gateways within the Italian territory and attract private investments. Moreover, these planning instruments, instead of basing their strategies on the most concrete corridors have preferred to conceive their policies on entirely “imaginary” ones. This is, for instance, the case of the Logistics Platform in the Nord-East area of Italy. This Platform has been organized around the uncertain Corridor V, rather than the more concrete (but not yet recognized in the European maps Adriatic-Baltic corridor. As a consequence, in this Region, several existing national infrastructures appear, at the moment, largely underused: 

    1. a freight village of considerable size and European standards such as the Interporto Alpe Adria in Cervignano del Friuli, and
    2. an international double railway such as the “Pontebbana” that links the North-East area of Italy with Austria, through the Alpine pass of Tarvisio, and which is already the southern segment of the Adriatic-Baltic corridor.

     

    On the other hand, these infrastructures might play a significant role in light of the positive estimates about the new trends of maritime trades, which would realize a renewed centrality to the Mediterranean Sea (Drewry Shipping Consultants, 2010, and important development programs regarding the Adriatic ports, involving both public (Venice, Rijeka and private (Monfalcone-Triest, Koper stakeholders. The aim of these projects is to increase the competitive capacity of the North Adriatic port system and establish a more effective connection between it and the central and eastern parts of Europe, through the Baltic-Adriatic Corridor, so as to constitute the so-called North Adriatic Gateway

  7. Transuranic elements in the marine environment: A study on the concentrations of Pu radioisotopes in Greek seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danali-Cotsaki, S.; Florou-Gazi, H.

    1982-09-01

    The experimental methodology used for the determination of background levels of Pu in the Aegean Sea is described. Preliminary results have shown that Pu concentration levels in the examined areas are of the order of 1x10 -15 Ci/1(fCi/1). These results are compared to those from the North Adriatic Sea. Levels of mixed fission product concentrations in samples collected from the above areas are also reported and discussed. (T.A.)

  8. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  9. Pliocene –Pleistocene geomorphological evolution of the Adriatic side of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentili Bernardino

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is a significant contribution to knowledge of the Quaternary and pre-Quaternary morphogenesis of a wide sector of central Italy, from the Apennine chain to the Adriatic Sea. The goal is achieved through a careful analysis and interpretation of stratigraphic and tectonic data relating to marine and continental sediments and, mostly, through the study of relict limbs of ancient landscapes (erosional surfaces shaped by prevailing planation processes. The most important scientific datum is the definition of the time span in which the modelling of the oldest morphological element (the “summit relict surface” occurred: it started during Messinian in the westernmost portion and after a significant phase during middle-late Pliocene, ended in the early Pleistocene. During the middle and late Pleistocene, the rapid tectonic uplift of the area and the climate fluctuations favoured the deepening of the hydrographic network and the genesis of three orders of fluvial terraces, thus completing the fundamental features of the landscape. The subsequent Holocene evolution reshaped the minor elements, but not the basic ones.

  10. Alterations of gene expression indicating effects on estrogen signaling and lipid homeostasis in seabream hepatocytes exposed to extracts of seawater sampled from a coastal area of the central Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Paolo; Capriotti, Martina; Mosconi, Gilberto; Campanelli, Alessandra; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Marini, Mauro; Caprioli, Giovanni; Sagratini, Gianni; Aretusi, Graziano; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidences suggest that the toxicological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) involve multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways, including estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling systems. Thus, our objective in this study was to detect the summated endocrine effects of EDCs with metabolic activity in coastal waters of the central Adriatic Sea by means of a toxicogenomic approach using seabream hepatocytes. Gene expression patterns were also correlated with seawater levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found that seawater extracts taken at certain areas induced gene expression profiles of ERα/vitellogenin, PPARα/Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1A, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and metallothionein. These increased levels of biomarkers responses correlated with spatial distribution of PAHs/PCBs concentrations observed by chemical analysis in the different study areas. Collectively, our data give a snapshot of the presence of complex EDC mixtures that are able to perturb metabolic signaling in coastal marine waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial and seasonal variability of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the frontal region of the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. VADRUCCI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and seasonal patterns of variation of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production and their relationships with nutrient concentrations were analyzed along an inshore - offshore gradient and in relation to the presence of a frontal system in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Sampling was carried out in winter and summer during four oceanographic cruises (June 1996 and 1997, February 1997 and 1998 as part of the PRISMA II project. Water samples for determining nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (as Chla and primary production (as 14 C assimilation were collected at five optical depths. Sampling stations were located along 2 or 4 parallel transects arranged perpendicularly to the shoreline and the frontal system. The transects were located at such a distance from the coast that the frontal system crossed them at their halfway point. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and total dissolved phosphorus concentrations (TDP were 12.41 ± 3 .95 mM and 0.146 ± 0 .070 mM, respectively. The values in the two seasonal periods were similar, decreasing along the inshore-offshore gradient. Values for phytoplankton biomass and primary productionwere higher in the winter than the summer cruises, and decreased, in both seasonal periods, along the inshore / offshore gradient. Moreover, in both seasonal periods, picophytoplankton dominated both biomass and productivity, (56% and 44%, respectively at stations beyond the frontal system, while microphytoplankton was more important at stations inside it (44% and 44%, respectively. Total phytoplankton biomass and primary production were directly related to nutrient concentrations. Regarding size classes, significant patterns of variation with nutrients were observed particularly for biomass. The results indicate that the size structure and function of phytoplankton guilds seem to be mediated by nutrient inflow, as well as by competitive interaction among size fractions.

  12. Development of climate risk services under climate change scenarios in the North Adriatic coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Silvia, Torresan; Anna, Sperotto; Elisa, Furlan; Andrea, Critto; Antonio, Marcomini

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the challenge for coastal stakeholders and decision makers is to incorporate climate change in land and policy planning in order to ensure a sustainable integrated coastal zone management aimed at preserve coastal environments and socio-economic activities. Consequently, an increasing amount of information on climate variability and its impact on human and natural ecosystem is requested. Climate risk services allows to bridge the gap between climate experts and decision makers communicating timely science-based information about impacts and risks related to climate change that could be incorporated into land planning, policy and practice. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), a participatory Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was applied for the evaluation of water-related hazards in coastal areas (i.e. pluvial flood and sea-level rise inundation risks) taking into consideration future climate change scenarios in the case study of the North Adriatic Sea for the period 2040-2050. Specifically, through the analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk and the application of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the RRA methodology allowed to identify and prioritize targets (i.e. residential and commercial-industrial areas, beaches, infrastructures, wetlands, agricultural typology) and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood and sea-level rise impacts in the same region. From the early stages of the climate risk services development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the needs, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders dealing with the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), by means of questionnaires, workshops and focus groups organized within the project. Specifically, stakeholders were asked to provide their needs in terms of time scenarios, geographical scale and resolution, choice of receptors, vulnerability factors and thresholds that were considered in the

  13. Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

    2012-11-01

    The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 μg g-1) to west (0.7 μg g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic δ13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous δ13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in

  14. Interactive effects of vegetation and sediment properties on erosion of salt marshes in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, V B; Bouma, T J; van Belzen, J; Van Colen, C; Airoldi, L

    2017-10-01

    We investigated how lateral erosion control, measured by novel photogrammetry techniques, is modified by the presence of Spartina spp. vegetation, sediment grain size, and the nutrient status of salt marshes across 230 km of the Italian Northern Adriatic coastline. Spartina spp. vegetation reduced erosion across our study sites. The effect was more pronounced in sandy soils, where erosion was reduced by 80% compared to 17% in silty soils. Erosion resistance was also enhanced by Spartina spp. root biomass. In the absence of vegetation, erosion resistance was enhanced by silt content, with mean erosion 72% lower in silty vs. sandy soils. We found no relevant relationships with nutrient status, likely due to overall high nutrient concentrations and low C:N ratios across all sites. Our results contribute to quantifying coastal protection ecosystem services provided by salt marshes in both sandy and silty sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Combined EOF/Variational Approach for Mapping Radar-Derived Sea Surface Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    gaps in the gridded SST images, which was successfully applied in Adriatic ( Alvera - Azcarate et al., 2005). Kondrashov and Chil (2006) developed...velocities. Similar to SST analysis (Beckers and Rixen, 2003: Alvera -Azcarate et al.. 2005), these modes are used to fill the gaps in HFR...and selection of the time interval for estimating the covariances becomes important. In the present study the sea surface velocity Alvera -Azcarate

  16. Temporal variability in SeaWiFS derived apparent optical properties in European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrepotte, V.; Mélin, F.

    2010-02-01

    The 10-year record of ocean color data provided by the SeaWiFS mission is an important asset for monitoring and research activities conducted on the optically complex European seas. This study makes use of the SeaWiFS data set of normalized water leaving radiances LWN to study the major characteristics of temporal variability associated with optical properties across the entire European domain. Specifically, the time series of LWN and associated band ratios are decomposed into terms representing a fixed seasonal cycle, irregular variations and trends, and the contribution of these components to the total variance is described for the various basins. The diversity of the European waters is fully reflected by the range of results varying with regions and wavelengths. Generally, the Mediterranean and Baltic seas appear as two end-members with, respectively, high and low contributions of the seasonal component to the total variance. The existence of linear trends affecting the satellite products is also explored for each basin. By focusing the analysis on LWN and band ratios, the validity of the results is not limited by the varying levels of uncertainty that characterize derived products such as the concentration of chlorophyll a in optically complex waters. Statistically significant, and in some cases large, trends are detected in the Atlantic Ocean west of the European western shelf, the central North Sea, the English Channel, the Black Sea, the northern Adriatic, and various regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern Baltic Sea, revealing changes in the concentrations of optically significant constituents in these regions.

  17. Changing patterns of migration in the Adriatic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzer, P

    1988-06-01

    International migration in the Adriatic countries of Albania, Greece, Italy, San Marino, and Yugoslavia is briefly examined using data from official and other published sources. The main types of migratory movements identified by the author within the region are "1) economically motivated migration (legal and clandestine); 2) immigration of refugees for resettlement; 3) immigration with the scope of final resettlement in a third country (transit movements); [and] 4) return migration by former emigrants." excerpt

  18. Domoic Acid - A New Toxin in the Croatian Adriatic Shellfish Toxin Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Marasović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis, Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus. Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g-1 in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1, therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.

  19. Near-surface wind variability over the broader Adriatic region: insights from an ensemble of regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    Over the past few decades the horizontal resolution of regional climate models (RCMs) has steadily increased, leading to a better representation of small-scale topographic features and more details in simulating dynamical aspects, especially in coastal regions and over complex terrain. Due to its complex terrain, the broader Adriatic region represents a major challenge to state-of-the-art RCMs in simulating local wind systems realistically. The objective of this study is to identify the added value in near-surface wind due to the refined grid spacing of RCMs. For this purpose, we use a multi-model ensemble composed of CORDEX regional climate simulations at 0.11° and 0.44° grid spacing, forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, a COSMO convection-parameterizing simulation at 0.11° and a COSMO convection-resolving simulation at 0.02° grid spacing. Surface station observations from this region and satellite QuikSCAT data over the Adriatic Sea have been compared against daily output obtained from the available simulations. Both day-to-day wind and its frequency distribution are examined. The results indicate that the 0.44° RCMs rarely outperform ERA-Interim reanalysis, while the performance of the high-resolution simulations surpasses that of ERA-Interim. We also disclose that refining the grid spacing to a few km is needed to properly capture the small-scale wind systems. Finally, we show that the simulations frequently yield the accurate angle of local wind regimes, such as for the Bora flow, but overestimate the associated wind magnitude. Finally, spectral analysis shows good agreement between measurements and simulations, indicating the correct temporal variability of the wind speed.

  20. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Giacominelli Stuffler, R.; Ceci, E.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  1. Gas exchange at the air-sea interface: a technique for radon measurements in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirazza, G.; Roveri, M.

    1991-01-01

    The rate of exchange of various gas species, such as O 2 , CO 2 etc. across the air-water interface can be evaluated from the 222 Rn vertical profiles in the water column. Radon profiles were measured in 4 stations in the NW Adriatic Sea, in September 1990, using solvent extraction and liquid scintillation counting techniques, directly on board the ship. The radiochemical procedure is described in detail. The lower limit of detection is approximately 0.4 mBq 1 -1 . The radon deficiency in the profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the air-sea interface ranging from 0.9 to 7.0 m d -1 . The suitability of the radon deficiency method in shallow water, enclosed seas is briefly discussed. (Author)

  2. Anisakis simplex complex: ecological significance of recombinant genotypes in an allopatric area of the Adriatic Sea inferred by genome-derived simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladineo, Ivona; Trumbić, Željka; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Hrabar, Jerko; Bušelić, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    The genus Anisakis includes nine species which, due to close morphological resemblance even in the adult stage, have previously caused many issues in their correct identification. Recently observed interspecific hybridisation in sympatric areas of two closely related species, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, has raised concerns whether a F1 hybrid generation is capable of overriding the breeding barrier, potentially giving rise to more resistant/pathogenic strains infecting humans. To assess the ecological significance of anisakid genotypes in the Adriatic Sea, an allopatric area for the two above-mentioned species, we analysed data from PCR-RFLP genotyping of the ITS region and the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) mtDNA locus to discern the parental genotype and maternal haplotype of the individuals. Furthermore, using in silico genome-wide screening of the A. simplex database for polymorphic simple sequence repeats or microsatellites in non-coding regions, we randomly selected potentially informative loci that were tested and optimised for multiplex PCR. The first panel of microsatellites developed for Anisakis was shown to be highly polymorphic, sensitive and amplified in both A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. It was used to inspect genetic differentiation of individuals showing mito-nuclear mosaicism which is characteristic for both species. The observed low level of intergroup heterozygosity suggests that existing mosaicism is likely a retention of an ancestral polymorphism rather than a recent recombination event. This is also supported by allopatry of pure A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii in the geographical area under study. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Benthic fluxes of mercury during redox changes in pristine coastal marine sediments from the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koron, Neza [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Faganeli, Jadran [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) is an example of a coastal environment contaminated with mercury (Hg). Contamination is a consequence of nearly 500 years of activity at the Idrija Mine (western Slovenia), which is the second largest Hg mine in the world. Oxygen depletion can be common in the Gulf of Trieste due to late summer stratification of the water column and accumulation of labile organic matter. Since changing redox conditions can have an impact on Hg transformations, we studied the effect of oxygen depletion, in parallel with sulphide, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, on total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes from sediments. Materials and methods: Pore water concentrations and benthic fluxes of total dissolved Hg and MeHg were studied in situ and in microcosm laboratory experiments using flux chambers encompassing three different stages: oxic, anoxic and reoxidation. Results and discussion: Our experiments showed that in the oxic stage there were small effluxes of MeHg to the water column, which increased in the anoxic stage and dropped rapidly in a subsequent reoxic stage, showing influx. Our results support the hypothesis that MeHg desorption from reduced metal hydroxides under anoxic conditions, and co-precipitation with Fe-oxides and MeHg demethylation in the reoxidation stage, may play a major role in determining MeHg benthic fluxes. For Hg and MeHg, it appears that there is little relationship between their pore water distribution and flux and that of FDOM, i.e. humics. Conclusions: The results indicate that there was no significant difference in Hg and MeHg pore water levels and their benthic fluxes between the contaminated northern and central parts of the Gulf of Trieste and the pristine southern part. This suggests that shallow and stratified coastal marine environments, in general, represent areas with a risk of high benthic release of

  4. Some trace elements in the waters, marine organisms and sediments of the Adriatic by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.; Ravnik, V.; Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Stirn, J.

    1978-01-01

    A number of investigations of trace elements in the waters, organisms and sediments of the Adriatic, using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations are reported. These include studies of Hg in mussels from the Northern Adriatic, of Hg and Se in edible animals from the Rijeka region, and of seven elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn) in marine invertebrates from the Slovene coast. Additionally, plankton, sediment cores and water samples were taken from a grid of stations covering the whole Adriatic and analyzed for 6 to 11 of the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn (Hg only in water). Generally, levels found were not indicative of pollution as compared with oceanic samples, but some evidence of locally increased levels was found, especially for Hg. The levels of eleven trace elements in three marine Intercomparison samples prepared by the IAEA Monaco Laboratory are also presented. (T.G.)

  5. {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratio in marine alga Fucus virsoides from the North Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterc, Andrej [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stibilj, Vekoslava [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: vekoslava.stibilj@ijs.si

    2008-04-15

    The only stable iodine isotope is {sup 127}I and the natural {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the biosphere has increased from 10{sup -15}-10{sup -14} to 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9}, mainly due to emissions from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In Europe they are located at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (England), where the ratio of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I is up to 10{sup -4}. The marine environment, i.e. the oceans, is the major source of iodine with average concentrations of around 60 {mu}g L{sup -1} iodine in seawater. Brown algae accumulate iodine at high levels of up to 1.0% of dry weight, and therefore they are an ideal bioindicator for studying the levels of {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I in the marine environment. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) method, developed at our laboratory, was used for {sup 129}I determination in the brown alga Fucus virsoides (Donati) J. Agardh, and the same technique of RNAA was used for total {sup 127}I determination. The samples were collected along the coast of the Gulf of Trieste and the West coast of Istria in the North Adriatic Sea in the period from 2005 to 2006. Values of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio up to 10{sup -9} were found, which is in agreement with the present average global distribution of {sup 129}I. The levels of stable iodine found were in the range from 235 to 506 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the levels of {sup 129}I from 1.7 to 7.3 x 10{sup -3} Bq kg{sup -1} (2.6-10.9 x 10{sup -7} {mu}g g{sup -1}), on a dry matter basis.

  6. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. (AGIP, Milan (Italy))

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  7. COMPETITION BETWEEN CONTAINER PORTS IN THE NORTHERN ADRIATIC

    OpenAIRE

    Elen Twrdy; Milan Batista

    2014-01-01

    World trade has changed in the last decade such that container traffic flows are oriented towards more parts of the European continent. The European container port system is not a homogeneous set of ports; instead it consists of several big ports (e.g., Rotterdam, Hamburg, Algeciras...) and a large number of medium and small ports. Northern Adriatic (NA) ports, namely Rijeka, Koper, Trieste, Venice and Ravenna, are small ports. Each of these ports have different development plans but in varyi...

  8. Combining litter observations with a regional ocean model to identify sources and sinks of floating debris in a semi-enclosed basin: The Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Visual ship transect surveys provide crucial information about the density, and spatial distribution of floating anthropogenic litter in a basin. However, such observations provide a 'snapshot' of local conditions at a given time and cannot be used to deduce the provenance of the litter or to pre...... results indicate that anthropogenic macro debris originates largely from coastal sources near population centers and is advected by the cyclonic surface circulation until it strands on the southwest (Italian) coast, exits the Adriatic, or recirculates in the southern gyre....

  9. Concentrations of some elements in the coastal sea sediments. Bays with marinas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Kutle, A.; Valkovic, V.

    2006-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores from two bays in the Adriatic sea (Punat Bay and Soline Bay, Croatia) have been analyzed for a number of elements, in particular: Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, by using XRF. Maps of elemental distribution in surface sediments show increased concentrations for some elements present in antifouling paints (Cu, Zn, Pb) near the service areas in the villages or marinas. Core profiles for these elements were used to evaluate the environmental impact of newly constructed marinas. Source partition indicates the influence of other sources located in near by villages. The critical factor in these considerations was shown to be water exchange with the open sea. (author)

  10. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  11. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  12. Global change and relative sea level rise at Venice: what impact in term of flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognin, Laura; Tosi, Luigi [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); Teatini, Pietro [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University of Padova, Department of Mathematical Methods and Models for Scientific Applications, Padua (Italy); Tomasin, Alberto [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University Ca' Foscari in Venice, Venice (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Relative sea level rise (RSLR) due to climate change and geodynamics represents the main threat for the survival of Venice, emerging today only 90 cm above the Northern Adriatic mean sea level (msl). The 25 cm RSLR occurred over the 20th century, consisting of about 12 cm of land subsidence and 13 cm of sea level rise, has increased the flood frequency by more than seven times with severe damages to the urban heritage. Reasonable forecasts of the RSLR expected to the century end must be investigated to assess the suitability of the Mo.S.E. project planned for the city safeguarding, i.e., the closure of the lagoon inlets by mobile barriers. Here we consider three RSLR scenarios as resulting from the past sea level rise recorded in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the IPCC mid-range A1B scenario, and the expected land subsidence. Available sea level measurements show that more than 5 decades are required to compute a meaningful eustatic trend, due to pseudo-cyclic 7-8 year long fluctuations. The period from 1890 to 2007 is characterized by an average rate of 0.12 {+-} 0.01 cm/year. We demonstrate that linear regression is the most suitable model to represent the eustatic process over these 117 year. Concerning subsidence, at present Venice is sinking due to natural causes at 0.05 cm/year. The RSLR is expected to range between 17 and 53 cm by 2100, and its repercussions in terms of flooding frequency are associated here to each scenario. In particular, the frequency of tides higher than 110 cm, i.e., the value above which the gates would close the lagoon to the sea, will increase from the nowadays 4 times per year to a range between 20 and 250. These projections provide a large spread of possible conditions concerning the survival of Venice, from a moderate nuisance to an intolerable aggression. Hence, complementary solutions to Mo.S.E. may well be investigated. (orig.)

  13. Seemingly divergent sea surface temperature proxy records in the central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-A. Sicre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs were reconstructed over the last 25 000 yr using alkenone paleothermometry and planktonic foraminifera assemblages from two cores of the central Mediterranean Sea: the MD04-2797 core (Siculo–Tunisian channel and the MD90-917 core (South Adriatic Sea. Comparison of the centennial scale structure of the two temperature signals during the last deglaciation period reveals significant differences in timing and amplitude. We suggest that seasonal changes likely account for seemingly proxy record divergences during abrupt transitions from glacial to interglacial climates and for the apparent short duration of the Younger Dryas (YD depicted by the alkenone time series, a feature that has already been stressed in earlier studies on the Mediterranean deglaciation.

  14. Imposex levels and butyltin compounds (BTs) in Hexaplex trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy): Ecological risk assessment before and after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Boscolo Brusà, Rossella; Noventa, Seta; Antonini, Camilla; Moschino, Vanessa; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Gion, Claudia; Berto, Daniela; Gabellini, Massimo; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare imposex and butyltin compounds (BTs) data, collected before and after the organotin ban in 2008, in order to assess temporal and spatial variation of the phenomenon, the decline of BT contamination, and the effects on Hexaplex trunculus population in the coastal area of the northern Adriatic Sea, close to the Venice Lagoon. Both in marine and in lagoon sites, the results obtained in 2013-2015 showed a significant decline in the incidence of imposex in respect to those from the 2002 survey. In 2002, lagoon samples exhibited Relative Penis Size Index (RPSI) higher than marine samples, whereas no differences were detected in the recent survey, when all RPSI values were below 0.6%. Vas Deference Sequence Index (VDSI) mean values were over 4 before the ban introduction and below this value after that, indicating more critical conditions for gastropod population in 2002 rather than in 2013-15. Percentage of sterile females was up to 69% in 2002, whilst in the more recent survey no sterile female was found. Range of BT concentrations in gastropods decreased from 252 to 579 to 16-31ng∑BT/g d.w. BT body burdens varied according to a gender dependant pattern, with higher concentrations observed in females than in males. A first attempt to propose a classification based on BT impact on H. trunculus, according to the Water Framework Directive, revealed that most sites were in Bad ecological status before the ban and attained a Poor/Moderate status after that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  16. Preliminary study on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern related to the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratore, Patrizia; Zavatta, Emanuele; Fiocchi, Eleonora; Serafini, Emanuele; Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Bignami, Giorgia

    2017-10-20

    V. vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 V. vulnificus strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a Carretta carretta turtle (n=1), were utilized. All strains were positive for the species-specific genes vvh A and hsp , with high variability for other markers: 55% (22 out of 40) resulted of the environmental (E) genotype ( vcg E, 16S rRNA type A, CPS2 or CPS0), 10% (4 out of 40) of the clinical (C) genotype ( vcg C, 16S rRNA type B, CPS1), and 35% (14 out of 40) of the mixed (M) genotype, possessing both E and C markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed by the diffusion method on agar, according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), utilizing the following commercial disks (Oxoid): ampicillin (AMP), ampicillin- sulbactam (SAM), piperacillin (PRL), cefazolin (KZ), cefotaxime(CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), amikacin (AK), gentamicin(CN), tetracycline(TE), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). 75% of the strains, (n=30) including all C strains, was sensitive to all the tested antibiotics, whereas E strains showed intermediate sensitivity to AK (2 strains), CIP and CAZ (1 strain), TE (1 strain) and resistance to KZ (1 strain), and 4 M strains showed I to AK.

  17. Comparison of growth rates estimated by otolith reading of Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena notata caught on artificial and natural reefs of the northern Adriatic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scarcella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high number of studies on fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs and offshore platforms, little information exists on the growth rates of fish living on artificial and natural substrates. Age and growth was determined throughout otolith reading on two commercial scorpionfishes (Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena notata caught in the surroundings of artificial structures (artificial reefs and gas platforms and natural habitats. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated for each species separately for each site. Age of S. porcus and S. notata ranged from 0 to 8 years and from 0 to 16 years, respectively. Kimura test applied to Von Bertalanffy growth curves indicated that the individuals of both species inhabiting the artificial structures had higher growth parameters than those caught in the natural habitat. The presence of artificial habitats in the northern Adriatic Sea positively affects growth rates and growth performance of both species, likely for the greater prey availability in respect to the natural open sea.Apesar do elevado número de estudos sobre as assembléias de peixes associadas a recifes artificiais e plataformas offshore, existe pouca informação sobre as taxas de crescimento dos peixes que vivem em substratos artificiais e naturais. A idade e crescimento foram determinados pela leitura de otólitos em dois peixes escorpião comerciais (Scorpaena porcus e Scorpaena notata capturados nas imediações de estruturas artificiais (recifes artificiais e plataformas de gás e habitats naturais. Parâmetros de crescimento de von Bertalanffy foram calculadoss separadamente para cada espécie e cada local. A idade de Scorpaena porcus e Scorpaena notata variou entre 0 e 8 anos e 0 e 16 anos, respectivamente. O teste Kimura aplicado às curvas de crescimento de Bertalanffy indicaram que os indivíduos das duas espécies que habitam as estruturas artificiais tinham parâmetros de crescimento mais elevados do que

  18. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline sediment (saline healing mud or "fango") from the Sečovlje Salina (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) is traditionally used in the coastal health resorts as a virgin material for medical treatment, wellness and relax purposes. Therapeutic qualities of the healing mud depend on its mineralogical composition and physical, mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties. Their microbial and potentially toxic elements contamination are the most important features affecting user safety. However, the degree of metal toxicity (and its regulation) for natural healing mud is still under discussion. Therefore, the influence of the overlying water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals (and some other geochemical characteristic) was studied for saline sediments of the Sečovlje Salina. Experiments takes place in tanks under defined conditions i.e. at day (21 °C): night (16 °C) cycle for three months. Sediment was covered with water of different salinities (36, 155, 323 g NaCl L-1 and distillate water) and mixed/stirred every week during the experimental period. At the same time, the evaporated water was replaced with distilled water. The mud samples were analyzed, at the beginning and at the end of experiment, for mineral (XRD), elemental composition (ICP-MS) and organic content (% TOC, % TN). Geochemical analysis of the aqueous phase (content of cations and anions) have also been carried out in an accredited Canadian laboratory Actlabs (Activation Laboratories, Canada). Salinity and maturation of sediment does not significantly affect its mineral composition. The samples taken at the end of the experiment have higher percent of water but lower organic carbon concentration. Concentrations of investigated elements are comparable to that in surface sediments from Central Adriatic Sea. In the water phase, concentrations of most elements (As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb) rise from the beginning to the end of the experiment, whereas the metal (potentially toxic elements

  19. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Claudia, Virno Lamberti [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Barbara, Pisanelli [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Ginevra, Moltedo [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Francesco, Regoli, E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.i [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  20. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti; Claudia, Virno Lamberti; Barbara, Pisanelli; Ginevra, Moltedo; Francesco, Regoli

    2009-01-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  1. Combined effects of the herbicide terbuthylazine and temperature on different flagellates from the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Emanuela; Mazzotti, Matilde; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-03-15

    The triazinic herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) is becoming an emergent contaminant in Italian rivers and in coastal and groundwater. A preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of marine flagellates to TBA was performed by monitoring the photosynthetic efficiency of nine species (belonging to the Dinophyceae or Raphidophyceae class) isolated from the Adriatic Sea. Different sensitivity levels for each flagellate were observed and the most sensitive microalgae, based on PSII inhibition, were: Gonyaulax spinifera>Fibrocapsa japonica>Lingulodinium polyedrum while the most resistant were two species belonging to the Prorocentrum genus. Then the response of two microalgae to drivers, such as temperature and terbuthylazine, applied in combination was also investigated. Two potentially toxic flagellates, Prorocentrum minimum and G. spinifera, were exposed, under different temperature conditions (15, 20 and 25°C), to TBA concentrations that did not completely affect PSII. For both flagellates, effects of TBA on algal growth, measured through cell density and carbon analysis, as well as on the photosynthetic activity are reported. All parameters analyzed showed a negative effect of TBA from the exponential phase. TBA effect on algal growth was significantly enhanced at the optimal temperature conditions (20 and 25°C), while no difference between control and herbicide treatments were detected for G. spinifera grown at 15°C, which represented a stress condition for this species. The maximum inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency was found at 20°C for both organisms. Both flagellates increased cell carbon and nitrogen content in herbicide treatments compared to the control, except G. spinifera grown at 15°C. Chlorophyll-a production was increased only in G. spinifera exposed to 5 μg L(-1) of TBA and the effect was enhanced with the increase of temperature. Herbicide-induced variations in cellular components determined changes in cellular carbon:nitrogen (C:N) and

  2. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  3. Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, Andreas; Cornetti, Luca; Gandolfi, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    The definition of conservation units is crucial for the sustainable management of endangered species, though particularly challenging when recent and past anthropogenic and natural gene flow might have played a role. The conservation of the European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of anthropogenic disturbance, intensive stocking and potentially widespread genetic introgression. We provide mtDNA sequence and microsatellite data of 683 grayling from 30 sites of Adriatic as well as Danubian and Atlantic origin. We apply Bayesian clustering and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to detect microgeographic population structure and to infer the demographic history of the Adriatic populations, to define appropriate conservation units. Varying frequencies of indigenous genetic signatures of the Adriatic grayling were revealed, spanning from marginal genetic introgression to the collapse of native gene pools. Genetic introgression involved multiple exotic source populations of Danubian and Atlantic origin, thus evidencing the negative impact of few decades of stocking. Within the Adige River system, a contact zone of western Adriatic and eastern Danubian populations was detected, with ABC analyses suggesting a historical anthropogenic origin of eastern Adige populations, most likely founded by medieval translocations. Substantial river-specific population substructure within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit points to the definition of different conservation units. We finally propose a catalog of management measures, including the legal prohibition of stocking exotic grayling and the use of molecular markers in supportive- and captive-breeding programs.

  4. Systematic Radioactivity Monitoring of Adriatic Coastal Waters Using Mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) as a Bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW) is a project for radioactivity monitoring of Mediterranean coastal waters using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bioindicator. Mussels are sessile marine organisms able to filter up to 80 L of sea water daily. Possibility of absorption and accumulation of dissolved/particulate matter from sea water makes them a good bioindicator for environmental pollution studies. Laboratory for Radioecelogy systematically monitores Adriatic coastal waters as a part of MMW project, which includes determination of 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra,238U and 137Cs, as well as highly radiotoxic naturally occuring radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb. The mussels were collected in spring and autumn periods of 2010 and 2011 at 13 stations including areas under significant fresh water discharges (Rasa, Zrnovnica, Neretva and Ombla Rivers) or areas under potential antropogenic influence (Kastela Bay). After sample preparation 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs were determined gamma-spectrometrically, while 210Po and 210Pb were separated on Sr resin. 210Po was determined on an alpha spectrometer after self-deposition on Ag disc, while 210Pb was determined via 210Bi on a gas proportional counter after PbSO 4 precipitation. 7Be, 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations were higher in spring than in autumn periods for all locations, with the highest activities in the areas under heavy fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of 40K were practically the same at all locations with no seasonal changes, while 137Cs activities varied significantly. Activities of 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were mostly below the detection limit of gamma-spectrometric measurements.(author)

  5. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and arsenic on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic Sea using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Mikelic, Luka; Barisic, Delko; Matasin, Zeljka; Lulic, Stipe; Pezelj, Durdica

    2006-01-01

    Results of two years monitoring of heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in soft tissue of Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are presented. Samples were taken at six localities (five exposed to various pollution sources and one control site) on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic in October 2003 and 2004 and in April 2004 and 2005. All measurements were carried out with source excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Method (EDXRF). Measured concentrations were in the following ranges: Pb (2-7 mg/kg); As (4-30 mg/kg); Cr (1-2.9 mg/kg); Mn (2-13 mg/kg); Fe (53.4-719 mg/kg); Ni (0.8-5 mg/kg); Cu (3.7-11.1 mg/kg) and Zn (59.1-273 mg/kg). Maximum values of the most elements were measured in samples from the most polluted Vranjic region. Statistically significant difference among six localities (p = 0.05) was found for As, Fe and Zn while Mn, Fe and Cu showed significantly higher concentrations in spring period. None of the selected elements showed significant difference between the control and exposed regions

  6. Modelling biogeochemical processes in sediments from the north-western Adriatic Sea: response to enhanced particulate organic carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigolin, Daniele; Rabouille, Christophe; Bombled, Bruno; Colla, Silvia; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Pastres, Roberto; Pranovi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    This work presents the result of a study carried out in the north-western Adriatic Sea, by combining two different types of biogeochemical models with field sampling efforts. A longline mussel farm was taken as a local source of perturbation to the natural particulate organic carbon (POC) downward flux. This flux was first quantified by means of a pelagic model of POC deposition coupled to sediment trap data, and its effects on sediment bioirrigation capacity and organic matter (OM) degradation pathways were investigated constraining an early diagenesis model by using original data collected in sediment porewater. The measurements were performed at stations located inside and outside the area affected by mussel farm deposition. Model-predicted POC fluxes showed marked spatial and temporal variability, which was mostly associated with the dynamics of the farming cycle. Sediment trap data at the two sampled stations (inside and outside of the mussel farm) showed average POC background flux of 20.0-24.2 mmol C m-2 d-1. The difference of organic carbon (OC) fluxes between the two stations was in agreement with model results, ranging between 3.3 and 14.2 mmol C m-2 d-1, and was primarily associated with mussel physiological conditions. Although restricted, these changes in POC fluxes induced visible effects on sediment biogeochemistry. Observed oxygen microprofiles presented a 50 % decrease in oxygen penetration depth (from 2.3 to 1.4 mm), accompanied by an increase in the O2 influx at the station below the mussel farm (19-31 versus 10-12 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) characterised by higher POC flux. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and NH4+ concentrations showed similar behaviour, with a more evident effect of bioirrigation underneath the farm. This was confirmed through constraining the early diagenesis model, of which calibration leads to an estimation of enhanced and shallower bioirrigation underneath the farm: bioirrigation rates of 40 yr-1 and irrigation depth of 15 cm were

  7. Modelling biogeochemical processes in sediments from the north-western Adriatic Sea: response to enhanced particulate organic carbon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brigolin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the result of a study carried out in the north-western Adriatic Sea, by combining two different types of biogeochemical models with field sampling efforts. A longline mussel farm was taken as a local source of perturbation to the natural particulate organic carbon (POC downward flux. This flux was first quantified by means of a pelagic model of POC deposition coupled to sediment trap data, and its effects on sediment bioirrigation capacity and organic matter (OM degradation pathways were investigated constraining an early diagenesis model by using original data collected in sediment porewater. The measurements were performed at stations located inside and outside the area affected by mussel farm deposition. Model-predicted POC fluxes showed marked spatial and temporal variability, which was mostly associated with the dynamics of the farming cycle. Sediment trap data at the two sampled stations (inside and outside of the mussel farm showed average POC background flux of 20.0–24.2 mmol C m−2 d−1. The difference of organic carbon (OC fluxes between the two stations was in agreement with model results, ranging between 3.3 and 14.2 mmol C m−2 d−1, and was primarily associated with mussel physiological conditions. Although restricted, these changes in POC fluxes induced visible effects on sediment biogeochemistry. Observed oxygen microprofiles presented a 50 % decrease in oxygen penetration depth (from 2.3 to 1.4 mm, accompanied by an increase in the O2 influx at the station below the mussel farm (19–31 versus 10–12 mmol O2 m−2 d−1 characterised by higher POC flux. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and NH4+ concentrations showed similar behaviour, with a more evident effect of bioirrigation underneath the farm. This was confirmed through constraining the early diagenesis model, of which calibration leads to an estimation of enhanced and shallower bioirrigation underneath the farm

  8. The role of solar and wind energy in sustainable development of the Adriatic Marco region in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrastnik, B.

    1999-01-01

    Aggregated energy demand in the Adriatic region, as well as the specific demand of individual sectors like industry, tourism, residential and commercial sector and agriculture has been assessed. Seasonal and daily load characteristics of the thermal and electric energy consumption in the Adriatic macro-region, as applied for heating, cooling and electrical appliances are discussed. Optimal mix of energy carrier (fossil and renewable) covering thermal and electric demand in the region is proposed. It has been shown that present regional energy mix, particularly for thermal applications based on electric energy, can be modified in favor of other energy carriers like LPG, LNG, hydropower, solar and wind energy, which are more appropriate for the sustainable development of the region. The expected market penetration of flat plate collectors, power plants with line focusing collectors, wind parks, photovoltaic power plants (off grid and grid connected) and passive use of solar radiation in commercial and residential buildings is given in the outlines. Based on the low energy consumption and seasonal/daily load characteristics, latest by the year 2050, it could be expected that renewables, at least for a number of Adriatic islands, could by nearly 100% substitute the present use of fossil sources, supplying electricity and thermal energy. (author)

  9. Multilayer Approach for Characterization of Bacterial Diversity in a Marginal Sea: From Surface to Seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivana, Babic; Maja, Mucko; Ivica, Vilibic; Hrvoje, Mihanovic; Reffaella, Casotti; Zrinka, Ljubesic; Ivona, Cetinic; Cecilia, Balestra; Ines, Petric; Suncica, Bosak; hide

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria are the most important microorganisms in the world oceans, accounting for up to 75% of the total biomass. They are responsible for fundamental biogeochemical processes and therefore often used as ecological indicators. In this study, bacteria were quantified by flow cytometry and their diversity assessed by High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) in the southern Adriatic Sea. The most abundant bacterial groups were also quantified by qPCR. The samples were collected from the surface to the seabed over a total of 16 different depths at four stations during the late winter BIOTA (BIO-Tracing Adriatic water masses) cruise conducted in March 2016. The investigated area showed unusual water mass properties and was characterized by a shallow mixed layer, which differed from the usual winter convection conditions, typical of middle-altitude ecosystems and important for the seasonal picoplankton dynamics of this area. Heterotrophic bacteria were separated into HNA (relative High Nucleic Acid content) and LNA (Low Nucleic Acid content) subpopulations with abundances up to 1.8×10(exp 5) and 8.8×10(exp 5) cells/mL, respectively. HNA dominated at offshore stations reaching their maximum at depths below the euphotic zone. The bacterial community was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, accounting for greater than 40% of the total sequence reads and were mainly represented by the SAR11 clade (90.84%), followed by Marinimicrobia (18% of the total sequence reads), mainly represented by clade SAR406 (8.44%). Distinctive bacterial groups were found in the euphotic layer (Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria) and aphotic layer samples (Deltaproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes). Results of the qPCR analyses further confirmed HTS results with highest abundances obtained for Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The adopted multiple approach, combining different molecular tools, critically supported by optics and

  10. Determination of trace metals in sea waters of the albanian coast by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.

    1994-01-01

    Preconcentration of trace transition and heavy metal ions by precipitation with APDC has been combined with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for environmental sea water analysis. The preconcentration procedure implies adding of 500 μg Mo ion and 10 ml of 1 % water solution of APDC to a 500 ml water sample at pH 4, filtering off on a Millipore filter and analyzing after drying. Realistic detection limits are at 1 μg * l -1 level and precision varies between 10 - 25% at about 5 μg * l -1 level, depending on the element. Eleven sea water samples, covering Albanian Adriatic and Ionian coast, are analyzed for trace metal ions. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  11. 3D Architecture and evolution of the Po Plain-Northern Adriatic Foreland basin during Plio-Pleistocene time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Chiara; Toscani, Giovanni; Ghielmi, Manlio; Maesano, Francesco Emanuele; D'Ambrogi, Chiara; Lombardi, Stefano; Milanesi, Riccardo; Panara, Yuri; Di Giulio, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the eastern Po Plain and northern Adriatic Foreland Basin (PPAF) (extended ca. 35,000 km2) was the consequence of severe Northern Apennine compressional activity and climate-driven eustatic changes. According with the 2D seismic interpretation, facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy approach by Ghielmi et al. (2013 and references therein), these tectono-eustatic phases generated six basin-scale unconformities referred as Base Pliocene (PL1), Intra-Zanclean (PL2), Intra-Piacenzian (PL3), Gelasian (PL4), Base Calabrian (PS1) and Late Calabrian (PS2). We present a basin-wide detailed 3D model of the PPAF region, derived from the interpretation of these unconformities in a dense network of seismic lines (ca. 6,000 km) correlated with more than 200 well stratigraphies (courtesy of ENI E&P). The initial 3D time-model has been time-to-depth converted using the 3D velocity model created with Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D depth conversions and then validated and integrated with depth domain dataset from bibliography and well log. Resultant isobath and isopach maps are produced to inspect step-by-step the basin paleogeographic evolution; it occurred through alternating stages of simple and fragmented foredeeps. Changes in the basin geometry through time, from the inner sector located in the Emilia-Romagna Apennines to the outermost region (Veneto and northern Adriatic Sea), were marked by repeated phases of outward migration of two large deep depocenters located in front of Emilia arcs on the west, and in front of Ferrara-Romagna thrusts on the east. During late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, the inner side of the Emilia-Romagna arcs evolved into an elongated deep thrust-top basin due to a strong foredeep fragmentation then, an overall tectono-stratigraphic analysis shows also a decreasing trend of tectonic intensity of the Northern Apennine since Pleistocene until present.

  12. Genetic connectivity between land and sea: the case of the beachflea Orchestia montagui (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Laura; Tiedemann, Ralph; De Matthaeis, Elvira; Ketmaier, Valerio

    2013-04-25

    We examined patterns of genetic divergence in 26 Mediterranean populations of the semi-terrestrial beachflea Orchestia montagui using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I), microsatellite (eight loci) and allozymic data. The species typically forms large populations within heaps of dead seagrass leaves stranded on beaches at the waterfront. We adopted a hierarchical geographic sampling to unravel population structure in a species living at the sea-land transition and, hence, likely subjected to dramatically contrasting forces. Mitochondrial DNA showed historical phylogeographic breaks among Adriatic, Ionian and the remaining basins (Tyrrhenian, Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea) likely caused by the geological and climatic changes of the Pleistocene. Microsatellites (and to a lesser extent allozymes) detected a further subdivision between and within the Western Mediterranean and the Tyrrhenian Sea due to present-day processes. A pattern of isolation by distance was not detected in any of the analyzed data set. We conclude that the population structure of O. montagui is the result of the interplay of two contrasting forces that act on the species population genetic structure. On one hand, the species semi-terrestrial life style would tend to determine the onset of local differences. On the other hand, these differences are partially counter-balanced by passive movements of migrants via rafting on heaps of dead seagrass leaves across sites by sea surface currents. Approximate Bayesian Computations support dispersal at sea as prevalent over terrestrial regionalism.

  13. How to boost shallow geothermal energy exploitation in the adriatic area: the LEGEND project experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesco, Tinti; Annamaria, Pangallo; Martina, Berneschi; Dario, Tosoni; Dušan, Rajver; Simona, Pestotnik; Dalibor, Jovanović; Tomislav, Rudinica; Slavisa, Jelisić; Branko, Zlokapa; Attilio, Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation, monitoring and reduction of the heating and cooling consumptions are topics of increasing importance. One promising technology is the geothermal heat pump. Despite its undoubted advantages compared to fossil fuels in terms of RES production, CO_2 reduction and primary energy savings, there are still significant barriers for the creation of sustainable local markets. Many regions present similar conditions in terms of climate, geology, hydrogeology, infrastructure and political conditions. Because of the context-driven nature of shallow geothermal systems, similarities should be taken into account and strategies shared across borders to foster the introduction and exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. Focusing on the results of the LEGEND Project, this paper presents an attempt at creating an interregional strategy for the widespread introduction of geothermal heat pumps in the Adriatic area, which includes EU and non-EU countries. The multi-level approach adopted (a combination of desk studies on the transferability potential, pilot plants across the regions and programs to involve, educate and train stakeholders) allowed to set up the strategy. Therefore, different actions are proposed to stimulate the development of the market, whose interconnection across the Adriatic can accelerate the achievement of the main energy and climate targets for all the countries involved. - Highlights: •The Interregional Adriatic strategy for shallow geothermal energy is presented. •The strategy speeds up renewable energy introduction in border countries. •Geological, climate, market and political similarities must be taken into account. •The preparatory action is the creation of trained market and supply chain.

  14. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTURING BIG SEA CRABS (LOBSTERS, SPINY LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19 th century an experimental work on culturing big sea crabs began in Europe and North America. Great demand for their flesh as well as their high price urged many institutions to explore the possibilities of a commercial production in varios parts of the world. Lobsters (Homarus sp. were mainly used for experimenting, so that the most data available refer to them. Because of the complicated larva stage spiny lobster culturing is mainly being carried out in experimental circumstances. Despite the promissing results this aquacultural activity faces many problems (long time until they achieve a commercial size, loss of eggs due to stress sensitivity during the process of moulting, canibalism. In order to minimize these problems various researches are being carried out, like temperature influence, influence of light, way of feeding, hormonal regulation of moulting frequency. Although both lobster and spiny lobsters live in the Adriatic Sea, there are no data on their culturing in our contry. Concernig conditions in our sea there are realistic possibilities for crabs production development. In this way this delicacy would be more affordable to broader population and could be a highly rated export product.

  15. Implementation and validation of the ISMAR High Frequency Coastal Radar Network in the Gulf of Manfredonia (Mediterranean Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Carlo; Griffa, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network is described, established and maintained by the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) for the measurement of surface current velocities in the Gulf of Manfredonia, located in the semi......-enclosed Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea), during the period 2013-2015. The network consisted of four HF radars that provided hourly sea surface velocity data in real-time mode in a netCDF format compliant to the Climate and Forecast Metadata Conventions CF-1.6 and to the INSPIRE directive. The hourly netCDF files...... are disseminated via a THREDDS catalog supporting OGC compliant distributions and protocols for data visualization, metadata interrogation and data download. HF radar velocity data were validated using in situ velocity measurements by GPS-tracked surface drifters deployed within the radar footprint. The results...

  16. Mitochondrial DNA reveals unexpected diversity of chubs (genus Squalius; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Squalius comprises more than 40 species inhabiting various freshwater habitats. They are distributed in Europe and Asia, with particularly high diversity recorded in the Mediterranean area. The taxonomic status of many populations is still matter of debate. With this investigation we aimed to help in resolving taxonomic uncertainties of the chubs distributed in the Adriatic basin in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b revealed high diversity of chubs in the investigated area. Two evolutionary independent lineages are revealed: the first one comprising species Sq. svallize, Sq. tenellus, Sq. illyricus and Sq. zrmanjae; whereas the second lineage corresponds with Sq. squalus. High intraspecific structuring of Sq. squalus was detected, implying necessity of taxonomic revision of that species. Based on the obtained results, most important aspects of the evolutionary history of the genus Squalius in the Adriatic basin will be discussed and evolutionary significant units identified.

  17. Implementation and test of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghilesi, R.; Catini, F.; Orasi, A.; Corsini, S.

    2010-09-01

    A coastal forecasting system has been implemented in order to provide a coverage of the whole Mediterranean Sea and of several enclosed coastal areas as well. The problem is to achieve a good definition of the small scale coastal processes which affect the propagation of waves toward the shores while retaining the possibility of selecting any of the possible coastal areas in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The system is built on a very high resolution parallel implementation of the WAM and SWAN models, one-way chain-nested in key areas. The system will shortly be part of the ISPRA SIMM forecasting system which has been operative since 2001. The SIMM sistem makes available the high resolution wind fields (0.1/0.1 deg) used in the coastal system. The coastal system is being tested on several Italian coastal areas (Ligurian Sea, Lower Tyrrenian Sea, Sicily Channel, Lower Adriatic Sea) in order to optimise the numerics of the coastal processes and to verify the results in shallow waters and complex bathymetries. The results of the comparison between hindcast and buoy data in very shallow (14m depth) and deep sea (150m depth) will be shown for several episodes in the upper Tyrrenian Sea.

  18. The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Carol M.

    1999-08-01

    seasonal climate and low land runoff contribute to the low productivity of the sea. Nutrients are a major controlling factor in oceanic productivity and often influence the type and succession of phytoplankton. Changes in river flow and agricultural practice can influence the concentration and ratio of different nutrients flowing into the sea. For example, changing agricultural practices have resulted in higher nitrogen and phosphorus flowing into the Adriatic and lagoons of the Nile which has lead to eutrophication. The predicted population increases, especially along the southern shores, seems likely to result in eutrophication and an increased risk of pollution in other areas unless well managed. A further warning tale from the Black Sea has recently come to light where damming of rivers has resulted in depletion of silica in the seawater. (Humborg, C., Ittekkot, V., Cociasu, A., & Bodungen, B. (1997). Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure. Nature, London, 386, 385-388.) This means that silica-requiring phytoplankton do not have their essential growth nutrient and may explain the unbalanced growth of other toxic forms which do not require silica. Similarly, the Aswan dam holds back massive amounts of silica carried by the Nile from entering the eastern Mediterranean. The future of the Mediterranean ecosystem does not look rosy. If we are to learn from scientific observations, such as those in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Adriatic, scientists, economists and policy makers, from the 18 countries bordering the Mediterranean, must interface to ensure an adequate and appropriate response.

  19. EVALUATING THE COMPETITION DYNAMICS OF CONTAINER PORTS IN THE NORTH ADRIATIC

    OpenAIRE

    Twrdy, Elen; Batista, Milan

    2014-01-01

    World trade has changed in the last decade and the container traffic flows are oriented towards several parts of the European continent. A European container port system is not a homogenous set of ports, but is established of several large ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg, Algeciras...) and a large number of medium- and small-sized ports. North Adriatic (NA) ports belong to this category of ports and in this paper we have analysed the container flows and the throughput attained in these ports.

  20. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimentally Based Model to Size the Geometry of a New OWC Device, with Reference to the Mediterranean Sea Wave Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This note presents the Seabreath wave energy converter, basically a multi-chamber floating oscillating water column device, and the lumped model used to size its chambers, the ducts and the turbine. The model is based on extensive testing carried out in the wave flume of the University of Padova using fixed and floating models with a dummy power take off and indirect measurement of the produced power. A map with the available energy in the Mediterranean Sea is also proposed, showing possible ideal application sites. The Seabreath is finally dimensioned for a quarter scale test application in the Adriatic Sea, with a 3 kW turbine, and a capacity factor of 40%.

  2. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Trieste sediments (northern Adriatic): potential impacts of maritime traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic) is one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas in the northern Adriatic, with intense maritime traffic experienced at multiple ports. The impact of maritime traffic on contamination by hydrocarbons in this area was assessed. Concentrations of hydrocarbons were higher near the expected contamination sources and still elevated in the adjacent offshore areas. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly of petrogenic origin, with some contribution of biogenic origin. A continuous contamination by aliphatic hydrocarbons and degradation processes were hypothesized. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were generally greater near the contamination sources. Compared to the prevailing pyrolytic origin, the petrogenic PAH origin seemed to be less important, but not negligible. Results revealed that intensive maritime traffic is a probable source of contamination by hydrocarbons in the investigated area, which is largely limited to areas near the contamination sources.

  3. Integrated response of antioxidant biomarkers in the liver and white muscle of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. females from the Adriatic sea with respect to environmental influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Slađan Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the integrated response of antioxidant defense enzymes (total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD, manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and phase II biotransformation enzyme, glutathione- S-transferase (GST in the liver and white muscle of females of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. from the Adriatic Sea (Montenegro in winter and spring. The activity of GSH-Px in the liver was significantly increased, while GST activity was decreased in spring compared to the winter. In white muscle, the activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD were increased, while the activities of MnSOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST were decreased in spring when compared to the matching values in winter. The activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD in winter were markedly lower in the muscle than in the liver, while the activity of MnSOD in the muscle was higher when compared to the liver. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed clear separation of the investigated antioxidant biomarkers between tissues and seasons, while the integrated biomarker response (IBR showed that the most intensive antioxidant biomarker response was in the liver in spring. Star plots of IBR showed a dominant contribution of glutathione-dependent biomarkers (GSH-Px, GR and GST and CAT in both tissues and seasons with respect to SOD isoenzymes. All enzyme activities (except MnSOD were greater in the liver in comparison to the white muscle. Our results show that the liver possesses a greater capacity to establish and maintain homeostasis under changing environmental conditions in winter and spring. At the same time, seasonal effects are more pronounced in muscle tissue. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173041

  4. River runoff influences on the Central Mediterranean overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Ciliberti, S. A.; Coppini, G.

    2018-03-01

    The role of riverine freshwater inflow on the Central Mediterranean Overturning Circulation (CMOC) was studied using a high-resolution ocean model with a complete distribution of rivers in the Adriatic and Ionian catchment areas. The impact of river runoff on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea basins was assessed by a twin experiment, with and without runoff, from 1999 to 2012. This study tries to show the connection between the Adriatic as a marginal sea containing the downwelling branch of the anti-estuarine CMOC and the large runoff occurring there. It is found that the multiannual CMOC is a persistent anti-estuarine structure with secondary estuarine cells that strengthen in years of large realistic river runoff. The CMOC is demonstrated to be controlled by wind forcing at least as much as by buoyancy fluxes. It is found that river runoff affects the CMOC strength, enhancing the amplitude of the secondary estuarine cells and reducing the intensity of the dominant anti-estuarine cell. A large river runoff can produce a positive buoyancy flux without switching off the antiestuarine CMOC cell, but a particularly low heat flux and wind work with normal river runoff can reverse it. Overall by comparing experiments with, without and with unrealistically augmented runoff we demonstrate that rivers affect the CMOC strength but they can never represent its dominant forcing mechanism and the potential role of river runoff has to be considered jointly with wind work and heat flux, as they largely contribute to the energy budget of the basin. Looking at the downwelling branch of the CMOC in the Adriatic basin, rivers are demonstrated to locally reduce the volume of Adriatic dense water formed in the Southern Adriatic Sea as a result of increased water stratification. The spreading of the Adriatic dense water into the Ionian abyss is affected as well: dense waters overflowing the Otranto Strait are less dense in a realistic runoff regime, with respect to no runoff experiment, and

  5. Steric and mass-induced Mediterranean sea level trends from 14 years of altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Aldeanueva, Francisco; Del Río Vera, Jorge; García-Lafuente, Jesús

    2008-02-01

    Long-term series of almost 14 years of altimetry data (1992-2005) have been analysed along with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and temperature and salinity profiles to investigate sea level trends over the Mediterranean Sea. Although sea level variations are mainly driven by the steric contribution, the mass-induced component plays some role in modulating its oscillation. A spatially averaged positive trend of 2.1 ± 0.6 mm/year has been observed, but a change in sign in 2001 seems to appear. Steric effects (mainly on thermal origin) account for ˜ 55% of sea level trend. Although Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed basin, this value is comparable to that reported for the global ocean. Sea level rise is particularly important in the Levantine basin south of Crete with values up to 10 ± 1 mm/year. Other areas of sea level rise are localised throughout the Levantine basin and in the Adriatic and Alboran Seas, with more moderate values. Sea level drop areas are localised in the Algerian basin, between the Balearic Islands and the African coasts and, particularly, in the Ionian basin. In this area, negative trends as high as - 10 ± 0.8 mm/year are detected mainly due to the mass-induced contribution, which suggests decadal changes of surface circulation. The inferred sea level trends have been correlated with North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices and a low but significant correlation has been detected between sea level in the Levantine and Balearic basins and NAO index.

  6. Radium concentrations in Adriatic coastal area and their dependence on circulation of the sea currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.; Kovac, J.; Hrsak, H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess natural radioactivity in the area of the coal-fired power plant in the Plomin Bay with special emphasis on possible radiation contamination of the seawater caused by plant operation. The purpose was to determine vertical and horizontal distribution of radium and its dependence on the seawater currents at different sea depths. The level of 2 26R a in seawater was assessed four times a year, at three locations and at two sea depths. Measurements of physical, chemical and biological parameters were performed in order to provide a tangible basis for a long-term systematic monitoring of the environmental effects of plant operation on the surrounding area

  7. SEA ODC - An Implementation of Web Portal and B2B Services for Managing of Oceanographic Data Sets Collected in South-East Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicic, A.; Castelli, A.; Kljajic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of efforts to standardize oceanographic data sets collected since year 2002 in the area of south-east Adriatic, relational data model suitable for storage of meta-data and in situ measurements was designed and implemented. Using combination of customized tools developed for extraction of meta-data and data records from CTD files as well as standard office applications, data were extracted, transformed, processed and unified by attributes and units of measurement. To make those data available for wider scientific community, we have developed web portal able to be used for data retrieval based on various filters (spatial, temporal, by project and/or by sampling instrument). Selected data model proves to be also very efficient for generating of data-exchange formats required by various projects and initiatives (e.g. SeaDataNet) so extended by particular dictionaries it can allow fast implementation of integration services. As a part of Ecoport 8 project, newly available type of data was recently introduced. Real-time data provided by permanent sensors need to be automatically collected and stored into database. Visualization of such data was also required as well as exchange with project data center. To fulfill those requirements, additional data scheme and appropriate B2B services were developed. Additional care was taken about data transfer security as database was not hosted at the same place as workstation used for remote access to sensor equipment. Third section of portal is "Tide Tables", interactive, graphical application that visualize tide predictions for ports of Bar and Kotor, allowing also correction by atmospheric pressure. Developed in Java, based on well known Mike Foreman's Fortran 77 code it can be used as stand-alone product without Internet connection. Last section of portal is Google Earth file containing position of stations as well as some spatial features that can be useful during planning of future oceanographic cruises in this area

  8. Sharing skills and needs between providers and users of climate information to create climate services: lessons from the Northern Adriatic case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Giannini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The need to cope with the expected impacts of climate change on socio-ecological systems calls for a closer dialogue between climate scientists and the community of climate information users. We describe an interactive process designed to bridge this gap by establishing a two-way communication, based on mutual learning. We analyse the need of climate information for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts on the coastal zone of the Northern Adriatic Sea, which is considered to be particularly vulnerable to several climate-related phenomena, e.g. heavy rainfall events, pluvial flood, and sea level rise, causing potentially high damage to coastal ecosystems and urban areas (e.g. acqua alta in the Venice Lagoon. A participatory process was designed engaging representatives from both the scientific and local stakeholders communities, and facilitated by a boundary organization, embodied by the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change. End-users of climate information (e.g. decision makers belonging to public institutions were selected among representatives of those public institutions having a specific mandate for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, and engaged to identify their needs. During the early stages of the interaction process, several priorities were identified, including: (1 data to support land-use planning, (2 data with greater resolution and longer time series, (3 data on climate impacts and risks, (4 precipitation patterns to improve irrigation, (5 sea level rise and tides, (6 climate variations and extreme events, (7 seasonal trend for tidal waves, and (8 hydraulic risk. Three climate products were developed to address these needs: (1 short-term projections of sea level rise; (2 seasonal predictions of extreme rainfall events; (3 long-term regional projections of climate extremes (including heat waves, dry spells and heavy rainfall events. Additionally, two risk products were developed: 4 sea level rise

  9. Genetic architecture of the marbled goby Pomatoschistus marmoratus (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejri, Randa; Arculeo, Marco; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben; Brutto, Sabrina Lo

    2011-02-01

    The marbled goby Pomatoschistus marmoratus, a species inhabiting coastal Mediterranean lagoons, has been studied by measuring its mitochondrial DNA variation. This analysis revealed a Mediterranean west vs east split and, subsequently, an eastern differentiation among the Libyan-Tunisian Gulf, the Adriatic Sea and the Aegean Sea. The high cohesion between the samples collected in the vast area of western Mediterranean contrasts with the genetic mosaic of the more sub-structured eastern Mediterranean. This western homogeneity can not yet be fully explained even if a human-mediated migratory flow, due to a maritime traffic, has been posited. The pattern in the eastern basin revealed a genetic architecture possibly due to the non-migratory habit of the gobid. Within this perspective, the role of the Mediterranean lagoon habitat should be related to how much it amplifies the effects of historical (e.g. past sea-level changes) and environmental (e.g. present-day hydrographic regime) processes as regards the genetic structure of the inhabiting species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Adriatic-Ionian Macroregion in the Eurasian Socio-economic Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Carboni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the economic and social potential enabled by the Adriatic Ionian Macroregion (AIMr, characterized by a diffuse industrial pattern based on small and mediumsized enterprises, located in a European periphery, logistics and politics. The analyses show a diverse environment, made up of territories and states that move between vitality, modernization, economic backwardness and social inadequacy of infrastructure networks. In reference to the pillars identified by the EU, the ability to develop investments agreements with strategic political partnership between the states are the main instruments to achieve the objectives of modernizing the infrastructure and technology of this new political and economic realities.

  11. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the Calabrian Arc and surrounding seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, SAND Group, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: panza@dst.univ.trieste.it; Pontevivo, A [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2002-10-01

    Through the non-linear inversion of Surface-Wave Tomography data, using as a priori constraints seismic data from literature, it has been possible to define a fairly detailed structural model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system (thickness, S-wave and P-wave velocities of the crust and of the upper mantle layers) in the Calabrian Arc region (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Calabria and the Northern-Western part of the Ionian Sea). The main features identified by our study are: (1) a very shallow (less then 10 km deep) crust-mantle transition in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and very low S-wave velocities just below a very thin lid in correspondence of the submarine volcanic bodies in the study area; (2) a shallow and very low S-wave velocity layer in the mantle in the areas of Aeolian islands, of Vesuvius, Ischia and Phlegraean Fields, representing their shallow-mantle magma source; (3) a thickened continental crust and lithospheric doubling in Calabria; (4) a crust about 25 km thick and a mantle velocity profile versus depth consistent with the presence of a continental rifled, now thermally relaxed, lithosphere in the investigated part of the Ionian Sea; (5) the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere towards NW below the Tyrrhenian Basin; (6) the subduction of the Adriatic lithosphere underneath the Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields. (author)

  12. Fluviokarst and classical karst: Examples from the Dinarics (Krk Island, Northern Adriatic, Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benac, Čedomir; Juračić, Mladen; Matičec, Dubravko; Ružić, Igor; Pikelj, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    In order to contribute to the debate on the role of fluvial erosion in the shaping of karst, two nearby areas with different karstic landscapes were compared. Areas A and B are located relatively close to each other on the southern side of the Krk Island (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Both areas are composed of similar limestone with a very high CaCO3 content. Area A is a typical doline or polygonal type ("classical") of karst with numerous dolines (up to 57/km2) covered with terra rossa (red soil) and Mediterranean maquis shrubland. Dolines are located in zones which correspond to the strike of the main geological structures. Dry karstic valleys are visible only on gently inclined coastal slopes bordering the karstic plateau. In contrast, area B is typical of a bare karst landscape with a strong (palaeo)fluvial imprint. The dolines are absent, and the bedrock is only sporadically covered with terra rossa. Palaeogene marls have been observed in a few elongated depressions and in the coastal zone of area B. Along steep coastal slopes, valleys (up to 460 m/km2) are cut into the carbonates. The traces of episodic surface flows are visible in some of these valleys, in contrast to the valleys in area A. Remnants of a disrupted ancient fluvial network are clearly visible on the elevated karstic plateau in area B. Differences in the recent morphology are attributed mainly to varying thicknesses of the Palaeogene impermeable marly cover, and the intensity of tectonics in the two areas.

  13. Nephrops norvegicus (L.: Comparative biology and fishery in the Mediterranean Sea. Introduction, conclusions and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Sardà

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The project, financed by the Directorate General XIV of the EC, has undertaken a comparative study on the biology and fisheries techniques of the Norway lobster in Mediterranean member states and adjoining Atlantic areas. The ultimate goal of the project has been to assess the conditions for a global regulation in the area and determine possible differences among exploited stocks. The areas selected are characterised by their importance in Norway lobster catch. The overall duration of the project has been three years. Sampling was concentrated in the first two years. Data analysis was conducted during the second and third years (1993-1995. The countries (areas involved in the study, together with their target areas, were: Portugal (south coast of Algarve, Spain (Alboran and Catalan Seas, Italy (Ligurian, Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas and Greece (Gulf of Euboikos. In order to make results perfectly comparable, each scientific subject has been developed by a specialised team using a unified and standardised methodology. From the biological standpoint, Norway lobster growth, reproduction, moult and feeding have been compared. Special studies on distribution and genetics have been also conducted. In the fisheries context, a comparison of fishing techniques has been undertaken. The fisheries studies have been complemented with reconstruction of virgin populations, comparison of yield per recruit, sensitivity analysis and transition analysis. Selectivity issues have been object of specific analyses. As a result of these studies, it is evident that Norway lobster populations in the Mediterranean follow a common life-cycle model. The differences among areas reported in this project respond to environmental variation and differential fishing pressure in each area. All populations are exploited near its carrying limit, although overexploitation is unlikely at this stage. However we identified varying levels of exploitation according to study areas: The

  14. Environmental challenges for sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lončar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of the North Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted with problems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy, especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastal region where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Another environmental problem is the oil transportation by a pipeline which is planned to be built in the frames of Russian-Croatian project Družba-Adria.

  15. Important aspects of Eastern Mediterranean large-scale variability revealed from data of three fixed observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Manuel; Velaoras, Dimitris; Cardin, Vanessa; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Pethiakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Long-term variations of temperature and salinity observed in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas seem to be regulated by larger-scale circulation modes of the Eastern Mediterranean (EMed) Sea, such as the recently discovered feedback mechanisms, namely the BiOS (Bimodal Oscillating System) and the internal thermohaline pump theories. These theories are the results of interpretation of many years' observations, highlighting possible interactions between two key regions of the EMed. Although repeated oceanographic cruises carried out in the past or planned for the future are a very useful tool for understanding the interaction between the two basins (e.g. alternating dense water formation, salt ingressions), recent long time-series of high frequency (up to 1h) sampling have added valuable information to the interpretation of internal mechanisms for both areas (i.e. mesoscale eddies, evolution of fast internal processes, etc.). During the last 10 years, three deep observatories were deployed and maintained in the Adriatic, Ionian, and Aegean Seas: they are respectively, the E2-M3A, the Pylos, and the E1-M3A. All are part of the largest European network of Fixed Point Open Ocean Observatories (FixO3, http://www.fixo3.eu/). Herein, from the analysis of temperature and salinity, and potential density time series collected at the three sites from the surface down to the intermediate and deep layers, we will discuss the almost perfect anti-correlated behavior between the Adriatic and the Aegean Seas. Our data, collected almost continuously since 2006, reveal that these observatories well represent the thermohaline variability of their own areas. Interestingly, temperature and salinity in the intermediate layer suddenly increased in the South Adriatic from the end of 2011, exactly when they started decreasing in the Aegean Sea. Moreover, Pylos data used together with additional ones (e.g. Absolute dynamic topography, temperature and salinity data from other platforms) collected

  16. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation / Lars Fredrik Stöcker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stöcker, Lars Fredrik, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Norkus, Zenonas. On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania. A qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-communist transformation. Verlag Apostrofia Publishers, Central European University Press. Budapest und New York 2012

  17. Meccanica razionale

    CERN Document Server

    Finzi, Bruno

    1955-01-01

    Introduzione ; teorie introduttive ; calcolo vettoriale ; calcolo tensoriale ; cinematica : punti e sistemi mobili, spostamento, movimento, velocità, accelerazione, cinematica relativistica ; statica : nozioni preliminari e statica del punto, statica dei corpi rigidi, statica dei sistemi deformabili, principio dei lavori virtuali dinamica fisica : concetti e leggi fondamentali, azioni e caratteristiche meccaniche, meccanica relativa, meccanica relativistica, dimensioni e unità di misura delle quantità meccaniche ; calcolo del movimento : dinamica del punto materiale, dinamica del corpo rigido, dinamica dei sistemi, dinamica dei continui deformabili, dinamica impulsiva, meccanica statistica.

  18. Contemporary genetic structure and postglacial demographic history of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, E; Micu, D; Janczyszyn-Le Goff, M; Neglia, V; Bat, L; Todorova, V; Panayotova, M; Kruschel, C; Macic, V; Milchakova, N; Keskin, Ç; Anastasopoulou, A; Nasto, I; Zane, L; Planes, S

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity in the light of past demographic events linked with climatic shifts will help to forecast evolutionary trajectories of ecosystems within the current context of climate change. In this study, mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci were analysed using traditional population genetic approaches together with Bayesian dating and the more recent approximate Bayesian computation scenario testing. The genetic structure and demographic history of a commercial fish, the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, was investigated throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The results suggest that the species recently underwent population expansions, in both seas, likely concomitant with the warming period following the Last Glacial Maximum, 20 000 years ago. A weak contemporaneous genetic differentiation was identified between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. However, the genetic diversity was similar for populations of the two seas, suggesting a high number of colonizers entered the Black Sea during the interglacial period and/or the presence of a refugial population in the Black Sea during the glacial period. Finally, within seas, an east/west genetic differentiation in the Adriatic seems to prevail, whereas the Black Sea does not show any structured spatial genetic pattern of its population. Overall, these results suggest that the Black Sea is not that isolated from the Mediterranean, and both seas revealed similar evolutionary patterns related to climate change and changes in sea level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Genetic population structure of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.): differentiation across a steep environmental gradient in a small pelagic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Pedersen, Jes S.; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

    2009-01-01

    locations in and around the North- and Baltic Sea area and from a geographically distant population from the Adriatic Sea. Analyses of nine microsatellite loci revealed a sharp genetic division separating samples from the Northeastern Atlantic and the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.019–0.035), concurring...... with a steep salinity gradient. We found, at most, weak structure among samples within the Northeastern Atlantic region and within the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.001–0.009). The Adriatic Sea population was highly differentiated from all northern samples (pairwise θ = 0.071–0.092). Overall, the observed...... population structure resembles that of most other marine fishes studied in the North/Baltic Sea areas. Nevertheless, spatially explicit differences are observed among species, likely reflecting specific life-histories. Such fine-scale population structure should be taken into account, e.g. in ecosystem...

  20. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  1. Growth, delayed fluorescence and pigment composition of four Prorocentrum minimum strains growing at two salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA BERDEN-ZRIMEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prorocentrum minimum is a potentially harmful and widely distributed marine dinoflagellate. Several P. minimum strains have already been studied, showing phylogenetical relations of strains isolated from the same geographical regions. Similarity among the strains was further examined on the basis of their physiology. Pigment composition and concentration, as well as delayed fluorescence (DF decay kinetics and intensity, were measured in four P. minimum strains isolated from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas. The strains were grown at two salinities characteristic of the Baltic (8 PSU and North Adriatic Seas (32 PSU. Strain differences in DF decay kinetics and growth did not always follow their genetic relations. While two strains showed similarities to the previously described strains from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas in DF parameters, the other two strains seemed to be specific. The differences among strains isolated from the same sea could stem from adaptations to conditions in the specific habitats. Cluster analysis based on the ratio of individual carotenoid pigments concentrations to the chlorophyll a concentration or to total carotenoids were not conclusive in showing relations among the strains. Among the measured pigments, only peridinin concentration depended on salinity in all st

  2. Dynamic friction characterization in a turbine rotor and metallographic analysis of the friction element; Caracterizacion dinamica del rozamiento en rotor de turbina y analisis metalografico del elemento de rozamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    As a part of the diagnosis of the root cause of the blades fault of the of the L-1 wheel of a of low pressure rotor of 300 MW, in one of the Power stations of Electrical Generation, a design was made and an experimental rubbing test of friction in the same rotor was performed but in the adjacent wheel of movable blades L-2. The objectives of the experimental rubbing test were to determine the dynamic characteristics of the rubbing to corroborate what was observed in the diagrams of spectra registered by the power station during the operation of the Unit, to determine the maximum bending stress of the used element to provide rubbing to the wheel of blades L-2 and to infer in a qualitative way the magnitude of the necessary friction force to generate the dynamic characteristics of the rubbing and finally to determine the micro-structural changes that underwent the element employed to apply rubbing. [Spanish] Como parte del diagnostico de la causa raiz de la falla de los alabes de la rueda L-1 de un rotor de baja presion de 300 MW, en una de las Centrales de Generacion Electrica, se diseno y efectuo una prueba experimental de rozamiento en el mismo rotor pero en la rueda adyacente de alabes moviles L-2. Los objetivos de la prueba experimental de rozamiento fueron determinar las caracteristicas dinamicas del rozamiento para corroborar lo observado en los diagramas de espectros registrados por la Central durante la operacion de la Unidad, determinar el esfuerzo maximo a la flexion del elemento utilizado para suministrar rozamiento a la rueda de alabes L-2 e inferir de manera cualitativa la magnitud de la fuerza de rozamiento necesaria para generar las caracteristicas dinamicas del razonamiento y por ultimo determinar los cambios microestructurales que experimento el elemento utilizado para aplicar rozamiento.

  3. HF radar and drifter observing system in the Adriatic for fishery management and security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, Lorenzo; Carlson, Daniel Frazier; Mantovani, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A HF radar system has been operating since May 2013 in the Southern Adriatic between the Gargano Cape and the Manfredonia Gulf. The system, that has been tested and complemented with drifter launchings during three experiments, produces maps of surface ocean velocities at 2 km resolution every hour....... These data support fishery management as well as search and rescue and pollution mitigation operations. The Manfredonia Gulf is a known nursery area for small pelagic fish (anchovies and sardines), and its dynamics and connectivity properties are very relevant to the study of population dynamics. HF radar...

  4. The East Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Brachyura: Varunidae in the Mediterranean Sea: an independent human-mediated introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph D. Schubart

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A single adult male specimen of the East Asian crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835 was collected in August 2001 in the northern Adriatic Sea along the northwest coast of the peninsula of Istra. This is the first record of this genus and species from the Mediterranean Sea. Previously, Hemigrapsus sanguineus had been reported to invade the Atlantic coasts of North America and of western France, while the congeneric East Asian species, Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835, has established breeding populations along the Atlantic coast of Europe. The current absence of Hemigrapsus sanguineus in southern Europe and the western Mediterranean suggests an independent human-mediated introduction of the Croatian specimen. Preliminary genetic analyses reveal that specimens from Istra, North America, and Japan have identical DNA haplotypes corresponding to the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene (16S mtDNA, while the homologous sequence from a specimen of Taiwan differs in two out of 525 nucleotides.

  5. Dynamic characterization of the friction in turbine rotor and metallographic analysis of the friction element; Caracterizacion dinamica del rozamiento en rotor de turbina y analisis metalografico del elemento de rozamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    As a part of the diagnosis of the root cause of the fault of the blades of the L-1 wheel of a of low pressure rotor of 200 MW, in one of the power stations of electrical generation, an experimental test of friction in the same rotor was designed and carried out, but in the adjacent wheel of movable blades L-2. The objectives of the friction experimental test were to determine the dynamic characteristics of the friction, to corroborate what it was observed in the spectra diagrams registered by the power station during the operation of the unit, to determine the maximum bending stress of the used element to provide friction to the wheel of L-2 blades and to infer, in a qualitative way, the magnitude of the force of friction necessary to generate the dynamic characteristics of the friction and finally to determine the micro-structural changes that underwent the used element to apply friction. [Spanish] Como parte del diagnostico de la causa raiz de la falla de los alabes de la rueda L-1 de un rotor de baja presion de 200 MW, en una de las centrales de generacion electrica, se diseno y efectuo una prueba experimental de rozamiento en el mismo rotor, pero en la rueda adyacente de alabes moviles L-2. Los objetivos de la prueba experimental de rozamiento fueron determinar las caracteristicas dinamicas del razonamiento, para corroborar lo observado en los diagramas de espectros registrados por la central durante la operacion de la unidad, determinar el esfuerzo maximo a la flexion del elemento utilizado para suministrar rozamiento a la rueda de alabes L-2 e inferir, de manera cualitativa, la magnitud de la fuerza de rozamiento necesaria para generar las caracteristicas dinamicas del rozamiento y por ultimo determinar los cambios microestructurales que experimento el elemento utilizado para aplicar rozamiento.

  6. Studies in living and fossil foraminifers from seasonally productive regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barmawidjaja, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental analysis of benthic and planktonic foraminiferal associations from sediments from the northern Adriatic Sea, the Kau Basin (Halmahera) and the Molucca Sea shed new light on the way in which various environmental factors influence foraminiferal distribution

  7. Assessment of current effect on waves in a semi-enclosed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Bergamasco, A.

    2012-04-01

    The wave-current interaction process in the semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is studied using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, which is used to exchange data fields between the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The 2-way data transfer between circulation and wave models is synchronous with ROMS providing current fields, free surface elevation, and bathymetry to SWAN. In particular, the 3-D current profiles are averaged using a formulation that integrates the near-surface velocity over a depth controlled by the spectral mean wave number. This coupling procedure is carried out up to coastal areas by means of an offline grid nesting. The parent grid covers the whole Adriatic Sea and has a horizontal resolution of 2.0 km, whereas the child grid resolution increases to 0.5 km but it is limited to the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Venice), where the current effect on waves is investigated. The most frequent winds blowing on the Adriatic Sea are the so-called Bora and Sirocco which cause high waves in the Adriatic Sea, although Bora waves are generally fetch-limited. In fact, Bora winds blow orthogonal to the main basin axis (approximately aligned with the NW-SE direction), while Sirocco has large spatial scale being a southeasterly wind. For the numerical simulations, the meteorological forcings are provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7, which is the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium. During the analysis period, the simulated wind, current and wave are compared with observations at the ISMAR oceanographic tower located off the Venice littoral. Wave heights and sea surface winds are also compared with satellite-derived data. To account for the variability of sea states during a storm, the expected maximum individual wave height in a sea storm with a given history is also

  8. Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Hotels and Camps Along the Adriatic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents a possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast, through equipment modernisation, efficient use of various energy forms (electric energy, oil, gas) including solar energy. An elaborate quantitative analysis the greenhouse gas emissions and possible ways of reducing them have been carried out in 180 hotels with their own boiler rooms and 70 camps with solar hot water system. The representatives of the two specified groups were chosen in order to perform the quantitative analysis. Considering that the reduction of the carbon emission is the basic condition for the prevention of climate changes, the assumptions were made in line with their reducing. The starting point is that the combustion of a litre of fuel causes 2,5 kg CO 2 , while the generation of 1 kWh of electric energy and use of 1 m 3 of water emit 0,5 kg of CO 2 respectively. Thereby it is necessary to bear in mind that the reduction of emissions can be achieved directly in hotel boiler rooms and, in a wider perspective, in plants through the reduction of the electric energy and water consumption, i.e. solar energy consumption The article ends with a review of possible emission reductions which are to be carried out. According to the calculation presented, the share of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast principate with 1% in the obligatory 5% emission reduction of the Republic of Croatia till the year 2012 related to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  9. Impact of technologically natural radioactivity on marine environment in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Kovac, J.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with increased levels of radioactivity in the Kastela bay at the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea, which is due to geographical characteristics sensitive to any kind of pollution including the radioactivity. In the bay is situated a coal fired power plant. Investigations of used coal as well as slag and ash originating from the normal operations of showed increased concentrations of natural radioactivity spreading over the area and to the sea. There is a coal slag and ash pile which presents a considerable environmental problem: situated close to the seaside, slag and ash are accumulating in the littoral zone or are being filled up directly into the sea. The aim of this study was to determine radioactivity level at the ash and slag deposit and to assess the risk from increased radioactivity to the employees of the plant, to the inhabitants of the area and due to a direct contact of ash and slag with the sea water, to the Adriatic sea. (authors)

  10. MARICULTURE IN CROATIA, HISTORY AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boško Skaramuca

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is the country where the sea was used as a food source about a thousand years ago. The tradition of some forms of collection and culture of marine organisms is very long along the Adriatic coast. The farming of marine organisms has a long tradition on the eastern Adriatic coast dating back to the 19th century. L o r i n i (1903 mentioned a figure of 116 such fish ponds on the eastern Adriatic coast. Long tradition of shellfish and fish breeding and particularly a growing fund knowledge recently provided a mariculture development at a growing pace. The eastern Adriatic coast with a number of bays, coves and channels protected from the wind and waves by chains of islands provide marvelous conditions for intensive farming on floating platforms

  11. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  12. Active stress from earthquake focal mechanisms along the Padan-Adriatic side of the Northern Apennines (Italy), with considerations on stress magnitudes and pore-fluid pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, Paolo; Bracone, Vito

    2009-10-01

    The active tectonic regime along the outer Northern Apennines (Padan-Adriatic area) is a matter of debate. We analyse the active tectonic regime by systematically inverting earthquake focal mechanisms in terms of their driving stress field, comparing two different stress inversion methods. Earthquakes within the area often deviate from Andersonian conditions, being characterized by reverse or transpressional slip on high-angle faults even if the regime is almost purely thrust faulting (e.g. Reggio Emilia 1996 and Faenza 2000 earthquakes). We analyse the stress conditions at faulting for the Reggio Emilia and Faenza earthquakes in order to infer the stress magnitudes and the possible role of fluid pressures. The stress analysis defines a consistent pattern of sub-horizontal active deviatoric compression arranged nearly perpendicular to the eastern front of the Padan-Adriatic fold-and-thrust system, independent of the stress inversion method used. The results are consistent with active compression operating within the Padan-Adriatic belt. The stress field is thrust faulting (sub-vertical σ3), except for the Cesena-Forlì and Ancona areas, where a strike-slip regime (sub-vertical or steeply-plunging σ2) operates. The strike-slip regimes are interpreted as being caused by the superposition of local tensional stresses due to oroclinal bending (i.e. rotations of the belt about vertical axes) on the regional compressional stress field. Kinematic complexities characterize the 1996 Reggio Emilia seismic sequence. The distribution of these complexities is not random, suggesting that they are due to local variations of the regional stress field within the unfaulted rocks surrounding the coseismic rupture. The stress conditions at faulting for the Reggio Emilia 1996 and Faenza 2000 earthquakes, coupled with the observation that seismicity in the Padan-Adriatic area often occurs in swarms, suggest that high pore-fluid pressures (Pf ≥ 70% of the lithostatic load) operate

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Primary production in the Sulu Sea. 209. Joshi P C see Singh Randhir. 413. Kalra R see Rajaram Girija. 51 ... ton pigment in the Laccadive (Lakshadweep) Sea as observed by the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner 163 ... Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea. 215. Mujumdar V R see Bawiskar S M.

  14. Analysis of polar organic contaminants in surface water of the northern Adriatic Sea by solid-phase extraction followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-QTRAP® MS using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Canuti, Elisabetta; Weissteiner, Christof

    2013-07-01

    Water-soluble polar organic contaminants are discharged by rivers, cities, and ships into the oceans. Little is known on the fate, pollution effects, and thresholds of toxic chemical mixtures in the marine environment. A new trace analytical method was developed for the multi-compound analysis of polar organic chemical contaminants in marine waters. The method is based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) of one-liter water samples followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTRAP(®) MS). Marine water samples from the open Adriatic Sea taken 16 km offshore from Venice (Italy) were analyzed. Method limits of quantification (LOQs) in the low picogram per liter (pg/l) concentration range were achieved. Among the 67 target chemicals analyzed, 45 substances could be detected above the LOQ. The chemicals detected at the highest concentrations were caffeine (up to 367 ng/l), nitrophenol (36 ng/l), 2,4-dinitrophenol (34 ng/l), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (18.5 ng/l), sucralose (11 ng/l), 1H-benzotriazole (9.2 ng/l), terbuthylazine (9 ng/l), alachlor (7.7 ng/l), atrazine-desisopropyl (6.6 ng/l), diethyltoluamide (DEET) (5.0 ng/l), terbuthylazine-desethyl (4.3 ng/l), metolachlor (2.8 ng/l), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.5 ng/l), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) (2.3 ng/l), linuron (2.3 ng/l), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (2.2 ng/l), diuron (2.0 ng/l), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (1.6 ng/l), simazine (1.6 ng/l), atrazine (1.5 ng/l), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (1.3 ng/l). Higher concentrations were detected during summer due to increased levels of tourist activity during this period.

  15. Impact of a coal fired power plant on 226Ra activity level in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with radioactivity contamination originating from a coal fired power plant which, due to its location, may present a remarkable environmental problem. The plant is situated in a bay of the Adriatic close to the densely populated area with highly developed touristic activity. Its operation may cause significant damage to rich marine ecosystem characteristic for this part of the Croatian Adriatic as well as endanger urban and touristic developmental prospects of the area. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustible ash and slag showed increased natural radioactivity levels which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic

  16. Conceptual development of the trail methodology for the preservation of intangible maritime heritage: A case for the Adriatic coast and islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Adriatic, the importance in tourism of the small rowing and sailing boats, like the gajeta and other heritage vessels, is clearly relevant, as icons of heritage boats adorn brochures, logos, and their names are bequested to hotels and restaurants. As a symbol, the gajeta stands for the heritage of the island, and the ethics of the place; these constitute an intangible treasure which highlights the lifestyle of the agriculturalist society. However, the distinct experience of the gajeta, or other local boats as a relevant form of tourist activity, is largely missing in the offerings of local tourist information centers and nature parks where they reside. This paper outlines a heritage trail interpretive strategy, which would create a network supporting small local tourist venues that showcase intangible maritime heritage of the coast and islands. The methodology creates an alterative to what is primarily leisure-based tourism that Adriatic counties like Croatia are experiencing in all but the largest cultural monuments and ecological reserves which provide avenues for community-based ecological management in remote regions.

  17. Variability of mesoscale features in the Mediterranean Sea from XBT data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fusco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1998–2000, the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project, aiming to build a forecasting system for the physical state of the sea, has been carried out. A ship-of-opportunity programme sampled the Mediterranean upper ocean thermal structure by means of eXpendable Bathy-Thermographs (XBTs, along seven tracks, from September 1999 to May 2000. The tracks were designed to detect some of the main circulation features, such as the stream of surface Atlantic water flowing from the Alboran Sea to the Eastern Levantine Basin. The cyclonic gyres in the Liguro-Provenal Basin, the southern Adriatic and Ionian Seas and the anticyclonic gyres in the Levantine Basin were also features to be detected. The monitoring system confirmed a long-term persistence of structures (at least during the entire observing period, which were previously thought to be transient features. In particular, in the Levantine Basin anticyclonic Shikmona and Ierapetra Gyres have been observed during the monitoring period. In order to identify the major changes in the thermal structures and the dynamical implications, the XBT data are compared with historical measurements collected in the 1980s and 1990s. The results indicate that some thermal features are being restored to the situation that existed in the 1980s, after the changes induced by the so-called "Eastern Mediterranean Transient". Key words. Oceanography: physical (eddies and mesoscale processes; general circulation; instruments and techniques

  18. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  19. Calibration and Validation of A One-dimensional Complex Marine Biogeochemicalfluxes Model In Different Areas of The Northern Adriatic Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, M.; Oddo, P.; Zavatarelli, M.; Coluccelli, A.; Coppini, G.; Celio, M.; Fonda Umani, S.; Pinardi, N.

    In this contribution we show results from numerical simulations carried out with a complex biogeochemical fluxes model coupled with a one-dimensional high-resol ution hydrodynamical model and implemented at three different locations of the north- ern Adriatic shelf . One location is directly affected by Po river influence, one has more open-sea characteristics and one is located in the Gulf of Trieste with an in- termediate behavior; emphasis is put on the comparison with observations and on the functioning of the northern Adriatic ecosystem in the three areas. The work has been performed in a climatological context and has to be considered as preliminary to the development of three-dimensional numerical simulations. Biogeochemical model parameterizations have been ameliorated with a detailed description of bacterial sub- strate utilization associated to the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in order to improve model skill in capturing the observed DOM dynamics in the basin. The coupled model has been calibrated and validated at the three locations by means of climatological datasets. Results show satisfactory model behavior in simulating local seasonal dynamics in the limit of the available boundary conditions and the one-dimensional implementation. Comparisons with available in situ measurements of primary and bacterial production and bacterial abundances have been performed in all locations. Model simulated rates and bacterial dynamics are in the same order of magnitude of observations and show a qualitatively correct time evolution. The importance of temperature as a factor controlling bacteria efficiency is investigated with sensitivity experiments on the model parameterizations. The different model be- havior and pelagic ecosystem structure developed by the model at the three location can be attributed to the local hydrodynamical features and interactions with external inputs of nutrients. The onset of the winter/spring bloom in the climatological

  20. The cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus (Pisces: Labridae: biological indices for life history and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matić-Skoko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus, is widely distributed in the moderate warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. Generally, labrids are small inshore coastal species susceptible to anthropogenic habitat degradation and, although without commercial importance, they make up a significant part of the by-catch and discard. Also, these fishes are intensively caught in recreational and subsistence fisheries. Basic biological information is required for their stock assessment and conservation. Studies of the age, growth, reproduction and feeding of L. mixtus have not been undertaken previously in the Adriatic Sea. The observed maximum age of the cuckoo wrasse was 10 years, although most of the sampled fish were 7 years old. The estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth model suggested that the growth of L. mixtus was relatively fast in the first four years of life. L. mixtus is a protogynous hermaphrodite and sex change occurred at 26 cm, while the greatest increase in gonadosomatic index in April confirmed spring as the spawning period. The cuckoo wrasse is an opportunistic predator, feeding primarily on crustaceans, gastropods and fishes. The information provided on biological indices is necessary for life history pathways and future conservation measures of this population in the Adriatic Sea.

  1. State of the art of seafood chemical contamination in the Adriatic sea and risk assessment for the population living along the Italian coast; Stato dell'arte sulla contaminazione chimica dei prodotti ittici nel mare Adriatico e valutazione del rischio per la popolazione residente lungo la costa italiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, F; Funari, E [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    Data on seafood chemical contamination in the Adriatic sea (Italy) from open and grey literature referring to the period 1985-1997 are gathered. In spite of the high number of available data, the risk assessment was possible only few contaminants. Through the comparison of the estimated intakes with the safety doses defined by international organizations, according to a conservative approach, the latter were never exceeded for the general population in the case of aluminium, chromium, copper, mercury, zinc, DDTs, HCBs and HCHs. In the case of strong consumer categories, these doses were sometimes exceeded for arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel only when the conservative approach was applied but not with the some realistic one. [Italian] Sono presentati i dati della letteratura scientifica aperta e grigia, relativi al periodo 1985-1997, sulla contaminazione chimica dei prodotti ittici del mare Adriatico. Nonostante la notevole mole di dati, la valutazione del rischio e' possibile soltanto per alcuni contaminanti. Confrontando le assunzioni stimate con le dosi ritenute tollerabili da organismi internazionali, applicando un approccio cautelativo, queste ultime non vengono mai superate per la popolazione generale nei casi di alluminio, cromo, mercurio, rame e zinco, DDT, HCB e HCH. Per le categorie dei forti consumatori, applicando l'approccio cautelativo, ma non quello piu' realistico, le dosi di sicurezza vengono talvolta superate nei casi di arsenico, cadmio, nichel e piombo.

  2. Modeling the biogeochemical impact of atmospheric phosphate deposition from desert dust and combustion sources to the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richon, Camille; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Dulac, François; Wang, Rong; Balkanski, Yves

    2018-04-01

    Daily modeled fields of phosphate deposition to the Mediterranean from natural dust, anthropogenic combustion and wildfires were used to assess the effect of this external nutrient on marine biogeochemistry. The ocean model used is a high-resolution (1/12°) regional coupled dynamical-biogeochemical model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED12/PISCES). The input fields of phosphorus are for 2005, which are the only available daily resolved deposition fields from the global atmospheric chemical transport model LMDz-INCA. Traditionally, dust has been suggested to be the main atmospheric source of phosphorus, but the LMDz-INCA model suggests that combustion is dominant over natural dust as an atmospheric source of phosphate (PO4, the bioavailable form of phosphorus in seawater) for the Mediterranean Sea. According to the atmospheric transport model, phosphate deposition from combustion (Pcomb) brings on average 40.5×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 over the entire Mediterranean Sea for the year 2005 and is the primary source over the northern part (e.g., 101×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 from combustion deposited in 2005 over the north Adriatic against 12.4×10-6 from dust). Lithogenic dust brings 17.2×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 on average over the Mediterranean Sea in 2005 and is the primary source of atmospheric phosphate to the southern Mediterranean Basin in our simulations (e.g., 31.8×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 from dust deposited in 2005 on average over the south Ionian basin against 12.4×10-6 from combustion). The evaluation of monthly averaged deposition flux variability of Pdust and Pcomb for the 1997-2012 period indicates that these conclusions may hold true for different years. We examine separately the two atmospheric phosphate sources and their respective flux variability and evaluate their impacts on marine surface biogeochemistry (phosphate concentration, chlorophyll a, primary production). The impacts of the different phosphate deposition sources on the biogeochemistry of the

  3. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    , the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea, western African coast, the Adriatic, and the Aegean Sea, which show high concentrations of endangered, threatened, or vulnerable species. The Levantine Basin, severely impacted by the invasion of species, is endangered as well. This abstract has been translated to other languages (File S1.

  4. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S; Gasol, Josep M; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M; Lotze, Heike K; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Sasa; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-08-02

    Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea), western African coast, the Adriatic, and the Aegean Sea, which show high concentrations of endangered, threatened, or vulnerable species. The Levantine Basin, severely impacted by the invasion of species, is endangered as well. This abstract has been translated to other languages (File S1).

  5. Enhanced dissolved lipid production as a response to the sea surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Tihana; Godrijan, Jelena; Pfannkuchen, Daniela Marić; Djakovac, Tamara; Mlakar, Marina; Baricevic, Ana; Tanković, Mirta Smodlaka; Gašparović, Blaženka

    2018-04-01

    The temperature increase in oceans reflects on marine ecosystem functioning and surely has consequences on the marine carbon cycle and carbon sequestration. In this study, we examined dissolved lipid, lipid classes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production in the northern Adriatic Sea, isolated diatom Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus batch cultures grown in a wide temperature range (10-30 °C) and in contrasting nutrient regimes, phosphorus (P)-depleted and P-replete conditions. Additionally, lipids and DOC were analyzed in the northern Adriatic (NA) in two stations characterized with different P availability, occupied from February to August 2010 that covered a temperature range from 9.3 to 31.1 °C. To gain insight into factors governing lipid and lipid classes' production in the NA, apart from temperature (T), Chlorophyll a, phytoplankton community abundance and structure, nutrient concentrations were measured together with hydrographic parameters. We found enhanced accumulation of dissolved lipids, particulary glycolipids, with increasing T, especially during the highest in situ temperature. The effect of T on enhanced dissolved lipid release is much more pronounced under P-deplete conditions indicating that oligotrophic regions might be more vulnerable to T rise. Temperature between 25 and 30 °C is a threshold T range for C. pseudocurvisetus, at which a significant part of lipid production is directed toward the dissolved phase. Unlike monocultures, there are multiple factors influencing produced lipid composition, distribution and cycling in the NA that may counteract the T influence. The possible role of enhanced dissolved lipid concentration for carbon sequestration at elevated T is discussed. On the one hand, lipids are buoyant and do not sink, which enhances their retention at the surface layer. In addition, they are surface active, and therefore prone to adsorb on sinking particles, contributing to the C sequestration.

  6. State of the art of seafood chemical contamination in the Adriatic sea and risk assessment for the population living along the Italian coast; Stato dell'arte sulla contaminazione chimica dei prodotti ittici nel mare Adriatico e valutazione del rischio per la popolazione residente lungo la costa italiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, F.; Funari, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    Data on seafood chemical contamination in the Adriatic sea (Italy) from open and grey literature referring to the period 1985-1997 are gathered. In spite of the high number of available data, the risk assessment was possible only few contaminants. Through the comparison of the estimated intakes with the safety doses defined by international organizations, according to a conservative approach, the latter were never exceeded for the general population in the case of aluminium, chromium, copper, mercury, zinc, DDTs, HCBs and HCHs. In the case of strong consumer categories, these doses were sometimes exceeded for arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel only when the conservative approach was applied but not with the some realistic one. [Italian] Sono presentati i dati della letteratura scientifica aperta e grigia, relativi al periodo 1985-1997, sulla contaminazione chimica dei prodotti ittici del mare Adriatico. Nonostante la notevole mole di dati, la valutazione del rischio e' possibile soltanto per alcuni contaminanti. Confrontando le assunzioni stimate con le dosi ritenute tollerabili da organismi internazionali, applicando un approccio cautelativo, queste ultime non vengono mai superate per la popolazione generale nei casi di alluminio, cromo, mercurio, rame e zinco, DDT, HCB e HCH. Per le categorie dei forti consumatori, applicando l'approccio cautelativo, ma non quello piu' realistico, le dosi di sicurezza vengono talvolta superate nei casi di arsenico, cadmio, nichel e piombo.

  7. When land breezes collide: Converging diurnal winds over small bodies of water

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, ST; Llewellyn Smith, SG

    2014-01-01

    © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society. Over enclosed and semi-enclosed bodies of water, the land-breeze/sea-breeze circulation is expected to be modified by the presence of opposing coastlines. These effects are studied using satellite scatterometer surface wind observations from the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-2 tandem mission from April-October 2003. Winds are studied for six bodies of water: the Red Sea, the Gulf of California, the Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. T...

  8. Distribution of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments of Maslinica Bay, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic, Nenad; Orescanin, Visnja; Elez, Loris; Pavicic, Ljiljana; Pezelj, Durdica; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Lulic, Stipe

    2008-02-01

    Spatial distributions of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments and water of Maslinica Bay (Southern Adriatic), Croatia and possible changes in marine flora and foraminifera communities due to pollution were investigated. Macro, micro and trace elements’ distributions in five granulometric fractions were determined for each sediment sample. Bulk sediment samples were also subjected to leaching tests. Elemental concentrations in sediments, sediment extracts and seawater were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Concentrations of the elements Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb in bulk sediment samples taken in the Maslinica Bay were from 2.1 to over six times enriched when compared with the background level determined for coarse grained carbonate sediments. A low degree of trace elements leaching determined for bulk sediments pointed to strong bonding of trace elements to sediment mineral phases. The analyses of marine flora pointed to higher eutrophication, which disturbs the balance between communities and natural habitats.

  9. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  10. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  11. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  12. Treating a patient with lower limb injury from shark attack – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Ahčan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year a number of people are attacked by sharks worldwide; however, death as a consequence is quite unusual. In recent years, the number of reported shark attacks worldwide has been around 67 per year with fatalities averaging 5 persons annually. Shark attacks in the Adriatic Sea are very rare.Case report: In 2008, a great white shark attack happened in the Adriatic Sea, in which a man suffered a severe injury to his lower extremity and profuse bleeding that led to haemorrhagic shock.Conclusion: The expeditious intervention at the site of attack and the exemplary cooperation of medical teams in two centres in the neighbouring countries of Croatia and Slovenia has saved the life of the unusually injured patient and resulted in a satisfactory functional outcome.

  13. INTRODUCING ELECTRONIC MARITIME SINGLE WINDOW BY PORT COMMUNITIES IN THE ADRIATIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan BEŠKOVNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analysis specific fields of procedures for ship arrival and acceptance in the port, that are predefined by the Directive 2010/65/EU. The directive poses the framework for the Maritime Single Window (MSW development in EU. The article brings original and scientific contribution, as it presents the model for Slovenian MSW (SI MSW. The model covers the need of different groups of stakeholder from the local port community. The proposed MSW architecture unifies communication channels and reduces interfaces in business to port (B2P and business to administration (B2A operational processes for ship formalities. Consequently, the business to customer (B2C relationship benefits from lean operation procedures. The focus is also on information exchange standardization. The paper presents principal benefits of the model implementation in the Slovenian port community. The SI MSW model might be adopted also in other port communities in the Adriatic region or to be used as the main platform for further local improvement.

  14. Direct pollution cost assessment of cruising tourism in the Croatian Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Carić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and one that has significant environmental, economic and social impacts on target destinations. Yet, tourism decision makers, developers and managers rarely incorporate or estimate environmental impacts in their tourism development planning. Indeed, the analysis of the resulting resource exploitation is rarely undertaken until carrying capacity is breached and attractiveness diminished. In this article an assessment is offered that determines, quantifies and financially estimates emissions and waste streams so they can be compared with the direct income generated to the local economy by cruising tourism. It is applied to the Croatian part of the Adriatic and financially evaluates environmental impacts, arguing that they are negative externalities due to inappropriate internalization and management.The purpose of the assessment is to give a “snapshot” of the situation, and also to create the groundwork for a model that will assist decision makers and stakeholders, at different levels and of different interests, to prevent and reduce the ecological, health and economic risks associated with dead-end tourism development.

  15. La mappa acustica dinamica di Milano da un numero limitato di punti di monitoraggio. Primi risultati - Milan dynamic noise mapping from few monitoring stations. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zambon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Il questa memoria sono riportati i primi risultati del progetto Dynamap relativi all’area pilota di Milano. Il progetto sviluppa un approccio alla rappresentazione del rumore derivante da traffico stradale che consenta una mappatura acustica dinamica attraverso la scalatura di mappe precalcolate mediante un collegamento diretto con un numero limitato di stazioni di monitoraggio. La possibilità di controllare la mappa acustica di una rete stradale estesa mediante pochi punti di controllo si attua mediante una necessaria aggregazione degli archi stradali in gruppi omogenei. ------ This memory reports the first results of Dynamap project related to the Milan pilot area. The project develops an approach to represent road traffic noise with the outcome of a dynamic noise mapping achieved through the scaling of precalculated maps; scaling is based upon a direct connection to a limited number of noise monitoring stations. The possibility of controlling the acoustic map of an extended road network by means of a few monitoring sites is implemented through a preliminary aggregation of road stretches into homogeneous groups.

  16. Metazoan meiofauna in deep-sea canyons and adjacent open slopes: A large-scale comparison with focus on the rare taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Zeppilli, D.; Danovaro, R.

    2010-03-01

    Metazoan meiofaunal abundance, total biomass, nematode size and the richness of taxa were investigated along bathymetric gradients (from the shelf break down to ca. 5000-m depth) in six submarine canyons and on five adjacent open slopes of three deep-sea regions. The investigated areas were distributed along >2500 km, on the Portuguese to the Catalan and South Adriatic margins. The Portuguese and Catalan margins displayed the highest abundances, biomass and richness of taxa, while the lowest values were observed in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The comparison between canyons and the nearby open slopes showed the lack of significant differences in terms of meiofaunal abundance and biomass at any sampling depth. In most canyons and on most slopes, meiofaunal variables did not display consistent bathymetric patterns. Conversely, we found that the different topographic features were apparently responsible for significant differences in the abundance and distribution of the rare meiofaunal taxa (i.e. taxa accounting for Priapulida, Holothuroidea, Ascidiacea and Cnidaria, were encountered exclusively on open slopes, while others (including the Tanaidacea and Echinodea larvae) were found exclusively in canyons sediments. Results reported here indicate that, at large spatial scales, differences in deep-sea meiofaunal abundance and biomass are not only controlled by the available food sources, but also by the region or habitat specific topographic features, which apparently play a key role in the distribution of rare benthic taxa.

  17. Plastic litter in sediments from a marine area likely to become protected (Aeolian Archipelago's islands, Tyrrhenian sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastelli, Paolo; Blašković, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulia; Romeo, Teresa; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Andaloro, Franco; Russo, Giovanni F; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2016-12-15

    This research aims to define for the first time levels and patterns of different litter groups (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments from a marine area designed for the institution of a new marine protected area (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy). Microplastics resulted the principal group and found in all samples analyzed, with shape and colours variable between different sampling sites. MPs levels measured in this study are similar to values recorded in harbour sites and lower than reported in Adriatic Sea, while macroplastics levels are notably lower than in harbor sites. Sediment grain-size and island extent resulted not significant in determining levels and distribution of plastic debris among islands. In the future, following the establishment of the MPA in the study area, these basic data will be useful to check for potential protective effects on the levels and distribution of plastic debris. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Empirical correlation among the dynamic elastic constants and the waves P and S velocities in rocks; Correlaciones empiricas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades de las ondas P y S de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    Departing from the analysis of a data base on the velocities of the compression waves (V{sub p}) and the transverse waves (V{sub s}) in a group of 97 specimens of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the existence of four types of empirical correlation very well entailed between the dynamic elastic constants and the velocities V{sub p} and V{sub s}. These correlation allow the estimation with a very close approximation the elastic dynamic constants without the need of having available of the complete set of data (V{sub p}, V{sub s} and total density) that is normally required for its determination. The identified correlation is mathematically expressed by means of adjustment equations that reproduce in all of the cases the experimental values with a standard error of estimation within 10%, for the universe of rocks studied and with much less error for different specific lithological groups. The application methodologies of the correlation found for different cases of practical interest, are described. [Espanol] A partir del analisis de una base de datos experimentales sobre la velocidad de las ondas compresionales (V{sub p}) y de las ondas transversales (V{sub s}) de un conjunto de 97 especimenes de rocas sedimentarias, igneas y metamorficas, se identifica la existencia de cuatro tipos de correlaciones empiricas muy bien comportadas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades V{sub p} y V{sub s}. Estas correlaciones permiten estimar con muy buena aproximacion las constantes elasticas dinamicas de las rocas sin tener que disponer del conjunto completo de datos (V{sub p}, V{sub s} y densidad total) que normalmente se requieren para su determinacion. Las correlaciones identificadas se expresan matematicamente mediante ecuaciones de ajuste que reproducen en todos los casos los valores experimentales con un error estandar de estimacion dentro de 10% para el universo de las rocas estudiadas, y con mucho menor error para diferentes grupos litologicos

  19. Empirical correlation among the dynamic elastic constants and the waves P and S velocities in rocks; Correlaciones empiricas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades de las ondas P y S de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Departing from the analysis of a data base on the velocities of the compression waves (V{sub p}) and the transverse waves (V{sub s}) in a group of 97 specimens of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the existence of four types of empirical correlation very well entailed between the dynamic elastic constants and the velocities V{sub p} and V{sub s}. These correlation allow the estimation with a very close approximation the elastic dynamic constants without the need of having available of the complete set of data (V{sub p}, V{sub s} and total density) that is normally required for its determination. The identified correlation is mathematically expressed by means of adjustment equations that reproduce in all of the cases the experimental values with a standard error of estimation within 10%, for the universe of rocks studied and with much less error for different specific lithological groups. The application methodologies of the correlation found for different cases of practical interest, are described. [Espanol] A partir del analisis de una base de datos experimentales sobre la velocidad de las ondas compresionales (V{sub p}) y de las ondas transversales (V{sub s}) de un conjunto de 97 especimenes de rocas sedimentarias, igneas y metamorficas, se identifica la existencia de cuatro tipos de correlaciones empiricas muy bien comportadas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades V{sub p} y V{sub s}. Estas correlaciones permiten estimar con muy buena aproximacion las constantes elasticas dinamicas de las rocas sin tener que disponer del conjunto completo de datos (V{sub p}, V{sub s} y densidad total) que normalmente se requieren para su determinacion. Las correlaciones identificadas se expresan matematicamente mediante ecuaciones de ajuste que reproducen en todos los casos los valores experimentales con un error estandar de estimacion dentro de 10% para el universo de las rocas estudiadas, y con mucho menor error para diferentes grupos litologicos

  20. Tectonics vs. Climate efficiency in triggering detrital input in sedimentary basins: the Po Plain-Venetian-Adriatic Foreland Basin (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Chiara; Di Giulio, Andrea; Toscani, Giovanni; Lombardi, Stefano; Milanesi, Riccardo; Panara, Yuri; Fantoni, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The relative efficiency of tectonics respect to climate in triggering erosion of mountain belts is a classical but still open debate in geosciences. The fact that data both from tectonically active and inactive mountain regions in different latitudes, record a worldwide increase of sediment input to sedimentary basins during the last million years concomitantly with the cooling of global climate and its evolution toward the modern high amplitude oscillating conditions pushed some authors to conclude that Pliocene-Pleistocene climate has been more efficient than tectonics in triggering mountain erosion. Po Plain-Venetian-Adriatic Foreland System, made by the relatively independent Po Plain-Northern Adriatic Basin and Venetian-Friulian Basin, provides an ideal case of study to test this hypothesis and possibly quantify the difference between the efficiency of the two. In fact it is a relatively closed basin (i.e. without significant sediment escape) with a fairly continuous sedimentation (i.e. with a quite continuous sedimentary record) completely surrounded by collisional belts (Alps, Northern Apennines and Dinarides) that experienced only very weak tectonic activity since Calabrian time, i.e. when climate cooling and cyclicity increased the most. We present a quantitative reconstruction of the sediment flow delivered from the surrounding mountain belts to the different part of the basin during Pliocene-Pleistocene time. This flow was obtained through the 3D reconstruction of the Venetian-Friulian and Po Plain Northern Adriatic Basins architecture, performed by means of the seismic-based interpretation and time-to-depth conversion of six chronologically constrained surfaces (seismic and well log data from courtesy of ENI); moreover, a 3D decompaction of the sediment volume bounded by each couple of surfaces has been included in the workflow, in order to avoid compaction-related bias. The obtained results show in both Basins a rapid four-folds increase of the

  1. EVALUATION OF FISHING LOBSTERS PALINURUS ELEPHAS (FABRICIUS, 1787 BY LOBSTER TRAPS IN THE MIDDLE ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perica Cetinić

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The work contains the results of fishing lobsters Palinurus elephas by lobsters traps from Komiža, island Vis with one eye side size of 60 mm as well as the evaluation of its effect to their population. The correct size of her eye was evaluated by the analysis of representation of immature lobsters in the catchs of the lobsters traps. 171 examples of lobsters were analyzed (116 males and 55 females with their lengths ranging from 22 to 45 cm. Total of 53 units (31% were less than 28 mm and at that length lobsters are barred from catch and transport. Such a length has been regulated by the valid Regulation on protection of fish and other sea organisms. Therefore, the lobster trap from Komiža, island Vis was evaluated as having the negative impact on the lobsters population.

  2. Post-20 Ma Motion of the Adriatic Plate: New Constraints From Surrounding Orogens and Implications for Crust-Mantle Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, Eline; Handy, Mark R.; Molli, Giancarlo; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2017-12-01

    A new kinematic reconstruction that incorporates estimates of post-20 Ma shortening and extension in the Apennines, Alps, Dinarides, and Sicily Channel Rift Zone (SCRZ) reveals that the Adriatic microplate (Adria) rotated counterclockwise as it subducted beneath the European Plate to the west and to the east, while indenting the Alps to the north. Minimum and maximum amounts of rotation are derived by using, respectively, estimates of crustal extension along the SCRZ (minimum of 30 km) combined with crustal shortening in the Eastern Alps (minimum of 115 km) and a maximum amount (140 km) of convergence between Adria and Moesia across the southern Dinarides and Carpatho-Balkan orogens. When combined with Neogene convergence in the Western Alps, the best fit of available structural data constrains Adria to have moved 113 km to the NW (azimuth 325°) while rotating 5 ± 3° counterclockwise relative to Europe since 20 Ma. Amounts of plate convergence predicted by our new model exceed Neogene shortening estimates of several tens of kilometers in both the Apennines and Dinarides. We attribute this difference to crust-mantle decoupling (delamination) during rollback in the Apennines and to distributed deformation related to the northward motion of the Dacia Unit between the southern Dinarides and Europe (Moesia). Neogene motion of Adria resulted from a combination of Africa pushing from the south, the Adriatic-Hellenides slab pulling to the northeast, and crustal wedging in the Western Alps, which acted as a pivot and stopped farther northwestward motion of Adria relative to Europe.

  3. The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Piraccini, G; Agnisola, C

    1999-01-01

    as 15% of dry feed weight), with an elevated content of highly unsaturated fatty acids of the co3 series (¿3 HUFA), had a significantly lower standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine oxygen consumption (Mo2) than those fed a diet enriched with the same quantity of hydrogenated coconut oil......This paper reviews evidence that the fatty acid composition of dietary lipids influences the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon {Acipenser naccarii) and, thereby, their tolerance of the stress of hypoxia. Sturgeon fed a commercial diet enriched in fish oil (menhaden oil...

  4. Calibration and testing of a polarographic sensor for the measurement of oxygen in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniforti, R; Dell' Amico, F; Marri, P

    1987-04-01

    The procedures for the calibration and testing of a polarographic oxygen sensor, mounted on a CTD probe, are reported. As an example of in-field use, oxygen and temperature profiles obtained in Fossa del Pomo (Central Adriatic Sea), are given.

  5. Evidence of Brucella strain ST27 in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetnić, Željko; Duvnjak, Sanja; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Reil, Irena; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Špičić, Silvio

    2016-11-30

    Marine mammal brucellosis has been known for more than 20 years, but recent work suggests it is more widespread than originally thought. Brucella (B.) pinnipedialis has been isolated from pinnipeds, while B. ceti strains have been associated with cetaceans. Here we report a Brucella strain isolated from multiple lymph nodes of one bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) during routine examination of dolphin carcasses found in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea during the summer of 2015. Classical bacteriological biotyping, PCR-based techniques (single, multiplex, PCR-RFLP) and 16S rRNA DNA sequencing were used to identify Brucella spp. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 loci and multilocus sequence typing of 9 loci were used for genotyping and species determination. The combination of bacteriological, molecular and genotyping techniques identified our strain as ST27, previously identified as a human pathogen. This report provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of ST27 in the Adriatic Sea in particular and in European waters in general. The zoonotic nature of the strain and its presence in the Adriatic, which is inhabited by bottlenose dolphins, suggest that the strain may pose a significant threat to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GENDER INEQUALITIES AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS OF EMPOLYED WOMEN IN THE ALPS-ADRIATIC REGION. A COMPARISON BETWEEN CARINTHIA, FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA AND SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    FEDEL, SERENA

    2007-01-01

    2005/2006 Serena Fedel's dissertation is focused on gender issues, more precisely she has chosen to analyse the social conditions of employed women and the way they manage to reconcile the duties arising from their job with the ones connected with their role within the family. Geographically speaking she has decided to examine the above mentioned issues in the core of the so called Alps-Adriatic region, i.e. in the three bordering areas of Carinthia, Friuli Venezia Giulia and Slovenia. ...

  7. Alternative connection between territory of Poland and Far / Middle East countries for containers transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Żuchowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The new cyclical service, available on the Polish market, related to the railway connection between Port of Koper and the terminal in Silesia, enables delivery of containers, skipping the Polish and German ports. To "the opening" of a direct connection with the Adriatic Sea arises dilemma that requires the identification of sustainability of the containers' transport to the Polish territories in economical and ecological terms. The key to this problem is a solution of the equation with several unknowns, which include the cost and time of transport, sea freight operator procedures, infrastructure constraints and the interests of local and regional communities. The analysis of the impact area of rail connection Koper - Slawkow was carried within Empiric project. The assumptions and results are described below. Material and methods: Based on the experience of the Slawkow-Koper link's operator and analysis of distances, cost, duration of containers transport, the research has been conducted, intended to estimate the area of influence of ports, located on the shores of the four seas surrounding area of Central Europe: Adriatic, Baltic, Black and North, with particular reference to the Port of Koper. The research used publicly available information, calculators, and disseminated investment plans. Results: Analysis of factors possible to calculate, especially the cost of containers' transport, by adopted assumptions, the study allowed to estimate the theoretical impact area of the Port of Koper. The area covers a large part of Poland, south from the line Szczecin-Brest. Besides aspect of cost impact area has been expanded due to different rail-gauge along the eastern Polish border. Also the environmental aspects indicate south direction of transport containers, as beneficial to the natural environment. As the factors reducing the development of the connections financial policies of the sea freight operators and infrastructure limitations of

  8. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Montagna, Paolo; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (∼ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14 C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14 C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T isol ) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14 C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ∼ 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in

  9. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  10. 4D-Var data assimilation system for a coupled physical-biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A 3-compartment model of phytoplankton growth dynamics has been coupled with a primitive-equation circulation model to better understand and quantify physical and biological processes in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the development and application of a data assimilation procedure based on optimal.

  11. Parallel evolution and adaptation to environmental factors in a marine flatfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    do Prado, Fernanda Dotti; Vera, Manuel; Hermida, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    frequency data from 755 single nucleotide polymorphism discovered and genotyped by double-digest RAD sequencing. The species was structured into four main regions: Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Adriatic Sea, and Black Sea, with subtle differentiation apparent at the distribution margins of the Atlantic region...... were probably the main environmental drivers of selection. Mining around the four genomic regions consistently inferred to be under selection identified candidate genes related to osmoregulation, growth, and resistance to diseases. The new insights are useful for the management of turbot fisheries...

  12. Changes in climate suitability for tourism at Adriatic coast since 1961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the paper is the comparison of suitability of climate conditions for tourism at the eastern Adriatic coast in the period 1961-2015. For quantitative estimation of suitability of climate for different kinds of tourism, climate index for tourism (CIT) is used. CIT integrates thermal, aesthetic and physical facets of atmospheric environment and therefore is suitable for estimation of climate satisfaction that ranges from very poor to very good. The thermal component is estimated using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The index is applied for: beach tourism, cycling, hiking, cultural tourism, golf, football, motor boating and sailing. Changes in climate potential of tourism are estimated by differences of distribution of climate index for tourism. For the warmest part of the day, the results indicate the extension of the summer tourist season for beach tourism at the end of the analyzed period. On the other hand, for other tourist activities in the same period the results indicate more pronounced bimodal distribution of CIT during year, resulting with the seasonality shift of ideal conditions for most activities to spring and autumn. Besides, in the morning the improvement of favourable climate conditions for all types of tourism at the end of the period.

  13. FEMALE EMIGRATION. FROM RURAL ROMANIA TO THE ADRIATIC COAST: WOMEN ON THEIR JOURNEY BETWEEN OPPORTUNITY AND SOCIAL VULNERABILITY. “THE ITALIAN SYNDROME”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. BURTINI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Female Emigration. From Rural Romania to the Adriatic Coast: Women on Their Journey between Opportunity and Social Vulnerability. “The Italian Syndrome”. The twenty-first century can be called the “age of migration”, in fact since the de-colonization and markedly since the eighties migration affects the entire planet, qualifying as a global phenomenon. Comparing it with it in the past today prevails new elements and in fact, in addition to a geographical change of the phenomenon, it has turned its composition, showing a growing feminization.

  14. Effectiveness of insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients failing glycaemic control with premixed insulin: Adriatic countries data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigrovski Berkovic, Maja; Petrovski, Goran; Grulovic, Natasa

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease, often requiring exogenous insulin therapy and treatment intensification. Despite new therapies, most patients do not reach the recommended HbA1c targets, among them a significant proportion of patients on premixed insulins. The aim was to summarize published data in Adriatic countries on effectiveness of insulin glargine based therapy in type 2 diabetic patients suboptimally controlled on premix insulin. A meta-analysis was carried out in major medical databases up to April 2014, focusing on Adriatic region. We searched observational studies with duration of at least 6 months, evaluating effectiveness and safety of insulin glargine (IGlar), in combination with OAD or bolus insulin in patients with T2 failing premixed insulin therapy. Outcomes included values of HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and two hours post-prandial glucose concentration as well as changes in body mass index after at least 6 months of study duration. Three prospective, observational, multicentric trials (698 patients in total) were included. The basal bolus regimen with glargine significantly reduced HbA1c (Mean Difference, MD=2.27, CI [1.76, 2.78]), fasting glucose (MD=5.15, CI [4.86, 5.44]) and 2-hours postprandial glucose concentration (MD=6.94, CI [6.53, 7.34]). No significant changes were found in BMI after switching from premixes to IGlar based treatment. Insulin glargine based therapy following premix failure is efficacious and safe option of type 2 diabetes treatment intensification.

  15. Report of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae in a green turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.

  16. 4D-Var data assimilation system for a coupled physical biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A 3-compartment model of phytoplankton growth dynamics has been coupled with a primitive-equation circulation model to better understand and quantify physical and biological processes in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the development and application of a data assimilation procedure based on optimal control ...

  17. Concentration factors of 226 Ra in the mullet species Liza aurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, I.; Antovic, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of measured 226 Ra activity concentrations in whole individuals of the mullet species Liza aurata, its muscles and skeleton, concentration factors for transfer of radium from water and sediment to this mullet species from the South Adriatic Sea, have been determined. (author) [sr

  18. Characterization and distribution of organic matter using specific physico-chemical methods: A case study of the southeast Adriatic continental and shelf slope (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Marta; Strmečki, Slađana; Dautović, Jelena; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Olujić, Goran; Ćosović, Božena

    2012-05-01

    In May 2009, we characterized the organic matter in the area where Albanian shelf riverine plume waters enter the Southern Adriatic Pit region. Due to stable weather and hydrological conditions at the time of sampling a longitudinal thermal front was present around the Albanian shelf break. Our measurements point to the input of inorganic nutrients, including phosphorus (average P-PO4 concentration was 0.71 μg/L) and nitrogen (average as total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) concentration was 25.33 μg/L) due to the intrusion of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) through the Otranto Strait. The input of LIW brings high salinity (˜38.7) water that is poor in organic matter content. Low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (0.7 mg C/L) and particulate organic carbon (POC) (0.06 mg C/L), surface active substances (SAS) (in the range from 0.025 to 0.078 mg/L equiv. Triton-X-100) and copper complexing capacity (CuCC) (24 nmol Cu2+/L) were measured in the area. All the values for DOC, POC, SAS and CuCC were significantly lower in the Albanian coastal waters than in the North Adriatic. The measurable influence of the inflowing Albanian rivers was observed from the inverse dependance of the DOC concentrations and salinity data. The Albanian rivers contribute to the elevated nutrient concentrations especially those of silicate, which displayed concentrations up to 380 μg/L in the shallowest coastal station.

  19. A project »WHITE GOLD FROM THE SEA«

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, Lenka

    2017-04-01

    Students have been introduced with the importance of salt. The history of so called »white gold« is very interesting. The salt we use every day is known as sodium chloride NaCl in chemistry. Table salt has been of great importance for human beings for ages. For that reason we call it »white gold«. It plays an important role for the proper function of our water balance, the nervous system, the digestion and the bone structure. The body of an adult needs one to three grams daily to compensate its loss through sweat and extraction Young people are very curious and should have the opportunity to explore the world around them. The sea and maritime environment are good examples for that. School excursions to saltworks in Sečovlje are the best way for experiential or authentic learning. The Bay of Trieste is a shallow marginal sea, the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea surrounded by land on three sides. As it contains relatively little water, less than some large lakes, it is extremely sensitive to ecological changes, pollution and massive tourism. Saltmaking is one of the oldest economic activities on the north-eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea, and the salt trade was once one of the most important branches of commerce in the territory of present-day Slovenia. This trade had a decisive role in the development of places like Trieste, Piran, Izola and Koper. The Sečovlje saltworks are the northernmost saltworks in the Mediterranean. The average salinity is 37-38‰, but in the summer it falls under 35‰. The salt work in Sečovlje is an activity that has survived for thousands of years. According the project students learn geography (northern Adriatic sea) and chemical processes at saltwarks (past and today). They recognise the importance of salt - not only as a flavoring agent, but also as a source of different industrial chemicals. In the school laboratory students devise and carry out experiments to show how to extract salt from the sea. They prepare simple

  20. Remote sensing and modeling in the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkering, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The final objective of the project is to cast the scientific and practical base for the creation of an operational system to trace and predict the pathway and fate of pollutants in the marine environment, based principally on Remote Sensing from space. 20 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  1. Esercizi e complementi di meccanica razionale

    CERN Document Server

    Bisconcini, Giulio

    1947-01-01

    Vettori ; cinematica del punto ; cinematica dei sistemi rigidi ; loti relativi ; unità, dimensioni, modelii ; l'attrito e la statica del punto ; baricentri ; momenti d'inerzia ; attrazione newtoniana ; statica dei solidi ; statica dei sistemi articolati e dei fili ; equazione simbolica della statica ; equilibrio relativo ; dinamica del punto in una dimensione ; dinamica dei sistemi.

  2. Environmental challenges for the sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region = Okoljski izzivi trajnostnega razvoja v hrvaškem delu Severnega Jadrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Maradin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of theNorth Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted withproblems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy,especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastalregion where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Anotherenvironmental problem is the oil transportation by a pipeline which is planned to be built inthe frames of Russian-Croatian project Družba-Adria.

  3. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  4. Heavy metals in marine coastal sediments: assessing sources, fluxes, history and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frignani, Mauro; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Examples are presented from the Adriatic Sea, the Ligurian Sea and the Venice Lagoon to illustrate different approaches to the study of anthropogenic metals in marine coastal sediments. These examples refer to studies of areal distribution and transport mechanisms, individuation of the sources, sediment dating, chronology of the fluxes, present and past trends. In particular, some of the findings achieved in studying the Venice Lagoon are discussed from the point of view of anthropogenic changes both in sediment composition and contaminant fluxes.

  5. Organic and inorganic micropollutants in Adriatic seafood: contamination levels and evaluation of human potential intake; Microinquinanti organici ed inorganici in specie marine eduli del mare Adriatico: livelli di presenza e stima dell`assunzione potenziale da parte dell`uomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubadda, F; Stacchini, P; Baldini, M [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. Alimenti

    1998-06-01

    Review the state of the art on the chemical contamination of seafood and on the human intake of contaminants through these commodities in the Adriatic area. Scientific literature on the levels of inorganic (i.e. cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead) and organic (i.e. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants as well as studies on potential health hazard related to Adriatic seafood consumption were examined. Where sufficient data were available, an evaluation of the average potential intake was carried out through the correlation between contamination levels in marine organisms and seafood consumption. The results of this study did not show any risk for the average consumer related to the consumption of Adriatic seafood. Nevertheless it is essential to carefully evaluate the potential risk to which some population groups, especially high consumers of local seafood, are exposed. For this purpose, it is necessary to obtain additional data on the content of contaminants in the main seafood products and on the levels of consumption by the Adriatic coastal populations. [Italiano] Si propone di fare il punto sullo stato dell`arte in materia di contaminazione chimica delle specie marine eduli e di assunzione di contaminanti da parte dell`uomo mediante tali alimenti nell`are adriatica. A tal fine e` stata presa in esame la letteratura scientifica concernente i livelli di presenza di contaminanti inorganici (cadmio, cromo, mercurio, piombo) e organici (pesticidi, policlorobifenili, diossine, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici), nonche` gli studi relativi al problema del rischio sanitario associato al consumo di prodotti della pesca nel Mare Adriatico. Nel caso dei contaminanti per i quali esiste una sufficiente base di dati si e` proceduto ad una stima dell`assunzione media potenziale calcolata mediante la correlazione dei livelli di presenza negli organismi marini con dati di consumo alimentare. In base ai risultati ottenuti

  6. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  7. Trophic flexibility of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus in invaded coastal systems of the Apulia region (SE Italy): A stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Teresa Guerra, Maria; Alujević, Karla; Raho, Davide; Zotti, Maurizio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2017-11-01

    The Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus is recognized as an Invasive Alien Species in the Mediterranean Sea. However, its trophic role and feeding flexibility in invaded benthic food webs have been addressed only recently. Here, field samplings were conducted in winter and summer in five coastal systems of the Apulia region (SE Italy), three located on the Ionian Sea (Mar Piccolo, Torre Colimena, and Spunderati) and two on the Adriatic Sea (Acquatina and Alimini Grande). Captured blue crabs were weighed and had their δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures measured; their trophic level (TL) was estimated using the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as isotopic baseline. C. sapidus abundances varied greatly across systems and seasons, and in Adriatic systems the species was not collected in winter. Trophic levels showed significant spatial and temporal variations, although with no general pattern. In winter, the Mar Piccolo population showed the highest TL values; the lowest estimates were in Torre Colimena and Spunderati, where crabs showed δ13C signatures significantly higher than mussels, suggesting the contribution of 13C-enriched plant material in the diet. In summer, with the exception of the Mar Piccolo, Ionian populations increased their trophic level; both Adriatic populations were characterized by the lowest TL estimates. The analysis performed at the individual scale further indicated body weight-related changes in trophic level. For the Torre Colimena population, in particular, a hump-shaped pattern was observed in both seasons. The present study highlighted a considerable spatial and temporal trophic flexibility of C. sapidus at the population scale, while at the individual scale size-related shifts in trophic level were observed. The ability of the blue crab to vary its energy sources in relation with season, local environmental conditions, and ontogenetic stage is emphasized, suggesting that it may represent a key determinant of its invasion success.

  8. Geomorphological analysis and classification of foredune ridges based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Stefano; Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Sistilli, Flavia; Scarelli, Frederico; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Along the North Adriatic Sea coast (Italy), vulnerability to climate change is further aggravated by anthropogenic influences, such as strong subsidence rate due to deep groundwater and gas abstraction, tourism and industry impacts. In this context, conservation and restoration of coastal sand dunes become extremely important especially because of their importance in terms of 'natural' coastal defense. This paper proposes an innovative geomorphological approach based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning - TLS, which allows us to measure and monitor morphometric dune evolution with high precision and details. Several TLS surveys were performed along the Ravenna coast (Adriatic Sea, Italy) and the resulting Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were analyzed in order to classify the foredune ridges in three geomorphological sub-zones. The topographic, areal and volumetric variations over time of geomorphological units were calculated by GIS tools in order to identify seasonal trends or particular pattern. Meteo-marine climate conditions were also analyzed and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to correlate changes in morphology with meteo-marine forcing factors, highlighting the ones that most influence dune evolution and dynamics.

  9. Concentration of mercury and selenium in tissues of five cetacean species from Croatian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and selenium (Se concentrations were measured in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of five cetacean species, three dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus and two whale species (Balaenoptera physalus and Ziphius cavirostris, stranded along the Croatian coast during the period 1999-2002. Statistically significant differences in Hg concentrations in muscle, spleen and lung, and Se in liver and lung of the different dolphin species were observed. Mercury levels in liver and spleen and Se levels in liver differed between young and adult T. truncatus species. A significant positive correlation between different tissue types for Hg and Se concentrations was observed. In all tissues tested, the lowest Hg and Se concentrations were found in B. physalus. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with Se in all tissues. The results present one of few studies related to lung and spleen tissues in these mammals, particularly in the Adriatic Sea. Since very little data are available, this research provides new data on concentrations of Hg and Se in five cetacean species from the Adriatic Sea basin.

  10. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: a multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti; Claudia, Virno Lamberti; Barbara, Pisanelli; Ginevra, Moltedo; Francesco, Regoli

    2009-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities.

  11. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  12. Meccanica applicata

    CERN Document Server

    Timoshenko, Stephen

    1957-01-01

    Statica : principi di statica, forze complanari concorrenti, forze complanari parallele, forze complanari nel caso generale, sistemi di forze nello spazio, principio dei lavori virtuali ; Dinamica : principi di dinamica, traslazione rettilinea, traslazione curvilinea, rotazione di un corpo rigido intorno a un asse fisso, moto piano di un corpo rigido, moto relativo, momenti d'inerzia di figure piane, momenti d'inerzia di corpi materiali.

  13. Radionuclides in the ecological system of the Boka Kotorska Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martic, M.; Ajdacic, N.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine radioactive contamination in the South Adriatic region after May, 1986, activities of 21 radionuclides of natural and artificial origin were determined by gamma-spectrometry in the samples of sea water, sediments and several characteristic types of organisms collected on several locations in the Boka Kotorska Bay and open sea. Quantitative data on radionuclide contents are presented. Change of activity levels with respect to the 'zero state' determined for this region during previous years is also discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 4 tabs

  14. Species variation of Aegilops genus and heavy metal content in plant habitat soil at southern Adriatic localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aegilops genus is a wild relative to the bread wheat, having chromosomes homologous to wheat chromosomes. That genus could be the source of many usefull abiotic stress tolerance genes. Facing a global climate changes, as well as, environmental erosion, it is important to create a desirable genetic variability that could correspond to environmental challenges. Heavy metals in soil could cause soil pollution, could lead to different phenotypic changes in plants, and could enter food chain. Assessment of Aegilops sp. population variation, as well as, heavy metal content in their habitat was the main goal in this research. Aegilops population composition was examined and samples were taken from 55 localities of South Adriatic coastal and littoral areas. Topsoil samples from all the localities were taken and heavy metal content, namely Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Cu, was analyzed,. Manganese content was measured, as well. Value of pH was established.

  15. Environmental effects on underwater optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peter C.; Breshears, Brian F.; Cullen, Alexander J.; Hammerer, Ross F.; Martinez, Ramon P.; Phung, Thai Q.; Margolina, Tetyana; Fan, Chenwu

    2017-05-01

    Optical communication/detection systems have potential to get around some limitations of current acoustic communications and detection systems especially increased fleet and port security in noisy littoral waters. Identification of environmental effects on underwater optical transmission is the key to the success of using optics for underwater communication and detection. This paper is to answer the question "What are the transfer and correlation functions that relate measurements of hydrographic to optical parameters?" Hydrographic and optical data have been collected from the Naval Oceanographic Office survey ships with the High Intake Defined Excitation (HIDEX) photometer and sea gliders with optical back scattering sensor in various Navy interested areas such as the Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, east Asian marginal seas, and Adriatic Sea. The data include temperature, salinity, bioluminescence, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, transmissivity at two different wavelengths (TRed at 670 nm, TBlue at 490 nm), and back scattering coefficient (bRed at 700 nm, bBlue at 470 nm). Transfer and correlation functions between the hydrographic and optical parameters are obtained. Bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima, transmissivity minimum with their corresponding depths, red and blue laser beam peak attenuation coefficients are identified from the optical profiles. Evident correlations are found between the ocean mixed layer depth and the blue and red laser beam peak attenuation coefficients, bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima in the Adriatic Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and Philippine Sea. Based on the observational data, an effective algorithm is recommended for solving the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for predicting underwater laser radiance.

  16. Field experiments on individual adaptation of the spider crab Inachus phalangium to its sea anemone host Anemonia viridis in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LANDMANN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adaptation of the spider crab Inachus phalangium (Fabricius, 1755 to one of its sea anemone host species, Anemonia viridis (Forsskål, 1775 in the coastal region of Rovinj, Croatia. Similar to other brachyuran species, Inachus spp. generally lives within the anemone to obtain protection from possible predators. Using removal and reintroduction experiments, this study investigates the protection mechanism and shows a loss of adaptation after a period of 10 days when the crabs are taken out of their host and kept solitary. Thirty-nine anemones from two different trial sites were marked individually and the inhabiting crabs were isolated to be released back into their individual hosts later. The reactions of the anemones were closely observed and characterized to determine the respective state of crab adaptation. As 35 out of 39 individuals provoked a defense /attack reaction of the anemone, it is concluded that the crabs possessed some sort of non-permanent protection mechanism that was lost during the test run (chi-square test, p < 0.00014. All tested crabs re-inhabited their host anemones within a maximum of 20 minutes after they had been reintroduced and stung by the anemones. Therefore, habituation to the host’s defense / attack mechanism is acquired individually and not genetically inherent to the species. The results are compared to adaptation and protection data on other decapod crustaceans and some anemonefishes.

  17. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mediterranean Thermohaline Response to Large-Scale Winter Atmospheric Forcing in a High-Resolution Ocean Model Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusinato, Eleonora; Zanchettin, Davide; Sannino, Gianmaria; Rubino, Angelo

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale circulation anomalies over the North Atlantic and Euro-Mediterranean regions described by dominant climate modes, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the East Atlantic/Western Russian (EAWR) and the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), significantly affect interannual-to-decadal climatic and hydroclimatic variability in the Euro-Mediterranean region. However, whereas previous studies assessed the impact of such climate modes on air-sea heat and freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea, the propagation of these atmospheric forcing signals from the surface toward the interior and the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea remains unexplored. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model simulation covering the 1979-2013 period to investigate spatial patterns and time scales of the Mediterranean thermohaline response to winter forcing from NAO, EA, EAWR and MOI. We find that these modes significantly imprint on the thermohaline properties in key areas of the Mediterranean Sea through a variety of mechanisms. Typically, density anomalies induced by all modes remain confined in the upper 600 m depth and remain significant for up to 18-24 months. One of the clearest propagation signals refers to the EA in the Adriatic and northern Ionian seas: There, negative EA anomalies are associated to an extensive positive density response, with anomalies that sink to the bottom of the South Adriatic Pit within a 2-year time. Other strong responses are the thermally driven responses to the EA in the Gulf of Lions and to the EAWR in the Aegean Sea. MOI and EAWR forcing of thermohaline properties in the Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins seems to be determined by reinforcement processes linked to the persistency of these modes in multiannual anomalous states. Our study also suggests that NAO, EA, EAWR and MOI could critically interfere with internal, deep and abyssal ocean dynamics and variability in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, M.S.; Naidu, S.A.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    of the northern and western Gulf of Mexico, the north coast of Alaska and the Niger Delta [Gearing et al., 1977], surface sediments from the Beaufort shelf, Beaufort Sea [Goni et al., 2000], coastal sediments from the Gulf of Trieste, N Adriatic Sea [Ogrinc et... the chemical composition of SOC off the Washington margin [Keil et al. 1994; Prahl et al. 1994], Amazon [Goni, 1997], Bengal fans [Lanord and Derry, 1994], and Gulf of Mexico [Goni et al. 1997]. Other possible reason could be preferential removal of N...

  20. Late Cretaceous intra-oceanic magmatism in the internal Dinarides (northern Bosnia and Herzegovina): Implications for the collision of the Adriatic and European plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Schmid, Stefan M.; Lugović, Boško; Schuster, Ralf; Schaltegger, Urs; Bernoulli, Daniel; Hottinger, Lukas; Kounov, Alexandre; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Schefer, Senecio

    2009-03-01

    The Kozara Mountains of northern Bosnia and Hercegovina form part of the internal Dinarides and host two tectonically juxtaposed ophiolitic successions of different age. The southern part of the Kozara Mountains exposes the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit, which was obducted onto the Adriatic margin in the Late Jurassic. The northern part exposes a bimodal igneous succession that was thrust onto the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit during the latest Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. This bimodal igneous succession comprises isotropic gabbros, doleritic dikes, basaltic pillow lavas and rhyolites. Pelagic limestones, intercalated with pillow lavas, yielded a Campanian globotruncanid association, consistent with concordant U-Pb ages on zircons from dolerites and rhyolites of 81.39 ± 0.11 and 81.6 ± 0.12 Ma, respectively. Chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns of the bimodal igneous rocks show enrichment of LREE over HREE. Primitive mantle-normalised multi-element diagrams do not reveal significant depletion of HFSE. The ɛNd(T) and initial 87Sr/ 86Sr isotopic values range from + 4.4 to + 6.3 and from 0.70346 to 0.70507 respectively, suggesting an intraoceanic origin. The bimodal igneous succession is unconformably overlain by Maastrichtian to Paleocene siliciclastics that contain abundant ophiolitic detritus, suggesting reworking of the Campanian magmatics. An Eocene turbiditic sandstone succession unconformably covers both the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit and the Late Cretaceous bimodal igneous successions. These observations suggest that the Adriatic Plate and the Europe-derived Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units were still separated by a deep basin floored by oceanic lithosphere until the Campanian and that its closure did not occur before the Maastrichtian to earliest Paleogene. This Late Cretaceous oceanic domain probably represented a remnant of the Vardar Ocean, or alternatively, the Alpine Tethys; possibly the traces of both oceanic domains were connected in

  1. Archaeological studies on ancient coins at Bucharest cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugoi, R.; Constantinescu, D.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Sasinau, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two methods of analysis: in air PIXE and XRF were developed at the Cyclotron Laboratory in order to determine elemental composition. 50 pieces of Roman Republic (2nd Century BC) silver drachmae originating from Greek towns on the Adriatic Sea coast, founded in various regions of Romania were analysed. Considerations about some aspects of the economical policy of Roman Republic are made. (author)

  2. Waterspout Forecasting Method Over the Eastern Adriatic Using a High-Resolution Numerical Weather Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renko, Tanja; Ivušić, Sarah; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Šoljan, Vinko; Horvat, Igor

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a synoptic and mesoscale analysis was performed and Szilagyi's waterspout forecasting method was tested on ten waterspout events in the period of 2013-2016. Data regarding waterspout occurrences were collected from weather stations, an online survey at the official website of the National Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia and eyewitness reports from newspapers and the internet. Synoptic weather conditions were analyzed using surface pressure fields, 500 hPa level synoptic charts, SYNOP reports and atmospheric soundings. For all observed waterspout events, a synoptic type was determined using the 500 hPa geopotential height chart. The occurrence of lightning activity was determined from the LINET lightning database, and waterspouts were divided into thunderstorm-related and "fair weather" ones. Mesoscale characteristics (with a focus on thermodynamic instability indices) were determined using the high-resolution (500 m grid length) mesoscale numerical weather model and model results were compared with the available observations. Because thermodynamic instability indices are usually insufficient for forecasting waterspout activity, the performance of the Szilagyi Waterspout Index (SWI) was tested using vertical atmospheric profiles provided by the mesoscale numerical model. The SWI successfully forecasted all waterspout events, even the winter events. This indicates that the Szilagyi's waterspout prognostic method could be used as a valid prognostic tool for the eastern Adriatic.

  3. Comparison of benthic indices for the evaluation of ecological status of three Slovenian transitional water bodies (northern Adriatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Mavrič, Borut; Mistri, Michele; Munari, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    Benthic indicators are important tools for the classification of coastal and transitional water bodies. The aim of the work was to assess for the first time the Environmental Status (ES) of Slovenian transitional waters, comparing the following biotic indices: richness, Shannon-Weaver diversity, AMBI, M-AMBI, BENTIX and BITS indices. A total of 13 stations were sampled with a Van Veen grab, in three ecosystems in the northern Adriatic. Samples were sieved and sorted, invertebrates identified and counted. The anthropogenic impact was estimated with professional judgement. Richness and diversity showed a good response to anthropogenic pressure. Conversely, indices based on sensitivity/tolerance groups did not showed a clear distinction between more and less impacted ecosystems. In particular BENTIX underestimated the ES, while with BITS there was a overestimation. The best evaluation was obtained with M-AMBI, because even if based on a sensitivity/tolerance approach, it considered also the structural aspect of the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Summary of Research 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    de Seguranga com o Brasil: projects; and drug-trafficking. The Implicag6es Para a Dinamica Civil- research includes travel to Latin Militar no Brasil...Pesquisa em Ciencias Sociais "Brazil - International Relations," (ANPOCS); Grupo de Trabalho Forgas in Handbook of Latin American Studies Armadas...Seguranca com o Brasil: Implicacoes Para a Dinamica Civil-Militar no Brasil," paper presentee t the XV Conference of the Associacao Nacional de Pos

  5. Scardinius knezevici Bianco & Kottelat, 2005 and Alburnus scoranza Bonaparte, 1845: New species of ichthyofauna of Serbia and the Danube basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into the ichthyofauna of the Vlasina Lake reservoir in south Serbia, which is part of the Danube basin, was carried out in 1993, 40 years after its formation. The results of the research reveal the presence of several species of fish belonging to the Adriatic and Aegean basin, such as Alburnus albidus, Rutilus basak, Scardinius graecus and Pachychilon macedonicus. These findings are of great importance from the aspect of conservation, because the species Scardinius graecus and Alburnus albidus are on the European list of endangered fish species. In the latest study of the Vlasina Lake reservoir ichthyofauna (70 years after its formation, the above-mentioned species were not found. However, the presence of naturalized populations of two species from the Adriatic basin were confirmed: Scardinius knezevici and Alburnus scoranza. These findings represent the first known areal expansion of these species, which are new to the ichthyofauna of Serbia, from the Adriatic into the Danube (Black Sea basin.[Acknowledgments. The present work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Projects No. 43002 and 173025.

  6. Assessment of radioecological situation of a site contaminated by technologically enhanced natural radioactivity in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactivity contamination originating from the coal fired power plant and its waste dumps located in a bay of the Adriatic which is due to geographical characteristics sensitive to any kind of pollution including radioactivity is discussed. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustile ash and slag showed increased concentrations of natural radioactivity which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of Croatian Adriatic. There are two coal slag and ash piles, one of them was closed and covered by soil and the other is a still operating pile. The location of both piles presents a considerable environmental problem: situated close to the seaside, slag and ash are accumulating in the littoral zone and, in the case of operating pile, are being filled up directly into the sea. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactivity level at the ash and slag deposits and to assess the risk of increased radioactivity for the inhabitants of the nearby urban area, for the plant workers and general environment of the bay including the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic. (author)

  7. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  8. Milankovitch cyclicity in modern continental margins: stratigraphic cycles in terrigenous shelf settings; El registro de la ciclicidad de Milankovitch en margenes continentales actuales: ciclos estratigraficos en plataformas terrigenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, F. J.; Ridente, D.

    2013-06-01

    We present a synthesis of the sedimentary responses to Late Quaternary Milankovitch-type sea-level cycles (100 and 20 kyr periodicities) as a basis for our investigations into the patterns and concepts of composite sequences in shallow-shelf settings. We describe the record of both 100 and 20 kyr cycles as documented worldwide and discuss the pattern of composite cyclicity mainly on the basis of previously published data from the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins. Cycles of 100 kyr are those most frequently documented in Quaternary margins; they occur in the form of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences dominated by fairly uniform pro gradational-regressive units and more variable, though less well developed, transgressive deposits. Sequence boundaries correspond to prominent polygenic (regressive-transgressive) erosional surfaces that bear witness to considerable transgressive reworking of the original sub-aerial unconformity. Although the progradational units making up the greater part of these sequences have usually been interpreted as a record of a falling sea-level stage, recent evidence is pointing towards a more complex stratigraphic picture, including a distinction between relative highstand and lowstand deposits. The 20-kyr stratigraphic motifs show greater variation compared to that displayed by the more common 100-kyr sequences, particularly in the basic structure of systems tracts and the nature of bounding surfaces. The two case studies described here, the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins, highlight the fact that, concomitantly with an increase in frequencies of cycles and sequences, sediment supply and the dynamics of their dispersal significantly affected the stratigraphic response to the main controlling factor, which was sea-level, thus determining the variety of expression in the 20 kyr cycles. (Author)

  9. I.C.E.F.M. 94. Proceedings of the International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics (2nd) Held in Torino, Italy on July 4-8, 1994,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-08

    Dipartimento di Ingegneiia Aeronautica e Spaziale - Politecnico di Torino Centro Studi Dinamica Fluidi del CNR SPONSORED BY Politecnico di Torino Consiglio...M.C.G. and VIEGAS, D.X. • Grupo de Mecfnica dos Fluidos Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal) ABSTRACT The external flow around an intercity bus was...Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino (Italy) G. Guglieri C.N.R. Centro di Studio per la Dinamica dei Fluidi Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24

  10. Changing knowledge perspective in a changing world: The Adriatic multidisciplinary TDS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Carniel, Sandro; Nativi, Stefano; Signell, Richard P.; Benetazzo, Alvise; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Bonaldo, Davide; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    The use and exploitation of the marine environment in recent years has been increasingly high, therefore calling for the need of a better description, monitoring and understanding of its behavior. However, marine scientists and managers often spend too much time in accessing and reformatting data instead of focusing on discovering new knowledge from the processes observed and data acquired. There is therefore the need to make more efficient our approach to data mining, especially in a world where rapid climate change imposes rapid and quick choices. In this context, it is mandatory to explore ways and possibilities to make large amounts of distributed data usable in an efficient and easy way, an effort that requires standardized data protocols, web services and standards-based tools. Following the US-IOOS approach, which has been adopted in many oceanographic and meteorological sectors, we present a CNR experience in the direction of setting up a national Italian IOOS framework (at the moment confined at the Adriatic Sea environment), using the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). A TDS is a middleware designed to fill the gap between data providers and data users, and provides services allowing data users to find the data sets pertaining to their scientific needs, to access, visualize and use them in an easy way, without the need of downloading files to the local workspace. In order to achieve this results, it is necessary that the data providers make their data available in a standard form that the TDS understands, and with sufficient metadata so that the data can be read and searched for in a standard way. The TDS core is a NetCDF- Java Library implementing a Common Data Model (CDM), as developed by Unidata (http://www.unidata.ucar.edu), allowing the access to "array-based" scientific data. Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant NetCDF files can be read directly with no modification, while non-compliant files can

  11. Remote sensing of coastal area near Bari : results of marine campaign performed with lidar fluorosensor; Rapporto sulla campagna di misura con LIDAR fluorosensore effettuate sul mare di Bari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    The lidar fluorosensor, built at ENEA Frascati to remotely monitor the sea-water quality by collecting the water Raman back scattering and induced fluorescence from dispersed oils, suspended matter and chlorophyll, has been employed in a marine campaign in the southern Adriatic sea. To this aim, the lidar fluorosensor has been installed on a coastal guard boat and operated during the cruise. Extensive calibration measurements have been undertaken by using this system, both in laboratory and during the campaigns, to analyze sea water samples taken at several places along the Italian coasts. Absolute values of organic matter, chlorophyll concentrations have been obtained by calibrating the locally and remotely sensed lidar data with standard physical-chemical methods.

  12. Investigating the chlorophyll-a variability in the Gulf of Taranto (North-western Ionian Sea) by a multi-temporal analysis of MODIS-Aqua Level 3/Level 2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) variability on a long-term basis could allow detecting possible issues in the whole marine ecosystem functioning. The Gulf of Taranto (Southern Italy), in the North-western Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea), has been affected by several environmental threats in the last decade, thus deserving the implementation of an adequate monitoring system able to provide accurate indications about the variability of the most relevant bio-optical parameters. In this context, the main objectives of this study are to investigate the long-term chl-a variability in the Gulf of Taranto and identify the occurrence of any past spatiotemporal anomalies by implementing the multi-temporal Robust Satellite Technique (RST) on a 12-year (2003-2015) period of MODIS/AQUA Level 3/Level 2 chlorophyll-a data. The achieved results show well-clustered near-surface positive chl-a anomalies during the January-February 2011 period. This detected offshore phytoplankton bloom may be related to sub-basin processes, such as the inflow of the Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC), probably fostered by the cyclonic reversal of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) mechanism. Therefore, the RST approach proved successful in detecting chl-a anomalous variations with a high level of confidence regardless of the absolute value measured, thus suggesting its exportability in other areas with different site-setting conditions.

  13. Large-Scale Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Mediterranean Cephalopod Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Keller

    Full Text Available Species diversity is widely recognized as an important trait of ecosystems' functioning and resilience. Understanding the causes of diversity patterns and their interaction with the environmental conditions is essential in order to effectively assess and preserve existing diversity. While diversity patterns of most recurrent groups such as fish are commonly studied, other important taxa such as cephalopods have received less attention. In this work we present spatio-temporal trends of cephalopod diversity across the entire Mediterranean Sea during the last 19 years, analysing data from the annual bottom trawl survey MEDITS conducted by 5 different Mediterranean countries using standardized gears and sampling protocols. The influence of local and regional environmental variability in different Mediterranean regions is analysed applying generalized additive models, using species richness and the Shannon Wiener index as diversity descriptors. While the western basin showed a high diversity, our analyses do not support a steady eastward decrease of diversity as proposed in some previous studies. Instead, high Shannon diversity was also found in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, and high species richness in the eastern Ionian Sea. Overall diversity did not show any consistent trend over the last two decades. Except in the Adriatic Sea, diversity showed a hump-shaped trend with depth in all regions, being highest between 200-400 m depth. Our results indicate that high Chlorophyll a concentrations and warmer temperatures seem to enhance species diversity, and the influence of these parameters is stronger for richness than for Shannon diversity.

  14. Detecting human presence at the border of the Northeastern Italian Pre-Alps. 14C dating at Rio Secco cave as expression of the first Gravettian and the late mousterian in the Northern Adriatic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Sahra; Peresani, Marco; Romandini, Matteo; Duches, Rossella; Jéquier, Camille; Nannini, Nicola; Pastoors, Andreas; Picin, Andrea; Vaquero, Manuel; Weniger, Gerd-Christian; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In the northern Adriatic regions, which include the Venetian region and the Dalmatian coast, late Neanderthal settlements are recorded in few sites and even more ephemeral are remains of the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic occupations. A contribution to reconstruct the human presence during this time range has been produced from a recently investigated cave, Rio Secco, located in the northern Adriatic region at the foot of the Carnic Pre-Alps. Chronometric data make Rio Secco a key site in the context of recording occupation by late Neanderthals and regarding the diffusion of the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic culture in a particular district at the border of the alpine region. As for the Gravettian, its diffusion in Italy is a subject of on-going research and the aim of this paper is to provide new information on the timing of this process in Italy. In the southern end of the Peninsula the first occupation dates to around 28,000 14C BP, whereas our results on Gravettian layer range from 29,390 to 28,995 14C years BP. At the present state of knowledge, the emergence of the Gravettian in eastern Italy is contemporaneous with several sites in Central Europe and the chronological dates support the hypothesis that the Swabian Gravettian probably dispersed from eastern Austria.

  15. Projected shifts in copepod surface communities in the Mediterranean Sea under several climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, F.; Guilhaumon, F.; Adloff, F.; Irisson, J. O.; Ayata, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Although future increases in water temperature and future changes in regional circulation are expected to have great impacts on the pelagic food-web, estimates focusing on community-level shifts are still lacking for the planktonic compartment. By combining statistical niche models (or species distribution models) with projections from a regional circulation model, the impact of climate change on copepod epipelagic communities is assessed for the Mediterranean Sea. Habitat suitability maps are generated for 106 of the most abundant copepod species to analyze emerging patterns of diversity at the community level. Using variance analysis, we also quantified the uncertainties associated to our modeling strategy (niche model choice, CO2 emission scenario, boundary forcings of the circulation model). Comparing present and future projections, changes in species richness (alpha diversity) and in community composition (beta diversity, decomposed into turnover and nestedness component) are calculated. Average projections show that copepod communities will mainly experience turn-over processes, with little changes in species richness. Species gains are mainly located in the Gulf of Lions, the Northern Adriatic and the Northern Aegean seas. However, projections are highly variable, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. We show that such variability is mainly driven by the choice of the niche model, through interactions with the CO2 emission scenario or the boundary forcing of the circulation model can be locally important. Finally, the possible impact of the estimated community changes on zooplanktonic functional and phylogenetic diversity is also assessed. We encourage the enlargement of this type of study to other components of the pelagic food-web, and argue that niche models' outputs should always be given along with a measure of uncertainty, and explained in light of a strong theoretical background.

  16. Development from the seafloor to the sea surface of the cabled NEMO-SN1 observatory in the Western Ionian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparnocchia, Stefania; Beranzoli, Laura; Borghini, Mireno; Durante, Sara; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Italiano, Francesco; Marinaro, Giuditta; Meccia, Virna; Papaleo, Riccardo; Riccobene, Giorgio; Schroeder, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    A prototype of cabled deep-sea observatory has been operating in real-time since 2005 in Southern Italy (East Sicily, 37°30' N - 15°06'E), at 2100 m water depth, 25 km from the harbor of the city of Catania. It is the first-established real-time node of the "European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory" (EMSO, http://www.emso-eu.org) a research infrastructure of the Sector Environment of ESFRI. In the present configuration it consists of two components: the multi-parametric station NEMO-SN1 (TSN branch) equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors for measurements at the seafloor, and the NEMO-OνDE station (TSS branch) equipped with 4 wideband hydrophones. A 28 km long electro-optical cable connects the observatory to a shore laboratory in the Catania harbor, hosting the data acquisition system and supplying power and data transmission to the underwater instrumentation. The NEMO-SN1 observatory is located in an area particularly suited to multidisciplinary studies. The site is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean (some of the strongest earthquakes occurred in 1169, 1693 and 1908, also causing very intense tsunami waves) and is close to Mount Etna, one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Europe. The deployment area is also a key site for monitoring deep-water dynamics in the Ionian Sea, connecting the Levantine basin to the southern Adriatic basin where intermediate and deep waters are formed, and finally to the western Mediterranean Sea via the Strait of Sicily. The observatory is being further developed under EMSO MedIT (http://www.emso-medit.it/en/), a structural enhancement project contributing to the consolidation and enhancement of the European research infrastructure EMSO in Italian Convergence Regions. In this framework, a new Junction Box will be connected to the TSN branch and will provide wired and wireless (acoustic connections) for seafloor platforms and moorings. This will allow the

  17. Biochemical and fatty acid composition of Arca noae (Bivalvia: Arcidae from the Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUPCIC RADIC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and fatty acid composition of the bivalve Arca noae were investigated in the Mali Ston Bay in relation to environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out monthly, from December 2001 to November 2002. Wet shellfish meat consists on average of 77.61% water and 22.39% dry matter, while dry shellfish meat consists on average of 89.04% organic and 10.96% inorganic matter. PCA analysis identified temperature, nitrate, silicate, MICRO, Chl a and salinity as the most important environmental factors influencing biochemical composition of A. noae. An increase of dry weight content of A. noae was observed during the spring when both the sea temperature and food supply increased rapidly. Contents of protein (54.39-62.06% of dry weight, carbohydrate (4.13-8.07% of dry weight and lipid (3.46-8.58% of dry weight varied significantly during the year. Protein and lipid level reached the maximum value in June. The fatty acid profiles of total lipids extracted from A. noae showed high level of unsaturation (UNS/SAT 1.9-3.4. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented the majority of total fatty acids (40.3-59.9% of total fatty acids and the most abundant were eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acid. n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio value varied between 2.1 and 5.0 and was the highest during the spring (April to June. Due to their low lipid and high percentages of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids A. noae can be evaluated as a quality seafood product. The most suitable period of the year for its consumption is in the spring when it reaches its highest nutritional values.

  18. Projections of change in key ecosystem indicators for planning and management of marine protected areas: An example study for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Susan; Butenschön, Momme

    2018-02-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely used as tools to maintain biodiversity, protect habitats and ensure that development is sustainable. If MPAs are to maintain their role into the future it is important for managers to understand how conditions at these sites may change as a result of climate change and other drivers, and this understanding needs to extend beyond temperature to a range of key ecosystem indicators. This case study demonstrates how spatially-aggregated model results for multiple variables can provide useful projections for MPA planners and managers. Conditions in European MPAs have been projected for the 2040s using unmitigated and globally managed scenarios of climate change and river management, and hence high and low emissions of greenhouse gases and riverborne nutrients. The results highlight the vulnerability of potential refuge sites in the north-west Mediterranean and the need for careful monitoring at MPAs to the north and west of the British Isles, which may be affected by changes in Atlantic circulation patterns. The projections also support the need for more MPAs in the eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, and can inform the selection of sites.

  19. Numerical 3D modelling of oil dispersion in the sea due to different accident scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Roberto; Agate, Giordano; Moia, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been the development of a methodology, based on a numerical 3D approach, for the analysis of oil dispersion in the sea, in order to simulate with a high level of accuracy the dynamic behavior of the oil plume and its displacement in the environment. As a matter of fact, the numerical simulation is the only approach currently able to analyse in detail possible accident scenarios, even with an high degree of complexity, of different type and intensity, allowing to follow their evolution both in time and space, and to evaluate the effectiveness of suggested prevention or recovery actions. The software for these calculations is therefore an essential tool in order to simulate the impact effects in the short, medium and long period, able to account for the complexity of the sea system involved in the dispersion process and its dependency on the meteorological, marine and morphological local conditions. This software, generally based on fluid dynamic 3D simulators and modellers, is therefore extremely specialized and requires expertise for an appropriate usage, but at the same time it allows detailed scenario analyses and design verifications. It takes into account different parameters as the sea current field and its turbulence, the wind acting on the sea surface, the salinity and temperature gradients, the local coastal morphology, the seabed bathymetry and the tide. The applied methodology is based on the Integrated Fluid Dynamic Simulation System HyperSuite developed by RSE. This simulation system includes the consideration of all the parameters previously listed, in the frame of a 3D Eulerian finite element fluid dynamic model, which accuracy is guaranteed by a very detailed spatial mesh and by an automatically optimized time step management. In order to assess the methodology features, an area of more than 2500 km2 and depth of 200 m located in the middle Adriatic Sea has been modelled. The information required for the simulation in

  20. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  1. Characterization of prehistoric pottery from the Tremiti Isles by trace elements determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandone, A.; Fumo, P.; Giacco, M.; Oddone, M.; Riganti, V.; Baldi, M

    1993-01-01

    The potteries found on the Tremiti Isles (Italy, Adriatic Sea) have been characterized through their trace elements content. The goal of the work was to find out the number of ore deposits that supplied the clay used to manufacture the pottery. Neutron activation analysis has been employed for trace elements content determinations; the results have been statistically evaluated, clusterized and discussed. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  2. Tides and seiches in gulfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, S.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper Garrett's theory of tides in gulfs is extended so that its formalism includes the free oscillations (seiches) of the gulf. The elevation of the free surface zeta and the velocity field u are obtained in a rectangular, one-dimensional gulf opening into an infinite ocean. An application of the results to the Adriatic sea can explain qualitatively the long life of the uninodal seiche of that basin. (author)

  3. COMBINING THE CONCEPTS OF BENCHMARKING AND MATRIX GAME IN MARKETING (RE)POSITIONING OF SEAPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Senka Sekularac-Ivošević; Sanja Bauk; Mirjana Gligorijević

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of combination of two different approaches in developing seaports positioning strategy. The first one is based on comparing the most important quantitative and qualitative seaports choice criteria by benchmarking method. Benchmarking has been used in creating the appropriate model for efficient marketing positioning of Aegean, Adriatic and Black Sea seaports. The criteria that describe the degree of these seaports competitiveness are chosen upon the investigat...

  4. Observational analysis of air-sea fluxes and sea water temperature offshore South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, X.; Huang, J.; Gao, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the air-sea fluxes (momentum flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) from eddy covariance method based on data collected at an offshore observation tower in the South China Sea from January 2009 to December 2016 and sea water temperature (SWT) on six different levels based on data collected from November 2011 to June 2013. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m. This study presents the in-situ measurements of continuous air-sea fluxes and SWT at different depths. Seasonal and diurnal variations in air-sea fluxes and SWT on different depths are examined. Results show that air-sea fluxes and all SWT changed seasonally; sea-land breeze circulation appears all the year round. Unlike winters where SWT on different depths are fairly consistent, the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea temperature at 10 m water depth fluctuates dramatically and the maximum value reaches 7 °C during summer.

  5. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  6. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Citizenship and the Forms of Political Support: A Case-Study of the Croatian Adriatic Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dealing with the issue of political support in Croatia, related to the issues of trust and legitimacy towards authority and institutions, as the elements of the political system. Previous research conducted in Croatia evidences a relatively low level of trust in the political authorities and institutions. In this paper we go by Easton’s dimensions of political support: authority support, support to institutions, support to democracy and support to community. All these forms of political support represent the subjective orientations of citizens towards the units of the political system. On the other hand, orientation and relationship of citizens towards the units of the political systems poses the question of citizenship. The paper is exploring the relation of subjective orientations of citizens towards the political systems units and different dimensions of political support in the specific context of Adriatic regions of Croatia, on the basis of the established models of citizenship developed by various authors. The results point out that the level of support rises as we go from the lower, specific types of support (support to authorities and support to institutions towards higher, diffuse modes of support (support to community. In the background of the political support, especially “support to democracy”, there are performances of the political system. In other words, political support is more instrumentally then intrinsically founded.

  8. Detecting human presence at the border of the Northeastern Italian Pre-Alps. 14C dating at Rio Secco cave as expression of the first Gravettian and the late mousterian in the Northern Adriatic Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Talamo

    Full Text Available In the northern Adriatic regions, which include the Venetian region and the Dalmatian coast, late Neanderthal settlements are recorded in few sites and even more ephemeral are remains of the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic occupations. A contribution to reconstruct the human presence during this time range has been produced from a recently investigated cave, Rio Secco, located in the northern Adriatic region at the foot of the Carnic Pre-Alps. Chronometric data make Rio Secco a key site in the context of recording occupation by late Neanderthals and regarding the diffusion of the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic culture in a particular district at the border of the alpine region. As for the Gravettian, its diffusion in Italy is a subject of on-going research and the aim of this paper is to provide new information on the timing of this process in Italy. In the southern end of the Peninsula the first occupation dates to around 28,000 14C BP, whereas our results on Gravettian layer range from 29,390 to 28,995 14C years BP. At the present state of knowledge, the emergence of the Gravettian in eastern Italy is contemporaneous with several sites in Central Europe and the chronological dates support the hypothesis that the Swabian Gravettian probably dispersed from eastern Austria.

  9. The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2013-11-01

    A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

  10. New constraints on the crustal structure beneath northern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V. L.; Park, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We present new seismological data on the seismic structure beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea between Corsica and the coast of Italy. Teleseismic receiver functions from two Tyrrhenian islands (Elba and Gorgona) identify clear P-to-S mode-converted waves from two distinct interfaces, at ~20 and ~45 km depth. Both interfaces are characterized by an increase of seismic wavespeed with depth. Using a summation of direct and multiply-reflected body waves within the P wave coda we estimate the mean ratio of compressional and shear wave speeds above the 45 km interface to be 1.75-1.80. Using reflectivity computations in 1D layered models we develop a model of seismic wavespeed distribution that yields synthetic seismograms very similar to those observed. We apply a Ps-multiple summation procedure to the synthetic waveforms to further verify the match between observed and predicted wavefields. The lower layer of our model, between 20 and 45 km, has Vp ~ 7.5 km/sec, a value that can be ascribed to either very fast crustal rocks or very slow upper mantle rocks. The Vp/Vs ratio is ~1.8 in this intermediate layer. On the basis of a well-constrained downward increase in seismic wave speed beneath this second layer, we interpret it as the magmatically reworked lower crust, a lithology that has been proposed to explain high-Vp layers in the crustal roots of island-arc terranes and volcanically altered continental margins, as well as lower-crustal high-Vp features sometimes seen beneath continental rifts. The presence of a thick layer of high-Vp, but crustal, lithology beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea differs considerably from previous estimates that interpreted the interface at ~20 km as the Moho. Our new interpretation obviates a need for a crustal thickness change of over 20 km at the crest of the Apennines orogen. We propose an alteration in the properties of the lower crust instead. We argue that ongoing convergent subduction of the Adriatic lithospehre is not required beneath northern

  11. Developing and testing an Early Warning System for Non Indigenous Species and Ballast Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaletti, Erika; Garaventa, Francesca; David, Matej; Castriota, Luca; Kraus, Romina; Luna, Gian Marco; Silvestri, Cecilia; Forte, Cosmo; Bastianini, Mauro; Falautano, Manuela; Maggio, Teresa; Rak, Giulietta; Gollasch, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the methodological approach used for the development of an Early Warning System (EWS) for Non Indigenous Species (NIS) and ballast water management and summarizes the results obtained. The specific goals of the EWS are firstly to warn vessels to prevent loading of ballast water when critical biological conditions occur in ports and surrounding areas i.e. mass development or blooms of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP). Secondly, to warn environmental and health authorities when NIS or pathogens are present in ports or surrounding areas to enable an early response and an implementation of remediation measures. The EWS is designed to be used for implementing various parallel obligations, by taking into consideration different legal scopes, associated information and decision-making needs. The EWS was elaborated, tested in the Adriatic Sea and illustrated by two case studies. Although the EWS was developed with an Adriatic Sea focus, it is presented in a format so that it may be used as a model when establishing similar systems in other locations. The role of the various actors is discussed and recommendations on further developments of the EWS are presented. It was concluded that the EWS is a suitable tool to reduce the spread of potentially harmful and ballast water mediated species.

  12. Differential response of marine flagellate communities to prokaryotic food quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, D.; Paredes, G.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G. J.

    2016-02-01

    Marine prokaryotes play a major role in the biogeochemical cycles. The main predators of prokaryotes are heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). HNF are thus a major link connecting dissolved organic material through prokaryotic grazing to the higher trophic levels. However, little is known about the grazing specificity of HNF on specific prokaryotic taxa. Bacterial and archaeal microbes may have different nutritive values for the HNF communities, thus affecting growth rates and community composition of HNFs. In this study we investigated the influence of prey food quality on Cafeteria roenbergensis and on a natural HNF community isolated in the northern Adriatic Sea. Two Nitrosopumilus maritimus-related strains isolated from the northern Adriatic Sea (Nitrosopumilus adriaticus, Nitrosopumilus piranensis), two Nitrosococcus strains and two fast growing marine Bacteria (Pseudomonas marina and Marinobacter algicola) were fed to the HNFs. The two fast growing bacterial strains resulted in high growth rates of Cafeteria roenbergensis and the mixed HNF community, while the two Nitrosococcus strains did not. Cafeteria roenbergensis fed on N. adriaticus but it did not graze N. piranensis, suggesting that the subtle metabolic and physiological differences between these two closely related thaumarchaeal strains affect the grazing pressure to which they are exposed. Our study also indicates that prokaryotic community composition influences the composition of the HNF community.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ON-BOARD FISHING VESSEL HANDLING IN MERLUCCIUS MERLUCCIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Serratore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of different manipulation techniques applied on board fishing vessel, on the microbiological quality of the flesh of European hake (Merluccius merluccius during storage at +3°C ± 1°C for a time (T of 10 days after landing (T1-T10. Samples of fish were taken from a fishing vessel of the Adriatic Sea and from one of the Tyrrhenian Sea, treated on-board under different icing conditions: 1 a low ice/product weight ratio and 2 an optimal ice/product weight ratio, up to 1:3 (3. Spoilage bacteria as Total Bacterial Count (TBC and specific spoilage bacteria as Sulphide Producing Bacteria (SPB were enumerated in fish flesh as Colony Forming Units (CFU/g on Plate Count Agar and Lyngby Agar at 20°C for 3-5 days. TBC of the Adriatic fishes (gutted on-board resulted 103 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 104-105 at T10, whereas TBC of the Tyrrhenian fishes (not gutted on-board resulted 10-102 UFC/g at T2- T3, 103 at T6, and 104-105 at T10. SPB resulted 10- 102 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 103- 104 at T10, with absolute values higher in the Adriatic fishes, in respect with the Tyrrhenian fishes, and in the low icing conditions in respect with the optimal icing condition. At the experimented condition, the lowering of the microbiological quality of fish flesh during storage, seems to be more dependent on the gutting versus not gutting on-board practice rather than on the low versus optimal icing treatment.

  14. Rainfall over Friuli-Venezia Giulia: High amounts and strong geographical gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, M.; Micheletti, St.; Carniel, R.

    1991-12-01

    The precipitation distribution over Friuli-Venezia Giulia — the easternmost region of Northern Italy extending from the Adriatic Sea to the Alps — has been studied. Monthly rainfall data over the region and the bordering areas of Veneto and Slovenia during the period from 1951 to 1986 have been analyzed by standard statistical methods, including cluster analysis. The overall results emphasize a distribution with rainfall increasing from the sea to the prealpine areas. The highest precipitations were recorded over the Musi-Canin range, with average values exceeding 3 200 mm per year. Noteworthy is the unforeseen subdivision of the region by the clustering procedure by means of the Angot index.

  15. Wind-sea surface temperature-sea ice relationship in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Stegall, Steve T.; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air-ice-sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentration (SIC) were analyzed. The results show a negative correlation between wind speed and SIC. The relationships between wind speed and SST are complicated by the presence of sea ice, with a negative correlation over open water but a positive correlation in sea ice dominated areas. The examination of spatial structures indicates that wind speed tends to increase when approaching the ice edge from open water and the area fully covered by sea ice. The anomalous downward radiation and thermal advection, as well as their regional distribution, play important roles in shaping these relationships, though wind-driven sub-grid scale boundary layer processes may also have contributions. Considering the feedback loop involved in the wind-SST-SIC relationships, climate model experiments would be required to further untangle the underlying complex physical processes.

  16. The Impact of European Traffic Policy and Traffic Routes on the Development of the Ports of Rijeka and Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Ivaković

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ports are the key segment of the traffic and economicdevelopment of maritime countries. Pan-European transportcorridors include the most important sea pmts and sea routes.They are an extension of the existing land corridors.The most important and the most promising crossings oftraffic corridors between the Central European, Pannonianand Adriatic areas, with the naturally shortest traffic routes directedtowards the Croatian sea ports are Corridor 58 ( Rijeka-Zagreb-Budapest and Corridor 5c (Ploce-Sarajevo-Osijek--Budapest. The primary purpose of this work is to study the importanceof the existing trading conditions and new investmentundertakings in the context of increase in competitiveness of theports of Rijeka and Place.The authors' attention is particularly directed to the constructionof new port terminals to increase the traffic potentialsof the Croatian sea ports. The formed conception with its characteristics,the methodology applied, and research results representthe quality starting points in determining a uniform portpolicy of the Republic of Croatia within the European trafficsystem.

  17. Struttura e dinamica di popolazione del Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus nella Riserva Naturale Bosco di Vanzago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sotti

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La ricerca effettuata sulla popolazione di Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus nella Riserva Naturale Bosco di Vanzago aveva lo scopo di approfondire le conoscenze sulla struttura e sulla dinamica di una popolazione d'ambiente planiziale che vive in condizioni del tutto peculiari: origine da un numero limitato di fondatori, isolamento, assenza di predatori naturali, elevata densità. Dal 1984 la popolazione è stata monitorata mediante censimenti in battuta e da punti di vantaggio, dai quali è stata ricavata una stima della dimensione della stessa pari a 54 individui nel 2003. La struttura di popolazione ed i parametri demografici sono stati rilevati dal 1994 anche mediante osservazioni dirette, effettuate percorrendo settimanalmente un tracciato standard finalizzato a coprire l'intera area di studio. La popolazione è risultata significativamente sbilanciata a favore delle femmine con una sex-ratio, nell'ultimo biennio, pari a 1,4 (Χ² = 49,36; g.l. = 1; P < 0,0001. La classe d'età degli adulti (maggiori di 2 anni è stata la più rappresentata (50,2%, mentre quella dei giovani la meno numerosa (23,6%. Per stimare l'andamento della popolazione nel tempo, sono stati elaborati i parametri demografici per effettuare delle simulazioni di vitalità (PVA utilizzando il software Vortex 8.21. Nonostante l'elevata densità di caprioli all'interno dell'area di studio, sia in assenza sia in presenza di depressione da inbreeding e considerando la riproduzione indipendente dalla densità, la popolazione nei successivi 30 anni non andrebbe incontro ad una diminuzione significativa del numero né della probabilità di sopravvivenza che, in entrambi i casi, si manterrebbe attorno al 99%. Nel caso in cui esistesse, invece, una correlazione tra successo riproduttivo e densità, si assisterebbe ad un sensibile decremento sia nei livelli di popolazione (inferiore alle cinque unità dopo trent'anni sia nella probabilità di sopravvivenza (ridotta al 20% dopo

  18. The RITMARE Ocean Observing System for the Italian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crise, A.

    2016-02-01

    Among its objectives, the Italian RITMARE Flagship Programme has the aim to produce a prototype of the RITMARE Ocean observing system explicitelly designed to provide a powerful infrastructure to the Italian marine science community, to help implement national and Europen environmental regulations and to contribute to the future European Ocean Observing System. The projects takes advantage of the existing platforms (fixed-point moorings, HF and X-band radars, gliders, satellite products), that constitute the basic components of the system. The structure of the RITMARE Ocean observing system is composed by a permanent component (mooring network, satellite images, HF radars) and relocatable component (gliders, drifters, relocatable infrastructures). The increasing number of available relocatable/expandable platforms allow a much larger flexibility in term of allocation of observations but requires an sampling strategy the can be modified according the scientific and socio-economic priorities. As an example, RITMARE focus is set on an experiment on the South Adriatic Pit convective area and its dynamic interactions with the adjacent Bari Canyon cascading site. (Central Mediterranean Sea). Additional effort is paid to support innovation for sensors (e.g. ship-borne LIDAR, stereo-optic directional wave detection, X-band radar innovative products), operational employment of gliders (e.g. Wave Glider) and new class of operational models. The integration can be obtained at different level: the is expected to be achieved at ICT level by defining standard interfaces (NedCDF, SOS) and catalogs in order to facilitate the discovery, viewing and downloading services of data and products. The implementation of a distributed platform-oriented RT repositories adopt a number of THREDDS web servers that act as endpoints for the RITMARE portal. The final aim is to decouple the platforms from the observations, moving from a set of observation to a suite of Essential Ocean Variables by

  19. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen

  20. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; RUDINA KOCI; ALFRED MULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...

  1. Coupled atmosphere ocean climate model simulations in the Mediterranean region: effect of a high-resolution marine model on cyclones and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the importance of an eddy-permitting Mediterranean Sea circulation model on the simulation of atmospheric cyclones and precipitation in a climate model. This is done by analyzing results of two fully coupled GCM (general circulation models simulations, differing only for the presence/absence of an interactive marine module, at very high-resolution (~ 1/16°, for the simulation of the 3-D circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Cyclones are tracked by applying an objective Lagrangian algorithm to the MSLP (mean sea level pressure field. On annual basis, we find a statistically significant difference in vast cyclogenesis regions (northern Adriatic, Sirte Gulf, Aegean Sea and southern Turkey and in lifetime, giving evidence of the effect of both land–sea contrast and surface heat flux intensity and spatial distribution on cyclone characteristics. Moreover, annual mean convective precipitation changes significantly in the two model climatologies as a consequence of differences in both air–sea interaction strength and frequency of cyclogenesis in the two analyzed simulations.

  2. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit

    2018-04-25

    Long-term near-surface observations from five coastal stations, high-resolution model data from Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and high-resolution daily sea surface temperature (SST) from National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical character and synoptic influences, sea breezes in the Red Sea are broadly divided into three regions: the north and the middle Red Sea (NMRS), the Red Sea convergence zone (RSCZ) and the southern Red Sea (SRS) regions. On average, sea breezes developed on 67% of days of the 10-year study period. Although sea breezes occur almost all year, this mesoscale phenomenon is most frequent from May to October (78% of the total sea breeze days). The sea breeze frequency increases from north to south (equatorwards), and sea breeze characteristics appear to vary both temporally and spatially. In addition to land-sea thermal differential, coastline shape, latitude and topography, the prevailing northwesterly at NMRS region, the convergence of northwesterly and southeasterly wind system at RSCZ region and the northeast and southwest monsoon at SRS region play an important role in defining the sea breeze characteristics over the Red Sea.

  3. Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

  4. Effect of the Gamma Radiation and Temperature on Histamine Production, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Parameters in Sardine (Sardina Pilchardus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltar-Strmecki, N.; Aladrovic, J.; Dzaja, P.; Ljubic-Beer, B.; Laskaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation processing of fish is recognized as a safe and effective method for reducing microorganisms and viruses as well for inactivating pathogens among the existing technologies for preservation. Safety and hygienic quality is directly related to the duration between when the fish is caught and when it reaches the end consumer and depends upon conditions how the sardine is handled and upon which conditions. As sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) is pelagric fish widely distributed in the Adriatic Sea and one of the most commercially important fish species in the fisheries of all countries located along the coast of the Adriatic Sea in the present study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the histamine production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in sardine during the storage at two different temperatures (4 and 30 degrees of Celsius) were investigated. The results indicate that histamine concentration was reduced by gamma irradiation and that the safe consumption can be prolonged for both temperatures of storage. However, irradiation treatment induced oxidative damage, as evidenced by changes in levels of lipid peroxidation and radical kinetic rate detected by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy. These results suggest that gamma radiation undoubtedly induces antioxidant defence system in sardine fish. However, further research is necessary to elucidate the precise role that the antioxidant system plays under the influence of gamma radiation and temperature.(author)

  5. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  6. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 10 5 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  7. 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am in matrices of the Terra Nova Bay ecosystem (Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonnis Marzano, F.; Triulzi, C.; Jia, G.; Capra, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Radioecology Laboratory of Parma University has been engaged in marine Mediterranean researches since 1960. Several samples of seawater, sediments, plankton, vegetable and animal organisms collected in the Ligurian, Northern and Southern Thyrrenian, Ionium and Adriatic Seas have been analyzed during the past years. Concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment were particularly relevant in the period 1962 - 65 derived from the fallout of nuclear atmospheric tests. More recently, high concentrations were determined in 1986 after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

  8. Venice: Fifty years after the great flood of November 4, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fifty years ago Venice and its lagoon suffered the most devastating flood in their millennial history. The causes of the increasingly recurring floods will be examined, namely the man-induced subsidence in the period 1925-1970 and the storm surges of the Adriatic sea. The engineering solution designed for their protection , named the MOSE system, will be discussed in detail. The MOSE was started in 2003 and is near completion. It consists of four barriers , invisible in normal conditions, which will close the inlets to the lagoon under the prediction of a forthcoming flood. Finally, the perspective of the MOSE capability of protecting the city under scenarios of future global sea level rise will be assessed. This assessment must critically take into account that Venice and its lagoon are confined in the northernmost corner of the semi-enclosed, marginal Mediterranean sea for which the uncertainties of future sea level rise greatly exceed the uncertainties of the global averages.

  9. The wind sea and swell waves climate in the Nordic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Vettor, Roberto; Breivik, Øyvind; Sterl, Andreas; Reistad, Magnar; Soares, Carlos Guedes; Lima, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves in the Nordic Seas (North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea), based on the high-resolution reanalysis NORA10, developed by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, is presented. The higher resolution of the wind forcing fields, and the wave model (10 km in both cases), along with the inclusion of the bottom effect, allowed a better description of the wind sea and swell features, compared to previous global studies. The spatial patterns of the swell-dominated regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Nevertheless, swell waves are still more prevalent and carry more energy in the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the North Sea. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter regional wind sea and swell patterns is also presented. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the NORA10 period (1958-2001) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height (SWH) in the Nordic Seas are mostly due to swell and to the wave propagation effect.

  10. Investigating Arctic Sea Ice Survivability in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tooth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice extent has continued to decline in recent years, and the fractional coverage of multi-year sea ice has decreased significantly during this period. The Beaufort Sea region has been the site of much of the loss of multi-year sea ice, and it continues to play a large role in the extinction of ice during the melt season. We present an analysis of the influence of satellite-derived ice surface temperature, ice thickness, albedo, and downwelling longwave/shortwave radiation as well as latitude and airborne snow depth estimates on the change in sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea from 2009 to 2016 using a Lagrangian tracking database. Results from this analysis indicate that parcels that melt during summer in the Beaufort Sea reside at lower latitudes and have lower ice thickness at the beginning of the melt season in most cases. The influence of sea ice thickness and snow depth observed by IceBridge offers less conclusive results, with some years exhibiting higher thicknesses/depths for melted parcels. Parcels that melted along IceBridge tracks do exhibit lower latitudes and ice thicknesses, however, which indicates that earlier melt and breakup of ice may contribute to a greater likelihood of extinction of parcels in the summer.

  11. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  12. Air-sea exchange studies at the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.; Veefkind, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The North Sea can be considered as a local 'inner' sea in which many processes are quite different from these over the open ocean. The surrounding land has a major influence, being the source for man-made aerosols and gases, whereas the North Sea acts as a sink for these. At the same time the North

  13. Sea ice dynamics across the Mid-Pleistocene transition in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlef, H; Belt, S T; Sosdian, S M; Smik, L; Lear, C H; Hall, I R; Cabedo-Sanz, P; Husum, K; Kender, S

    2018-03-05

    Sea ice and associated feedback mechanisms play an important role for both long- and short-term climate change. Our ability to predict future sea ice extent, however, hinges on a greater understanding of past sea ice dynamics. Here we investigate sea ice changes in the eastern Bering Sea prior to, across, and after the Mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). The sea ice record, based on the Arctic sea ice biomarker IP 25 and related open water proxies from the International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1343, shows a substantial increase in sea ice extent across the MPT. The occurrence of late-glacial/deglacial sea ice maxima are consistent with sea ice/land ice hysteresis and land-glacier retreat via the temperature-precipitation feedback. We also identify interactions of sea ice with phytoplankton growth and ocean circulation patterns, which have important implications for glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water formation and potentially North Pacific abyssal carbon storage.

  14. Evaluating meteo marine climatic model inputs for the investigation of coastal hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, D.; Bucchignani, E.; Umgiesser, G.

    2010-09-01

    One of the major aspects discussed in the recent works on climate change is how to provide information from the global scale to the local one. In fact the influence of sea level rise and changes in the meteorological conditions due to climate change in strategic areas like the coastal zone is at the base of the well known mitigation and risk assessment plans. The investigation of the coastal zone hydrodynamics, from a modeling point of view, has been the field for the connection between hydraulic models and ocean models and, in terms of process studies, finite element models have demonstrated their suitability in the reproduction of complex coastal morphology and in the capability to reproduce different spatial scale hydrodynamic processes. In this work the connection between two different model families, the climate models and the hydrodynamic models usually implemented for process studies, is tested. Together, they can be the most suitable tool for the investigation of climate change on coastal systems. A finite element model, SHYFEM (Shallow water Hydrodynamic Finite Element Model), is implemented on the Adriatic Sea, to investigate the effect of wind forcing datasets produced by different downscaling from global climate models in terms of surge and its coastal effects. The wind datasets are produced by the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CIRA), and by EBU-POM model (Belgrade University), both downscaling from ECHAM4. As a first step the downscaled wind datasets, that have different spatial resolutions, has been analyzed for the period 1960-1990 to compare what is their capability to reproduce the measured wind statistics in the coastal zone in front of the Venice Lagoon. The particularity of the Adriatic Sea meteo climate is connected with the influence of the orography in the strengthening of winds like Bora, from North-East. The increase in spatial resolution permits the more resolved wind dataset to better reproduce meteorology and to provide a more

  15. ACCELERATION OF SEA LEVEL RISE OVER MALAYSIAN SEAS FROM SATELLITE ALTIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS. Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  16. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  17. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  18. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  19. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  20. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  1. Gis Day 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esri Italia Esri Italia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Si è svolto nelle Marche, ad Urbino, città simbolo del legame tra scienza e Rinascimento, il GIS DAY 2005; l’evento ha avuto il patrocinio di DAMAC – INTERREG SECUR SEA ed il supporto di: Regione Marche - Giunta Regionale, Contea di Zara (Croazia, Centro di Geobiologia - Università di Urbino, Forum delle Città dell’Adriatico e dello Ionio e Adriatic Action Plan 2020 ed ha sviluppato il tema dedicato ad “Un GIS interoperabile e internazionale”.

  2. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  3. Sightings of Delphinus delphis (Cetacea, Odontoceti in the Otranto Channel (Southern Adriatic Sea and Northern Ionian Sea / Avvistamenti di Delphinus delphis (Cetacea, Odontoceti nel Canale d'Otranto (Mar Adriatico Meridionale e Mar Ionio Settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Angelici

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two sightings of Common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the Channel of Otranto are reported, and the status of this species in the Mediterranean Sea is briefly discussed. Riassunto Sono riportati due avvistamenti di Delfino comune Delphinus delphis nel Canale d'Otranto, lungo la costa greca e quella italiana. Viene inoltre brevemente commentata la frequenza degli avvistamenti e degli spiaggiamenti di tale specie nel Mar Mediterraneo.

  4. DINAMICA ŞI ROLUL GRUPULUI DE STUDENŢI ÎN FORMAREA PROFESIONALĂ (preliminarii pentru un studiu calitativ elaborat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana REPIDA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mediul universitar se prezintă ca un sistem complex de grupuri sociale, printre care şi grupul de studenţi, caracteri-zate prin norme şi valori comune, roluri şi poziţii sociale, o reţea de interacţiuni şi influenţe reciproce. Spre deosebire de grupul/clasa de elevi, grupul de studenţi, ca un mediu de formare şi dezvoltare, configuraţia, procesele şi dinamica acestuia, influenţele şi presiunile sociale pe care le exercită acest grup asupra membrilor, au fost mai puţin studiate. Necesitatea cunoaşterii aspectelor psihosociale legate de funcţionarea grupului de studenţi derivă din faptul că acesta acţionează ca un câmp de forţe pozitive (cooperare, solidaritate şi susţinere reciprocă, dar şi negative (conflicte intra-grupale, lipsa de competiţie, colegi problematici, care influenţează activitatea de învăţare, performanţele şi climatul socioafectiv al grupului. Din aceste considerente, un studiu complex şi elaborat privind funcţionarea acestui grup va oferi premise pentru o mai bună înţelegere a implicaţiilor acestui grup asupra personalităţii studentului. Prin acest articol ne-am propus să analizăm doar unul dintre aceste aspecte – rolul grupului de studenţi în formarea lor profesională, mai exact – opiniile şi percepţiile studenţilor cu referire la acest aspect.THE DYNAMICS AND THE ROLE OF THE STUDENTS GROUP IN THEIR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (preliminaries for an in-depth qualitative studyThe academic environment appears as a complex system of social groups, including student groups, characterized by shared norms and values, social roles and positions, an entire network of interactions and reciprocal influences. Yet, unlike the pupil groups, little scholarly attention has been paid to student groups as a medium for training and development, their configuration, processes and dynamics, the social influences and pressures exercised by the group on the members being remarkably understudied

  5. Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Beckley, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the two ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used in global and regional analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature trends over the last, 7.8 years. T he ERS satellites and in the future the ENVISAT satellite provide unique opportunity for monitoring both changes in sea level and sea...

  6. On the presence of the Mediterranean endemic Microdeutopus sporadhi Myers, 1969 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae in the Gulf of Naples (Italy with a review on its distribution and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. SCIPIONE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Microdeutopus sporadhi (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae, endemic of the Mediterranean Sea, was described by Myers in 1969 on material collected from the Aegean Sea in a sheltered environment with high sedimentation rates. A check on the distribution and ecology of M. sporadhi showed that: — although not mentioned in the checklist of amphipods of the Italian seas, it was already found in the central Tyrrhenian Sea in 1983-84 and in the northern Adriatic Sea in 2002-03; — it was rarely found in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most studied basins as concerns amphipod fauna; but notwithstanding the few records available, the wide ecological spectrum of this species was pointed out. The present study, conducted off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy, showed the presence of rich and well established populations through time, but only in a peculiar substratum (artificial collectors and environment (low pH values. The species seems to be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions and probably to conceal itself through a cryptic behaviour, escaping traditional sampling methods. The role of rare or hidden species in bio-assessment should be re-evaluated.

  7. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  8. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic

  9. Sea Surface Height Variability and Eddy Statistical Properties in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Satellite sea surface height (SSH) data over 1992-2012 are analyzed to study the spatial and temporal variability of sea level in the Red Sea. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis suggests the remarkable seasonality of SSH in the Red Sea

  10. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  11. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  12. Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Color Variability in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaty, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is a marginal sea in the Southeast Asian region whose surface circulation is driven by monsoons and whose surface currents have complex seasonal patterns. Its rich natural resources and strategic location have made its small islands areas of political dispute among the neighboring nations. This study aims to show the seasonal and interannual variability of sea surface temperature and ocean color in South China Sea. It makes use of NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data sets on sea surface temperature for the period 1981-2000 and NASA's Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite data sets on pigment concentration (ocean color) for the period 1981-1996 and 1997-2000, respectively. Transect lines were drawn along several potential hotspot areas to show the variability in sea surface temperature and pigment concentration through time. In-situ data on sea surface temperature along South China Sea were likewise plotted to see the variability with time. Higher seasonal variability in sea surface temperature was seen at higher latitudes. Interannual variability was within 1-3 Kelvin. In most areas, pigment concentration was higher during northern hemisphere winter and autumn, after the monsoon rains, with a maximum of 30 milligrams per cubic meter.

  13. Vulnerability of marginal seas to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Damia; Jordà, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is a serious thread for coastal areas and has a potential negative impact on society and economy. SLR can lead for instance to land loss, beach reduction, increase of the damage of marine storms on coastal infrastructures and to the salinization of underground water streams. It is well acknowledged that future SLR will be inhomogeneous across the globe, with regional differences of up to 100% with respect to global mean sea level (GMSL). Several studies have addressed the projections of SLR at regional scale, but most of them are based on global climate models (GCMs) that have a relatively coarse spatial resolution (>1°). In marginal seas this has proven to be a strong limitation, as their particular configurations require spatial resolutions that are not reachable by present GCMs. A paradigmatic case is the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the global ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, a narrow passage of 14 km width. The functioning of the Mediterranean Sea involves a variety of processes including an overturning circulation, small-scale convection and a rich mesoscale field. Moreover, the long-term evolution of Mediterranean sea level has been significantly different from the global mean during the last decades. The observations of present climate and the projections for the next decades have lead some authors to hypothesize that the particular characteristics of the basin could allow Mediterranean mean sea level to evolve differently from the global mean. Assessing this point is essential to undertake proper adaptation strategies for the largely populated Mediterranean coastal areas. In this work we apply a new approach that combines regional and global projections to analyse future SLR. In a first step we focus on the quantification of the expected departures of future Mediterranean sea level from GMSL evolution and on the contribution of different processes to these departures. As a result we find that, in spite of its particularities

  14. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  15. Sea Ice Drift Monitoring in the Bohai Sea Based on GF4 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, P.; Zhu, H.; Xing, B.

    2018-04-01

    The Bohai Sea is the inland sea with the highest latitude in China. In winter, the phenomenon of freezing occurs in the Bohai Sea due to frequent cold wave influx. According to historical records, there have been three serious ice packs in the Bohai Sea in the past 50 years which caused heavy losses to our economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the drift of sea ice and sea ice in the Bohai Sea. The GF4 image has the advantages of short imaging time and high spatial resolution. Based on the GF4 satellite images, the three methods of SIFT (Scale invariant feature - the transform and Scale invariant feature transform), MCC (maximum cross-correlation method) and sift combined with MCC are used to monitor sea ice drift and calculate the speed and direction of sea ice drift, the three calculation results are compared and analyzed by using expert interpretation and historical statistical data to carry out remote sensing monitoring of sea ice drift results. The experimental results show that the experimental results of the three methods are in accordance with expert interpretation and historical statistics. Therefore, the GF4 remote sensing satellite images have the ability to monitor sea ice drift and can be used for drift monitoring of sea ice in the Bohai Sea.

  16. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit; Abualnaja, Yasser; Al-Subhi, Abdullah M.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Nellikkattu Thody, Manoj; Sturman, Andrew P.

    2018-01-01

    and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical

  17. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jessica; Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G.

    2011-01-01

    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  18. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jessica, E-mail: j.craig@abdn.ac.u [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom); Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G. [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-21

    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  19. Deep-sea geohazards in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Dawei; Völker, David

    2018-02-01

    Various geological processes and features that might inflict hazards identified in the South China Sea by using new technologies and methods. These features include submarine landslides, pockmark fields, shallow free gas, gas hydrates, mud diapirs and earthquake tsunami, which are widely distributed in the continental slope and reefal islands of the South China Sea. Although the study and assessment of geohazards in the South China Sea came into operation only recently, advances in various aspects are evolving at full speed to comply with National Marine Strategy and `the Belt and Road' Policy. The characteristics of geohazards in deep-water seafloor of the South China Sea are summarized based on new scientific advances. This progress is aimed to aid ongoing deep-water drilling activities and decrease geological risks in ocean development.

  20. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sampler/observer access to and use of the vessel's communications equipment and personnel upon request for...) Allow the sea sampler/observer to inspect and copy the vessel's log, communications log, and records... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken...

  1. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  2. Situation in the sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Situationen i havsomraadet mellan Nordsjoen och Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybern, B.I.; Soederstroem, J.; Thorell, L.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the special topographical and hydrological features the seas surrounding Sweden are very sensitive to both natural changes and changes caused by man. The sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has come into focus during the last few decades due to problems with pollution and its impact on the ecosystems and to overfishing of some commer- cially important species. In order to elucidate the present situation from the Swedish viewpoint, the National Board of Fisheries, the National Environment Protection Board and the County Council of the County Goeteborg and Bohyslaen arranged a Symposium on the Situation in the Sea Area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in Goeteborg, 14-16 March, 1983. This volume contains lectures given at that Symposium. In most cases there are English summaries and English translations of texts to figures and tables.

  3. Go West: The Western Balkans towards European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ninka, Eniel

    2005-01-01

    When we talk about the Balkans we think of war, suffering, ethnic cleansing and hatred. And up to a rather recent point in time this was not a misleading idea. Unfortunately, this has been the reality in the Balkans. If one tries to imagine the map of the European Union in 2007 something would come in front of the eyes. An area in the Balkan Peninsula washed by the Adriatic Sea and circulated by Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Slovenia, all of them EU Member States. The Union has alrea...

  4. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...

  5. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  6. Beach litter along various sand dune habitats in the southern Adriatic (E Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilc, Urban; Küzmič, Filip; Caković, Danka; Stešević, Danijela

    2018-03-01

    Marine litter accumulates on sandy beaches and is an important environmental problem, as well as a threat to habitat types that are among the most endangered according to EU legislation. We sampled 120 random plots (2 × 2 m) in spring 2017 to determine the distribution pattern of beach litter along the zonation of habitat types from sea to the inland. The most frequent litter items were plastic, polystyrene and glass. A clear increase of litter cover along the sea-inland gradient is evident, and foredunes and pine forests have the highest cover of litter. Almost no litter was present in humid dune slacks. Shoreline and recreational activities are the major source of beach litter, while ocean/waterway activities are more important in the aphytic zone and strandline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  8. Temporal and spatial variations of oceanic pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in th Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the seasonal and inter annual variations of oceanic CO 2 uptake in the Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea, the partial pressure of CO 2 in the surface ocean (pCO 2 sea ) was measured in all seasons between 1992 and 2001. We derived monthly varying relationships between pCO 2 sea and sea surface temperature (SST) and combined them with the SST data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to determine pCO 2 sea and air-sea CO 2 flux in these seas. The pCO 2 sea values were normalized to the year 1995 by assuming that pCO 2 sea increased at the same growth rate (1.5 μatm/yr) of the pCO 2 in the air (pCO 2 air ) between 1992 and 2001. In 1995, the annual net air-sea CO 2 fluxes were evaluated to be 52 ± 20 gC/m 2 /yr in the Greenland Sea and 46 ± 18 gC/m 2 /yr in the Barents Sea. The CO 2 flux into the ocean reached its maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The wind speed and (delta)pCO 2 (=pCO 2 air -pCO 2 sea ) exerted a greater influence on the seasonal variation than the sea ice coverage. The annual CO 2 uptake examined in this study (70-80 deg N, 20 deg W-40 deg E) was estimated to be 0.050 ± 0.020 GtC/yr in 1995. The inter annual variation in the annual CO 2 uptake was found to be positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) via wind strength but negatively correlated with (delta)pCO 2 and the sea ice coverage. The present results indicate that the variability in wind speed and sea ice coverage play a major role, while that in (delta)pCO 2 plays a minor role, in determining the interannual variation of CO 2 uptake in this area

  9. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C. Roder; M. L. Berumen; J. Bouwmeester; E. Papathanassiou; A. Al-Suwailem; C. R. Voolstra

    2013-01-01

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with ?deep-sea? and ?cold-water? corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20?C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the ...

  10. Sea Urchin Embryogenesis as Bioindicators of Marine Pollution in Impact Areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Zhuravel, Elena V; Chulchekov, Denis N; Mazur, Andrey A

    2017-08-01

    The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area. The Sea of Okhotsk is the main fishing area for Russia. Anthropogenic impact on the marine ecosystem is caused by fishing and transport vessels mainly. But two shelf areas are considered as "hot spots" due to oil and gas drilling. Offshore oil exploitation on the northeastern Sakhalin Island has been started and at present time oil is being drill on oil-extracting platforms continuously. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are prospected on western Kamchatka shelf, and exploitation drilling in this area was intensified in 2014. A higher number of abnormalities at gastrula and pluteus stages (19-36%) were detected for the stations around oil platforms near Sakhalin Island. On the western Kamchatka shelf number of abnormalities was 7-21%. Such anomalies as exogastrula, incomplete development of pairs of arms were not observed at all; only the delay of development was registered. Eggs, embryos, and larvae of sea urchins are the suitable bioindicators of early disturbances caused by marine pollution in impact ecosystems.

  11. Sea ice algal biomass and physiology in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Arrigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sea ice covers approximately 5% of the ocean surface and is one of the most extensive ecosystems on the planet. The microbial communities that live in sea ice represent an important food source for numerous organisms at a time of year when phytoplankton in the water column are scarce. Here we describe the distributions and physiology of sea ice microalgae in the poorly studied Amundsen Sea sector of the Southern Ocean. Microalgal biomass was relatively high in sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, due primarily to well developed surface communities that would have been replenished with nutrients during seawater flooding of the surface as a result of heavy snow accumulation. Elevated biomass was also occasionally observed in slush, interior, and bottom ice microhabitats throughout the region. Sea ice microalgal photophysiology appeared to be controlled by the availability of both light and nutrients. Surface communities used an active xanthophyll cycle and effective pigment sunscreens to protect themselves from harmful ultraviolet and visible radiation. Acclimation to low light microhabitats in sea ice was facilitated by enhanced pigment content per cell, greater photosynthetic accessory pigments, and increased photosynthetic efficiency. Photoacclimation was especially effective in the bottom ice community, where ready access to nutrients would have allowed ice microalgae to synthesize a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus. Surprisingly, the pigment-detected prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica was an important component of surface communities (slush and surface ponds where its acclimation to high light may precondition it to seed phytoplankton blooms after the sea ice melts in spring.

  12. Walrus areas of use in the Chukchi Sea during sparse sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Kochnev, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens feeds on benthic invertebrates on the continental shelf of the Chukchi and Bering Seas and rests on sea ice between foraging trips. With climate warming, ice-free periods in the Chukchi Sea have increased and are projected to increase further in frequency and duration. We radio-tracked walruses to estimate areas of walrus foraging and occupancy in the Chukchi Sea from June to November of 2008 to 2011, years when sea ice was sparse over the continental shelf in comparison to historical records. The earlier and more extensive sea ice retreat in June to September, and delayed freeze-up of sea ice in October to November, created conditions for walruses to arrive earlier and stay later in the Chukchi Sea than in the past. The lack of sea ice over the continental shelf from September to October caused walruses to forage in nearshore areas instead of offshore areas as in the past. Walruses did not frequent the deep waters of the Arctic Basin when sea ice retreated off the shelf. Walruses foraged in most areas they occupied, and areas of concentrated foraging generally corresponded to regions of high benthic biomass, such as in the northeastern (Hanna Shoal) and southwestern Chukchi Sea. A notable exception was the occurrence of concentrated foraging in a nearshore area of northwestern Alaska that is apparently depauperate in walrus prey. With increasing sea ice loss, it is likely that walruses will increase their use of coastal haul-outs and nearshore foraging areas, with consequences to the population that are yet to be understood.

  13. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper......As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...

  14. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  15. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cronin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1 and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1, and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1. Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.. Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1 followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  16. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  17. The Ross Sea Dipole - temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Conway, Howard; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Emanuelsson, Daniel B.; Winstrup, Mai; Vallelonga, Paul T.; Lee, James E.; Brook, Ed J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Fudge, Taylor J.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Neff, Peter D.; Blunier, Thomas; Edwards, Ross; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Buizert, Christo; Canessa, Silvia; Dadic, Ruzica; Kjær, Helle A.; Kurbatov, Andrei; Zhang, Dongqi; Waddington, Edwin D.; Baccolo, Giovanni; Beers, Thomas; Brightley, Hannah J.; Carter, Lionel; Clemens-Sewall, David; Ciobanu, Viorela G.; Delmonte, Barbara; Eling, Lukas; Ellis, Aja; Ganesh, Shruthi; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Haines, Skylar; Handley, Michael; Hawley, Robert L.; Hogan, Chad M.; Johnson, Katelyn M.; Korotkikh, Elena; Lowry, Daniel P.; Mandeno, Darcy; McKay, Robert M.; Menking, James A.; Naish, Timothy R.; Noerling, Caroline; Ollive, Agathe; Orsi, Anaïs; Proemse, Bernadette C.; Pyne, Alexander R.; Pyne, Rebecca L.; Renwick, James; Scherer, Reed P.; Semper, Stefanie; Simonsen, Marius; Sneed, Sharon B.; Steig, Eric J.; Tuohy, Andrea; Ulayottil Venugopal, Abhijith; Valero-Delgado, Fernando; Venkatesh, Janani; Wang, Feitang; Wang, Shimeng; Winski, Dominic A.; Winton, V. Holly L.; Whiteford, Arran; Xiao, Cunde; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979-2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons), with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  18. Paleochannel and beach-bar palimpsest topography as initial substrate for coralligenous buildups offshore Venice, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luigi; Zecchin, Massimo; Franchi, Fulvio; Bergamasco, Andrea; Da Lio, Cristina; Baradello, Luca; Mazzoli, Claudio; Montagna, Paolo; Taviani, Marco; Tagliapietra, Davide; Carol, Eleonora; Franceschini, Gianluca; Giovanardi, Otello; Donnici, Sandra

    2017-05-02

    We provide a model for the genesis of Holocene coralligenous buildups occurring in the northwestern Adriatic Sea offshore Venice at 17-24 m depth. High-resolution geophysical surveys and underwater SCUBA diving reconnaissance revealed meandering shaped morphologies underneath bio-concretionned rocky buildups. These morphologies are inferred to have been inherited from Pleistocene fluvial systems reactivated as tidal channels during the post- Last Glacial Maximum transgression, when the study area was a lagoon protected by a sandy barrier. The lithification of the sandy fossil channel-levee systems is estimated to have occurred at ca. 7 cal. ka BP, likely due to the interaction between marine and less saline fluids related to onshore freshwater discharge at sea through a sealed water-table. The carbonate-cemented sandy layers served as nucleus for subsequent coralligenous buildups growth.

  19. Carbonaceous particles and aerosol mass closure in PM2.5 collected in a port city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genga, A.; Ielpo, P.; Siciliano, T.; Siciliano, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mass concentrations of PM2.5, mineral dust, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), sea salts and anthropogenic metals have been studied in a city-port of south Italy (Brindisi). This city is characterized by different emission sources (ship, vehicular traffic, biomass burning and industrial emissions) and it is an important port and industrial site of the Adriatic sea. Based on diagnostic ratios of carbonaceous species we assess the presence of biomass burning emissions (BBE), fossil fuel emissions (FFE) and ship emission (SE). Our proposed conversion factors from OC to OM are higher than those reported in the literature for urban site: the reason of this could be due to the existence of aged combustion aerosols during the sampling campaign (WSOC/OC = 0.6 ± 0.3).

  20. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  1. Revealing Holobiont Structure and Function of Three Red Sea Deep-Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea corals have long been regarded as cold-water coral; however a reevaluation of their habitat limitations has been suggested after the discovery of deep-sea coral in the Red Sea where temperatures exceed 20˚C. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals at these temperatures, the work in this PhD employed a holotranscriptomic approach, looking at coral animal host and bacterial symbiont gene expression in Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus sp. sampled from the deep Red Sea. Bacterial community composition was analyzed via amplicon-based 16S surveys and cultured bacterial strains were subjected to bioprospecting in order to gauge the pharmaceutical potential of coralassociated microbes. Coral host transcriptome data suggest that coral can employ mitochondrial hypometabolism, anaerobic glycolysis, and surface cilia to enhance mass transport rates to manage the low oxygen and highly oligotrophic Red Sea waters. In the microbial community associated with these corals, ribokinases and retron-type reverse transcriptases are abundantly expressed. In its first application to deep-sea coral associated microbial communities, 16S-based next-generation sequencing found that a single operational taxonomic unit can comprise the majority of sequence reads and that a large number of low abundance populations are present, which cannot be visualized with first generation sequencing. Bioactivity testing of selected bacterial isolates was surveyed over 100 cytological parameters with high content screening, covering several major organelles and key proteins involved in a variety of signaling cascades. Some of these cytological profiles were similar to those of several reference pharmacologically active compounds, which suggest that the bacteria isolates produce compounds with similar mechanisms of action as the reference compounds. The sum of this work offers several mechanisms by which Red Sea deep-sea corals cope with environmental

  2. Sea level hazards: Altimetric monitoring of tsunamis and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, Benjamin Dillon

    Whether on the short timescale of an impending tsunami or the much longer timescale of climate change-driven sea level rise, the threat stemming from rising and inundating ocean waters is a great concern to coastal populations. Timely and accurate observations of potentially dangerous changes in sea level are vital in determining the precautionary steps that need to be taken in order to protect coastal communities. While instruments from the past have provided in situ measurements of sea level at specific locations across the globe, satellites can be used to provide improved spatial and temporal sampling of the ocean in addition to producing more accurate measurements. Since 1993, satellite altimetry has provided accurate measurements of sea surface height (SSH) with near-global coverage. Not only have these measurements led to the first definitive estimates of global mean sea level rise, satellite altimetry observations have also been used to detect tsunami waves in the open ocean where wave amplitudes are relatively small, a vital step in providing early warning to those potentially affected by the impending tsunami. The use of satellite altimetry to monitor two specific sea level hazards is examined in this thesis. The first section will focus on the detection of tsunamis in the open ocean for the purpose of providing early warning to coastal inhabitants. The second section will focus on estimating secular trends using satellite altimetry data with the hope of improving our understanding of future sea level change. Results presented here will show the utility of satellite altimetry for sea level monitoring and will lay the foundation for further advancement in the detection of the two sea level hazards considered.

  3. Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, E J; Foster, G L; Grant, K M; Marino, G; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-04-24

    Ice volume (and hence sea level) and deep-sea temperature are key measures of global climate change. Sea level has been documented using several independent methods over the past 0.5 million years (Myr). Older periods, however, lack such independent validation; all existing records are related to deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data that are influenced by processes unrelated to sea level. For deep-sea temperature, only one continuous high-resolution (Mg/Ca-based) record exists, with related sea-level estimates, spanning the past 1.5 Myr. Here we present a novel sea-level reconstruction, with associated estimates of deep-sea temperature, which independently validates the previous 0-1.5 Myr reconstruction and extends it back to 5.3 Myr ago. We find that deep-sea temperature and sea level generally decreased through time, but distinctly out of synchrony, which is remarkable given the importance of ice-albedo feedbacks on the radiative forcing of climate. In particular, we observe a large temporal offset during the onset of Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, between a marked cooling step at 2.73 Myr ago and the first major glaciation at 2.15 Myr ago. Last, we tentatively infer that ice sheets may have grown largest during glacials with more modest reductions in deep-sea temperature.

  4. Dancing-drawing fields of presence in SeaUnSea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Dance and architecture have much in common as both are concerned with practices of space. For a dancer, the act of choreography occurs through the unfolding of spaces by means of gesture and embodied movement, whereas for an architect, space is the medium through which form emerges and habitation...... is constructed. For both, the first space of experience is the space of the body. This essay is a writing out of the interstices of these two disciplines as they touch and inform each other in the process and production of SeaUnSea, an interactive dance installation which premiered at Siobhan Davies Studios...... as part of Dance Umbrella in London, October 2006. SeaUnSea is a collaboration between the authors, choreographer Carol Brown and architect Mette Ramsgard Thomsen, working with programmer Chiron Mottram....

  5. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...

  6. Atmospheric input of soluble and insoluble metals to North Adriatic sea; Apporti atmosferici di metalli solubili ed insolubili all'Adriatico settentrionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini Terra, P. [Environmental Research, Rimini (Italy); Guerzoni, S.; Quarantotto, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    The atmospheric deposition at Cesenatico (Italy) (44{sup 0}12{sup '} lat. N. 12{sup 0}23{sup '} long. E) has been determined, by means of combined wet and dry samplers and bulk samplers. Samplers have been analyzed for Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn. All median fluxes agree very well, with a correlation coefficient r=0.99 (p<0,001), being wet and dry soluble fluxes 1.4-2 times higher than bulk for Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and almost equal for Fe and Ni. Daily deposition fluxes for each metal have been calculated, and compared with Ligurian Sea data. [Italian] E' stata determinata la deposizione atmosferica a Cesenatico (44{sup 0}12{sup '} lat. N. 12{sup 0}23{sup '} long. E) utilizzando campionatori wet and dry modificati e campionatori passivi bulk. Sui campioni e' stata effettuata la determinazione di Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn. Le mediane dei flussi di tutti gli elementi correlano bene tra di loro (r=0,99; p<0,001), ma i flussi wet and dry della frazione solubile sono 1,4-2 volte piu' elevati di quelli bulk per Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, e circa uguali per Fe e Ni. Sono stati calcolati i flussi giornalieri di deposizione per ogni metallo e sono stati confrontati con i dati disponibili per il Mar Ligure.

  7. Alcuni aspetti di dinamica non lineare con applicazioni in dinamica dei fasci

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051254

    1993-01-01

    With the new generation of superconducting accelerator machines, like the planned Large Hadron Collider, the beam dynamics will be dominated by nonlinear effects induced by the magnetic field errors. \\\\ Those nonlinear effects are potentially harmful for the operation of the machine, as they could generate particle losses in the superconducting magnet and therefore induce quenches. \\\\ Three main problems are discussed in this dissertation: \\begin{itemize} \\item The computation of the stability domain for Hamiltonian maps in two-dimensions. \\item The compensation of the nonlinear effects due to the magnetic errors using analytical techniques like normal Forms analysis. \\item The analysis of transport phenomena induced by slow modulation of the linear parameters of the accelerator. \\end{itemize}

  8. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO(2) exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard...[], Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Delille, B.

    2011-01-01

    Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO(2) and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO(2) exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air......-sea CO(2) exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO(2) uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO(2) uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea......-sea CO(2) exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO(2)-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO(2) drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters....

  9. Zooplankton community structure in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongju Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study on zooplankton spatial distribution is essential for understanding food web dynamics in marine ecosystems and fishery management. Here we elucidated the composition and distribution of large mesozooplankton on the continental shelf of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and explored the zooplankton community structure in these water masses. Sixty vertical hauls (bottom or 200 m in deep water to surface using a ring net (diameter 0.8 m, 505-μm mesh were exploited in November 2007. The biogeographic patterns of zooplankton communities were investigated using multivariate analysis methods; copepod biodiversity was analyzed using univariate indices. Copepods and protozoans were dominate in the communities. Based on the species composition, we divided the study areas into six station groups. Significant differences in zooplankton assemblages were detected between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Species richness was higher in East China Sea groups than those in Yellow Sea, whereas taxonomic distinctness was higher in Yellow Sea than in East China Sea. There was a clear relationship between the species composition and water mass group.

  10. Taxonomic research on deep-sea macrofauna in the South China Sea using the Chinese deep-sea submersible Jiaolong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L. eversa by Zhang et al. (2016). The population structures of two dominant species, the shrimp Shinkaia crosnieri and the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, from the cold seep Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri community in the South China Sea and the hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, were compared using molecular analysis. The systematic position of the shrimp genus Globospongicola was discussed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. The influence of the pedological factor on the relief dynamics within Sasaus River catchment (Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-GEORGIANA ALEXANDRU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza del fattore pedologico sulla dinamica del paesaggio nel bacino Săsăuș. Il paesaggio ha un'influenza indiretta sullo sviluppo del suolo, attraverso diversi fattori. Una caratteristica importante dei suoli è che essi sono soggetti ad una serie di stadi nella loro evoluzione, ottengono un profilo profondo, con una moltitudine di orizzonti ben differenziati. Questi tipi di suolo influenzano la dinamica del paesaggio del bacino idrografico, attraverso la loro tessitura e struttura, che sono più o meno soggetti a certi processi geomorfologici. In questo caso, causa dell'espansione dei depositi d'argilla, sabbia e ghiaia, i processi di erosione di superficie sono dominanti a causa della pioggia e della rete idrografica e a volte si incontrano frane di terreno.

  12. Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than most regions of the world due in part to increasing greenhouse gases and positive feedbacks associated with the loss of snow and ice cover. One consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades?a decline that is projected to continue by state-of-the-art models. Many stakeholders are therefore interested in how global warming may change the timing and extent of sea ice Arctic-wide, and for specific regions. To inform the public and decision makers of anticipated environmental changes, scientists are striving to better understand how sea ice influences ecosystem structure, local weather, and global climate. Here, projected changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are examined because sea ice influences the presence of, or accessibility to, a variety of local resources of commercial and cultural value. In this study, 21st century sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are based on projections by 18 general circulation models (GCMs) prepared for the fourth reporting period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Sea ice projections are analyzed for each of two IPCC greenhouse gas forcing scenarios: the A1B `business as usual? scenario and the A2 scenario that is somewhat more aggressive in its CO2 emissions during the second half of the century. A large spread of uncertainty among projections by all 18 models was constrained by creating model subsets that excluded GCMs that poorly simulated the 1979-2008 satellite record of ice extent and seasonality. At the end of the 21st century (2090-2099), median sea ice projections among all combinations of model ensemble and forcing scenario were qualitatively similar. June is projected to experience the least amount of sea ice loss among all months. For the Chukchi Sea, projections show extensive ice melt during July and ice-free conditions during August, September, and October by the end of the century, with high agreement

  13. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  14. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  15. Radioactivity in the Arctic Seas. Report for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on environmental conditions in the Arctic Seas as required for the study of possible radiological consequences from dumped high level radioactive wastes in the Kara Sea. The report describes the oceanography of the regions, with emphasis on the Kara and Barents Seas, including the East Novaya Zemlya Fjords. The ecological description concentrates on biological production, marine food-weds and fisheries in the Arctic Seas. The report presents data on radionuclide concentrations in the Kara and Barents Seas and uses these data to estimate the inventories of radionuclides currently in the marine environment of the Kara and Barents Seas

  16. Late Holocene sea ice conditions in Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C.; O'Regan, M.; Rattray, J. E.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Gemery, L.; Barrientos, N.; Coxall, H.; Smittenberg, R.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has been in steady decline in recent decades and, based on satellite data, the retreat is most pronounced in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Historical observations suggest that the recent changes were unprecedented during the last 150 years, but for a longer time perspective, we rely on the geological record. For this study, we analyzed sediment samples from two piston cores from Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea, collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean Expedition. The Herald Canyon is a local depression across the Chukchi Shelf, and acts as one of the main pathways for Pacific Water to the Arctic Ocean after entering through the narrow and shallow Bering Strait. The study site lies at the modern-day seasonal sea ice minimum edge, and is thus an ideal location for the reconstruction of past sea ice variability. Both sediment cores contain late Holocene deposits characterized by high sediment accumulation rates (100-300 cm/kyr). Core 2-PC1 from the shallow canyon flank (57 m water depth) is 8 meter long and extends back to 4200 cal yrs BP, while the upper 3 meters of Core 4-PC1 from the central canyon (120 mwd) cover the last 3000 years. The chronologies of the cores are based on radiocarbon dates and the 3.6 ka Aniakchak CFE II tephra, which is used as an absolute age marker to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age. Analysis of biomarkers for sea ice and surface water productivity indicate stable sea ice conditions throughout the entire late Holocene, ending with an abrupt increase of phytoplankton sterols in the very top of both sediment sequences. The shift is accompanied by a sudden increase in coarse sediments (> 125 µm) and a minor change in δ13Corg. We interpret this transition in the top sediments as a community turnover in primary producers from sea ice to open water biota. Most importantly, our results indicate that the ongoing rapid ice retreat in the Chukchi Sea of recent decades was unprecedented during the

  17. Coastal seas as resource for Blue Growth - SmartSea project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Alvi, Kimmo; Boman, Anton; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kaskela, Anu; Rantataro, Jyrki; Vallius, Henry; Virtasalo, Joonas

    2017-04-01

    Blue growth is a long term strategy of the European Union (EU) to enhance the sustainable growth of the maritime sector. Our surrounding seas have been drivers for the European economy for a long time, but still they have great potential for further exploiting of natural resources and economic growth. Especially if the growth can be achieved in an environmentally sustainable way, benefits are obvious. It has been estimated that improvement of the state of the Baltic Sea would until 2030 create 900 000 jobs in the whole Baltic Sea area, mainly in Blue Tech, tourism, real estate and building businesses (Dahlgren et al. 2015). However, coastal seas already experience multiple stressors like off-shore construction, pollution, eutrophication, shipping, over-fishing, and climate change. In order to obtain sustainable Blue Growth, it is necessary to localize and assess the current maritime activities, estimate their growth potential, and investigate their present and future effects on each other and on the marine environment. The purpose of the SmartSea project is to support the growth of commercial marine activities in the Gulf of Bothnia region, in the northern Baltic Sea. The Gulf of Bothnia is an essential resource in terms of fish farming and wind power, for example, and it is also possible to make use of the geological resources of the gulf. Moreover, the rapid growth of the commercial marine activities and the consequences of the climate change may lead to conflicts between the different activities and harm the marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Bothnia. The SmartSea project aims to identify these risks and find solutions for the sustainable use of the sea. SmartSea project is funded by the Strategic Research Council of Academy of Finland, grant No: 292 985. The project will last for six years (2015-2020) and its funding totals nearly 8 million euros. The project involves close to 40 researchers from eight different institutions: the Finnish Meteorological Institute

  18. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  19. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2010-11-01

    Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  20. Air–Sea Interaction and Horizontal Circulation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bower, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the horizontal circulation of the Red Sea and the surface meteorology that drives it, and recent satellite and in situ measurements from the region are used to illustrate properties of the Red Sea circulation and the atmospheric forcing. The surface winds over the Red Sea have rich spatial structure, with variations in speed and direction on both synoptic and seasonal timescales. Wintertime mountain-gap wind jets drive large heat losses and evaporation at some locations, with as much as 9 cm of evaporation in a week. The near-surface currents in the Red Sea exhibit similarly rich variability, with an energetic and complex flow field dominated by persistent, quasi-stationary eddies, and convoluted boundary currents. At least one quasi-stationary eddy pair is driven largely by winds blowing through a gap in the mountains (Tokar Gap), but numerical simulations suggest that much of the eddy field is driven by the interaction of the buoyancy-driven flow with topography. Recent measurements suggest that Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW) penetrates further northward into the Red Sea than previously reported.

  1. Appunti di meccanica relativistica

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Carlo

    1972-01-01

    Gli assiomi della fisica classica ; esame di alcuni esperimenti ottici alla luce dei principi della fisica classica ; i fondamenti generali della relatività ; conferme sperimentali della cinematica relativistica ; dinamica del punto materiale.

  2. Forecasting Space Weather-Induced GPS Performance Degradation Using Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filjar, R.; Filic, M.; Milinkovic, F.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather and ionospheric dynamics have a profound effect on positioning performance of the Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS). However, the quantification of that effect is still the subject of scientific activities around the world. In the latest contribution to the understanding of the space weather and ionospheric effects on satellite-based positioning performance, we conducted a study of several candidates for forecasting method for space weather-induced GPS positioning performance deterioration. First, a 5-days set of experimentally collected data was established, encompassing the space weather and ionospheric activity indices (including: the readings of the Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitors, components of geomagnetic field strength, global Kp index, Dst index, GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) samples, standard deviation of TEC samples, and sunspot number) and observations of GPS positioning error components (northing, easting, and height positioning error) derived from the Adriatic Sea IGS reference stations' RINEX raw pseudorange files in quiet space weather periods. This data set was split into the training and test sub-sets. Then, a selected set of supervised machine learning methods based on Random Forest was applied to the experimentally collected data set in order to establish the appropriate regional (the Adriatic Sea) forecasting models for space weather-induced GPS positioning performance deterioration. The forecasting models were developed in the R/rattle statistical programming environment. The forecasting quality of the regional forecasting models developed was assessed, and the conclusions drawn on the advantages and shortcomings of the regional forecasting models for space weather-caused GNSS positioning performance deterioration.

  3. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  4. Structural and functional responses of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia in the Northern Adriatic: an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Troch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ and laboratory studies were conducted to document the effects of anoxia on the structure and functioning of meiobenthic communities, with special focus on harpacticoid copepods. In a first step, anoxia was created artificially by means of an underwater chamber at 24 m depth in the Northern Adriatic, Gulf of Trieste (Mediterranean. Nematodes were found as the most abundant taxon, followed by harpacticoid copepods. While nematode densities were not affected by treatment (anoxia/normoxia or sediment depth, these factors had a significant impact on copepod abundances. Harpacticoid copepod family diversity, in contrast, was not affected by anoxic conditions, only by depth. Ectinosomatidae and Cletodidae were most abundant in both normoxic and anoxic samples. The functional response of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia was studied in a laboratory tracer experiment by adding 13C pre-labelled diatoms to sediment cores in order to test (1 if there is a difference in food uptake by copepods under normoxic and anoxic conditions and (2 whether initial (normoxia feeding of harpacticoid copepods on diatoms results in a better survival of copepods in subsequent anoxic conditions. Independent of the addition of diatoms, there was a higher survival rate in normoxia than anoxia. The supply of additional food did not result in a higher survival rate of copepods in anoxia, which might be explained by the presence of a nutritionally better food source and/or a lack of starvation before adding the diatoms. However, there was a reduced grazing pressure by copepods on diatoms in anoxic conditions. This resulted in a modified fatty acid composition of the sediment. We concluded that anoxia not only impacts the survival of consumers (direct effect but also of primary producers (indirect effect, with important implications for the recovery phase.

  5. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The

  6. The Ross Sea Dipole – temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. N. Bertler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979–2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons, with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  7. Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjue Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries.

  8. Assessing population structure of European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus in the Central Mediterranean by means of traditional morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the structure of the anchovy stock was investigated in the Strait of Sicily: sampling locations were in Sicily, in Tunisia and in the Adriatic Sea. A morphological approach to stock discrimination which involves morphometric landmarks analysis was adopted. The aim of this work is to describe any morphological variations between the samples areas and individuate possible different populations in order to obtain useful information for management of shared resources between Tunisian and Italian waters. Furthermore sexual dimorphism was investigated. Results of morphometric landmarks may suggest a high level of overlapping among Sicily and Tunisia. Instead, between the Sicilian and Adriatic population, it was observed a certain degree of isolation, suggesting the existence of two anchovy sub-populations connected by a possible migration of a small number of individuals. No differences between male and female individuals was observed. Results support the likely existence of an anchovy metapopulation with several sub-populations, one inhabiting the northern and southern parts of the Strait of Sicily. From a management perspective and under the ‘precautionary approach’, these sub-populations should be treated as shared stocks and conserved.

  9. The crustal velocity field mosaic of the Alpine Mediterranean area (Italy): Insights from new geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farolfi, Gregorio; Del Ventisette, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    A new horizontal crustal velocity field of Alpine Mediterranean area was determined by continuous long time series (6.5 years) of 113 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. The processing was performed using state-of-the-art absolute antenna phase center correction model and recomputed precise IGS orbits available since April 2014. Moreover, a new more accurate tropospheric mapping function for geodetic applications was adopted. Results provide a new detailed map of the kinematics throughout the entire study area. This area is characterized by a complex tectonic setting driven by the interaction of Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Alps, Corsica, Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea (which is covered only by interpolation data) show small velocity residuals with respect to the Eurasian plate. The whole Apennines axis discriminates two different velocity patterns, the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian area. The area around Messina Strait, which separates peninsular Italy and Sicily, represents a poorly understood region. Results identify an important boundary zone between two different domains, Calabria and Sicily, which are characterized by different crustal motions. The northeastern part of Sicily and Calabria move like Adriatic area, whilst the rest of Sicily, Malta and Lampedusa are dominated by African motion.

  10. An Investigation of the Radiative Effects and Climate Feedbacks of Sea Ice Sources of